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Articles 1 - 30 of 1471

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

From Bloom To Bust: Harmful Algae Blooms And Their Impacts On The Waterfront Economy, Sergio Alvarez Jul 2021

From Bloom To Bust: Harmful Algae Blooms And Their Impacts On The Waterfront Economy, Sergio Alvarez

Rosen Research Review

The true costs of harmful algae blooms (HABs) and the mechanics that determine their socio-economic impacts are for the most part unknown. Florida’s 2017–2019 red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom is a historical case study of the ever-growing threats to coastal welfare posed by HABs. A new research project at Rosen College of Hospitality Management has this at its heart. The central objective of the project is the identification of direct, indirect, and induced socioeconomic impacts caused by the 2017–2019 K. brevis bloom in Florida.


Valuing The Negative Impacts Of Harmful Algae Blooms, Sergio Alvarez Jul 2021

Valuing The Negative Impacts Of Harmful Algae Blooms, Sergio Alvarez

Rosen Research Review

Ecological disturbances can impact several ecosystem services, including cultural services such as outdoor recreation opportunities. In Florida, one ecological disturbance that is negatively impacting recreation is the occurrence of harmful algae blooms. In recent work, Dr. Sergio Alvarez at UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management has assessed the impact that harmful algae blooms have on human wellbeing by using random utility models to estimate changes in the value of recreation in coastal ecosystems resulting from these blooms. The results indicate that harmful algae blooms, which reduced boating access between June and September 2018, may have resulted in losses of up ...


Influence Of Different Glycoproteins And Of The Virion Core On Serinc5 Antiviral Activity, William E. Diehl, Mehmet Hakan Guney, Teresa Vanzo, Pyae Phyo Kyawe, Judith M. White, Massimo Pizzato, Jeremy Luban Jun 2021

Influence Of Different Glycoproteins And Of The Virion Core On Serinc5 Antiviral Activity, William E. Diehl, Mehmet Hakan Guney, Teresa Vanzo, Pyae Phyo Kyawe, Judith M. White, Massimo Pizzato, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Host plasma membrane protein SERINC5 is incorporated into budding retrovirus particles where it blocks subsequent entry into susceptible target cells. Three structurally unrelated proteins encoded by diverse retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) S2, and ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) GlycoGag, disrupt SERINC5 antiviral activity by redirecting SERINC5 from the site of virion assembly on the plasma membrane to an internal RAB7+ endosomal compartment. Pseudotyping retroviruses with particular glycoproteins, e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), renders the infectivity of particles resistant to inhibition by virion-associated SERINC5. To better understand viral determinants ...


A Novel In Vitro Method For Pelvic Floor Dysfunction In Pcos Women, Ruben Vila Jun 2021

A Novel In Vitro Method For Pelvic Floor Dysfunction In Pcos Women, Ruben Vila

University Honors Theses

Background:

Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction are reproductive diseases with comorbidities whose novel relationship deserves further investigation.

Methods:

Levator Ani Muscle/Paravaginal Attachment was dissected from female Rhesus Macaque and subjected to tissue dissociation. Cells were treated with serum level hormones E2, T, and DHT. PCR, ICC, and IHC were used, followed by statistical analysis.

Results:

RNA analysis show differences in relative expression for endpoints ER, PR, AR, Ki-67, Col1A, and Vimentin. IHC along with ICC showed expression and localization in vivo.

Conclusions:

A novel in vitro model was created from macaque Levator Ani Muscle/Paravaginal Attachment ...


Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban Jun 2021

Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human blood innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which include ILCs and natural killer (NK) cells, derive from a common CD117+ILC precursor (ILCP). Yet, the relationship among the ILC subsets remains unclear. Bulk and single cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq showed that blood ILC subsets cluster into ILC2s, ILCPs, a mixed cluster of CD56dim and CD56 NK cells, and a separate cluster of CD56hiNK cells that share features with both ILCs and CD56dimNK cells. In surprising contrast to mice, tissue repair protein amphiregulin was produced by human NK cells, with higher levels in CD56hiNK cells ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting The Immunogenic Regions Of Hiv-1 Envelope Reduce Mucosal Infection And Virus Burden In Humanized Mice [Preprint], Catarina E. Hioe, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu May 2021

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting The Immunogenic Regions Of Hiv-1 Envelope Reduce Mucosal Infection And Virus Burden In Humanized Mice [Preprint], Catarina E. Hioe, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antibodies are principal immune components elicited by vaccines to induce protection from microbial pathogens. In the Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial, vaccine efficacy was 31% and the sole primary correlate of reduced risk was shown to be vigorous antibody response targeting the V1V2 region of HIV-1 envelope. Antibodies against V3 also were inversely correlated with infection risk in subsets of vaccinees. Antibodies recognizing these regions, however, do not exhibit potent neutralizing activity. Therefore, we examined the antiviral potential of poorly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immunodominant V1V2 and V3 sites by passive administration of human mAbs to humanized mice engrafted ...


Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker May 2021

Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker

Symposium of Student Scholars

Many habitats face fluctuating temperatures year round. The animals that live there are typically able to adjust their behaviors to match these conditions. When temperatures become too extreme, however, it could potentially start having a negative effect on the animal’s reproductive success. In birds, for example, severe climate can affect their eggs and nestlings due to nestlings lacking the ability to thermoregulate. The parents then have to bear the responsibility of thermoregulation for their young, through a behavior called incubation or brooding. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are a species of birds common across the United States where both parents ...


Refining The Optimal First Treatment For Pediatric Breast Abscesses, Kayla B. Briggs May 2021

Refining The Optimal First Treatment For Pediatric Breast Abscesses, Kayla B. Briggs

Research Days

Background: We previously reported treatment and outcomes of children with untreated, not spontaneously draining (UTND) breast abscesses. What has not been well defined however are those with previously treated, not spontaneously draining (PTND) pediatric breast abscesses. In general, a more conservative approach is favored in children with breast abscesses to avoid damage to the developing breast bud.

Objectives/Goal: We sought to determine if care at a pediatric tertiary referral center impacts disease persistence rate.

Methods/Design: Following IRB approval, patientstherapy.

Results: In all, 114 patients met inclusion criteria, 96 in the UTND group and 18 in the PTND group ...


Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Benefit To Climate-Displaced And Host Communities, Gül Aktürk, Martha B. Lerski May 2021

Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Benefit To Climate-Displaced And Host Communities, Gül Aktürk, Martha B. Lerski

Publications and Research

Climate change is borderless, and its impacts are not shared equally by all communities. It causes an imbalance between people by creating a more desirable living environment for some societies while erasing settlements and shelters of some others. Due to floods, sea level rise, destructive storms, drought, and slow-onset factors such as salinization of water and soil, people lose their lands, homes, and natural resources. Catastrophic events force people to move voluntarily or involuntarily. The relocation of communities is a debatable climate adaptation measure which requires utmost care with human rights, ethics, and psychological well-being of individuals upon the issues ...


Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood May 2021

Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood

Stratford Campus Research Day

Social behavior is inextricably linked to human health, shaping both our susceptibility and resilience to disease and stress. Positive interactions as simple as maternal contact or friendships among children and adults can protect against emotional distress and improve treatment outcomes, whereas negative interactions such as abuse, social isolation, or bullying can increase aggression and precipitate mood disorders. Discovering the structure and function of neural circuits underlying social behavior is critical to understanding the link between social interaction and health. The neuropeptide vasopressin has been implicated in the regulation of multiple social interactions including social memory, aggression, mating, pair-bonding, and parental ...


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline May 2021

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer ...


