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Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey 2020 Iowa State University

Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many soils are deep, yet soil below 20 cm remains largely unexplored. Exotic plants can have shallower roots than native species, so their impact on microorganisms is anticipated to change with depth. Using environmental DNA and extracellular enzymatic activities, we studied fungal and bacterial community composition, diversity, function, and co-occurrence networks between native and exotic grasslands at soil depths up to 1 m. We hypothesized (1) the composition and network structure of both fungal and bacterial communities will change with increasing depth, and diversity and enzymatic function will decrease; (2) microbial enzymatic function and network connectedness will be lower in ...


Stone-Stacking As A Looming Threat To Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, José Luis Martín-Esquivel, Dília Menezes, Mário Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Inês Órfão, Catarina Serra-Gonçalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepúlveda, Dinarte Teixeira, Anna Traveset 2020 University of Porto

Stone-Stacking As A Looming Threat To Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, José Luis Martín-Esquivel, Dília Menezes, Mário Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Inês Órfão, Catarina Serra-Gonçalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepúlveda, Dinarte Teixeira, Anna Traveset

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This letter to the editor describes the surge of “photo-friendly” stacks of stones as an emerging tourism-associated threat to rock-dwelling biodiversity.


Livestock-Wildlife Dynamics And Subsequent Human Responses In Marginalized Communities Within Mexico’S Nationally Protected Areas, Deanna Seil 2020 Michigan Technological University

Livestock-Wildlife Dynamics And Subsequent Human Responses In Marginalized Communities Within Mexico’S Nationally Protected Areas, Deanna Seil

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Entering the planet’s sixth mass-extinction, monitoring biodiversity and the factors which affect it is of the utmost importance. This study on the interaction of humans and their livestock with wildlife, and the impact of this interaction on wildlife conservation, took place in Santiago Coatepec, located within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve in Mexico. Wildlife interactions with livestock may depend upon species, season, ecological characteristics of the area, and livestock management practices. Using camera traps, field data, and interview data, I quantified livestock impact on wildlife behavior and community beliefs. Over two years, camera traps at 18 stations recorded 709 wildlife ...


Landscape Ecology And Population Genomics Of Two Sympatric Pitviper Species Across A Fragmented Appalachian Landscape, Thomas Maigret 2020 University of Kentucky

Landscape Ecology And Population Genomics Of Two Sympatric Pitviper Species Across A Fragmented Appalachian Landscape, Thomas Maigret

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Understanding the link between landscape patterns and ecological and evolutionary processes is an important prerequisite for informed wildlife conservation and management, especially in rapidly changing landscapes. Until recently, the inaccessibility of spatial and genomic data sets of sufficient resolution limited our ability to incorporate the impacts of landscape patterns into predictions of ecological and environmental outcomes. In this dissertation, I utilized several high-resolution spatial and genomic data sets to address ecological questions in a rapidly fragmenting landscape in southeastern Kentucky. Overall, my results indicate that large-scale surface coal mining is causing widespread homogenization of landforms, resulting in a uniquely permanent ...


Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This study utilized native chaparral and sage scrub shrubs to evaluate the impact of light summer irrigation on live fuel moisture content (LFMC) and predicted fire behavior. As to be expected LFMC varied markedly throughout the year being over 100% in winter in all species and treatments but differed markedly by treatment in the summer and fall. For most species lightly irrigated plants had the highest LFMC in the summer and fall, followed by thinned treatments and controls. These differences in moisture content coupled with structural differences in the vegetation contributed to expected differences in flame length and rate of ...


Covers, 2020 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Preliminary Checklist Of Lichens From Kamiak Butte County Park, Washington State, Emma Sell, Amanda Chandler 2020 Eastern Washington University

A Preliminary Checklist Of Lichens From Kamiak Butte County Park, Washington State, Emma Sell, Amanda Chandler

