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Genetic Phenomena Commons

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517 full-text articles. Page 7 of 17.

Anxiety Associated Increased Cpg Methylation In The Promoter Of Asb1: A Translational Approach Evidenced By Epidemiological And Clinical Studies And A Murine Model, Rebecca T. Emeny, Jens Baumert, Anthony S. Zannas, Sonja Kunze, Simone Wahl, Stella Iurato 2017 Dartmouth College

Anxiety Associated Increased Cpg Methylation In The Promoter Of Asb1: A Translational Approach Evidenced By Epidemiological And Clinical Studies And A Murine Model, Rebecca T. Emeny, Jens Baumert, Anthony S. Zannas, Sonja Kunze, Simone Wahl, Stella Iurato

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n= 1522, age 32–72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450K BeadChip), and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation. DNA methylation was measured using the same instrument in a study of patients with anxiety disorders ...


Project Mine: Study Design And Pilot Analyses Of A Large-Scale Whole-Genome Sequencing Study In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Project MinE Consortium, Wouter Van Rheenen, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Jan H. Veldink 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht

Project Mine: Study Design And Pilot Analyses Of A Large-Scale Whole-Genome Sequencing Study In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Project Mine Consortium, Wouter Van Rheenen, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Jan H. Veldink

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The most recent genome-wide association study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) demonstrates a disproportionate contribution from low-frequency variants to genetic susceptibility of disease. We have therefore begun Project MinE, an international collaboration that seeks to analyse whole-genome sequence data of at least 15,000 ALS patients and 7,500 controls. Here, we report on the design of Project MinE and pilot analyses of newly whole-genome sequenced 1,264 ALS patients and 611 controls drawn from the Netherlands. As has become characteristic of sequencing studies, we find an abundance of rare genetic variation (minor allele frequency < 0.1%), the vast majority of which is absent in public data sets. Principal component analysis reveals local geographical clustering of these variants within The Netherlands. We use the whole-genome sequence data to explore the implications of poor geographical matching of cases and controls in a sequence-based disease study and to investigate how ancestry-matched, externally sequenced controls can induce false positive associations. Also, we have publicly released genome-wide minor allele counts in cases and controls, as well as results from genic burden tests.


Dengue Virus Hijacks A Noncanonical Oxidoreductase Function Of A Cellular Oligosaccharyltransferase Complex, David L. Lin, Natalia A. Cherepanova, Leonia Bozzacco, Margaret R. MacDonald, Reid Gilmore, Andrew W. Tai 2017 The University Of Michigan

Dengue Virus Hijacks A Noncanonical Oxidoreductase Function Of A Cellular Oligosaccharyltransferase Complex, David L. Lin, Natalia A. Cherepanova, Leonia Bozzacco, Margaret R. Macdonald, Reid Gilmore, Andrew W. Tai

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common arboviral infection globally, infecting an estimated 390 million people each year. We employed a genome-wide CRISPR screen to identify host dependency factors required for DENV propagation, and identified the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex as an essential host factor for DENV infection. Mammalian cells express two OSTs containing either STT3A or STT3B. We found that the canonical catalytic function of the OSTs as oligosaccharyltransferases is not necessary for DENV infection, as cells expressing catalytically inactive STT3A or STT3B are able to support DENV propagation. However, the OST subunit MAGT1, which associates with STT3B, is also ...


Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals That Disruption Of Ciliary Transition Zone Architecture Is A Cause Of Joubert Syndrome, Xiaoyu Shi, Galo Garcia III, Julie C. Van De Weghe, University of California, San Francisco, Gregory J. Pazour, Dan Doherty, Bo Huang, Jeremy F. Reiter 2017 University of California, San Francisco

Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals That Disruption Of Ciliary Transition Zone Architecture Is A Cause Of Joubert Syndrome, Xiaoyu Shi, Galo Garcia Iii, Julie C. Van De Weghe, University Of California, San Francisco, Gregory J. Pazour, Dan Doherty, Bo Huang, Jeremy F. Reiter

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Diverse human ciliopathies, including nephronophthisis (NPHP), Meckel syndrome (MKS) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS), can be caused by mutations affecting components of the transition zone, a ciliary domain near its base. The transition zone controls the protein composition of the ciliary membrane, but how it does so is unclear. To better understand the transition zone and its connection to ciliopathies, we defined the arrangement of key proteins in the transition zone using two-color stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). This mapping revealed that NPHP and MKS complex components form nested rings comprised of nine-fold doublets. The NPHP complex component RPGRIP1L forms a ...


