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Dissecting The Role And Regulation Of Transcription Factor Zeb2 In Hematopoiesis, Xiao Huang 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Dissecting The Role And Regulation Of Transcription Factor Zeb2 In Hematopoiesis, Xiao Huang

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A potent immune response requires crosstalk and collaboration between the innate and adaptive immune systems, both of which contain highly specialized immune lineages. All immune lineages arise during adult life are generated from the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the process of hematopoiesis. Normal hematopoiesis under steady state and emergency hematopoiesis during immune response are orchestrated precisely by transcriptional networks formed by transcription factors (TFs) to direct multipotent progenitors into specific fate. TFs required for the development of single or multiple lineages within the hematopoietic system has been identified, such as Irf8 for type I classical dendritic cells …


Etv2/Myct1 Axis In The Regulation Of Tumor Angiogenesis And Anti-Tumor Immunity, Ashraf Ul Kabir 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Etv2/Myct1 Axis In The Regulation Of Tumor Angiogenesis And Anti-Tumor Immunity, Ashraf Ul Kabir

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a critical determinant of neoplastic growth and metastatic spread. As such, anti-angiogenic approaches have long been tried to throttle down tumor progression. However, current anti-angiogenic treatments so far have produced modest clinical benefits. Further in-depth research has provided rationales behind these disappointing and apparent perplexing clinical outcomes. It is now established that VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and other prominent current angiogenic targets are neither specific to the vascular system nor the pathological conditions explaining the sub-optimal angiogenic control following the existing treatments. This suggests that anti-angiogenesis could still be a viable strategy for cancer patients should there …


A Novel Function Of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells In Regulating Type 2 Immune Responses, Hannah Leigh Miller 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

A Novel Function Of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells In Regulating Type 2 Immune Responses, Hannah Leigh Miller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The generation of an allergic response is particularly perplexing, as the mucosal immune system is exposed to a myriad of antigens on a daily basis, the majority of which do not elicit inflammation. However, for the growing population of patients impacted by allergic diseases, there is a clear breakdown of normal tolerance to innocuous antigens, resulting in symptoms mediated by antigen specific T helper 2 (Th2) cells. In addition to their well-established role in early antiviral immunity via production of type I interferon, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) have been implicated in the generation of immune tolerance in a variety of …


Regulation Of Gut Commensal-Specific T Cell Differentiation By Dendritic Cell Subsets, Emilie Russler-Germain 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Regulation Of Gut Commensal-Specific T Cell Differentiation By Dendritic Cell Subsets, Emilie Russler-Germain

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract can harbor both beneficial commensal organisms important for host health, but also pathogenic organisms capable of intestinal damage. It is therefore important that the host immune system mounts appropriate responses to different intestinal organisms – promoting tolerance to some, controlling the colonization of others, and inducing sterilizing immunity in cases of noxious pathogens. Failure to induce tolerance to commensal organisms may underlie immune-mediated diseases such as human inflammatory bowel disease, while inappropriate tolerance to more harmful organisms has the potential to result in infection, inflammation, or even malabsorption. Adaptive immune responses to intestinal commensal organisms are …


Glial Inflammatory Responses Regulate Neurocognitive Recovery Following Viral Encephalitis, Allison Luen Soung 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Glial Inflammatory Responses Regulate Neurocognitive Recovery Following Viral Encephalitis, Allison Luen Soung

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The concept of the brain as an immune privileged organ has been slowly shifting as an in-creasing number of studies have demonstrated that even under homeostatic conditions, commu-nication between the nervous and immune system is essential for proper brain function. Given their roles in innate and adaptive immunity, glial cells and infiltrating immune cells have been placed at the center of this communication axis. Microglia, astrocytes, and T cells have all been shown to receive and convey information to all neural cell types in a coordinated effort to re-spond to injury and infection and initiate reparative mechanisms as well as …


The Roles Of Capsular Polysaccharides And Diet In The Immune Response To A Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron Antigen, Samantha Hsieh 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

The Roles Of Capsular Polysaccharides And Diet In The Immune Response To A Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron Antigen, Samantha Hsieh

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The environment is well recognized to modulate immune responses within the intestinal mucosa in a general fashion. However, the connection between the effects of the environment on the immune response directed towards specific intestinal microbes is unclear. Progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of a model system in which the immune responses to a specific antigen in a gut symbiont can be examined. To this end, we developed a novel CD4+ T cell model, termed BθOM, that is specific for a dominant antigen in the gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta). In this work, we use …


Genome Sequence Of A Virulent African Swine Fever Virus Isolated In 2020 From A Domestic Pig In Northern Vietnam, Quang Lam Truong, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Hoa Nguyen, Jishu Shi, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Thi Lan Huong Lai, Van Giap Nguyen 2021 Vietnam National University of Agriculture

Genome Sequence Of A Virulent African Swine Fever Virus Isolated In 2020 From A Domestic Pig In Northern Vietnam, Quang Lam Truong, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Hoa Nguyen, Jishu Shi, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Thi Lan Huong Lai, Van Giap Nguyen

Virology Papers

This study reports the genome sequence of an isolated African swine fever (ASF) virus (VNUA-ASFV-05L1/HaNam) obtained at the fourth passage on pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The virus was isolated during a typical acute ASF outbreak in pigs in a northern province of Vietnam in 2020.