2020 Symposium Posters

The semiarid Palouse ecoregion of North America was once dominated by temperate prairies and connects areas of southeast Washington, north-central Idaho, and northeast Oregon. Transformation of nearly all habitats comprising this ecosystem into agricultural lands has drastically reduced extant native grasslands to small, highly fragmented pieces. These land conversion practices, coupled with the subsequent takeover of invasive plant species, have placed the Palouse ecoregion among the most critically endangered ecosystems in the United States, with < 1% of land remaining that is suitable to host native species. The enormous loss of biodiversity across the Palouse has prompted a need for further study regarding a wide variety of organisms. In particular, lichen diversity of the Palouse ecoregion has never been formally characterized, and there are overall very few detailed studies of lichens throughout eastern Washington. To improve knowledge of Palouse lichen diversity, we first reviewed collection data from historical herbarium specimens via the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) database. We then collected lichen voucher specimens from Kamiak Butte County Park (KBCP), one of the largest contiguous natural areas within the Palouse ecoregion as its relatively steep, rocky slopes make it ill-suited for agricultural conversion. KBCP consists of 298 acres of mixed Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) forest and native grassland that rises above the surrounding farmland, as well as an east-west ridgeline ...


What Makes Bats Special So That They Are Reservoirs For So Many Different Pathogens?, Deion Anderson, Eleanor Gorkovchenko, Nicole Hamada, Carolina Martinez, Lupe Martinez 2020 Eastern Washington University

What Makes Bats Special So That They Are Reservoirs For So Many Different Pathogens?, Deion Anderson, Eleanor Gorkovchenko, Nicole Hamada, Carolina Martinez, Lupe Martinez

2020 Symposium Posters

Bats, order Chiroptera, comprise more than 20 percent of all living mammal species with more than 1100 species. Bats are organisms that have high body temperatures and metabolic rates. Therefore, viral adaptation to febrile conditions in the bat host might explain the high reservoir competence that distinguishes these organisms from other mammalian hosts. The purpose of this study is to present a comparative meta-review of the available evidence in order to investigate and identify the reasons or characteristics as to what makes bats special reservoirs for so many different pathogens. Our investigation will not focus on a particular bat species ...


Impacts Of Rock Climbing On Lichen And Bryophyte Cliff Communities In The Arid West, Giovanna M. Bishop 2020 Eastern Washington University

Impacts Of Rock Climbing On Lichen And Bryophyte Cliff Communities In The Arid West, Giovanna M. Bishop

2020 Symposium Posters

Lichens and bryophytes make up the majority of the diversity and cover in cliff systems around the world. Recently, with the rapid rise of rock climbing, there are concerns rock climbers are negatively impacting cliff communities. My study will compare climbed and unclimbed granite cliffs to better understand the impacts of rock climbing on lichen and bryophyte diversity and cover in eastern Washington. The objectives of this study are to assess the impacts of rock climbing on lichen and bryophyte cliff community diversity and cover and improve route development and cliff management practices for lichens and bryophytes. This study will ...


Current Dog Breeding Practices Impacts On Health And Preservation Of Purebred Dogs, Bridget E. Baker 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Current Dog Breeding Practices Impacts On Health And Preservation Of Purebred Dogs, Bridget E. Baker

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Challenging Our Conception Of Wildness, Elodie Massiot 2020 Mahout Elephant Foundation

Challenging Our Conception Of Wildness, Elodie Massiot

Animal Sentience

Baker & Winkler (2020) point out the entanglement among free-living elephants, captive elephants, and humans in the elephant tourism industry. Where all living beings – captive and free-living – are more or less affected by human presence or activity, the binary notion of wild and captive, and in situ and ex situ conservation, becomes inadequate. B&W challenge our concept of wildness – and hence of rewilding – and our level of intervention in this wildness of which we are a component.


Game Theory And Artificial Intelligence In Just Preservation, David L. Dowe, Nader Chmait 2020 Monash University, Australia

Game Theory And Artificial Intelligence In Just Preservation, David L. Dowe, Nader Chmait

Animal Sentience

We humans can show presumption, arrogance and many dubious traits. By virtue of being land-dwelling, dexterous, relatively intelligent, and having good communication hardware and (good) fortune, we have for recent millennia largely had dominion of our planet. Yet humans often do not treat themselves (let alone other species) particularly well. Treves et al.’s idea of a multispecies justice system — not “prioritizing humans” but “finding practical ways to work within human systems” — invites consideration.


