Niche Evolution Along A Gradient Of Ecological Specialization, 2019 University of Maine
Niche Evolution Along A Gradient Of Ecological Specialization, Meaghan Conway
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The concept of the ecological niche is fundamental to understanding constraints on species distributions in space and time, and in explaining the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. A niche can be broadly defined to include all of the biotic and abiotic conditions that a species requires to persist. Niche breadth, or the degree of specialization, may influence how labile a species niche is, which can have broad implications for species ability to adapt to environmental change, and for explaining patterns of diversification. I investigated mechanism that facilitate or constrain niche evolution at multiple scales. First, I developed an index of ...
Density Of Hemigrapsus Sanguineus And Carcinus Maenas In Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, 2019 University of Southern Maine
Density Of Hemigrapsus Sanguineus And Carcinus Maenas In Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Valerie Huston, Teresa Martel, Zimzim Mohamed
Thinking Matters Symposium
Our focus for this project is to determine how the population densities of Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Asian shore crab and Carcinus maenas, European green crabs have shifted over a brief period of time. We are comparing data collected on September 17, 2018, to data collected on October 22, 2018. The location where the two sets of data were collected from is Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine. The GPS coordinance was 43°.33.55N70°.13.40N. We discuss what affects the influences of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, high intertidal versus low intertidal, and percent ascophyllum cover affect have on the ...
The Androscoggin Bioblitz: A Citizen Science Biological Survey In New Auburn, Maine, 2019 University of Southern Maine
The Androscoggin Bioblitz: A Citizen Science Biological Survey In New Auburn, Maine, Sam H. Matey
Thinking Matters Symposium
After several weeks of planning, the Androscoggin Citizen Biological Survey, or “BioBlitz,” took place on August 11th, 2018 in New Auburn, near the confluence of the Little Androscoggin and Androscoggin Rivers. The BioBlitz was a joint project of Maine Conservation Voters and the Androscoggin Land Trust and was conceived of an organized by a USM Environmental Science student interning with Maine Conservation Voters. In this BioBlitz, participants used the citizen science app iNaturalist to photograph wildlife of the river shoreline and add their observations to the app’s database. The Androscoggin BioBlitz project established on the iNaturalist website collected all ...
Microsatellite Analysis Of Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, 2019 Carroll College
Microsatellite Analysis Of Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Kaitlin Stromberg
Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses
West Nile Virus (WNV) has been present in Montana since 2002. The primary vector of WNV in Montana is Culex tarsalis. At Carroll College, the purpose of the WNV project is to survey for the presence of the virus across the state and create a risk model in real time. The goal of this particular study was to find a microsatellite protocol that consistently works in order to create a reliable landscape genetics model for C. tarsalis populations. Three reagent sets were used in order to test which reagent conditions best amplified the three loci, followed by gel electrophoresis to ...
Habitat Ecology, Species Presense, And Public Perception Of Three Declining Bat Species In Southeastern Missouri, 2019 Pittsburg State University
Habitat Ecology, Species Presense, And Public Perception Of Three Declining Bat Species In Southeastern Missouri, Amy Hammesfahr, Christine Rega-Brodsky, Kathryn Womack-Bulliner
The populations of three bat species, the Northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis), tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), have declined in southeastern Missouri since the introduction of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in 2012. The current maternity habitat of the remaining populations in the counties of Shannon, Carter, and Reynolds are unknown. In order to provide protection and conservation for the species, it is critical that their maternity roosts be identified. To achieve these goals, we will incorporate bat survey tools such as acoustic surveys, acoustic lures, and mist netting within the three counties to determine ...
Pittsburg State University Goes Native: A Study On The Resources And Wildlife Attraction Of A Native Pollinator Garden On A College Campus, Morgan Smith, Christine Brodsky
Native pollinator gardens benefit urban communities by promoting pollination and providing support for native biodiversity conservation. Urban green spaces encourage social and physical activity, promote education, and positively influence public health in urban dwellers. Many studies have been conducted in order to fully understand the importance of native species reintroduction. The continuous research in this area of urban ecology can lead to better conservation and sustainability practices. This paper examines what kind of resources (i.e. costs, plants, area) are required to create a pollinator/native garden on a college campus and what kind of wildlife can be attracted ...
Climate Change Impacts On Bird Communities Vary Throughout Cities In Kansas, 2019 Pittsburg State University
Climate Change Impacts On Bird Communities Vary Throughout Cities In Kansas, Lindsey Williams, Christine Brodsky
It is important to study climate change’s impacts on biodiversity in order to find a solution before the effects on wildlife are irreversible. Our research objective for this project was to determine if climate change affected long-term bird trends in urban and rural areas throughout Kansas. Our hypothesis was that climate change will decrease bird abundance and species richness because altered climate patterns like storms, droughts, and heat waves, may cause a decrease in suitable habitat. We would expect these trends to be strongest in cities, due to the urban heat island effect. The methods used for this project ...