Using Citizen Science To Determine The Age Of Alewife Fish, Rodchill-Paul Jules May 2021

Using Citizen Science To Determine The Age Of Alewife Fish, Rodchill-Paul Jules

Honors Scholar Theses

Aging scales of economically important fish like the Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is a critical task in the fisheries industry, which can benefit from the help that citizen science offers. In order for those benefits to take effect, common people should be comfortable and fairly knowledgeable about what is expected of them in the study. Then, results can be generated in a way that gives all types of citizens a good opportunity to participate and produces reliable data that can be used for scientific purposes. This experiment studied the effects of simple word instructions versus diagramed instructions on the ability of ...


The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers May 2021

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


Hemin Utilization In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479, John Lusby May 2021

Hemin Utilization In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479, John Lusby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rhizobium leguminosarum is a Gram negative, motile, nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium. Due to the scarcity of iron in the soil bacteria have developed a wide range of iron scavenging systems. The two types of iron scavenging systems used are indirect and direct. In-silico analysis of the genome identified a unique direct iron scavenging system the Hmu operon. This system has been identified in other closely related rhizobium species and is believed to be involved in utilizing heme compounds as a sole source of iron. We have attempted to characterize the role of the Hmu operon in iron utilization by monitoring the ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Produces R-Bodies, Extendable Protein Polymers With Roles In Host Colonization And Virulence [Preprint], Bryan Wang, Yu-Cheng Lin, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Jeanyoung Jo, Alexa Price-Whelan, Shujuan Tao Mcdonald, Lewis M. Brown, Christian Sieben, Lars E.P. Dietrich Apr 2021

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Produces R-Bodies, Extendable Protein Polymers With Roles In Host Colonization And Virulence [Preprint], Bryan Wang, Yu-Cheng Lin, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Jeanyoung Jo, Alexa Price-Whelan, Shujuan Tao Mcdonald, Lewis M. Brown, Christian Sieben, Lars E.P. Dietrich

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, an opportunistic pathogen of diverse hosts, contains genes with the potential to confer production of R-bodies (i.e., a “reb cluster”). R-bodies are large, extendable protein polymers best known for their role in killing of paramecia by the bacterium Caedibacter taeniospiralis, and genes in the reb cluster have been implicated in PA14 virulence. Here, we present evidence that PA14 expresses reb cluster genes during colonization of plant and nematode hosts. We identify products of the reb cluster that are R-body-associated and that control stochastic expression of R-body structural genes. We also show that R-body production is required ...


Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress Apr 2021

Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress

Senior Scholars Day

In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form the basic repeating unit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle. Most nucleosomes consist of two copies each of histones: H2A and H2B in a heterodimer and histones H3 and H4 in a heterotetramer. Because of their intimate association with DNA, histones regulate all DNA-templated processes such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage response and repair. Several studies have illustrated the importance of a small portion of the histone H2A amino terminal domain which regulates global transcription. This domain is responsible for the repression of ~4% of the yeast ...


Selection For Thermophilic Bacteria With Antibacterial Potential Along Fire-Affected Soils In Centralia, Pa, Lanie Urbanski Apr 2021

Selection For Thermophilic Bacteria With Antibacterial Potential Along Fire-Affected Soils In Centralia, Pa, Lanie Urbanski

Senior Scholars Day

In this study, bacteria were analyzed from a near-surface environment impacted by the anthracite coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania. We hypothesized that the elevated soil temperatures created by the spread of the underground fire would provide an ideal environment for previously unstudied thermophilic bacteria. With nearly 3 million cases of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections annually, the identification of novel bacteria is critical to make new antibiotics. Surface soil samples were taken from boreholes across eight fire-impacted locations. Bacteria were isolated from these samples on actinomycetes isolation agar at an increased temperature of 50°C to mimic the soil environment ...


289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith Apr 2021

289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith

GREAT Day

Neurospora crassa is a model filamentous fungal organism that can reproduce both asexually and sexually. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the N. crassa female sexual development cycle. The transcription factor fsd-1 is necessary for sexual development, and fsd-1 deletion strains show delayed development of female reproductive structures and are sterile. Through previous experiments, we have been able to determine that there are three different transcripts of the fsd-1 gene, which differ by the length and intron/exon structure of their 5’ untranslated region. This project focuses on phenotypically characterizing the reproductive ability of strains overexpressing fsd-1 ...


