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Impacts Of Invasive Rats On Hawaiian Cave Resources, Francis G. Howarth, Fred D. Stone 2020 Bernice P. Bishop Museum

Impacts Of Invasive Rats On Hawaiian Cave Resources, Francis G. Howarth, Fred D. Stone

International Journal of Speleology

Although there are no published studies and limited data documenting damage by rodents in Hawaiian caves, our incidental observations during more than 40 years of surveying caves indicate that introduced rodents, especially the roof rat, Rattus rattus, pose significant threats to vulnerable cave resources. Caves, with their nearly constant and predictable physical environment often house important natural and cultural features including biological, paleontological, geological, climatic, mineralogical, cultural, and archaeological resources. All four invasive rodents in Hawai‘i commonly nest in cave entrances and rock shelters, but only the roof rat (Rattus rattus) habitually enters caves and utilizes areas in total ...


Analysis Of An Agent-Based Model For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Craig Garzella, Joseph Gaudy, Karl R. B. Schmitt, Arezu Mansuri 2020 Valparaiso University

Analysis Of An Agent-Based Model For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Craig Garzella, Joseph Gaudy, Karl R. B. Schmitt, Arezu Mansuri

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are an invasive, voracious, highly fecund species threatening the ecological integrity of the Great Lakes. This agent-based model and analysis explore bighead carp behavior in response to acoustic deterrence in an effort to discover properties that increase likelihood of deterrence system failure. Results indicate the most significant (p < 0.05) influences on barrier failure are the quantity of detritus and plankton behind the barrier, total number of bighead carp successfully deterred by the barrier, and number of native fishes freely moving throughout the simulation. Quantity of resources behind the barrier influence bighead carp to penetrate when populations are resource deprived. When native fish populations are low, an accumulation of phytoplankton can occur, increasing the likelihood of an algal bloom occurrence. Findings of this simulation suggest successful implementation with proper maintenance of an acoustic deterrence system has potential of abating the threat of bighead carp on ecological integrity of the Great Lakes.


Vaejovis Lapidicola Stahnke, 1940: Hemispermatophore And Mating Plug From A Topotype Male (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Brandon Myers, Richard F. Ayrey 2020 Marshall University

Vaejovis Lapidicola Stahnke, 1940: Hemispermatophore And Mating Plug From A Topotype Male (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Brandon Myers, Richard F. Ayrey

Euscorpius

While doing research on an undescribed scorpion species, we needed to examine the hemispermatophore and mating plug of Vaejovis lapidicola Stahnke, 1940. Included are photographs and a description of these structures from a topotype specimen collected in the same “red sandstone quarry” (Flagstaff, Arizona, USA), from which Herbert Stahnke collected the original specimens in 1938.


Notes On Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949: Redescription Of C. Arabicus Levy Et Al., 1973 From Arabia, And Description Of Two New Species From North Africa (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský 2020 Marshall University

Notes On Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949: Redescription Of C. Arabicus Levy Et Al., 1973 From Arabia, And Description Of Two New Species From North Africa (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Two new species of Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949, are described: C. turieli sp. n. from Western Sahara and Morocco, and C. ullrichi sp. n. from Egypt. The species C. arabicus Levy et al., 1973 is redescribed based on analysis of the holotype plus extensive material from Oman and the United Arab Emirates. These species are compared to others from their respective regions: C. kabateki Kovařík, 2003, C. levyi Kovařík, 2012, and C. polisi Lowe, 2001, for which new illustrations and biometrics are provided based on types and topotypic material. The hemispermatophores of C. arabicus, C. turieli sp. n. and C ...


A New Species Of Ananteris (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Panama, Roberto J. Miranda, Luis F. de Armas 2020 Marshall University

A New Species Of Ananteris (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Panama, Roberto J. Miranda, Luis F. De Armas

Euscorpius

A new buthid species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 is herein described from Panama Oeste Province, Panama. This is the second Ananteris species known from this Central American country and clearly differs from Ananteris platnicki Lourenço, 1993, distributed in Costa Rica and Panama, by its smaller size and male having a different hemispermatophore and telson similar to that of the female.