Extending Chemical Perturbations Of The Ubiquitin Fitness Landscape In A Classroom Setting, David Mavor, Daniel N. Bolon, Martin Kampmann, James S. Fraser 2017 University of California, San Francisco

Extending Chemical Perturbations Of The Ubiquitin Fitness Landscape In A Classroom Setting, David Mavor, Daniel N. Bolon, Martin Kampmann, James S. Fraser

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Although the primary protein sequence of ubiquitin (Ub) is extremely stable over evolutionary time, it is highly tolerant to mutation during selection experiments performed in the laboratory. We have proposed that this discrepancy results from the difference between fitness under laboratory culture conditions and the selective pressures in changing environments over evolutionary time scales. Building on our previous work (Mavor et al. 2016), we used deep mutational scanning to determine how twelve new chemicals reveal novel mutational sensitivities of ubiquitin residues. We found sensitization of Lys63 in eight new conditions. In total, our experiments have uncovered a highly sensitizing condition ...


Ki-67 Contributes To Normal Cell Cycle Progression And Inactive X Heterochromatin In P21 Checkpoint-Proficient Human Cells, Xiaoming Sun, Aizhan Bizhanova, Timothy D. Matheson, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ki-67 Contributes To Normal Cell Cycle Progression And Inactive X Heterochromatin In P21 Checkpoint-Proficient Human Cells, Xiaoming Sun, Aizhan Bizhanova, Timothy D. Matheson, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Ki-67 protein is widely used as a tumor proliferation marker. However, whether Ki-67 affects cell cycle progression has been controversial. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of Ki-67 in human hTERT-RPE1, WI-38, IMR90, hTERT-BJ cell lines and primary fibroblast cells slowed entry into S phase and coordinately downregulated genes related to DNA replication. Some gene expression changes were partially relieved in Ki-67-depleted hTERT-RPE1 cells by co-depletion of the Rb checkpoint protein, but more thorough suppression of the transcriptional and cell cycle defects was observed upon depletion of cell cycle inhibitor p21. Notably, induction of p21 upon depletion of Ki-67 was a ...


Approaches To Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing Using The Oxford Nanopore Minion Device, Kelcie C. Thorson 2017 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Approaches To Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing Using The Oxford Nanopore Minion Device, Kelcie C. Thorson

Theses and Dissertations

Current DNA sequencing methods rely on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to create sufficient copies of targeted DNA fragments to serve as a library. PCR and subsequent clean-up steps add considerable time and cost to the process and provide opportunity for introduction of amplification errors or contamination. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for mitochondrial genome sequencing sans PCR using the Oxford Nanopore MinION. Our hypothesis was that results generated from native DNA sequencing would be concordant to sequencing results generated from PCR-enriched libraries. Error-rates of 1.47% (enriched) and 1.26% (native) were observed when ...


A Review Of Ankylosing Spondylitis, Hannah L. Owen 2017 Department of Biology and Chemistry

A Review Of Ankylosing Spondylitis, Hannah L. Owen

Senior Honors Theses

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that induces ankylosis of the spine (fusion of the vertebrae at their various joints) and inflammatory arthritis of peripheral joints among other symptoms. Overexpression of cytokines, the presence of genetic mutations not exclusive to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 region, and environmental factors all have large roles in the progressive development of AS. Although a definitive pathology continues to be sought after, researchers believe the adaptive immune system in AS patients attacks fibrocartilaginous entheses (supportive connective tissue between bone and attached structures like tendon, ligament, and fascia).

AS markedly reduces proper ...


P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince 2017 Western University

P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince

Western Research Forum

Measuring pH is one of the most commonly used techniques in both the laboratory as well as the field due to its importance in a multitude of biochemical processes. Traditional methods of measuring pH may be highly developed in accuracy and precision but often involve disruption of the environment. Biological markers offer an alternative that allows for long-term pH monitoring. This innovative approach allows for vast applications such as in the manufacturing, food processing and research industries. Under moderate acidic conditions, the asr (acid shock RNA) gene is highly inducible and has been demonstrated to be crucial for growth at ...


