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Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A computational framework was implemented and validated to better understand the hypertensive artery remodeling in both geometric dimensions and material properties. Integrating the stress-modulated remodeling equations into commercial finite element codes allows a better control and visualization of local mechanical parameters. Both arterial thickening and stiffening effects were captured and visualized. An adaptive material remodeling strategy combined with the element birth and death techniques for the geometrical growth were implemented. The numerically predicted remodeling results in terms of the wall thickness, inner diameter, and the ratio of elastin to collagen content of the artery were compared with and fine-tuned by ...


Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick

Masters Theses

Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing has been seen to exist, prolonging the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future research. The outcome of a TKR is intended to reestablish normal motion and loading of the knee. Musculoskeletal modeling provides a means to accurately approximate joint loading and the corresponding muscle contributions during a movement.

The purpose of the present study was to examine ...


Politics Of Embryonic Discourse, Kevin Quinn 2014 Santa Clara University School of Law

Politics Of Embryonic Discourse, Kevin Quinn

Kevin M. Quinn

In our brave new world of stem cells, clones, and parthenotes, how should we talk about early human embryos? In fashioning a response to this very thorny question, Ann Kiessling has a core message. It is: (1)that new science produces "new" conceptuses;(2) that science and scientists have failed to differentiate (with appropriate clarity) these new ex vivo conceptuses from those createdin vivo; (3) that new, more appropriate and scientifically-informed, terms are necessary; and (4) that this new language should transform the public discourse about human embryos. No one would deny that the subtleties of human embryology are neglected ...


Comparative Analysis Of The Distribution Of Segmented Filamentous Bacteria In Humans, Mice And Chickens, Yeshi Yin, Yu Wang, Liying Zhu, Wei Liu, Ningbo Liao, Mizu Jiang, Baoli Zhu, Hongwei Yu, Charlie Xiang, Xin Wang 2014 Marshall University

Comparative Analysis Of The Distribution Of Segmented Filamentous Bacteria In Humans, Mice And Chickens, Yeshi Yin, Yu Wang, Liying Zhu, Wei Liu, Ningbo Liao, Mizu Jiang, Baoli Zhu, Hongwei Yu, Charlie Xiang, Xin Wang

Hongwei Yu

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are indigenous gut commensal bacteria. They are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite the significant role they have in the modulation of the development of host immune systems, little information exists regarding the presence of SFB in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and diversity of SFB in humans and to determine their phylogenetic relationships with their hosts. Gut contents from 251 humans, 92 mice and 72 chickens were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction and subjected to SFB 16S rRNA-specific PCR detection. The results ...


Extraction Of Intrinsic Fluorescence From Single Fiber Fluorescence Measurements On A Turbid Medium: Experimental Validation, U. A. Gamm, C. L. Hoy, F. van Leeuwen - van Zaane, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. C. Kanick, D J. Robinson, A. Amelink 2014 Erasmus Medical Center

Extraction Of Intrinsic Fluorescence From Single Fiber Fluorescence Measurements On A Turbid Medium: Experimental Validation, U. A. Gamm, C. L. Hoy, F. Van Leeuwen - Van Zaane, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. C. Kanick, D J. Robinson, A. Amelink

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Abstract

The detailed mechanisms associated with the influence of scattering and absorption properties on the fluorescence intensity sampled by a single optical fiber have recently been elucidated based on Monte Carlo simulated data. Here we develop an experimental single fiber fluorescence (SFF) spectroscopy setup and validate the Monte Carlo data and semi-empirical model equation that describes the SFF signal as a function of scattering. We present a calibration procedure that corrects the SFF signal for all system-related, wavelength dependent transmission efficiencies to yield an absolute value of intrinsic fluorescence. The validity of the Monte Carlo data and semi-empirical model is ...


Computerized 3-Dimensional Localization Of A Video Capsule In The Abdominal Cavity: Validation By Digital Radiography, Neil B. Marya, Andrew Karellas, Abhijit Roychowdhury, Anne Foley, David Cave 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Computerized 3-Dimensional Localization Of A Video Capsule In The Abdominal Cavity: Validation By Digital Radiography, Neil B. Marya, Andrew Karellas, Abhijit Roychowdhury, Anne Foley, David Cave

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Video capsule endoscopy has become the gold standard for examining the small bowel and defining pathological lesions, however, localization of a specific lesion remains largely guesswork. We report the validation of a new 3D localization software using radiological localization in volunteers.

