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Association Of Aβ With Ceramide-Enriched Astrosomes Mediates Aβ Neurotoxicity, Ahmed Elsherbini, Alexander S. Kirov, Michael B. Dinkins, Guanghu Wang, Haiyan Qin, Zhihui Zhu, Priyanka Tripathi, Simone M. Crivelli, Erhard Bieberich 2020 University of Kentucky

Association Of Aβ With Ceramide-Enriched Astrosomes Mediates Aβ Neurotoxicity, Ahmed Elsherbini, Alexander S. Kirov, Michael B. Dinkins, Guanghu Wang, Haiyan Qin, Zhihui Zhu, Priyanka Tripathi, Simone M. Crivelli, Erhard Bieberich

Physiology Faculty Publications

Amyloid-β (Aβ) associates with extracellular vesicles termed exosomes. It is not clear whether and how exosomes modulate Aβ neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We show here that brain tissue and serum from the transgenic mouse model of familial AD (5xFAD) and serum from AD patients contains ceramide-enriched and astrocyte-derived exosomes (termed astrosomes) that are associated with Aβ. In Neuro-2a cells, primary cultured neurons, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons, Aβ-associated astrosomes from 5xFAD mice and AD patient serum were specifically transported to mitochondria, induced mitochondrial clustering, and upregulated the fission protein Drp-1 at a concentration corresponding to 5 femtomoles …


Neuroligin-1 Is Altered In The Hippocampus Of Alzheimer's Disease Patients And Mouse Models, And Modulates The Toxicity Of Amyloid-Beta Oligomers, Julien Dufort-Gervais, Chloé Provost, Laurence Charbonneau, Christopher M. Norris, Frédéric Calon, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette 2020 Université de Montréal, Canada

Neuroligin-1 Is Altered In The Hippocampus Of Alzheimer's Disease Patients And Mouse Models, And Modulates The Toxicity Of Amyloid-Beta Oligomers, Julien Dufort-Gervais, Chloé Provost, Laurence Charbonneau, Christopher M. Norris, Frédéric Calon, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Synapse loss occurs early and correlates with cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Synaptotoxicity is driven, at least in part, by amyloid-beta oligomers (Aβo), but the exact synaptic components targeted by Aβo remain to be identified. We here tested the hypotheses that the post-synaptic protein Neuroligin-1 (NLGN1) is affected early in the process of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, and specifically by Aβo, and that it can modulate Aβo toxicity. We found that hippocampal NLGN1 was decreased in patients with AD in comparison to patients with mild cognitive impairment and control subjects. Female 3xTg-AD mice also showed a decreased NLGN1 level …


Maternal Exposure To Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairs Female Offspring Glucose Homeostasis And Endocrine Pancreatic Development In The Rat., Ryan Gillies, Kendrick Lee, Sebastian Vanin, Steven R Laviolette, Alison C Holloway, Edith Arany, Daniel B Hardy 2020 Western University

Maternal Exposure To Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairs Female Offspring Glucose Homeostasis And Endocrine Pancreatic Development In The Rat., Ryan Gillies, Kendrick Lee, Sebastian Vanin, Steven R Laviolette, Alison C Holloway, Edith Arany, Daniel B Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Recent reports indicate that 7% of pregnant mothers in North America use cannabis. This is concerning given that in utero exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, causes fetal growth restriction and may alter replication and survival of pancreatic β-cells in the offspring. Accordingly, we hypothesized that maternal exposure to Δ9-THC during pregnancy would impair postnatal glucometabolic health of offspring. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of either 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC or vehicle from gestational day 6 to birth. Offspring were subsequently challenged with glucose and insulin at 5 months …


Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper 2020 Liberty University

Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper

Senior Honors Theses

Researchers familiar with Alzheimer’s disease have often noted the presence of comorbid anxiety symptomatology. Likewise, the occurrence of anxiety before the development of Alzheimer’s disease has been prevalent enough to warrant attention. This review seeks to elaborate on the pathophysiology behind these two conditions, and to accentuate overlapping aspects that promote a causal relationship between these two pathologies on the macroscopic and cellular levels. Subsequent evidence will show that these pathologies are not independent of each other, and that cellular mechanisms of pathology hint at their interrelatedness. Areas requiring further research that would clarify the relationship between Clinical Anxiety and …