Codon Bias Can Determine Sorting Of A Potassium Channel Protein, Anja J. Engel, Marina Kithil, Markus Langhans, Oliver Rauh, Matea Cartolano, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel 2021 Technische Universitat Darmstadt

Codon Bias Can Determine Sorting Of A Potassium Channel Protein, Anja J. Engel, Marina Kithil, Markus Langhans, Oliver Rauh, Matea Cartolano, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

Virology Papers

Due to the redundancy of the genetic code most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. It has been proposed that a biased frequency of synonymous codons can affect the function of proteins by modulating distinct steps in transcription, translation and folding. Here, we use two similar prototype K+ channels as model systems to examine whether codon choice has an impact on protein sorting. By monitoring transient expression of GFP-tagged channels in mammalian cells, we find that one of the two channels is sorted in a codon and cell cycle-dependent manner either to mitochondria or the secretory pathway. …


Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne 2021 University of Mississippi

Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne

Honors Theses

Since its emergence in the early 1980’s HIV has killed approximately 32 million people, and continues to kill over half a million people every year. Significant research into potential vaccines and cures for HIV has been ongoing for decades but has been largely unsuccessful. One of the more promising technologies that is being investigated to develop an HIV vaccine is recombinant vaccine technology. The study presented in this thesis aims to use simian varicella virus (SVV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to act as a model for recombinant vaccine development. If a recombinant SVV-SIV vaccine can be proven safe and …


Molecular Interactions Of Human Cell Proteins With Sars-Cov-2 Versus Influenza Viruses, Linze Cowman 2021 University of South Dakota

Molecular Interactions Of Human Cell Proteins With Sars-Cov-2 Versus Influenza Viruses, Linze Cowman

Honors Thesis

Molecular Interactions of Human Cell Proteins with SARS-CoV-2 versus Influenza

Viruses

Linze Cowman

Director: Victor Huber, Ph.D.

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019, or COVID- 19, shows considerable similarity to a common influenza infection. Over the past year, innumerable studies have been investigating the Vitus in various capacities, from big-picture public health repercussions to the virus' biochemical interactions with human cells for infection. This research provides invaluable information in the ongoing war against infectious diseases. While the influenza virus is fairly well-understood, much surrounding the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear, including its longevity, long-term health effects, methods …


Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica McGrevey 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fever is an essential component of the immune response. Fever enhances immune responses as well as creates an environment in which the body has advantages over pathogens. Macrophages are often the first cells that come in contact with pathogens, as they reside in tissues. They are important for their engulfment of pathogens that results in the digestion of the pathogen, but they also produce nitric oxide and cytokines that contribute to immune response in a variety of ways, including initiating adaptive immunity and directing the production and activity of other immune cells. We were curious about macrophages from other temperature …


Suppression Of Inflammation Of Cytokine Following Induced Francisella Tularensis Infection, Nicole Renee Setzu 2021 University of Texas at El Paso

Suppression Of Inflammation Of Cytokine Following Induced Francisella Tularensis Infection, Nicole Renee Setzu

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Francisella tularensis is intracellular bacteria which is the causative agent of the disease Tularemia. Highly virulent in both humans and animals, it takes only as few as 10 microorganisms to cause a lethal infection. The bacteria can enter via direct or indirect routes causing the activations of the host innate inflammatory response to ensue. The bacteria invade host dendritic cells and neutrophils but predominately macrophages. This causes a mass inflammatory response resulting in the cytokine storm. Activation of Natural Killer T (NKT) cells has been shown to suppress inflammation in in vivo studies. Development and optimization of an in vitro …


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways through …


Harnessing The Power Of Trained Immunity In The Setting Of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Mechanism Of Immune Trafficking And Tumor Control., Anne Elena Geller 2021 University of Louisville

Harnessing The Power Of Trained Immunity In The Setting Of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Mechanism Of Immune Trafficking And Tumor Control., Anne Elena Geller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite the success of immunotherapy in many types of cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has yet to benefit. Innate immune cells are critical to antitumor immunosurveillance and recent studies have revealed that these populations possess a form of memory, termed trained innate immunity, which occurs through transcriptomic, epigenetic, and metabolic reprograming. Though trained innate immunity has mostly been investigated in the context of infection, the induction of trained innate immunity could also protect against tumors, and specifically pancreatic tumors. Here, we demonstrate that yeast-derived particulate β-glucan, a known inducer of trained immunity, traffics to the pancreas following IP administration. This causes …