Methods: 30 volunteers with no known prior history of gastrointestinal disease swallowed the EC-10 video capsule. A sensor array with six radiopaque markers was placed on the anterior abdominal wall. Once the capsule was visualized to be in the small intestine using a real time viewer, five sets of low dose x-rays were taken every thirty minutes. Distances ...


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Karen H. Rothenberg

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Virginia Rowthorn

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward Fewer Animals And Safer Patients, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward Fewer Animals And Safer Patients, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

This paper presents the current status of computer-based simulation in medicine. Recent technological advances have enabled this field to emerge from esoteric explorations in academic laboratories to commercially available simulators designed to train users to perform medical procedures from start to finish. Today, more than a dozen companies are producing virtual reality simulators and interactive manikins for training in endoscopy, laparoscopy, anaesthesia, trauma management, angiography, and needle insertion. For many of these procedures, thousands of animals are still being used in training. Yet simulation has many advantages that can transcend scientific, ethical, economic and logistical problems that arise when using ...


Tethered Il-15 To Augment The Therapeutic Potential Of T Cells Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor: Maintaining Memory Potential, Persistence, And Antitumor Activity, Lenka Hurton 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedcal Sciences at Houston

Tethered Il-15 To Augment The Therapeutic Potential Of T Cells Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor: Maintaining Memory Potential, Persistence, And Antitumor Activity, Lenka Hurton

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tethered IL-15 to augment the therapeutic potential of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor: Maintaining memory potential, persistence, and antitumor activity

Adoptive immunotherapy can retarget T cells to CD19, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on B-cell malignancies, by the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Infusion of CAR-modified T cells for the treatment B-cell malignancies has demonstrated promise in preclinical and clinical trials. These data highlight the ability of infused CD19-specific T cells to be synchronously activated by large burdens of CD19+ leukemia and lymphoma. This can lead to dramatic antitumor effects, but also exposes the recipient to toxicity ...


Development Of A Multi-Purpose Automated Synthesis Module For Production Of Novel Pet Radiopharmaceuticals, I Hong Shih 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Development Of A Multi-Purpose Automated Synthesis Module For Production Of Novel Pet Radiopharmaceuticals, I Hong Shih

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Among radiopharmaceuticals of positron emission tomography (PET), 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) made from commercialized automated synthesis module is the most frequently used in tumor diagnoses. But the false positive findings, such as infectious tissues and post-operative surgical conditions, show strong uptake of 18F-FDG in PET scans which requires extra clinical procedures to confirm the results. Moreover, the false negative findings, such as low glycolytic activity tumors, reduce the accuracy of PET scans. Therefore, there will be new PET radiopharmaceuticals to redeem the defects of 18FDG-PET applications.

Current commercialized automated synthesis modules are suitable for clinical use, but researchers ...


Development Of Non-Covalent Functionalization Of Carbon Nanotubes For Sirna Delivery, King Sun Siu 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of Non-Covalent Functionalization Of Carbon Nanotubes For Sirna Delivery, King Sun Siu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

RNA interference (RNAi) therapy is promising for treating various diseases but the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is difficult. To overcome the technical difficulties of siRNA delivery, an efficient and targeted delivery of siRNA is required for efficient RNAi therapy. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been used for nucleic acid delivery such as siRNA delivery. It has been found that CNT can gain entry into the cells by a diffusion-like mechanism which was called “nano-needle”. However, the solubility of CNT is low in most of the solvents including water. Functionalization of CNT can be carried out to enhance the ...


Application Of Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimers For Use In Bionanomotor Systems, Madhukar Babu Kolli, B. Scott Day, Hideyo Takatsuki, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Kevin M. Rice, Kazuhiro Kohama, Murali K. Gadde, Anjaiah Katta, Eric R. Blough 2014 Marshall University

Application Of Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimers For Use In Bionanomotor Systems, Madhukar Babu Kolli, B. Scott Day, Hideyo Takatsuki, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Kevin M. Rice, Kazuhiro Kohama, Murali K. Gadde, Anjaiah Katta, Eric R. Blough

B. Scott Day

The study and utilization of bionanomotors represents a rapid and progressing field of nanobiotechnology. Here, we demonstrate that poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are capable of supporting heavy meromyosin dependent actin motility of similar quality to that observed using nitrocellulose, and that microcontact printing of PAMAM dendrimers can be exploited to produce tracks of active myosin motors leading to the restricted motion of actin filaments across a patterned surface. These data suggest that the use of dendrimer surfaces will increase the applicability of using protein biomolecular motors for nanotechnological applications.


