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Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old, James T. Yancy 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old, James T. Yancy

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Yancy, James T. (J.T.), MAT., May 2018 AthleticTraining

Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old

Chairperson: Melanie McGrath

The number of upper extremity injuries is increasing in advanced baseball (14 to 22 years old) at an alarming rate. The length of seasons, multiple leagues and the velocity of throwing in overhead sports are the most common causes of elbow and shoulder injuries. In addition, biomechanical variables also influence the risk of injury. Any alteration in range of motion (ROM) directly impacts the biomechanics of overhead activities, such as pitching ...


The Evaluation Of Mefloquine Drug Repurposing On Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jessica L. Phan, Bhavuk Garg, Hrishikesh Mehta, Seth Corey 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Evaluation Of Mefloquine Drug Repurposing On Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jessica L. Phan, Bhavuk Garg, Hrishikesh Mehta, Seth Corey

Undergraduate Research Posters

The aim of this study is to observe cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and autophagy on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, NB4 and U937, with the drug repurposing of mefloquine (MQ). Methods such as the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue staining have shown a decrease in live cells with high concentrations of mefloquine. Using their average perspective IC50 values of MQ concentration, Western blotting was applied by means of apoptosis and autophagy markers to determine if the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy was present in MQ-treated AML cells. The experiment will ...


Pd-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition And Anti-Ctla-4 Whole Tumor Cell Vaccination Counter Adaptive Immune Resistance: A Mouse Neuroblastoma Model That Mimics Human Disease., Priya Srinivasan, Xiaofang Wu, Mousumi Basu, Christopher Rossi, Anthony D Sandler 2018 George Washington University

Pd-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition And Anti-Ctla-4 Whole Tumor Cell Vaccination Counter Adaptive Immune Resistance: A Mouse Neuroblastoma Model That Mimics Human Disease., Priya Srinivasan, Xiaofang Wu, Mousumi Basu, Christopher Rossi, Anthony D Sandler

Pathology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Adaptive immune resistance induces an immunosuppressive tumor environment that enables immune evasion. This phenomenon results in tumor escape with progression and metastasis. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed on tumors is thought to inhibit tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) through programmed cell death 1 (PD1), enabling adaptive immune resistance. This study investigates the role of PD-L1 in both mouse and human neuroblastoma immunity. The consequence of PD-L1 inhibition is characterized in the context of an established whole tumor cell vaccine.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: A mouse model of neuroblastoma was investigated using an Id2 knockdown whole cell vaccine in combination with checkpoint ...


The Pathology Workforce And Clinical Licensure, Robin Lorenz, Donald S. Karcher, Michael Gautreaux, Melvin Limson, Dani Zander 2018 George Washington University

The Pathology Workforce And Clinical Licensure, Robin Lorenz, Donald S. Karcher, Michael Gautreaux, Melvin Limson, Dani Zander

Pathology Faculty Publications

There has been a recent recognition of the need to prepare PhD-trained scientists for increasingly diverse careers in academia, industry, and health care. The PhD Data Task Force was formed to better understand the current state of PhD scientists in the clinical laboratory workforce and collect up-to-date information on the training and certification of these laboratorians. In this report, we summarize the findings of the PhD Data Task Force and discuss the relevance of the data collected to the future supply of and demand for PhD clinical laboratory scientists. It is clear that there are multiple career opportunities for PhD ...


Sedentary Time And The Cumulative Risk Of Preserved And Reduced Ejection Fraction Heart Failure: From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Brandi Scot Rariden 2018 University of North Florida

Sedentary Time And The Cumulative Risk Of Preserved And Reduced Ejection Fraction Heart Failure: From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Brandi Scot Rariden

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sedentary time (ST) and the cumulative risk of preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF) using a diverse cohort of U.S. adults 45-84 years of age.

Methods: Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we identified 6,814 subjects (52.9% female). All were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) associated with baseline ST and risk of overall heart failure (HF), HFpEF, and HFrEF. Weekly self-reported ST was ...


Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro 2018 University of Kentucky

Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of dementia in elderly individuals, especially Black/African Americans. Within my dissertation, we focused on two vascular morphologies that affect small vessels: brain arteriolosclerosis (B-ASC) and multi-vascular profiles (MVPs). B-ASC is characterized by degenerative thickening of the wall of brain arterioles. The risk factors, cognitive sequelae, and co-pathologies of B-ASC are not fully understood. To address this, we used multimodal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and brain-banked tissue samples from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center (UK-ADC) brain repository. We analyzed two age at ...


Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu 2018 Fudan University

Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu

Virology Papers

Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission.We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of ...