Maternal Exposure To Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairs Female Offspring Glucose Homeostasis And Endocrine Pancreatic Development In The Rat., Ryan Gillies, Kendrick Lee, Sebastian Vanin, Steven R Laviolette, Alison C Holloway, Edith Arany, Daniel B Hardy 2020 Western University

Maternal Exposure To Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairs Female Offspring Glucose Homeostasis And Endocrine Pancreatic Development In The Rat., Ryan Gillies, Kendrick Lee, Sebastian Vanin, Steven R Laviolette, Alison C Holloway, Edith Arany, Daniel B Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Recent reports indicate that 7% of pregnant mothers in North America use cannabis. This is concerning given that in utero exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, causes fetal growth restriction and may alter replication and survival of pancreatic β-cells in the offspring. Accordingly, we hypothesized that maternal exposure to Δ9-THC during pregnancy will impair postnatal glucometabolic health of offspring. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of either 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC or vehicle from gestational day 6 to birth. Offspring were subsequently challenged with glucose and insulin at 5 months …


Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

This is the first presentation in the new Shelter-in-Place lecture series. This first lecture is two-fold. First, it covers the basics of the COVID-19 virus including: how it spreads, possible origin, and other pertinent information. This portion of the presentation was followed by an overview of the international recruitment efforts in response to the virus, including: student perspectives, recruitment methods, and other important information.


Gsk3787-Loaded Poly(Ester Amide) Particles For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Ian J. Villamagna, Danielle M. McRae, Aneta Borecki, Xueli Mei, François Lagugné-Labarthet, Frank Beier, Elizabeth Gillies 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Gsk3787-Loaded Poly(Ester Amide) Particles For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Ian J. Villamagna, Danielle M. Mcrae, Aneta Borecki, Xueli Mei, François Lagugné-Labarthet, Frank Beier, Elizabeth Gillies

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

© 2020 by the authors. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disorder affecting more than 240 million people. There is no disease modifying therapeutic, and drugs that are used to alleviate OA symptoms result in side effects. Recent research indicates that inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ffi (PPARffi) in cartilage may attenuate the development or progression of OA. PPARffi antagonists such as GSK3787 exist, but would benefit from delivery to joints to avoid side effects. Described here is the loading of GSK3787 into poly(ester amide) (PEA) particles. The particles contained 8 wt. % drug and had mean diameters of about …


Hierarchical Clustering Analyses Of Plasma Proteins In Subjects With Cardiovascular Risk Factors Identify Informative Subsets Based On Differential Levels Of Angiogenic And Inflammatory Biomarkers, Zachary Winder, Tiffany L. Sudduth, David W. Fardo, Qiang Cheng, Larry B. Goldstein, Peter T. Nelson, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock 2020 University of Kentucky

Hierarchical Clustering Analyses Of Plasma Proteins In Subjects With Cardiovascular Risk Factors Identify Informative Subsets Based On Differential Levels Of Angiogenic And Inflammatory Biomarkers, Zachary Winder, Tiffany L. Sudduth, David W. Fardo, Qiang Cheng, Larry B. Goldstein, Peter T. Nelson, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is a commonly used unsupervised machine learning approach for identifying informative natural clusters of observations. HCA is performed by calculating a pairwise dissimilarity matrix and then clustering similar observations until all observations are grouped within a cluster. Verifying the empirical clusters produced by HCA is complex and not well studied in biomedical applications. Here, we demonstrate the comparability of a novel HCA technique with one that was used in previous biomedical applications while applying both techniques to plasma angiogenic (FGF, FLT, PIGF, Tie-2, VEGF, VEGF-D) and inflammatory (MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, IL8, TNFα) protein data to …


Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure During Rat Pregnancy Leads To Symmetrical Fetal Growth Restriction And Labyrinth-Specific Vascular Defects In The Placenta., Bryony V Natale, Katarina N Gustin, Kendrick Lee, Alison C Holloway, Steven R Laviolette, David R C Natale, Daniel B Hardy 2020 Western University

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure During Rat Pregnancy Leads To Symmetrical Fetal Growth Restriction And Labyrinth-Specific Vascular Defects In The Placenta., Bryony V Natale, Katarina N Gustin, Kendrick Lee, Alison C Holloway, Steven R Laviolette, David R C Natale, Daniel B Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