The Importance Of Noncapped Viral Genomic Rna To Alphaviral Infection And Pathogenesis., Autumn LaPointe 2021 University of Louisville

The Importance Of Noncapped Viral Genomic Rna To Alphaviral Infection And Pathogenesis., Autumn Lapointe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne arboviruses that have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome, which are capable of causing severe disease and thus pose a significant burden to public health. During alphaviral replication, significant quantities of viral genomic RNAs that lack the canonical alphaviral 5’ cap structure are produced and packaged into viral particles, despite the fact that these noncapped genomes cannot be translated and are essentially noninfectious. The production and packaging of the noncapped genomes has been found to be true for infections across multiple vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines and alphavirus species, although the proportion of ncgRNA produced differs. Despite …


Thyreos Completes Seed Funding From Invest Nebraska, Strategic Angel Investors, Nebraska Combine 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Thyreos Completes Seed Funding From Invest Nebraska, Strategic Angel Investors, Nebraska Combine

The Combine

First paragraph:

Thyreos (https://www.thyreosvaccines.com/), a vaccine company that is developing a novel vaccine platform that protects against a range of herpesviruses, has announced a $750,000 investment round led by Invest Nebraska with participation from other local angel investors in the animal health and veterinary space.


Identification Of A Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Protein Involved In Degrading The Host Cell Wall During Virus Infection, Irina V. Agarkova, Leslie C. Lane, David D. Dunigan, Cristian F. Quispe, Garry A. Duncan, Elad Milrot, Abraham Minsky, Ahmed Esmael, Jayadri S. Ghosh, James L. Van Etten 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification Of A Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Protein Involved In Degrading The Host Cell Wall During Virus Infection, Irina V. Agarkova, Leslie C. Lane, David D. Dunigan, Cristian F. Quispe, Garry A. Duncan, Elad Milrot, Abraham Minsky, Ahmed Esmael, Jayadri S. Ghosh, James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are unusual among viruses infecting eukaryotic organisms in that they must, like bacteriophages, penetrate a rigid cell wall to initiate infection. Chlorovirus PBCV-1 infects its host, Chlorella variabilis NC64A by specifically binding to and degrading the cell wall of the host at the point of contact by a virus-packaged enzyme(s). However, PBCV-1 does not use any of the five previously characterized virus-encoded polysaccharide degrading enzymes to digest the Chlorella host cell wall during virus entry because none of the enzymes are packaged in the virion. A search for another PBCV-1-encoded and virion-associated protein identified protein A561L. The fourth domain …


Differential Effects Of Kim-1 In Subcutaneous And Orthotopic Renca Models Of Kidney Cancer, Demitra M. Yotis DY 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Differential Effects Of Kim-1 In Subcutaneous And Orthotopic Renca Models Of Kidney Cancer, Demitra M. Yotis Dy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common and fatal type of kidney cancer. Over 30% of patients that are diagnosed with RCC exhibit metastases. Almost 88% of patients with distant metastases succumb to the disease within 5 years of diagnosis. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is not expressed in a healthy kidney but becomes highly expressed on proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) following injury. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that >90% of RCC tumours express KIM-1 mRNA and that higher expression levels correlate with increased overall survival rates of patients. The …


Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-1) has infected over 75 million people and over 35 million have succumbed to virus related illnesses. Despite access to a variety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) options, ART programs have been disproportionally spread in the world with low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) facing challenges to access the most potent ART options. With less potent ART remaining in use in LMICs, HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) presents a growing challenge in LMICs. Since approval of the first-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTIs), Raltegravir (RAL) in 2007, INSTIs remain the best choice as a backbone of ART. Access to second generation …


Placenta-Expanded Stromal Cell Therapy In A Rodent Model Of Simulated Weightlessness, Amber M. Paul, Linda Rubinstein, Charles Houseman, Metadel Abegaz, Steffy Tabares Ruiz 2021 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Placenta-Expanded Stromal Cell Therapy In A Rodent Model Of Simulated Weightlessness, Amber M. Paul, Linda Rubinstein, Charles Houseman, Metadel Abegaz, Steffy Tabares Ruiz

Publications

Long duration spaceflight poses potential health risks to astronauts during flight and re-adaptation after return to Earth. There is an emerging need for NASA to provide successful and reliable therapeutics for long duration missions when capability for medical intervention will be limited. Clinically relevant, human placenta-derived therapeutic stromal cells (PLX-PAD) are a promising therapeutic alternative. We found that treatment of adult female mice with PLX-PAD near the onset of simulated weightlessness by hindlimb unloading (HU, 30 d) was well-tolerated and partially mitigated decrements caused by HU. Specifically, PLX-PAD treatment rescued HU-induced thymic atrophy, and mitigated HU-induced changes in percentages of …


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