Common Ravens, Luke W. Peebles, Jack O. Spencer Jr. 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, Crawford, Nebraska

Common Ravens, Luke W. Peebles, Jack O. Spencer Jr.

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Damage Management Methods for Common Ravens

Type of Control -- Available Management Options

Exclusion -- Often ineffective or impractical

Fertility Control -- None available

Frightening Devices -- Effigies • Pyrotechnics and propane cannons • Lasers and flashing lights

Habitat Modification -- Bale and bury garbage • Install dumpsters with secure lids • Remove or bury dead livestock • Remove abandoned houses, sheds, and barns to eliminate nesting structures

Nest Treatment -- Allowed with proper Federal and State permits; Egg oiling or addling and nest destruction

Repellents -- Methiocarb (EPA Reg. No. 56228-33) • Methyl anthranilate (food-grade grape flavoring agent)

Shooting -- Allowed with proper Federal and State permits; Requires use of non-toxic/non-lead ammunition ...


Using Genetics To Inform Restoration And Predict Resilience In Declining Populations Of A Keystone Marine Sponge, Sarah M. Griffiths, Evelyn D. Taylor-Cox, Donald C. Behringer, Mark J. Butler IV, Richard F. Preziosi 2020 Old Dominion University

Using Genetics To Inform Restoration And Predict Resilience In Declining Populations Of A Keystone Marine Sponge, Sarah M. Griffiths, Evelyn D. Taylor-Cox, Donald C. Behringer, Mark J. Butler Iv, Richard F. Preziosi

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Genetic tools can have a key role in informing conservation management of declining populations. Genetic diversity is an important determinant of population fitness and resilience, and can require careful management to ensure sufficient variation is present. In addition, population genetics data reveal patterns of connectivity and gene flow between locations, enabling mangers to predict recovery and resilience, identify areas of local adaptation, and generate restoration plans. Here, we demonstrate a conservation genetics approach to inform restoration and management of the loggerhead sponge (Spheciospongia vesparium) in the Florida Keys, USA. This species is a dominant, habitat-forming component of marine ecosystems in ...


On The Distribution Of Genetic Variation In Ecological Communities, Isaac Overcast 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Distribution Of Genetic Variation In Ecological Communities, Isaac Overcast

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Biodiversity in ecological communities is structured hierarchically across spatial and temporal scales. Many open questions remain as to how this structure accumulates. For example, what are the relative contributions of dispersal versus in situ speciation? Or, how important are stochastic drift versus deterministic processes? Up to this point, these questions have been investigated by isolated disciplines (e.g. macroecology, comparative phylogeography, macroevolution) using tools and data that tend to focus on only one axis of community scale data (e.g. phylogenies, relative abundances, and/or trait information). Yet we know that there are feedbacks among processes that respond on short ...


Effects Of Dietary Thiaminase On Reproductive Traits In Three Populations Of Atlantic Salmon Targeted For Reintroduction Into Lake Ontario, Kimberly T. Mitchell 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Dietary Thiaminase On Reproductive Traits In Three Populations Of Atlantic Salmon Targeted For Reintroduction Into Lake Ontario, Kimberly T. Mitchell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fitness of reintroduced salmonids in Lake Ontario can be reduced by high levels of thiaminase in exotic prey consumed at the adult stage. If sensitivity to dietary thiaminase differs among the three Atlantic salmon populations targeted for reintroduction into Lake Ontario, this could significantly influence their performance. I quantified the effects of experimental diets that contained high or low (control) levels of thiaminase on thiamine concentrations, survival, growth rate, and reproductive traits (sperm and egg quality) in Atlantic salmon from the three candidate source populations. Fish that consumed the high-thiaminase diet had comparable growth rates, but lower survival and ...


