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Revisiting The Historic Distribution And Habitats Of The Whooping Crane, Jane E. Austin, Matthew A. Hayes, Jeb A. Barzen 2019 Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Revisiting The Historic Distribution And Habitats Of The Whooping Crane, Jane E. Austin, Matthew A. Hayes, Jeb A. Barzen

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Understanding the historic range and habitats of an endangered species can assist in conservation and reintroduction efforts for that species. Individuals reintroduced into a species’ historic core range have a higher survival rate compared to individuals introduced near the periphery or outside the historic range (Falk and Olwell, 1992; Griffith et al., 1989). Individuals on the periphery of a species’ range tend to occupy less favorable habitats and have lower and more variable densities than those near the core of their range (Brown, 1984; Brown et al., 1995, 1996). Such conclusions, however, presume that historic habitats have not changed since ...


U.S. Geological Survey- Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 2017 Research Activity Report, Mark H. Sherfy 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

U.S. Geological Survey- Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 2017 Research Activity Report, Mark H. Sherfy

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Contents

Acknowledgments...............................................................................iii

Center Mission and Science Strategy...............................................................1

Lines of Work..................................................................................2

Study Narratives.................................................................................16


Biogeochemical Characterization Of Metal Behavior From Novel Mussel Shell Bioreactor Sludge Residues, Sara C. Butler, James Pope, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D. Heath, Christopher G. Weisener 2019 University of Windsor

Biogeochemical Characterization Of Metal Behavior From Novel Mussel Shell Bioreactor Sludge Residues, Sara C. Butler, James Pope, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D. Heath, Christopher G. Weisener

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research Publications

Acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation commonly produces byproducts which must be stored or utilized to reduce the risk of further contamination. A mussel shell bioreactor has been implemented at a coal mine in New Zealand, which is an effective remediation option, although an accumulated sludge layer decreased efficiency which was then removed and requires storage. To understand associated risks related to storage or use of the AMD sludge material, a laboratory mesocosm study investigated the physio-chemical and biological influence in two conditions: anoxic storage (burial deep within a waste rock dump) or exposure to oxic environments (use of sludge on ...


Analysis Of Unconventional Oil And Gas Impacts On Downstream Fish Assemblages And Physiological Stress, Joshua Noah Ankeny 2019 West Virginia University

Analysis Of Unconventional Oil And Gas Impacts On Downstream Fish Assemblages And Physiological Stress, Joshua Noah Ankeny

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Unconventional Oil and Gas (UOG) production has been steadily expanding throughout the mid-Atlantic since 2008. Increased sedimentation, degraded water chemistry and an overall decrease in habitat quality due to UOG is anticipated to negatively impact aquatic inhabitants, a common observation in other stressed landscapes (i.e., mining, agriculture, development). We assessed stream health through both community analysis and physiological parameters (i.e., growth and hematocrit). A before-after-control-impact study uncovered three fish metrics that were significantly different following UOG disturbances. The invertivore-piscivore metric decreased following UOG disturbance (p = 0.045) whereas two benthic metrics saw a surprising increase (p = 0.003 ...


The Impact Of Tree Species, Elevated Nitrogen Deposition, Stand Age, And Environmental Factors On Herbaceous Plant Communities In A Central Appalachian Hardwood Forest, Lacey J. Smith 2019 West Virginia University

The Impact Of Tree Species, Elevated Nitrogen Deposition, Stand Age, And Environmental Factors On Herbaceous Plant Communities In A Central Appalachian Hardwood Forest, Lacey J. Smith

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Although the herb layer represents less than 1% of the biomass of temperate forests, this layer may contain up to 90% of the plant species in the forest and can contribute up to 20% of the foliar litter, thus playing an essential role in forest biodiversity and nutrient cycling. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in cover, species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, and evenness of herb layer plants a) under tree species associated with contrasting soil nitrogen levels and b) in watersheds that vary in nitrogen deposition, stand age, and watershed aspect at the Fernow Experimental Forest ...


Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt 2019 San Diego Natural History Museum

Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

A nonnative population of all-female spotted whiptails from the Asidoscelis flagellicauda/sonorae complex was reported from suburban Irvine, Orange County in 2015 and 2016. We report additional suburban observations dating back to 2010 from Laguna Woods and extending the range south ~6 km southwest to Aliso Viejo. We hope that this and other exotic reptile species will remain restricted to highly altered urban environments and not threaten native species in natural habitats.


Shade Trees Preserve Avian Insectivore Biodiversity On Coffee Farms In A Warming Climate, Sarah L. Schooler 2019 Humboldt State University

Shade Trees Preserve Avian Insectivore Biodiversity On Coffee Farms In A Warming Climate, Sarah L. Schooler

Theses and projects

Coffee is an important export in many developing countries, with a global annual trade value of $100 billion. Climate change is projected to drastically reduce the area where coffee is able to be grown. Shade trees may mitigate the effects of climate change through temperature regulation for coffee growth, temperature regulation for pest control, and increase in pest-eating bird diversity. The impact of shade on bird diversity and microclimate on coffee farms has been studied extensively in the Neotropics, but there is a dearth of research in the Paleotropics. I examined the local effects of shade on bird presence and ...