1 in 5 women report cannabis use during pregnancy, with nausea cited as their primary motivation. Studies show that (-)-△9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, causes fetal growth restriction, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Given the critical role of the placenta to transfer oxygen and nutrients from mother, to the fetus, any compromise in the development of fetal-placental circulation significantly affects maternal-fetal exchange and thereby, fetal growth. The goal of this study was to examine, in rats, the impact of maternal Δ9-THC exposure on fetal development, neonatal outcomes, and placental development. Dams received a daily intraperitoneal …


Hypercholesterolemia Accelerates Both The Initiation And Progression Of Angiotensin Ii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Jing Liu, Hisashi Sawada, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Olga A. Vsevolozhskaya, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu 2020 University of Kentucky

Hypercholesterolemia Accelerates Both The Initiation And Progression Of Angiotensin Ii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Jing Liu, Hisashi Sawada, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Olga A. Vsevolozhskaya, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Objective: This study determined whether hypercholesterolemia would contribute to both the initiation and progression of angiotensin (Ang)II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in mice.

Methods and Results: To determine whether hypercholesterolemia accelerates the initiation of AAAs, male low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor -/- mice were either fed one week of Western diet prior to starting AngII infusion or initiated Western diet one week after starting AngII infusion. During the first week of AngII infusion, mice fed normal diet had less luminal expansion of the suprarenal aorta compared to those initiated Western diet after the first week of AngII infusion. The two groups …


Nanoformulation Of The Superoxide Dismutase Mimic, Mntnbuoe-2-Pyp5+, Prevents Its Acute Hypotensive Response, Sarah L. Schlichte, Svetlana Romanova, Kenichi Katsurada, Elizabeth A. Kosmacek, Tatiana K. Bronich, Kaushik K. Patel, Rebecca E. Oberley-Deegan, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Nanoformulation Of The Superoxide Dismutase Mimic, Mntnbuoe-2-Pyp5+, Prevents Its Acute Hypotensive Response, Sarah L. Schlichte, Svetlana Romanova, Kenichi Katsurada, Elizabeth A. Kosmacek, Tatiana K. Bronich, Kaushik K. Patel, Rebecca E. Oberley-Deegan, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Scavenging superoxide (O2•-) via overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or administration of SOD mimics improves outcomes in multiple experimental models of human disease including cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and cancer. While few SOD mimics have transitioned to clinical trials, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BuOE), a manganese porphyrin SOD mimic, is currently in clinical trials as a radioprotector for cancer patients; thus, providing hope for the use of SOD mimics in the clinical setting. However, BuOE transiently alters cardiovascular function including a significant and precipitous decrease in blood pressure. To limit BuOE's acute hypotensive action, we developed a mesoporous silica nanoparticle …


Glp-1 Mediated Diuresis And Natriuresis Are Blunted In Heart Failure And Restored By Selective Afferent Renal Denervation, Kenichi Katsurada, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Hong Zheng, Xuefei Liu, Neeru M. Sharma, Kaushik K. Patel 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Glp-1 Mediated Diuresis And Natriuresis Are Blunted In Heart Failure And Restored By Selective Afferent Renal Denervation, Kenichi Katsurada, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Hong Zheng, Xuefei Liu, Neeru M. Sharma, Kaushik K. Patel

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces diuresis and natriuresis. Previously we have shown that GLP-1 activates afferent renal nerve to increase efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity that negates the diuresis and natriuresis as a negative feedback mechanism in normal rats. However, renal effects of GLP-1 in heart failure (HF) has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to assess GLP-1-induced diuresis and natriuresis in rats with HF and its interactions with renal nerve activity.

METHODS: HF was induced in rats by coronary artery ligation. The direct recording of afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) with intrapelvic injection of GLP-1 and total …


Will Pitch Velocity Remain Consistent Throughout A Competitive Baseball Season Following Blood Flow Restriction: An Observational Study, Mackenzie Marie Evans 2020 West Virginia University

Will Pitch Velocity Remain Consistent Throughout A Competitive Baseball Season Following Blood Flow Restriction: An Observational Study, Mackenzie Marie Evans

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Context: Blood flow restriction (BFR) has previously been used in a rehabilitation setting to decrease the external load applied to post-surgical patients and those with chronic debilitating conditions. BFR in a performance context has been explored minimally, particularly as it applies to baseball pitching over time. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the trend in throwing velocity of fastballs with BFR implementation over one competitive season. Design: This study was a retrospective longitudinal design on pitching velocity of fastballs throughout a competitive season. Setting: The data collection and analysis was completed at …