Locating Macromolecular Assemblies In Cells By 2d Template Matching With Cistem [Preprint], Bronwyn Lucas, Benjamin A. Himes, Liang Xue, Timothy Grant, Julia Mahamid, Nikolaus Grigorieff Apr 2021

Locating Macromolecular Assemblies In Cells By 2d Template Matching With Cistem [Preprint], Bronwyn Lucas, Benjamin A. Himes, Liang Xue, Timothy Grant, Julia Mahamid, Nikolaus Grigorieff

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Over the last decade, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy has become one of the main techniques contributing to the growing library of high-resolution structures of macromolecules and their assemblies. For a full understanding of molecular mechanisms, however, it is important to place them into the broader context of a cell. Traditionally, this context can be visualized in 3D by electron cryo-tomography, and more recently, has also been studied by template matching of 2D images of cells and viruses. A current limitation of the latter approach is the high computational cost that limits the throughput and widespread adoption of this method. We describe ...


Mechanism Of Lolcde As A Molecular Extruder Of Bacterial Triacylated Lipoproteins [Preprint], Stuti Sharma, Ruoyu Zhou, Li Wan, Kangkang Song, Chen Xu, Yanyan Li, Maofu Liao Apr 2021

Mechanism Of Lolcde As A Molecular Extruder Of Bacterial Triacylated Lipoproteins [Preprint], Stuti Sharma, Ruoyu Zhou, Li Wan, Kangkang Song, Chen Xu, Yanyan Li, Maofu Liao

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Present in all bacteria, lipoproteins are central in bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance. These proteins use lipid acyl chains attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue to anchor on the outer surface of cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, many lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane (OM), a process dependent on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter LolCDE which extracts the OM-targeted lipoproteins from the cytoplasmic membrane for subsequent trafficking across the periplasm. Lipid-anchored proteins pose a unique challenge for transport machinery as they have both hydrophobic lipid moieties and soluble protein component, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we ...


The High Prevalence Of Clostridioides Difficile Among Nursing Home Elders Associates With A Dysbiotic Microbiome, John P. Haran, Doyle V. Ward, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Ethan Loew, Protiva Dutta, Amanda Higgins, Beth A. Mccormick, Vanni Bucci Mar 2021

The High Prevalence Of Clostridioides Difficile Among Nursing Home Elders Associates With A Dysbiotic Microbiome, John P. Haran, Doyle V. Ward, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Ethan Loew, Protiva Dutta, Amanda Higgins, Beth A. Mccormick, Vanni Bucci

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Clostridioides difficile disproportionally affects the elderly living in nursing homes (NHs). Our objective was to explore the prevalence of C. difficile in NH elders, over time and to determine whether the microbiome or other clinical factors are associated with C. difficile colonization. We collected serial stool samples from NH residents. C. difficile prevalence was determined by quantitative polymerase-chain reaction detection of Toxin genes tcdA and tcdB; microbiome composition was determined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We used mixed-effect random forest modeling machine to determine bacterial taxa whose abundance is associated with C. difficile prevalence while controlling for clinical covariates including demographics ...


Cranberry Proanthocyanidins And Dietary Oligosaccharides Synergistically Modulate Lactobacillus Plantarum Physiology, Ezgi Ozcan, Michelle R. Rozycki, David A. Sela Mar 2021

Cranberry Proanthocyanidins And Dietary Oligosaccharides Synergistically Modulate Lactobacillus Plantarum Physiology, Ezgi Ozcan, Michelle R. Rozycki, David A. Sela