Urban Biodiversity Experience And Exposure: Intervention And Inequality At The Local And Global Scale, Evan Kuras 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Urban Biodiversity Experience And Exposure: Intervention And Inequality At The Local And Global Scale, Evan Kuras

Masters Theses

As cities expand globally, researchers must clarify how human activities and institutions shape biodiversity and conversely, how ecological processes shape human outcomes. Two features of contemporary cities motivate this thesis. First, urban residents, and especially children, are spending less time in nature and consequently, miss out on healthy and formative experiences with biodiversity. Second, residents with the least access to biodiversity tend to be those with the lowest socioeconomic status (SES). Together, these patterns convey a multi-layered environmental injustice: not only might urbanites become increasingly estranged from biodiversity, disinterested from its conservation, and disconnected from its benefits, but these outcomes ...


Sea Star Wasting Disease In Pisaster Ochraceus On The Washington Coast And In Puget Sound, Caitlin Wilkes 2019 Central Washington University

Sea Star Wasting Disease In Pisaster Ochraceus On The Washington Coast And In Puget Sound, Caitlin Wilkes

All Master's Theses

Pisaster ochraceus is a common west coast sea star whose predation of Mytilus californianus (the California mussel) increases the biodiversity of its intertidal community. Sea star wasting disease is an illness that causes sea star tissues to become necrotic until the creature wastes away and dies. In 2013, a coast wide outbreak of sea star wasting disease caused a mass mortality event in P. ochraceus. The goals of this study were to try to identify some of the possible causes for the outbreak, as well as analyze the impact that sea star wasting disease prevalence has on biodiversity. In this ...


Quantifying Community Response To Drought: A Trait Based Analysis Of The Xeric Tallgrass Prairie In Boulder, Colorado, Emily Kelman 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Quantifying Community Response To Drought: A Trait Based Analysis Of The Xeric Tallgrass Prairie In Boulder, Colorado, Emily Kelman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Increased severity and duration of drought events in Colorado pose a threat to grassland systems. Utilizing plant traits to analyze community responses to environmental disturbance serves as an accurate mechanism in addressing climate change influences on grassland ecosystems. In this project, I aim to quantify the relationship between five plant traits and drought intensity over time, in order to see if plant traits can capture changes in community structure in response to drought. I calculated the mean value of traits at the community level as well as the amount of variation observed in those values, in order to analyze community ...


Why Did The Turtle Cross The Street? An Examination Of Herpetofauna Habitat Road Fragmentation, Carlos J.L. Balsas 2019 University of Albany

Why Did The Turtle Cross The Street? An Examination Of Herpetofauna Habitat Road Fragmentation, Carlos J.L. Balsas

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Roads and urban development cause severe herpetofauna habitat fragmentation. The objective of this study is to analyze the road ecology problem of herpetofauna habitat fragmentation. It is argued that most wetland systems have high biodiversity conservation value and that their herpetofauna habitat fragmentation requires the implementation of adequate road crossing mitigation strategies. The research methods comprised mostly literature reviews on road ecology, habitat road fragmentation and mitigation, and roadway redesign measures. The key finding discovered was the urgent need for more continuous habitats, uniform underground crossings, and the elimination of reptile and amphibian road crossing deaths in (sub)urban settings ...


Human-Wildlife Conflict In And Around Borena Sayint National Park, Northern Ethiopia, Ayenew Biset, Girma Mengesha, Zerihun Girma 2019 Hawassa University

Human-Wildlife Conflict In And Around Borena Sayint National Park, Northern Ethiopia, Ayenew Biset, Girma Mengesha, Zerihun Girma

Human–Wildlife Interactions

We identified causes, impact, and traditional management measures of human– wildlife conflict (HWC) in and around Borena Sayint National Park, Ethiopia. We employed questionnaires, focus group discussions, direct observations, and key informant interviews to collect data. The respondents perceived an increase in the number of wildlife population (56 respondents; 42.4%) followed by human proximity to park areas (44 respondents; 33.3%) as the main causes of HWC. The respondents perceived leopards (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) among the top livestock depredators while grivet monkeys (Cercopethicus aethiops) and porcupines (Hystrix cristata) were perceived as notorious crop raiders. Gelada ...


Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith 2019 Brigham Young University

Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Developing the capacity to predict black bear (Ursus americanus; bear) activity in a diversity of habitats will help conserve bear populations and their habitats and minimize human–bear conflicts. This capacity will be particularly important in areas that provide bear habitat and offer backcountry hiking and camping experiences. Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA), located on the edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau in southern Utah, USA, provides important bear habitat and offers visitors 12 backcountry campsites. To effectively manage these areas to minimize human–bear conflicts, park managers will need better information about black bear use of these campsites and other ...