Altered Ratio Of T Follicular Helper Cells To T Follicular Regulatory Cells Correlates With Autoreactive Antibody Response In Simian Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Rhesus Macaques, Wenjin Fan, Andrew James Demers, Yanmin Wan, Qingsheng Li 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Altered Ratio Of T Follicular Helper Cells To T Follicular Regulatory Cells Correlates With Autoreactive Antibody Response In Simian Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Rhesus Macaques, Wenjin Fan, Andrew James Demers, Yanmin Wan, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

Individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection have an increased prevalence of autoreactive Abs. Many of the isolated HIV broadly neutralizing Abs from these individuals are also autoreactive. However, the underlying mechanism(s) that produce these autoreactive broadly neutralizing Abs remains largely unknown. The highly regulated coordination among B cells, T follicular helper (TFH) cells, and T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells in germinal centers (GCs) of peripheral lymphatic tissues (LTs) is essential for defense against pathogens while also restricting autoreactive responses. We hypothesized that an altered ratio of TFH/TFR cells in the GC contributes to the increased ...


Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Subtype C HIV-1 is responsible for the largest proportion of people living with HIV-1 infection. However, there is limited information about the roles of the brain and its cell types as a potential sanctuary for this subtype and how the sanctuary may be affected by the administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). To address this issue, we collected postmortem brain tissues from ART treated HIV-1 infected Zambian individuals who experienced complete viral suppression and those who did not. Tissues from various brain compartments were collected from each individual as frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded brain specimens, for detection and quantification of ...


Mucosal Antibody Responses To Vaccines Targeting Siv Protease Cleavage Sites Or Fulllength Gag And Env Proteins In Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques, Hongzhao Li, Yan Hai, So-Yon Lim, Nikki Toledo, Jose Crecente-Campo, Dane Schalk, Lin Li, Robert W. Omange, Tamara G. Dacoba, Lewis R. Liu, Mohammad Abul Kashem, Yanmin Wan, Binhua Liang, Qingsheng Li, Eva Rakasz, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Maria J. Alonso, Francis A. Plummer, James B. Whitney, Ma Luo 2018 University of Manitoba

Mucosal Antibody Responses To Vaccines Targeting Siv Protease Cleavage Sites Or Fulllength Gag And Env Proteins In Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques, Hongzhao Li, Yan Hai, So-Yon Lim, Nikki Toledo, Jose Crecente-Campo, Dane Schalk, Lin Li, Robert W. Omange, Tamara G. Dacoba, Lewis R. Liu, Mohammad Abul Kashem, Yanmin Wan, Binhua Liang, Qingsheng Li, Eva Rakasz, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Maria J. Alonso, Francis A. Plummer, James B. Whitney, Ma Luo

Virology Papers

HIV mutates rapidly and infects CD4+ T cells, especially when they are activated. A vaccine targeting conserved, essential viral elements while limiting CD4+ T cell activation could be effective. Learning from natural immunity observed in a group of highly HIV-1 exposed seronegative Kenyan female sex workers, we are testing a novel candidate HIV vaccine targeting the 12 viral protease cleavage sites (PCSs) (the PCS vaccine), in comparison with a vaccine targeting full-length Gag and Env (the Gag/Env vaccine) in a Mauritian cynomolgus macaque/SIV model. In this study we evaluated these vaccines for induction of mucosal antibodies to SIV ...


Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li 2018 National Institute of Health

Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The HIV-1 pandemic is a consequence of the cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) to humans. Our previous study demonstrated SIVcpz strains that are closely related to the ancestral viruses of HIV-1 groups M (SIVcpzMB897) and N (SIVcpzEK505) and two SIVcpz lineages that are not associated with any known HIV-1 infections in humans (SIVcpzMT145 and SIVcpzBF1167), all can readily infect and robustly replicate in the humanized-BLT mouse model of humans. However, the comparative pathogenicity of different SIVcpz strains remains unknown. Herein, we compared the pathogenicity of the above four SIVcpz strains with HIV-1 using humanized-BLT mice ...


Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Eun Hee Kwon, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Eun Hee Kwon, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Subtype C HIV-1 is responsible for the largest proportion of people living with HIV-1 infection. However, there is limited information about the roles of the brain and its cell types as a potential sanctuary for this subtype and how the sanctuary may be affected by the administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). To address this issue, we collected postmortem brain tissues from ART treated HIV-1 infected Zambian individuals who experienced complete viral suppression and those who did not. Tissues from various brain compartments were collected from each individual as frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded brain specimens, for detection and quantification of ...


Contribution Of The Gp120 V3 Loop To Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Stability In Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses, Dane Bowder, Haley Hollingsead, Kate Durst, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Joshua Wiggins, Halima Medjahed, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski, Shi-Hua Xiang 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Contribution Of The Gp120 V3 Loop To Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Stability In Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses, Dane Bowder, Haley Hollingsead, Kate Durst, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Joshua Wiggins, Halima Medjahed, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski, Shi-Hua Xiang

Virology Papers

The V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein (Env) becomes exposed after CD4 binding and contacts the coreceptor to mediate viral entry. Prior to CD4 engagement, a hydrophobic patch located at the tip of the V3 loop stabilizes the non-covalent association of gp120 with the Env trimer of HIV-1 subtype B strains. Here, we show that this conserved hydrophobic patch (amino acid residues 307, 309 and 317) contributes to gp120-trimer association in HIV-1 subtype C, HIV-2 and SIV. Changes that reduced the hydrophobicity of these V3 residues resulted in increased gp120 shedding and ...