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Plant-based foods contain bioactive compounds such as polyphenols that resist digestion and potentially benefit the host through interactions with their resident microbiota. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum interacts with cranberry polyphenols and dietary oligosaccharides to synergistically impact its physiology. In this study, L. plantarum ATCC BAA-793 was grown on dietary oligosaccharides, including cranberry xyloglucans, fructooligosaccharides, and human milk oligosaccharides, in conjunction with proanthocyanidins (PACs) extracted from cranberries. As a result, L. plantarum exhibits a differential physiological response to cranberry PACs dependent on the carbohydrate source and polyphenol fraction introduced. Of the two PAC extracts ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute To Suppression Of Sivmac239 Viremia In Indian Rhesus Macaques, Nuria Pedreno-Lopez, Brandon C. Rosen, Walter J. Flores, Matthew J. Gorman, Thomas B. Voigt, Michael J. Ricciardi, Kristin Crosno, Kim L. Weisgrau, Christopher L. Parks, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Galit Alter, Eva G. Rakasz, Diogo Magnani, Mauricio A. Martins, David I. Watkins Mar 2021

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute To Suppression Of Sivmac239 Viremia In Indian Rhesus Macaques, Nuria Pedreno-Lopez, Brandon C. Rosen, Walter J. Flores, Matthew J. Gorman, Thomas B. Voigt, Michael J. Ricciardi, Kristin Crosno, Kim L. Weisgrau, Christopher L. Parks, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Galit Alter, Eva G. Rakasz, Diogo Magnani, Mauricio A. Martins, David I. Watkins

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The antiviral properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV are well-documented but no vaccine is currently able to elicit protective titers of these responses in primates. While current vaccine modalities can readily induce non-neutralizing antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, the ability of these responses to restrict lentivirus transmission and replication remains controversial. Here, we investigated the antiviral properties of non-neutralizing antibodies in a group of Indian rhesus macaques (RMs) that were vaccinated with vif, rev, tat, nef, and env, as part of a previous study conducted by our group. These animals manifested rapid and durable control of ...


Bacterial Processing Of Glucose Modulates C. Elegans Lifespan And Healthspan, Samuel F. Kingsley, Yonghak Seo, Calista Allen, Krishna S. Ghanta, Steven Finkel, Heidi A. Tissenbaum Mar 2021

Bacterial Processing Of Glucose Modulates C. Elegans Lifespan And Healthspan, Samuel F. Kingsley, Yonghak Seo, Calista Allen, Krishna S. Ghanta, Steven Finkel, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Intestinal microbiota play an essential role in the health of a host organism. Here, we define how commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) alters its host after long term exposure to glucose using a Caenorhabditis elegans-E. coli system where only the bacteria have direct contact with glucose. Our data reveal that bacterial processing of glucose results in reduced lifespan and healthspan including reduced locomotion, oxidative stress resistance, and heat stress resistance in C. elegans. With chronic exposure to glucose, E. coli exhibits growth defects and increased advanced glycation end products. These negative effects are abrogated when the E. coli is not ...


Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe Mar 2021

Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe

International Journal of Speleology

The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, thus the search for novel antimicrobial compounds has become a continuous necessity. Underexplored and extreme environments, such as cave ecosystems, have been identified as a promising potential source for the discovery of novel microorganisms with novel antimicrobial compounds (AMC). This study presents the first cave microbiological investigation in Sri Lanka, with a special preference for bioprospecting of novel AMC. The cave sediment characterization demonstrated the presence of close to strong acidic conditions (pH 3.1 – 3.3) and thus indicates the possibility of isolating acidophilic microorganisms. Eight cave wall/ceiling ...