Advances In Optics For Biotechnology, Medicine And Surgery, Maryann Fitzmaurice, Brian W. Pogue, Guillermo J. Tearney, James W. Tunnell 2014 Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Advances In Optics For Biotechnology, Medicine And Surgery, Maryann Fitzmaurice, Brian W. Pogue, Guillermo J. Tearney, James W. Tunnell

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII.


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Diane Hoffmann

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Integrating Phage Therapy Into Western Medicine, Jacob B. Jaminet 2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

Integrating Phage Therapy Into Western Medicine, Jacob B. Jaminet

Undergraduate Research Posters

The World Health Organization has described the rise of antibiotic use as a “global heath security emergency” (who.int). With the growing concern about antibiotic resistant bacteria, there has been an increased interest in bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are high-specific viruses that only infect bacteria. The use of bacteriophages medicinally to treat bacteria is called phage therapy. Research in phage therapy gained momentum until the introduction of antibiotics. While the USA and other Western countries accepted antibiotics, the Soviet Union and their satellite nations still continued to research phages. Since the funding for research was supplied by the Soviet military, the results ...


A Short Antisense Oligonucleotide Ameliorates Symptoms Of Severe Mouse Models Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Jeffrey M. Keil, Joonbae Seo, Matthew D. Howell, Walter H. Hsu, Ravindra N. Singh, Christine J. DiDonato 2014 Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA

A Short Antisense Oligonucleotide Ameliorates Symptoms Of Severe Mouse Models Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Jeffrey M. Keil, Joonbae Seo, Matthew D. Howell, Walter H. Hsu, Ravindra N. Singh, Christine J. Didonato

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent reports underscore the unparalleled potential of antisense-oligonucleotide (ASO)-based approaches to ameliorate various pathological conditions. However, in vivo studies validating the effectiveness of a short ASO (<10-mer) in the context of a human disease have not been performed. One disease with proven amenability to ASO-based therapy is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMA is a neuromuscular disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Correction of aberrant splicing of the remaining paralog, SMN2, can rescue mouse models of SMA. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of an 8-mer ASO (3UP8i) in two severe models of SMA. While 3UP8i modestly improved survival and function in the more severe Taiwanese SMA model, it dramatically increased survival, improved neuromuscular junction pathology, and tempered cardiac deficits in a new, less severe model of SMA. Our ...


Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana 2014 University of Kentucky

Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone regeneration or augmentation is often required prior to or concomitant with implant placement. With the limitations of many existing technologies, a biologically compatible synthetic bone grafting substitute that is osteogenic, bioerodible, and provides spacing-making functionality while acting as a drug delivery vehicle for bioactive molecules could provide an alternative to ‘gold standard’ techniques.

In the first part of this work, calcium sulfate (CS) space-making synthetic bone grafts with uniformly embedded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) biodegradable hydrogel particles was developed to allow controlled release of bioactive agents. The embedded gel particles’ influence on the physical and chemical characteristics of CS ...


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2013 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Faculty Scholarship

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Development Of Hif-1Α/Hif-1Β Heterodimerization Inhibitors Using A Novel Bioluminescence Reporter Assay System For In Vitro High Throughput Screening And In Vivo Imaging, Yun-Chen Chiang 2013 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Development Of Hif-1Α/Hif-1Β Heterodimerization Inhibitors Using A Novel Bioluminescence Reporter Assay System For In Vitro High Throughput Screening And In Vivo Imaging, Yun-Chen Chiang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor growth often outpaces its vascularization, leading to development of a hypoxic tumor microenvironment. In response, an intracellular hypoxia survival pathway is initiated by heterodimerization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-1β, which subsequently upregulates the expression of several hypoxia-inducible genes, promotes cell survival and stimulates angiogenesis in the oxygen-deprived environment. Hypoxic tumor regions are often associated with resistance to various classes of radio- or chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, development of HIF-1α/β heterodimerization inhibitors may provide a novel approach to anti-cancer therapy. To this end, a novel approach for imaging HIF-1α/β heterodimerization in vitro and in vivo was developed ...


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