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Rapid Assessment Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Igg Antibody In Serum: A Potential Diagnostic Biomarker To Predict Risk Of Cholangiocarcinoma In Regions Endemic For Opisthorchiasis., Rutchanee Rodpai, Vor Luvira, Lakkhana Sadaow, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Krisada Paonariang, Oranuch Sanpool, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Victoria H. Mann, Pewpan M Intapan, Paul J. Brindley, Wanchai Maleewong 2022 George Washington University

Rapid Assessment Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Igg Antibody In Serum: A Potential Diagnostic Biomarker To Predict Risk Of Cholangiocarcinoma In Regions Endemic For Opisthorchiasis., Rutchanee Rodpai, Vor Luvira, Lakkhana Sadaow, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Krisada Paonariang, Oranuch Sanpool, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Victoria H. Mann, Pewpan M Intapan, Paul J. Brindley, Wanchai Maleewong

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Opisthorchiasis is caused by an infection with fish-borne liver flukes of the genus Opisthorchis. Opisthorchiasis frequently leads to chronic inflammation in the biliary tract and is classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer: a definitive risk for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).

METHODS: We used the rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect anti-Opisthorchis viverrini IgG and IgG4 subclass antibodies in sera of patients with CCA. The ICT kits were developed based on soluble antigens excreted and secreted by O. viverrini adult worms.

RESULTS: ICT indicated sera was positive for IgG and IgG4 antibodies, respectively ...


Chromosome-Level Genome Of Schistosoma Haematobium Underpins Genome-Wide Explorations Of Molecular Variation., Andreas J Stroehlein, Pasi K Korhonen, V Vern Lee, Stuart A Ralph, Margaret Mentink-Kane, Hong You, Donald P McManus, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard, Parwinder Kaur, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Bicheng Yang, Huanming Yang, Aidan M Emery, Bonnie L Webster, Paul J. Brindley, David Rollinson, Bill C H Chang, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young 2022 George Washington University

Chromosome-Level Genome Of Schistosoma Haematobium Underpins Genome-Wide Explorations Of Molecular Variation., Andreas J Stroehlein, Pasi K Korhonen, V Vern Lee, Stuart A Ralph, Margaret Mentink-Kane, Hong You, Donald P Mcmanus, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard, Parwinder Kaur, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Bicheng Yang, Huanming Yang, Aidan M Emery, Bonnie L Webster, Paul J. Brindley, David Rollinson, Bill C H Chang, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Urogenital schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium and is one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide, afflicting > 100 million people. It is characterised by granulomata, fibrosis and calcification in urogenital tissues, and can lead to increased susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. To complement available treatment programs and break the transmission of disease, sound knowledge and understanding of the biology and ecology of S. haematobium is required. Hybridisation/introgression events and molecular variation among members of the S. haematobium-group might effect important biological and/or disease traits as well as the ...


Ackee Fruit Toxicity, Ryan Surmaitis DO, Richard Hamilton 2021 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Ackee Fruit Toxicity, Ryan Surmaitis Do, Richard Hamilton

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Prevalence Of Malaria Parasite Infections Among U.S.-Bound Congolese Refugees With And Without Splenomegaly., Moses Mwesigwa, Jessica L. Webster, Sam Lubwama Nsobya, Alexander Rowan, Mukunda Singh Basnet, Christina R. Phares, Michelle Weinberg, Alexander Klosovsky, Marwan Naoum, Philip J. Rosenthal, William Stauffer 2021 International Organization for Migration

Prevalence Of Malaria Parasite Infections Among U.S.-Bound Congolese Refugees With And Without Splenomegaly., Moses Mwesigwa, Jessica L. Webster, Sam Lubwama Nsobya, Alexander Rowan, Mukunda Singh Basnet, Christina R. Phares, Michelle Weinberg, Alexander Klosovsky, Marwan Naoum, Philip J. Rosenthal, William Stauffer

Student Papers & Posters

All U.S.-bound refugees from sub-Saharan Africa receive presumptive antimalarial treatment before departing for the United States. Among U.S.-bound Congolese refugees, breakthrough malaria cases and persistent splenomegaly have been reported. In response, an enhanced malaria diagnostic program was instituted. Here, we report the prevalence of plasmodial infection among 803 U.S.-bound Congolese refugees who received enhanced diagnostics. Infections by either rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or PCR were detected in 187 (23%) refugees, with 78 (10%) by RDT only, 35 (4%) by PCR only, and 74 (9%) by both. Infections identified by PCR included 103 monoinfections (87 ...