Circulating Tumour Dna: A Non-Invasive Biomarker For Melanoma, Ashleigh Cavell McEvoy 2018 Edith Cowan University

Circulating Tumour Dna: A Non-Invasive Biomarker For Melanoma, Ashleigh Cavell Mcevoy

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Cutaneous melanoma accounts for 90% of all skin cancer deaths (Balch et al., 2010) and is responsible for 3.6% of deaths from cancer in Australia (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016). Whilst early detection and successful surgical removal of primary melanomas have improved survival rates (DeSantis et al., 2014), approximately 30% of these patients will have disease recurrence at some point in their lives (Soong et al., 1992; Soong et al., 1998). This is despite being considered disease free following treatment, which may have included surgical removal of the primary and/or its metastasis/es, radiation and/or ...


Microrna Expression Patterns In Human Anterior Cingulate And Motor Cortex: A Study Of Dementia With Lewy Bodies Cases And Controls, Peter T. Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A. Janse, Katherine L. Thompson 2018 University of Kentucky

Microrna Expression Patterns In Human Anterior Cingulate And Motor Cortex: A Study Of Dementia With Lewy Bodies Cases And Controls, Peter T. Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A. Janse, Katherine L. Thompson

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Overview

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).

Methods

RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals. RNA was profiled using Exiqon miRNA microarrays. Quantitative PCR for post-hoc replication was performed on separate cases (n=6 controls) and included RNA isolated from gray matter of MO, AC, primary somatosensory (BA 3), and dorsolateral prefrontal (BA 9) cortical regions.

Results

The miRNA expression patterns ...


Crispr Screen For Identification Of Kinases That Mediate Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion, Hamad Aldhafeeri 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Crispr Screen For Identification Of Kinases That Mediate Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion, Hamad Aldhafeeri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality in cancer patients. Inhibition of proteins that are involved in the regulation of metastasis are expected to suppress metastasis and represent treatment targets. Our focus is on prostate cancer metastasis and we have developed a novel high-throughput means of performing in vitro screens for regulators of prostate cancer metastasis. We propose to use a focused CRISPR library screen that will “knock out” all human kinases to determine which ones are responsible for prostate cancer metastasis. CRISPR is a potent genetic editing tool and was used to silence all kinases in prostate cells (BPH ...


Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The lens has been considered to be an immune privileged site not susceptible to the immune processes normally associated with tissue injury and wound repair. However, as greater insight into the immune surveillance process is gained, we have reevaluated the concept of immune privilege. Our studies using an N-cadherin lens-specific conditional knockout mouse, N-cadΔlens, show that loss of this cell-cell junctional protein leads to lens degeneration, necrosis and fibrotic change, postnatally. The degeneration of this tissue induces an immune response resulting in immune cells populating the lens that contribute to the development of fibrosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the lens ...


Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Mitochondrial distribution and motility are recognized as central to many cellular functions, but their regulation by signaling mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS), either derived from an extracellular source or intracellularly generated, control mitochondrial distribution and function by dose-dependently, specifically, and reversibly decreasing mitochondrial motility in both rat hippocampal primary cultured neurons and cell lines. ROS decrease motility independently of cytoplasmic [Ca2+], mitochondrial membrane potential, or permeability transition pore opening, known effectors of oxidative stress. However, multiple lines of genetic and pharmacological evidence support that a ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38α, is ...


Efficacy Of An Adenoviral Vectored Multivalent Centralized Influenza Vaccine, Amy Lingel, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Efficacy Of An Adenoviral Vectored Multivalent Centralized Influenza Vaccine, Amy Lingel, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Mice were immunized with Adenovirus expressing the H1-con, H2-con, H3-con and H5-con HA consensus genes in combination (multivalent) and compared to mice immunized with the traditional 2010–2011 FluZone and FluMist seasonal vaccines. Immunized mice were challenged with 10–100 MLD50 of H1N1, H3N1, H3N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses. The traditional vaccines induced robust levels of HA inhibition (HI) titers, but failed to protect against five different heterologous lethal influenza challenges. Conversely, the multivalent consensus vaccine (1 × 1010 virus particles (vp)/mouse) induced protective HI titers of ≥40 against 8 of 10 influenza viruses that represent a wide degree of ...


A Coal Miner With Weakness, Fatigue, Nausea, Fever, Chills, Night Sweats And Dyspnea, Larry Nichols 2017 Mercer University School of Medicine

A Coal Miner With Weakness, Fatigue, Nausea, Fever, Chills, Night Sweats And Dyspnea, Larry Nichols

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Delayed or missed diagnoses are a constant hazard in primary care. This is the case report of a 51-year-old coal miner, who presented as an ambulatory outpatient on a Friday with weakness, fatigue, nausea, fever, chills, night sweats and dyspnea. Chest x-ray on Saturday showed pneumonia and pleural effusion, while blood testing showed renal failure, but these results were not known by his physician until Monday, when he was hospitalized with severe sepsis due to fatal Austrian syndrome of pneumococcal pneumonia, endocarditis and meningitis. Analysis of the delay of diagnosis in this case suggests the possibility that a weekend effect ...


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