The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Transposon Sequencing Database (Mtbtndb): A Large-Scale Guide To Genetic Conditional Essentiality [Preprint], Adrian Jinich, Anisha Zaveri, Michael A. Dejesus, Emanuel Flores-Bautista, Clare M. Smith, Christopher M. Sassetti, Jeremy M. Rock, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger, Thomas R. Ioerger, Kyu Rhee Mar 2021

The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Transposon Sequencing Database (Mtbtndb): A Large-Scale Guide To Genetic Conditional Essentiality [Preprint], Adrian Jinich, Anisha Zaveri, Michael A. Dejesus, Emanuel Flores-Bautista, Clare M. Smith, Christopher M. Sassetti, Jeremy M. Rock, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger, Thomas R. Ioerger, Kyu Rhee

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Characterization of gene essentiality across different conditions is a useful approach for predicting gene function. Transposon sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful means of generating genome-wide profiles of essentiality and has been used extensively in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genetic research. Over the past two decades, dozens of TnSeq screens have been published, yielding valuable insights into the biology of Mtb in vitro, inside macrophages, and in model host organisms. However, these Mtb TnSeq profiles are distributed across dozens of research papers within supplementary materials, which makes querying them cumbersome and assembling a complete and consistent synthesis of existing data challenging. Here ...


Swi/Snf Senses Carbon Starvation With A Ph-Sensitive Low Complexity Sequence [Preprint], J. Ignacio Gutiérrez, Gregory P. Brittingham, Yonca Karadeniz, Kathleen D. Tran, Arnob Dutta, Alex S. Holehouse, Craig L. Peterson, Liam J. Holt Mar 2021

Swi/Snf Senses Carbon Starvation With A Ph-Sensitive Low Complexity Sequence [Preprint], J. Ignacio Gutiérrez, Gregory P. Brittingham, Yonca Karadeniz, Kathleen D. Tran, Arnob Dutta, Alex S. Holehouse, Craig L. Peterson, Liam J. Holt

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

It is increasingly appreciated that intracellular pH changes are important biological signals. This motivates the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of pH-sensing. We determined that a nucleocytoplasmic pH oscillation was required for the transcriptional response to carbon starvation in S. cerevisiae. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is a key mediator of this transcriptional response. We found that a glutamine-rich low complexity sequence (QLC) in the SNF5 subunit of this complex, and histidines within this sequence, were required for efficient transcriptional reprogramming during carbon starvation. Furthermore, the SNF5 QLC mediated pH-dependent recruitment of SWI/SNF to a model promoter in vitro ...


Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela De Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves Feb 2021

Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela De Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Disseminated infection with the high virulence strain of Mycobacterium avium 25291 lead to progressive thymic atrophy. We previously uncovered that M. avium-induced thymic atrophy is due to increased levels of glucocorticoids synergizing with nitric oxide (NO) produced by interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated macrophages. Where and how these mediators are playing, was yet to be understood. We hypothesized that IFNγ and NO might be affecting bone marrow (BM) T cell precursors and/or T cell differentiation in the thymus. We show that M. avium infection causes a reduction on the percentage of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPP) and common lymphoid progenitors ...


All You Need To Know And More About The Diagnosis And Management Of Rare Mold Infections, Martin Hoenigl, Stuart M. Levitz, Audrey N. Schuetz, Sean X. Zhang, Oliver A. Cornely Feb 2021

All You Need To Know And More About The Diagnosis And Management Of Rare Mold Infections, Martin Hoenigl, Stuart M. Levitz, Audrey N. Schuetz, Sean X. Zhang, Oliver A. Cornely

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Invasive mold infections caused by molds other than Aspergillus spp. or Mucorales are emerging. The reported prevalences of infection due to these rare fungal pathogens vary among geographic regions, driven by differences in climatic conditions, susceptible hosts, and diagnostic capabilities. These rare molds-Fusarium, Lomentospora, and Scedosporium species and others-are difficult to detect and often show intrinsic antifungal resistance. Now, international societies of medical mycology and microbiology have joined forces and created the "Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of rare mould infections: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the International Society for Human ...


Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar Feb 2021

Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CD4 T cells are essential for immunity to tuberculosis because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unknown. Using two independent models, we show that CD4 T cell help enhances CD8 effector functions and prevents CD8 T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate synergy between CD4 and CD8 T cells in promoting the survival of infected mice. Purified helped, but not helpless, CD8 T cells efficiently restrict intracellular bacterial growth in vitro. Thus, CD4 T cell help plays an essential role in generating protective CD8 ...