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey …


Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz 2020 Marshall University

Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 30% of total body mass, and loss of muscle mass and dysfunctional muscle metabolism are implicated in multiple disease states, including type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and septic shock. As such, understanding the mechanisms of skeletal muscle growth and atrophy, including pharmaceutical targets that may prove safe and effective, is therefore an important goal of current research on skeletal muscle physiology. One potential target in skeletal muscle development and function that has not been fully explored is the Na/KATPase (NKA), especially the α1 isoform. This isoform has a unique signaling function that has previously been shown …


Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng 2020 The University of Akron

Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This proposed project will be developing an artificial reverse shoulder arthroplasty joint that focuses on improvements to the Zimmer Biomet Comprehensive Reverse System by freating a unique feature, or features, to the humeral component that focuses on the prevention of dislocation by not limiting the range of motion of men from ages 45 to 65 years.

The development of the this project will utilize the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical device design process. This project will involve a total of four Biomedical Engineering students from the University of Akron. Two students, Michael and Bailei, are in the Honors college …


The Effects Of An Inflammasome Inhibitor Olt1177 On The Development Of Ischemic Heart Failure, Joseph S. Aliaga 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Effects Of An Inflammasome Inhibitor Olt1177 On The Development Of Ischemic Heart Failure, Joseph S. Aliaga

Theses and Dissertations

Thesis Abstract

THE EFFECTS OF AN INFLAMMASOME INHIBITOR OLT1177 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ISCHEMIC HEART FAILURE

By Joseph S. Aliaga, BS

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2020

Background: Evidence suggests that prolonged and enhanced pro-inflammatory signaling, modulated by the NLRP3 inflammasome, plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of several different types of cardiovascular diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI), adverse ventricular remodeling, and heart failure (HF). Consequently, we hypothesize that attenuating the enhanced inflammatory response using a pharmacological NLRP3 …


An Identification Of Tgf-B'S Role In Ischemic Cholangiopathy, Courtney Chmielewski 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

An Identification Of Tgf-B'S Role In Ischemic Cholangiopathy, Courtney Chmielewski

Theses and Dissertations

Organ transplants are a necessary intervention for many diseases that result in end stage organ failure. The donation pool cannot match the demands of the transplant list, so expanding the pool to include donation after cardiac death (DCD) is desired. However, there are increased odds of graft failure and ischemic cholangiopathy leading to inferior outcomes when DCD livers are used. Ischemic cholangiopathy consists of multiple diffuse strictures and fibrosis of the bile ducts leading to a loss of epithelialization and fibrosis. The cellular mechanism is proposed to be epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). TGF-�� is seen as a key initiator of EMT, …


Postnatal Catch-Up Growth Leads To Higher P66shc And Mitochondrial Dysfunction., Shelby Oke, Gurjeev Sohi, Daniel Barry Hardy 2020 Western University

Postnatal Catch-Up Growth Leads To Higher P66shc And Mitochondrial Dysfunction., Shelby Oke, Gurjeev Sohi, Daniel Barry Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Epidemiological data suggest an inverse relationship between birth weight and long-term metabolic deficits, which is exacerbated by postnatal catch-up growth. We have previously demonstrated that rat offspring subject to maternal protein restriction (MPR) followed by catch-up growth exhibit impaired hepatic function and ER stress. Given that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various metabolic pathologies, we hypothesized that altered expression of p66Shc, a gatekeeper of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, contributes to the hepatic defects observed in MPR offspring. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) diet or an isocaloric low protein (8%; LP) diet …


Physiological Effects During Aerobatic Flights On Science Astronaut Candidates, Pedro Llanos, Diego M. Garcia 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Physiological Effects During Aerobatic Flights On Science Astronaut Candidates, Pedro Llanos, Diego M. Garcia

Publications

Spaceflight is considered the last frontier in terms of science, technology, and engineering. But it is also the next frontier in terms of human physiology and performance. After more than 200,000 years humans have evolved under earth’s gravity and atmospheric conditions, spaceflight poses environmental stresses for which human physiology is not adapted. Hypoxia, accelerations, and radiation are among such stressors, our research involves suborbital flights aiming to develop effective countermeasures in order to assure sustainable human space presence. The physiologic baseline of spaceflight participants is subject to great variability driven by age, gender, fitness, and metabolic reserve. The objective of …


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