Review Of Megacormus Karsch, 1881, With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), František Kovařík 2019 Marshall University

Review Of Megacormus Karsch, 1881, With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Megacormus franckei sp. n. from Mexico is described and compared with all other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the morphology, taxonomy and localities of genus Megacormus, mainly through color photographs of live and preserved specimens of all Megacormus species, as well as their habitats. Included is a key for all six known species of the genus Megacormus


Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić 2019 University of Ljubljana

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

The current work extends the phenotypic characterization of a bacterial culture collection obtained from white, yellow, grey or pink microbial cave wall colonies that are common in the caves of Slovenian Karst. We have determined antibiotic resistance to 22 natural and synthetic antibiotics in 69 isolates from the microbial mats. Thirty-eight isolates (52%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics; another 27 isolates (37%) were resistant to 6-10 antibiotics; and 7 isolates (0.1%) were resistant to 11-17 antibiotics. We screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by growing cave isolates on five different media and overlaying individual cultures with ten Gram-positive and ...


Revision Of The Genus Reddyanus From Southeast Asia, With Description Of Five New Species From Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský 2019 Marshall University

Revision Of The Genus Reddyanus From Southeast Asia, With Description Of Five New Species From Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Five new species are described: Reddyanus furai sp. n. from Vietnam, R. hofereki sp. n. and R. majkusi sp. n. from Malaysia, R. rolciki sp. n. from Vietnam and Cambodia, and R. schwotti sp. n. from Thailand and Cambodia, fully complemented with color photographs of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitats. New species are compared with all other species from this region. In addition to the analysis of external morphology, we also describe the karyotypes of R. furai sp. n. (2n=14), R. majkusi sp. n. (2n=16), R. rolciki sp. n. (2n=14), and R ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-ameen Dr. 2019 Dep. Biology/Plant Pathology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones 2019 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones

Honors Scholar Theses

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) are an ancient mutualism in which soil-dwelling fungi enhance plant absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen in exchange for photosynthates. VAM are sensitive to changes in soil moisture and nutrient content, fluctuating between mutualism and parasitism depending on conditions of drought stress and nutrient deficiency. Understanding how VAM respond to precipitation changes is crucial for both conservation and agricultural purposes. To test how soil moisture changes the effects of VAM colonization and growth in little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), a common prairie grass, I planted 300 seeds in a greenhouse in sterilized soil and soil inoculated with VAM fungi ...


Arthropod Diversity In Contrasting Ontario Peatlands, Grace Carscallen 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Arthropod Diversity In Contrasting Ontario Peatlands, Grace Carscallen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Peatlands are important wetland systems, but dominant macroarthropod groups endemic to peatlands and the environmental factors that affect them are poorly represented in the literature. I examined the richness, abundance, and community composition of soil and surface dwelling macroarthropods using emergence traps, peat sorting, and pitfall traps in two Ontario fens differing in water table, nutrient level, and vegetation. I found 218 arthropod morphospecies, with each site having a similar richness of emergent arthropods, but patterns of community composition differed between the two sites. The Carex (sedge) dominated site had twice as many emergent individuals, and total abundances declined dramatically ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xxii. Two New Species Of Neobuthus From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík 2019 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xxii. Two New Species Of Neobuthus From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

New information about taxonomy and distribution of the genus Neobuthus Hirst, 1911 is presented, based on material recently collected in Somaliland. N. awashensis Kovařík & Lowe, 2012 is reported from Somaliland for the first time. Two new species are described, N. haeckeli sp. n. and N. solegladi sp. n. An updated distribution map of the genus Neobuthus is provided.


Species Richness And Ecological Diversity Of Myxomycetes And Myxomycete-Like Organisms In The Tropical Forests Of Brazil, Isadora Lima Coelho 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Species Richness And Ecological Diversity Of Myxomycetes And Myxomycete-Like Organisms In The Tropical Forests Of Brazil, Isadora Lima Coelho

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical rain forests cover less than two percent of Earth's surface, yet they sustain the greatest diversity of living organisms on the planet. Tropical rain forests cover nearly 73% of the Brazilian territory and besides harboring some of the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet, this vast area also houses about 83% of the Brazilian population. Approximately 175 million people live in urban and rural areas with fragments of coverage of these biomes which contributes to the loss of biodiversity that rapidly increases over the years. Furthermore, the majority of the taxonomic and ecological efforts to describe and protect ...


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