Designing Studies Of Predation Risk For Improved Inference In Carnivore-Ungulate Systems, 2019 Boise State University
Designing Studies Of Predation Risk For Improved Inference In Carnivore-Ungulate Systems, Mark A. Ditmer
Human-Environment Systems Research Center Faculty Publications and Presentations
Quantifying both the lethal and non-lethal (or “risk”) effects of predation has emerged as a major research focus in carnivore-ungulate systems. While numerous studies have examined predation risk and risk effects in recent decades, a lack of standardization in approaches has impeded progress in the field. We provide an overview of five major study design considerations involved in assessing predation risk and responses of prey in carnivoreungulate systems, highlighting how different design choices can impact the strength and scope of inference. First, we stress the importance of distinguishing measures of predation risk (probability of being killed) from measures of risk ...
The Ecological Niche Of Echinococcus Multilocularis In North America: Understanding Biotic And Abiotic Determinants Of Parasite Distribution With New Records In New Mexico And Maryland, United States, 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The Ecological Niche Of Echinococcus Multilocularis In North America: Understanding Biotic And Abiotic Determinants Of Parasite Distribution With New Records In New Mexico And Maryland, United States, Sebastian Botero-Cañola, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, Sara E. Rácz, Parker V. Lowe, John E. Ubelaker, Scott Lyell Gardner
Scott Gardner Publications & Papers
English abstract: Understanding the factors shaping the niche of parasites and its expression over geographical space and through time continues to be a modern scientific challenge with the results of research in this area directly influencing both theoretical and applied biology. This is especially important for proactive management of zoonotic parasites such as Echinococcus multilocularis, the etiologic agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Echinococcus multilocularis has a Holarctic distribution; with its geographic range and prevalence increasing recently in areas of the western Palearctic, while its distribution dynamics are poorly understood in the Nearctic. In this paper, we use an ecological niche modeling ...
A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), 2019 Western Kentucky University
A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
Proposals for the internal relationships and classification of the bostrichoids are currently poorly supported, and almost all are based on morphology alone. This study improves upon on previous phylogenetic analyses of the group by including more taxa using the standard genes for many phylogenetic analyses. Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 28S small subunit rRNA, and 16S small subunit rRNA mitochondrial genes were sequenced or obtained from Genbank, then analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Topologies differed depending on genes used. A three gene tree and a two gene (28S and CO1) tree both supported relationships in which a basal ...
Knowing The Flowers: A Floristic Analysis Of The Diversity And Distribution Of Flowering Plants On The Sunshine Coast, Bc, 2019 Thompson Rivers University
Knowing The Flowers: A Floristic Analysis Of The Diversity And Distribution Of Flowering Plants On The Sunshine Coast, Bc, Nathaniel James Hamnett Mount
Proceedings of the Annual Thompson Rivers University Undergraduate Research and Innovation Conference
Flowering plants are a dominant biological force on this planet; they include an almost unimaginable number of species. British Columbia (BC) is no exception to this, housing a high number of angiosperm species. To help develop a clearer view of this diversity, this study focused on a small region of BC, the Sunshine Coast. I document the floral diversity of the area, and test whether a uniform level of species richness is supported across the area. The region lies across the boundary of two Biogeoclimatic (BEC) zones, the Coastal Western Hemlock (CWH) and Coastal Douglas-fir (CDF) zones, potentially giving it ...
An Endemic Species In A Protected Area: Euscorpius Carpathicus (L., 1767) In The Cozia National Park, Romania (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov, Sára Ferenţi
In 2016-2018, we identified 48 distribution records of Euscorpius carpathicus in the Cozia National Park, from the Romanian Southern Carpathians. The Carpathian scorpion was found between 300 and 847 m a.s.l., in forested regions, being more numerous in the lower areas situated along the Olt River. E. carpathicus is a native species in the region; it populates natural areas with low human impact.
African Affinity Mask, 2019 Humboldt State University
African Affinity Mask, Giselle M. Strauss
Toyon Literary Magazine
Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, 2019 South Dakota State University
Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal
iLEARN Teaching Resources
In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.
Emerging Themes From The Esa Symposium Entitled “Pollinator Nutrition: Lessons From Bees At Individual To Landscape Levels”, Vanessa Corby-Harris, Julia H. Bowsher, Morgan Carr-Markell, Mark J. Carroll, Mary Centrella, Steven C. Cook, Margaret Couvillon, Gloria Degrandi-Hoffman, Adam Dolezal, Julia C. Jones, Christina L. Mogren, Clint R. V. Otto, Pierre Lau, Juliana Rangel, Roger Schürch, Ashley St. Clair
USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Pollinator populations are declining (Biesmeijer et al., 2006; Brodschneider et al., 2018; Cameron et al., 2011; Goulson, Lye, & Darvill, 2008; Kulhanek et al., 2017; National Research Council, 2007; Oldroyd, 2007), and both anecdotal and experimental evidence suggest that limited access to high quality forage might play a role (Carvell, Meek, Pywell, Goulson, & Nowakowski, 2007; Deepa et al., 2017; Goulson, Nicholls, Botias, & Rotheray, 2015; Potts et al., 2003, 2010; Vanbergen & The Insect Pollinators Initiative, 2013; Vaudo, Tooker, Grozinger, & Patch, 2015; Woodard, 2017). Multiple researchers are earnestly addressing this topic in a diverse array of insect-pollinator systems. As research continues to be published, increased communication among scientists studying the topic of nutrition is essential for ...