Fishers' Ecological Knowledge And Stable Isotope Analysis: A Social-Ecological Systems Approach To Endangered Species Conservation, Kathryn Rose Wedemeyer-Strombel 2019 University of Texas at El Paso

Fishers' Ecological Knowledge And Stable Isotope Analysis: A Social-Ecological Systems Approach To Endangered Species Conservation, Kathryn Rose Wedemeyer-Strombel

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Identifying developmental habitat is essential for understanding population structure and species resiliency, especially for critically endangered species. In long-lived, oceanic, migratory animals such as sea turtles, elucidating developmental grounds is particularly difficult. When data are deficient or challenging to acquire, scientists often lean towards traditional quantitative methods when a social-ecological systems approach could better provide crucial baseline data and guiding information. Fishers’ ecological knowledge (FEK), the combination of experiential and culturally transmitted knowledge, is expert knowledge and should be treated as such. In 2008, FEK led to the “rediscovery” of the critically endangered eastern Pacific (EP) population of hawksbill sea ...


Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 Clemson University

Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney

Entomology Publications

More than any other group of macro-organisms, true flies (Diptera) dominate the freshwater environment. Nearly one-third of all flies—roughly 46,000 species—have some developmental connection with an aquatic environment. Their abundance, ubiquity, and diversity of adaptations to the aquatic environment position them as major drivers of ecosystem processes and as sources of products and bioinspiration for the benefit of human society. Larval flies are well represented as ecosystem engineers and keystone species that alter the abiotic and biotic environments through activities such as burrowing, grazing, suspension feeding, and predation. The enormous populations sometimes achieved by aquatic flies can ...


Habitat Characteristics And Nesting Ecology Of Golden Eagles In Arizona, Michele J. Losee 2019 Antioch University of New England

Habitat Characteristics And Nesting Ecology Of Golden Eagles In Arizona, Michele J. Losee

Dissertations & Theses

Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have a broad range globally and in general are well-studied. However, Arizona’s Golden Eagle population remained essentially unstudied until 2011, when Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZGFD) began nest surveys for cliff nesting Golden Eagles throughout the state. As a result of this data collection, the natural history of Arizona’s Golden Eagles is finally revealing itself. This dissertation outlined a reliable description of their nesting phenology that provides a framework for timing surveys and a baseline to monitor the effects of climate change on Golden Eagles. The mean date for egg-laying was February 14 ...


A Multi-Scale Analysis Of Jaguar (Panthera Onca) And Puma (Puma Concolor) Habitat Selection And Conservation In The Narrowest Section Of Panama., Kimberly A. Craighead 2019 Antioch University of New England

A Multi-Scale Analysis Of Jaguar (Panthera Onca) And Puma (Puma Concolor) Habitat Selection And Conservation In The Narrowest Section Of Panama., Kimberly A. Craighead

Dissertations & Theses

Over the past two centuries, large terrestrial carnivores have suffered extreme population declines and range contractions resulting from the synergistic anthropogenic threats of land-use change and indirect effects of climate change. In Panama, rapid land use conversion coupled with climate change is predicted to negatively impact jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). This dissertation examined the environmental variables and scales influencing jaguar and puma habitat selection by season (annual, wet, and dry), using multi-scale optimized habitat suitability models and a machine-learning algorithm (Random Forests), in the narrowest section of Panama. The models derived from the data of an intensive ...


Using Lidar To Approximate Keystone Structure And Evaluate Management Practices In Potential Habitats Of The Endangered Karner Blue Butterfly (Lycaeides Melissa Samuelis), Brandyn Balch 2019 West Virginia University

Using Lidar To Approximate Keystone Structure And Evaluate Management Practices In Potential Habitats Of The Endangered Karner Blue Butterfly (Lycaeides Melissa Samuelis), Brandyn Balch

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Keystone structure is the spatial structure required by a given species, at a scale that is determined by that species’ needs and mobility. The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis, hereafter KBB) has a keystone structure that incorporates trees and bushes to provide the mixture of sun and shade required to fulfil its life functions. Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) is a potentially invaluable tool for characterizing keystone structures. However, lidar has yet to be utilized to evaluate structural suitability of KBB habitats. Therefore, I investigated the use of lidar for characterizing critical attributes of KBB habitat structure ...


Covers, 2019 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Inferring Food Web Structure To Identify Seasonal And Longitudinal Patterns In Ogeechee River Invertebrate Communities, Julien Marc Buchbinder 2019 Georgia Southern University

Inferring Food Web Structure To Identify Seasonal And Longitudinal Patterns In Ogeechee River Invertebrate Communities, Julien Marc Buchbinder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how the structure and function of aquatic communities vary across space and time is essential for proper management of freshwater ecosystems. Current management relies on rapid biomonitoring using metrics of community structure, but metrics that incorporate ecosystem processes and functions are only just beginning to see use in assessment and management. Food webs inferred from known species interactions have been proposed as a method of incorporating function into bioassessment without expending extra effort or sacrificing the cost-effectiveness of current monitoring schemes. To apply food webs in biomonitoring, it is first necessary to understand how communities and food webs vary ...


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