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Bird Window Strikes On A College Campus: Mortality Estimates And Possible Mitigation, Antarius D. McLain 2019 Georgia Southern University

Bird Window Strikes On A College Campus: Mortality Estimates And Possible Mitigation, Antarius D. Mclain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the impact that human development has on wildlife populations is essential to preserving biodiversity. Bird populations are a good indicator of anthropogenic threats because they are sensitive to environmental change. Window strikes are a major source of mortality for bird populations. Studies have begun to monitor factors that cause window strikes and estimate the amount of birds killed annually by strikes. However, these estimates can be greatly affected by site dependent variables and scavenging of carcasses. My study addresses this issue by answering four questions: First, how many birds are killed annually on campus? Second, what factors complicate making ...


Distribution And Habitat Use Of Benthic Fishes In The Lower Kanawha River, West Virginia, Nathaniel V. Owens 2019 West Virginia University

Distribution And Habitat Use Of Benthic Fishes In The Lower Kanawha River, West Virginia, Nathaniel V. Owens

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The Kanawha River in West Virginia is a historically diverse system in terms of ichthyofauna although, like many other large rivers, it has been subjected to a suite of anthropomorphic perturbations. These include this system being modified to allow the passage of commercial vessels for industry thus altering flow regimes, increased sedimentation, water depth, and channelization, and decreased interactions with its floodplain. Additionally, the fishes of this system have suffered from deleterious historical water quality issues caused by intensive timber operations, mining, and industrial waste. Post Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act water ...


Avian Occupancy Dynamics And Canada Warbler (Cardellina Canadensis) Environmental Correlates On A Central Appalachian Elevation Gradient In West Virginia, Gordon W. Dimmig 2019 West Virginia University

Avian Occupancy Dynamics And Canada Warbler (Cardellina Canadensis) Environmental Correlates On A Central Appalachian Elevation Gradient In West Virginia, Gordon W. Dimmig

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Mountains are important areas for avian diversity and conservation since they have steep elevational and environmental gradients. In the central Appalachian Mountains, several songbird species have trailing edge populations that are restricted to high elevations. Climate change and other factors can cause species distributions to change, which is of particular concern for birds in restricted trailing edge populations. Additionally, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) breeds throughout the Appalachian Mountains and is species of conservation concern due to range-wide population declines. For this project, I used avian point count data from the central Appalachian Mountains to: (1) evaluate the spatial and ...


Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines 2019 University of Kentucky

Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Carotenoids serve various ecological roles in animals including coloration, immune responses, and vision. Carotenoid-derived coloration is greatly emphasized in the literature, particularly relating to mate choice and aposematic warning. However, the trade-offs between the color and non-color functions of carotenoids are not thoroughly explored. In the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), some larval populations have yellow pigmentation, using carotenoids derived from their diets for aposematic warning coloration. Other larval populations are white in color, having genetically lost the ability to produce the yellow pigment. Because carotenoids are essential to life functions in both the yellow and white populations, we aim ...


The San Quintín Kangaroo Rat Is Not Extinct, Scott B. Tremor 8235898, Sula E. Vanderplank, Eric Mellink 2019 San Diego Natural History Museum

The San Quintín Kangaroo Rat Is Not Extinct, Scott B. Tremor 8235898, Sula E. Vanderplank, Eric Mellink

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

The San Quintín kangaroo rat (Dipodomys gravipes) is a medium-sized kangaroo rat restricted to a stretch of coastal habitat from San Telmo to El Rosario, Baja California, Mexico. Agriculture in the San Quintín area began in 1891 when British farmers converted parts of the landscape to agriculture. Now, much of the preferred habitat in the documented range of the species has been converted to agriculture. Dipodomys gravipes has a high affinity for flat terrain and is intolerant of cultivation. As a result of extensive and profound habitat alteration by agriculture, D. gravipes has been listed as endangered by the Mexican ...