The Enigmatic Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, 1902 (Acari: Mesostigmata) Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites Infesting Neotropical Bats, With Catalog And Notes On A Collection From The Manú Biosphere Reserve In Peru, Donald Gettinger, Madalyne Epperson, Candy Hermasillo, Scott Gardner 2020 Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

The Enigmatic Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, 1902 (Acari: Mesostigmata) Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites Infesting Neotropical Bats, With Catalog And Notes On A Collection From The Manú Biosphere Reserve In Peru, Donald Gettinger, Madalyne Epperson, Candy Hermasillo, Scott Gardner

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey of ectoparasites associated with bats collected along an elevational transect in the Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, includes specimens of two species of an unusual and rarely collected family of parasitic mites, the Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, and reveals information on the natural occurrence of these infections. In lowland rainforest (450–1,000 m) along the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, Spelaeorhynchus soaresi Peracchi was recorded exclusively infecting two species of frugivorous Carollia, C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata. At higher elevations in the mountains and cloud forests, Spelaeorhynchus praecursor Neumann exclusively infected two species of nectarivorous Anoura, A. cultrata and A ...


Insights About Diversity Of Tetrabothriidae (Eucestoda) Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): What Is Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi?, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh 2020 University of New Mexico

Insights About Diversity Of Tetrabothriidae (Eucestoda) Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): What Is Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi?, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Tetrabothriid cestodes are characteristic helminths that infect species of seabirds globally. We begin with the exploration of the diversity of tapeworms of the genus Tetrabothrius Rudolphi, 1819 (Eucestoda: Tetrabothriidae), some of which are distributed among seabirds of the family Alcidae (Charadriiformes) at boreal to higher latitudes of Holarctic seas. During the course of 2 decades of field inventory from 1975 through the early 1990s (in addition to earlier collections assembled by Robert L. Rausch and colleagues in Alaska initiated in the late 1940s), an extensive series of tapeworm specimens attributable to species of Tetrabothrius was recovered from seabirds across the ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen DeAngelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


The Chumash Heritage National Marine Sanctuary: An Exploration Of Changing The Discourse On Conservation, Arielle Ben-Hur 2020 Claremont Colleges

The Chumash Heritage National Marine Sanctuary: An Exploration Of Changing The Discourse On Conservation, Arielle Ben-Hur

Pitzer Senior Theses

In 2015, the Northern Chumash Tribal Council submitted a National Marine Sanctuary Nomination to establish the Chumash Heritage National Marine Sanctuary– a means by which to ensure the protection of one of the most culturally and biologically diverse coastlines in the world. On October 5, 2015, John Armor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) responded to the nomination, adding it to the inventory of areas NOAA may consider in the future for national marine sanctuary designation.

In my thesis, I explore how the nomination of the Chumash Heritage National Marine Sanctuary acts as a platform from which Traditional ...


Black Bear, Jimmy D. Taylor, James P. Phillips 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Corvallis, Oregon

Black Bear, Jimmy D. Taylor, James P. Phillips

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The American black bear (Ursus americanus, Figure 1) is a challenging species for wildlife agencies to manage due to its size, intelligence, extensive range, food habits, and adaptability, as well as societal views. In North America alone, agencies receive more than 40,000 complaints about black bear annually. Black bears are known as ‘food-driven’ animals, meaning most conflicts result from a bear’s drive to meet its nutritional needs. Not surprisingly, an overwhelming proportion of conflicts are related to their use of anthropogenic (human) food sources, such as garbage, bird food, and crops. Understanding what drives human-bear conflict is the ...


Biology 4920g: Companion Planting In The Community, Jacquline A. Nathaniel 2020 Western University

Biology 4920g: Companion Planting In The Community, Jacquline A. Nathaniel

Community Engaged Learning Final Projects

LIFE*SPIN is a local organization in London, Ontario that provides resources to individuals and families dependent on low income to ultimately break the poverty cycle by encouraging sustainable living and self-sufficiency. For this Seminar in Biology course, Maria Bata and I partnered with LIFE*SPIN to plan and execute a "Seeding Planting Party" to teach children about basic botany, nutrition, and leadership. The following final paper for this seminar discusses the project deliverables and efforts, biological research concerning companion planting, and personal reflection on this experience.