Characterization Of Nit Sheath Protein Functions And Transglutaminase-Mediated Cross-Linking In The Human Head Louse, Pediculus Humanus Capitis, Ju Hyeon Kim, Do Eun Lee, SangYoun Park, John M. Clark, Si Hyeock Lee 2021 Seoul National University

Characterization Of Nit Sheath Protein Functions And Transglutaminase-Mediated Cross-Linking In The Human Head Louse, Pediculus Humanus Capitis, Ju Hyeon Kim, Do Eun Lee, Sangyoun Park, John M. Clark, Si Hyeock Lee

Veterinary & Animal Sciences Department Faculty Publication Series

Background: Head louse females secrete liquid glue during oviposition, which is solidified to form the nit sheath over the egg. Recently, two homologous proteins, named louse nit sheath protein (LNSP) 1 and LNSP 2, were identified as adhesive proteins but the precise mechanism of nit sheath solidification is unknown. Methods: We determined the temporal transcriptome profiles of the head louse accessory glands plus oviduct, from which putative major structural proteins and those with functional importance were deduced. A series of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments and treatment of an inhibitor were conducted to elucidate the function and action mechanism of each ...


Looking Beyond A Rare Presentation Of Betel Nut Use In A North American Patient- An Opportunity For Lessons And Intervention In Global Health And Gender Equity, Muhammad O. Zaman, Thomas M. Park, Vikas Patel, Riley G. Jones 2020 University of Florida

Looking Beyond A Rare Presentation Of Betel Nut Use In A North American Patient- An Opportunity For Lessons And Intervention In Global Health And Gender Equity, Muhammad O. Zaman, Thomas M. Park, Vikas Patel, Riley G. Jones

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Betel nut is estimated to be the fourth most common psychoactive substance used globally behind caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine with 600 million global users. Betel nut use has a strong association with oral cancer and many other systemic effects including oral submucosal fibrosis. Although North American use is rare, its enduring effects may surface long after use posing a diagnostic challenge to practitioners caring for an increasingly global diaspora. Herein, we present a patient with severe trismus due to advanced oral submucosal fibrosis who was unexpectedly found to be importing and using Betel nut for over thirty years after immigrating ...


Gaining A “Foothold” On The Diagnosis Of Leishmaniasis, Brent M. Troy, Rebecca Hart, Navjyot Vidwan, Bethany Hodge 2020 University of Louisville

Gaining A “Foothold” On The Diagnosis Of Leishmaniasis, Brent M. Troy, Rebecca Hart, Navjyot Vidwan, Bethany Hodge

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Pediatric refugees and immigrants may present with unusual diagnoses due to their extensive migration and potential harsh conditions in travel. Trauma and family separation add to the difficulty of obtaining a history of exposures. We report a case of one of the more commonly neglected tropical diseases, Leishmaniasis. A 15-year-old male refugee patient presented to the hospital with ulcerative lesions to his legs. His migration history was extensive, starting in Central Africa with travel to South America, followed by migration through Central America to Texas. The patient developed ulcerative lesions on his legs, and he was brought to the children ...


Drug Interactions With Antimalarial Medications In Older Travelers: A Clinical Guide, Jelena Lewis, Tania Gregorian, Ivan Portillo, Jeff Goad 2019 Chapman University

Drug Interactions With Antimalarial Medications In Older Travelers: A Clinical Guide, Jelena Lewis, Tania Gregorian, Ivan Portillo, Jeff Goad

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Increasingly older adults are traveling to international destinations with malaria as a present risk. Surveillance systems indicate that older adults are more likely to suffer severe complications from malaria. The role of health care providers in selecting an appropriate medication for chemoprophylaxis or treatment of malaria in adults becomes more difficult as older adults undergo physiologic changes that alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic nature of medications potentially causing increased drug interactions, adverse events, and altered drug action. A comprehensive literature search from 1970 to present, with a focus on the last 10 years, was conducted on drug interactions, pharmacokinetic and ...