Effects Of Land Use On Greenhouse Gas Flux In Playa Wetlands And Associated Watersheds In The High Plains, Usa, 2019 Oklahoma State University - Main Campus
Effects Of Land Use On Greenhouse Gas Flux In Playa Wetlands And Associated Watersheds In The High Plains, Usa, Dale W. Daniel, Loren M. Smith, Scott T. Mcmurry, Brian A. Tangen, Charles F. Dahl, Ned H. Euliss Jr., Ted Lagrange
USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
In the High Plains, U.S., native prairie conversion to cropland agriculture has resulted in a loss of service delivery capabilities from most depressional wet-lands as a result of sedimentation. Restoring historic hydrological conditions to affected wetlands may rejuvenate some services, however, there may be tradeoffs due to emissions of CH4 and N2O. We evaluated the influence of two predominant conservation programs (Wetlands Reserve Program, WRP and Conservation Reserve Program, CRP) on gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from 42 playas and uplands in the High Plains of Nebraska. Because playa restoration through the WRP is most prevalent in the Rainwater ...
A Review Of Orthochirus From Turkey, Iraq, And Iran (Khoozestan, Ilam, And Lorestan Provinces), With Descriptions Of Three New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Victor Fet, Fenik S. Hussen
Three new species, Orthochirus fomichevi sp. n. from Turkey and Iraq, O. gantenbeini sp. n. from Iran (Khoozestan Province), and O. navidpouri sp. n. from Iran (Khoozestan and Lorestan Provinces) are described, compared with other Orthochirus species from the region, and fully illustrated with color photos. Lectotype of O. mesopotamicus Birula, 1918 stat. n. from Iran (Khoozestan Province) is designated. Emended diagnoses are given for O. iranus Kovařík, 2004, O. iraqus Kovařík, 2004, O. mesopotamicus Birula, 1918 stat. n., and O. zagrosensis Kovařík, 2004. A key and a distribution map are included.
Trypanothacus Gen. N., A New Genus Of Burrowing Scorpion From The Arabian Peninsula (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský
We define a new fossorial buthid genus Trypanothacus gen. n., similar to Buthacus Birula, 1908, differing primarily in telson shape, with a bulbous vesicle and aculeus shorter than the vesicle, and in heavier dentition on metasomal segments II–III and IV. The new genus includes two species: T. barnesi sp. n. from Oman and T. buettikeri (Hendrixson, 2006) comb. n. from Saudi Arabia, the latter transferred from Buthacus. We provide detailed illustrations of both species from preserved materials, and in vivo habitus and natural habitat are shown for T. barnesi sp. n.. Information is also provided on ecology and captive ...
Scorpions Of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part X. Alborz, Markazi And Tehran Provinces With A Description Of Orthochirus Carinatus Sp. N. (Buthidae), 2019 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute
Scorpions Of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part X. Alborz, Markazi And Tehran Provinces With A Description Of Orthochirus Carinatus Sp. N. (Buthidae), Shahrokh Navidpour, František Kovařík, Michael Soleglad, Victor Fet
Nine species of scorpions belonging to two families are reported from the Alborz, Markazi and Tehran Provinces of Iran. Of these, Compsobuthus kaftani Kovařík, 2003 is recorded from Tehran Province for the first time; Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) is recorded from Alborz Province for the first time; Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880) is recorded for Alborz and Markazi Provinces for the first time; Iranobuthus krali Kovařík, 1997 is recorded for Tehran Province for the first time; Mesobuthus eupeus eupeus (C. L. Koch, 1839) is recorded from Alborz, Markazi and Tehran Provinces for the first time; Odontobuthus doriae (Thorell, 1876) is recorded ...
Diverse Microbial Communities Hosted By The Model Carnivorous Pitcher Plant Sarracenia Purpurea: Analysis Of Both Bacterial And Eukaryotic Composition Across Distinct Host Plant Populations, 2019 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Diverse Microbial Communities Hosted By The Model Carnivorous Pitcher Plant Sarracenia Purpurea: Analysis Of Both Bacterial And Eukaryotic Composition Across Distinct Host Plant Populations, Jacob J. Grothjan, Erica B. Young
Biological Sciences Faculty Articles
Background. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea supplements nutrient acquisition through carnivory, capturing insect prey which are digested by a food web community of eukaryotes and bacteria. While the food web invertebrates are well studied, and some recent studies have characterized bacteria, detailed genetic analysis of eukaryotic diversity is lacking. This study aimed to compare eukaryotic and bacterial composition and diversity of pitcher communities within and between populations of host plants in nearby but distinct wetland habitats, and to characterize microbial functions across populations and in comparison with another freshwater community.
Methods. Pitcher fluid was sampled from the two wetlands, Cedarburg ...