Range Expansion Or Range Shift? Population Genetics And Historic Range Data Analyses Of The Predatory Benthic Sea Slug Phidiana Hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), Clara Jo King, Ryan Ellingson, Jeffrey H. R. Goddard, Rebecca F. Johnson, Angel A. Valdes 2019 California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Range Expansion Or Range Shift? Population Genetics And Historic Range Data Analyses Of The Predatory Benthic Sea Slug Phidiana Hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), Clara Jo King, Ryan Ellingson, Jeffrey H. R. Goddard, Rebecca F. Johnson, Angel A. Valdes

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Phidiana hiltoni is a conspicuous nudibranch sea slug native to the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Over the past thirty years the range of P. hiltoni has expanded about 200 km northward, but the mechanism that facilitated this expansion is poorly understood. In this study, we use mtDNA and microsatellite data to investigate the population structure of P. hiltoni in its historical range as well as in recently colonized localities. Microsatellite analyses reveal little to no genetic structure and thus high gene flow throughout the range of P. hiltoni. This is consistent with mtDNA analysis results, which revealed shared haplotypes between Southern ...


Cure-All- Large Scale Implementation Of Authentic Dna Barcoding Research Into First-Year Biology Curriculum, Oliver Hyman, Elizabeth Doyle, Joseph Harsh, Joanna Mott, Andrea Pesce, Bejan Rasoul, Kyle Seifert, Ray A. Enke 2018 Selected Works

Cure-All- Large Scale Implementation Of Authentic Dna Barcoding Research Into First-Year Biology Curriculum, Oliver Hyman, Elizabeth Doyle, Joseph Harsh, Joanna Mott, Andrea Pesce, Bejan Rasoul, Kyle Seifert, Ray A. Enke

Ray Enke Ph.D.

Growing calls in science education reform have emphasized wide-scale engagement of first-year undergraduate students in authentic research experiences; however, large course enrollments, inadequate student experience, limited resources and departmental inertia often create obstacles to reaching this goal. To help overcome these obstacles, the Department of Biology at James Madison University (JMU) has developed a cost-effective, scalable, and transferable semester-long (14- week) course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) designed for large enrollment introductory biology labs. In this series of labs, first-year students use DNA barcoding to engage in authentic research practices drawn from the fields of ecology, molecular biology, and bioinformatics. These ...


Three Sister Crops: Understanding American Indian Agricultural Practices Of Corn, Beans And Squash, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White 2018 Hoven High School, Hoven, South Dakota

Three Sister Crops: Understanding American Indian Agricultural Practices Of Corn, Beans And Squash, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

American Indians have practiced an inter-planting system to produce corn, beans, and squash, for generations. These crops are known as the “Three Sisters”. In this lesson developed for secondary agriscience curriculum, students will understand the past, current and future production practices of the three important crops. Students will also apply their knowledge to understand the crop selection process and relate to the changing environment.


Understanding The Impacts Of Current And Future Environmental Variation On Central African Amphibian Biodiversity, Courtney A. Miller 2018 University of New Orleans

Understanding The Impacts Of Current And Future Environmental Variation On Central African Amphibian Biodiversity, Courtney A. Miller

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change is projected to impact multiple levels of biodiversity by imposing strong selection pressures on existing populations, triggering shifts in species distributions, and reorganizing entire communities. The Lower Guineo-Congolian region in central Africa, a reservoir for amphibian diversity, is predicted to be severely affected by future climate change through rising temperatures and greater variability in rainfall. Geospatial modelling can be used to assess how environmental variation shapes patterns of biological variation – from the genomic to the community level – and use these associations to predict patterns of biological change across space and time. The overall goal of this dissertation ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xvii.Revision Of Neobuthus, With Description Of Seven New Species From Ethiopia, Kenya And Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi, Ali Abdi Hurre 2018 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xvii.Revision Of Neobuthus, With Description Of Seven New Species From Ethiopia, Kenya And Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi, Ali Abdi Hurre

Euscorpius

New information about the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Neobuthus Hirst, 1911 is presented, based on material recently collected mainly from Somaliland, but also Djibouti and Kenya. Emended diagnoses are proposed for N. berberensis Hirst, 1911 and N. ferrugineus (Kraepelin, 1898) sensu stricto. New species described are: N. amoudensis sp. n. from Ethiopia and Somaliland; N. erigavoensis sp. n., N. factorio sp. n., N. gubanensis sp. n., N. maidensis sp. n., and N. montanus sp. n. from Somaliland; and N. kloppersi sp. n. from Kenya. This doubles the number of species in Neobuthus, unearthing a rich diversification of this ...