Nutrient Addition Increases Grassland Sensitivity To Droughts, Siddharth Bharath, Elizabeth T. Borer, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Philip A. Fay, Laureano A. Gherardi, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Laura Yahdjian, Eric W. Seabloom 2020 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Nutrient Addition Increases Grassland Sensitivity To Droughts, Siddharth Bharath, Elizabeth T. Borer, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Philip A. Fay, Laureano A. Gherardi, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Laura Yahdjian, Eric W. Seabloom

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grasslands worldwide are expected to experience an increase in extreme events such as drought, along with simultaneous increases in mineral nutrient inputs as a result of human industrial activities. These changes are likely to interact because elevated nutrient inputs may alter plant diversity and increase the sensitivity to droughts. Dividing a system’s sensitivity to drought into resistance to change during the drought and rate of recovery after the drought generates insights into different dimensions of the system’s resilience in the face of drought. Here, we examine the effects of experimental nutrient fertilization and the resulting diversity loss on ...


Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. MacDougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens 2020 The University of Manchester

Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Aim: Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate (a) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, (b) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and (c) whether responses are consistent across functional groups.

Location: Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa.

Time period: 2007–2014.

Major taxa studied: Graminoids and forbs.

Methods: We focused on two types of leaf traits connected to resource acquisition: morphological features relating to light-foraging ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Alexandra Sorenson 2020 Regis University

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Alexandra Sorenson

All Regis University Theses

  • Chapter 1. Literature Review: Invasive Plant Considerations in Alpine Restoration Project Planning
  • Chapter 2. Grant Proposal: Success Rates of Native See Germination on Esplanade-Treated Plots
  • Chapter 3. Journal Manuscript: Meta-Analysis of Cheatgrass (Bromus Tectorum) Control with Three Commonly Used Herbicides
  • Chapter 4. Stakeholder Analysis: Stakeholder Analysis: Recommendation for Herbicide Use at Lippincott Ranch


Short-Term Estimate Of Finfish Bycatch Discards In The Inshore Artisanal Shrimp Fishery Of Guyana, Leanna Kalicharan, Hazel A. Oxenford 2020 Department of Biology, University of Guyana, Turkeyen Campus

Short-Term Estimate Of Finfish Bycatch Discards In The Inshore Artisanal Shrimp Fishery Of Guyana, Leanna Kalicharan, Hazel A. Oxenford

Gulf and Caribbean Research

The artisanal shrimp fishery in Guyana is important for livelihood and food security, involving around 300 vessels owned and crewed exclusively by Guyanese nationals. This fishery uses Chinese seines and operates in major river estuaries. It targets penaeid shrimp, but also retains some finfish and is known to discard a significant but undocumented quantity of smaller finfish bycatch. The lack of knowledge regarding the bycatch is a concern for fishery management and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we quantify for the first time the finfish bycatch discards through onboard observations (July—August 2016) of a single typical vessel operating in ...


Diet Of A Recently Reintroduced River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Population In Taos County, New Mexico, Gabriela Alexandra Wolf-Gonzalez 2020 University of Kentucky

Diet Of A Recently Reintroduced River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Population In Taos County, New Mexico, Gabriela Alexandra Wolf-Gonzalez

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), native to every U.S. state and Canada, experienced extensive population decreases and range reduction until the mid-20th century as a result of overexploitation and habitat loss during European colonization. The last known river otter in New Mexico was killed on the Gila River in 1953, although unverified reports continued thru 2008. After a nearly 60-year absence from New Mexico, 33 adult river otters were reintroduced to the Rio Pueblo de Taos in the northern part of the state between 2008-2010; however, they were not subsequently monitored or studied. I characterized diet of this ...


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