Bridging The Gap On Schistosomiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining The Knowledge Gap And Common Attitudes And Practices Regarding S. Mansoni Infections Among Varying Education Levels In Luanda K’Otieno, Western Kenya, Kathy Zhang 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Bridging The Gap On Schistosomiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining The Knowledge Gap And Common Attitudes And Practices Regarding S. Mansoni Infections Among Varying Education Levels In Luanda K’Otieno, Western Kenya, Kathy Zhang

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background: Schistosomiasis is considered one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most effective strategy for schistosomiasis control is through preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ). In order to successfully control morbidity rates, the WHO recommends mass treatment targeting high risk groups, such as school-age children and adults considered to be at risk.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the effects of the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) on knowledge of schistosomiasis and subsequent prevalence rates and intensity. A total of 43 residents in Luanda K’Otieno were interviewed, and 34 ...


Molecular Investigation And Phylogeny Of Species Of The Anaplasmataceae Infecting Animals And Ticks In Senegal, Mustapha Dahmani, Bernard davoust, Masse Sambou, Hubert Bassene, Pierre Scandola, Tinhinene Ameur, Didier Raoult, Florence Feenollar, Oleg Mediannikov 2019 Old Dominion University

Molecular Investigation And Phylogeny Of Species Of The Anaplasmataceae Infecting Animals And Ticks In Senegal, Mustapha Dahmani, Bernard Davoust, Masse Sambou, Hubert Bassene, Pierre Scandola, Tinhinene Ameur, Didier Raoult, Florence Feenollar, Oleg Mediannikov

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Our study aimed to assess the diversity of the species of Anaplasmataceae in Senegal that infect animals and ticks in three areas: near Keur Momar Sarr (northern region), Dielmo and Diop (Sine Saloum, central region of Senegal), and in Casamance (southern region of Senegal).

Methods: A total of 204 ticks and 433 blood samples were collected from ruminants, horses, donkeys and dogs. Ticks were identified morphologically and by molecular characterization targeting the 12S rRNA gene. Molecular characterization of species of Anaplasmataceae infecting Senegalese ticks and animals was conducted using the 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL genes.

Results ...


Trends, Predictors, And Consequences Of Child Undernutrition In India, Apurv Soni 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Trends, Predictors, And Consequences Of Child Undernutrition In India, Apurv Soni

Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses

Background: India has the highest number of undernourished children worldwide. Understanding trends, predictors, and consequences of child undernutrition is important to inform strategy for addressing this public health crisis.

Methods: We used data from four National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-6, 2015-16 NFHS) to examine trends of undernutrition before and after the 2005 implementation of the National Rural Health Mission, India’s flagship public health initiative (Aim 1). We used the 2016 NFHS to build a predictive model that identifies infants at-risk for child undernutrition (Aim 2). Lastly, we used data from the 2005 and 2012 India Human Development ...


Development Of Onchocerca Volvulus In Humanized Nsg Mice And Detection Of Parasite Biomarkers In Urine And Serum., John B. Patton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Mark L. Eberhard, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, April R. Torigian, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B. Nutman, David Abraham 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Development Of Onchocerca Volvulus In Humanized Nsg Mice And Detection Of Parasite Biomarkers In Urine And Serum., John B. Patton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Mark L. Eberhard, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, April R. Torigian, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B. Nutman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. volvulus and alteration of the host microenvironment through the addition of various human cells and tissues would further enhance the level of parasite maturation. NSG mice were humanized with: (1) umbilical cord derived CD34+ stem cells, (2) fetal derived ...


Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky 2018 George Washington University

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


Prevalence Of And Factors Associated With Negative Microscopic Diagnosis Of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Rural Peru., Ryan Lamm, Clark Alves, Grace Perrotta, Meagan Murphy, Catherine Messina, Juan F. Sanchez, Erika Perez, Luis Angel Rosales, Andres G. Lescano, Edward Smith, Hugo Valdivia, Jack Fuhrer, Sarah-Blythe Ballard 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; Stony Brook University School of Medicine; US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6, Lima

Prevalence Of And Factors Associated With Negative Microscopic Diagnosis Of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Rural Peru., Ryan Lamm, Clark Alves, Grace Perrotta, Meagan Murphy, Catherine Messina, Juan F. Sanchez, Erika Perez, Luis Angel Rosales, Andres G. Lescano, Edward Smith, Hugo Valdivia, Jack Fuhrer, Sarah-Blythe Ballard

Department of Surgery Faculty Papers

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to South America where diagnosis is most commonly conducted via microscopy. Patients with suspected leishmaniasis were referred for enrollment by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Lima, Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado, and several rural areas of Peru. A 43-question survey requesting age, gender, occupation, characterization of the lesion(s), history of leishmaniasis, and insect-deterrent behaviors was administered. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted on lesion materials at the Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6 in Lima, and the results were compared with those obtained by the MoH using microscopy. Factors associated with negative microscopy and positive PCR ...


Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart 2018 George Washington University

Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that ...


In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define ...


Samhd1 Phosphorylation Coordinates The Anti-Hiv-1 Response By Diverse Interferons And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition., Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles 2018 George Washington University

Samhd1 Phosphorylation Coordinates The Anti-Hiv-1 Response By Diverse Interferons And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition., Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Macrophages are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite abundant expression of antiviral proteins. Perhaps the most important antiviral protein is the restriction factor sterile alpha motif domain and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). We investigated the role of SAMHD1 and its phospho-dependent regulation in the context of HIV-1 infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the ability of various interferons (IFNs) and pharmacologic agents to modulate SAMHD1. Here we show that stimulation by type I, type II, and to a lesser degree, type III interferons share activation of SAMHD1 via dephosphorylation at threonine-592 as ...


Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos 2018 George Washington University

Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Bacterial induced inflammatory responses cause pain through direct activation of nociceptive neurons, and the ablation of these neurons leads to increased immune infiltration. In this study, we investigated nociceptive-immune interactions in Drosophila and the role these interactions play during pathogenic bacterial infection. After bacterial infection, we found robust upregulation of ligand-gated ion channels and allatostatin receptors involved in nociception, which potentially leads to hyperalgesia. We further found that Allatostatin-C Receptor 2 (AstC-R2) plays a crucial role in host survival during infection with the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Upon examination of immune signaling in AstC-R2 deficient mutants, we demonstrated that Allatostatin-C ...


Analysis Of The Immunological Biomarker Profile During Acute Zika Virus Infection Reveals The Overexpression Of Cxcl10, A Chemokine Linked To Neuronal Damage., Felipe Gomes Naveca, Gemilson Soares Pontes, Aileen Yu-Hen Chang, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Valdinete Alves do Nascimento, Dana Cristina da Silva Monteiro, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Analysis Of The Immunological Biomarker Profile During Acute Zika Virus Infection Reveals The Overexpression Of Cxcl10, A Chemokine Linked To Neuronal Damage., Felipe Gomes Naveca, Gemilson Soares Pontes, Aileen Yu-Hen Chang, George Allan Villarouco Da Silva, Valdinete Alves Do Nascimento, Dana Cristina Da Silva Monteiro, +Several Additional Authors

Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) manifests in a broad spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe neurological complications and little is known about Zika immunopathogenesis.

OBJECTIVES: To define the immunologic biomarkers that correlate with acute ZIKV infection.

METHODS: We characterized the levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in 54 infected patients of both genders at five different time points after symptom onset using microbeads multiplex immunoassay; comparison to 100 age-matched controls was performed for statistical analysis and data mining.

FINDINGS: ZIKV-infected patients present a striking systemic inflammatory response with high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Despite ...


The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser 2018 George Washington University

The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis-a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Studies of schistosome genomes have improved our understanding of the molecular biology of flatworms, but most of them have focused largely on protein-coding genes. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been explored in selected schistosome species and are suggested to play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in modulating flatworm-host interactions. However, genome-wide small RNA data are currently lacking for key schistosomes including Schistosoma haematobium-the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis of humans.

METHODOLOGY: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other ...


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