Revision Of The Central Asian Scorpion Genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900, With Descriptions Of Three New Species And A Generic Synonymy (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Rolando Teruel, František Kovařík, Victor Fet 2018 Marshall University

Revision Of The Central Asian Scorpion Genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900, With Descriptions Of Three New Species And A Generic Synonymy (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Rolando Teruel, František Kovařík, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

We revise the Central Asian endemic genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900, which was considered monotypic for more than 100 years until the recent addition of a second species from Iran (Teruel et al., 2014). We redefine the generic diagnosis of Anomalobuthus and reveal that it is composed of no less than six species, three of which are described as new: A. krivochatskyi, sp. n. (central Uzbekistan and extreme southern Kazakhstan), A. lowei, sp. n. (southeastern Kazakhstan), and A. pavlovskyi, sp. n. (south-central Kazakhstan and extreme northern Turkmenistan). The monotypic genus Psammobuthus Birula, 1911 (described from the Ferghana Valley at the border ...


Microplastics In Full View: Birds As Bioindicators Of Malta's Coastal Ecosystem Health, Dalton Brauer 2018 James Madison University

Microplastics In Full View: Birds As Bioindicators Of Malta's Coastal Ecosystem Health, Dalton Brauer

Masters Theses

Plastic pollution has recently become a widely studied topic, yet research on microplastics has remained lacking for specific geographic regions. Microplastics are small plastics resulting from degradation or the dumping of raw material and can lead to deleterious impacts on the coastal marine environment and its organisms. To assess Malta’s coastal environmental health, water birds (inshore, offshore and pelagic species) were used as bioindicators by assessing the presence and abundance of plastic within their stomach contents. The project hoped to fill some of the current gaps in knowledge on microplastics within Malta by creating a working baseline, as well ...


Climatic Range Filling Of North American Trees, Benjamin Seliger 2018 University of Maine

Climatic Range Filling Of North American Trees, Benjamin Seliger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the degree to which species distributions are controlled by climate is crucial for forecasting biodiversity responses to climate change. Climatic equilibrium, when species are found in all places which are climatically suitable, is a fundamental assumption of species distribution models, but there is evidence in support of climate disequilibria in species ranges. Long-lived, sessile organisms such as trees may be especially vulnerable to being outpaced by climate change, and thus prone to disequilibrium. In this dissertation, I tested the degree to which North American trees are in equilibrium with their potential climatic ranges using the ‘range filling’ metric, which ...


Reducing Protected Lands In A Hotspot Of Bee Biodiversity: Bees Of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Joseph S. Wilson, Matt Kelly, Olivia Messinger Carril 2018 Utah State University

Reducing Protected Lands In A Hotspot Of Bee Biodiversity: Bees Of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Joseph S. Wilson, Matt Kelly, Olivia Messinger Carril

Biology Faculty Publications

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument is a federally protected area found in central southern Utah. Designated in 1996 by President William J. Clinton, it was recently reduced in size by President Donald J. Trump in a proclamation that turned the one large monument into three smaller ones. A long-term, standardized study of the bees had been conducted from 2000–2003, revealing 660 species. The bee communities of the area are characterized by being spatially heterogeneous; most of the bees occur in isolated areas, with only a few being both abundant and widespread. Here we examine what affect the recent resizing of ...


Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is a multi-dimensional concept that can be decomposed to measure information about taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional variation within communities. Although the dimensions of biodiversity are interrelated, the assumption that measuring one dimension of diversity can inform about patterns in another dimension does not necessarily follow from theory or empirical study. The relationships among biodiversity dimensions is not well understood, nor how differences among dimensions could influence conservation decision making. Using the avian community as a study system, we explored the relationships of breadth metrics from the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional dimensions among each other and across ...


Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wildlife damage management (WDM) is an exciting field with many opportunities to provide solutions to the complex issues involved in human-wildlife interactions. In addition, WDM wildlife control operators (WCO) face a variety of threats to their physical well-being. Injuries can result from misused (Figure 1), faulty, or poorly maintained equipment, inexperience, mishandled wildlife, harsh weather, and dangerous situations, such as electrical lines. The goals of this publication are to: * Develop an awareness of safety issues and adopt a mindset of “Safety First”, * Review the major safety threats that WCOs face, * Provide basic information for WCOs to protect themselves, and * List ...


Prairie Reconstruction Unpredictability And Complexity: What Is The Rate Of Reconstruction Failures?, Jack E. Norland, Cami Dixon, Diane Larson, Kristine Askerooth, Benjamin A. Geaumont 2018 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Prairie Reconstruction Unpredictability And Complexity: What Is The Rate Of Reconstruction Failures?, Jack E. Norland, Cami Dixon, Diane Larson, Kristine Askerooth, Benjamin A. Geaumont

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The outcomes of prairie reconstructions are subject to both unpredictability and complexity. Prairie, tallgrass, and mixed grass reconstruction is defined as the planting of a native herbaceous seed mixture composed of multiple prairie species (10 or more) in an area where the land has been heavily cultivated or anthropogenically disturbed. Because of the unpredictability and complexity inherent in reconstructions, some outcomes end up being failures dominated by exotic species. We propose that these failures follow a fat-tailed distribution as found in other complex systems. Fat-tailed distributions follow the Pareto principle, where 80% of the time reconstructions work as expected but ...


Trash Talk: The Effects Of Plastic Pollution On Seabirds In Narragansett Bay, Erin A. O'Neill 2018 Salve Regina University

Trash Talk: The Effects Of Plastic Pollution On Seabirds In Narragansett Bay, Erin A. O'Neill

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern with more than 8 million tons of plastic dumped into our oceans every year. This policy paper assesses plastic pollution in Narragansett Bay and the negative implications it holds on local seabird populations. Also, essential background information on plastic production and throwaway culture is provided. Moreover, the biological significance of seabirds is described, highlighting the vital role such populations play in local ecosystems such as Narragansett Bay. This paper contributes research to the global issue of plastic pollution by observing declining native wildlife life populations, such as seabirds, on a local ...


Shoreline Characterization In The Northern Indian River Lagoon, Melinda Donnelly, Michelle Shaffer, Suzanne Connor, Linda Walters 2018 University of Central Florida

Shoreline Characterization In The Northern Indian River Lagoon, Melinda Donnelly, Michelle Shaffer, Suzanne Connor, Linda Walters

CEELAB Research Data

The purpose of this project was to evaluate current conditions of estuarine shorelines in the northern section of the Indian River Lagoon system, including Mosquito Lagoon, north Indian River, and Banana River. From January 2016 through June 2018, we evaluated structural and functional characteristics of 374 miles of shoreline, from Ponce Inlet in Volusia County to Sebastian Inlet in Brevard County (11,000+ data points). Hard-armoring accounted for approximately 50% of total shoreline, evenly divided between shoreline with bulkheads (25%) and hardened slopes (25%). Forty-five percent of shoreline without hard-armoring had anthropogenic alterations (i.e. mosquito impoundments, railroads and roadways ...


Bats Of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles, Scott C. Pedersen, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Hugh H. Genoways, Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2018 South Dakota State University

Bats Of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles, Scott C. Pedersen, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Hugh H. Genoways, Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Eight species of bat have been previously recorded from the island of Saint Lucia: Noctilio leporinus, Monophyllus plethodon, Artibeus jamaicensis, Brachyphylla cavernarum, Ardops nichollsi, Sturnira paulsoni, Molossus molossus, and Tadarida brasiliensis. Herein, we add a ninth species to the fauna—Pteronotus davyi. These nine species represent nine genera from four families: Noctilionidae, Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, and Molossidae. This fauna includes four trophic guilds: N. leporinus (piscivore/insectivore), M. plethodon (nectarivore/pollenivore), A. jamaicensis × schwartzi, B. cavernarum, A. nichollsi, and S. paulsoni (frugivores), and P. davyi, M. molossus, and T. brasiliensis (insectivores). Based on its geographic location, the bat fauna of St ...


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