An Estradiol-Inducible Promoter Enables Fast, Graduated Control Of Gene Expression In Fission Yeast, Makoto J. Ohira, David G. Hendrickson, R. Scott McIsaac, Nicholas R. Rhind 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Estradiol-Inducible Promoter Enables Fast, Graduated Control Of Gene Expression In Fission Yeast, Makoto J. Ohira, David G. Hendrickson, R. Scott Mcisaac, Nicholas R. Rhind

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacks a diverse toolkit of inducible promoters for experimental manipulation. Available inducible promoters suffer from slow induction kinetics, limited control of expression levels and/or a requirement for defined growth medium. In particular, no S. pombe inducible promoter systems exhibit a linear dose response, which would allow expression to be tuned to specific levels. We have adapted a fast, orthogonal promoter system with a large dynamic range and a linear dose response, based on β-estradiol-regulated function of the human estrogen receptor, for use in S. pombe. We show that this promoter system, termed Z3 ...


Age-Dependent Absolute Abundance Of Hepatic Carboxylesterases (Ces1 And Ces2) By Lc-Ms/Ms Proteomics: Application To Pbpk Modeling Of Oseltamivir In Vivo Pharmacokinetics In Infants., Mikael Boberg, Marc Vrana, Aanchal Mehrotra, Robin E. Pearce, Andrea Gaedigk, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad 2017 Children's Mercy Hospital

Age-Dependent Absolute Abundance Of Hepatic Carboxylesterases (Ces1 And Ces2) By Lc-Ms/Ms Proteomics: Application To Pbpk Modeling Of Oseltamivir In Vivo Pharmacokinetics In Infants., Mikael Boberg, Marc Vrana, Aanchal Mehrotra, Robin E. Pearce, Andrea Gaedigk, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

The age-dependent absolute protein abundance of carboxylesterase (CES) 1 and CES2 in human liver was investigated and applied to predict infant pharmacokinetics (PK) of oseltamivir. The CES absolute protein abundance was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics in human liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions prepared from tissue samples obtained from 136 pediatric donors and 35 adult donors. Two surrogate peptides per protein were selected for the quantification of CES1 and CES2 protein abundance. Purified CES1 and CES2 protein standards were used as calibrators, and the heavy labeled peptides were used as the internal standards. In hepatic microsomes, CES1 and ...


The 4d Nucleome Project, Job Dekker, Andrew S. Belmont, Mitchell Guttman, Victor O. Leshyk, John T. Lis, Stavros Lomvardas, Leonid A. Mirny, Clodagh C. O'Shea, Peter J. Park, Bing Ren, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Jay Shendure, Sheng Zong 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The 4d Nucleome Project, Job Dekker, Andrew S. Belmont, Mitchell Guttman, Victor O. Leshyk, John T. Lis, Stavros Lomvardas, Leonid A. Mirny, Clodagh C. O'Shea, Peter J. Park, Bing Ren, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Jay Shendure, Sheng Zong

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The spatial organization of the genome and its dynamics contribute to gene expression and cellular function in normal development as well as in disease. Although we are increasingly well equipped to determine a genome's sequence and linear chromatin composition, studying the three-dimensional organization of the genome with high spatial and temporal resolution remains challenging. The 4D Nucleome Network aims to develop and apply approaches to map the structure and dynamics of the human and mouse genomes in space and time with the long term goal of gaining deeper mechanistic understanding of how the nucleus is organized. The project will ...


Targeted Degradation Of Ctcf Decouples Local Insulation Of Chromosome Domains From Higher-Order Genomic Compartmentalization, Elphege P. Nora, Anton Goloborodko, Anne-Laure Valton, Johan H. Gibcus, Alec Uebersohn, Nezar Abdennur, Job Dekker, Leonid A. Mirny, Benoit Bruneau 2017 Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease

Targeted Degradation Of Ctcf Decouples Local Insulation Of Chromosome Domains From Higher-Order Genomic Compartmentalization, Elphege P. Nora, Anton Goloborodko, Anne-Laure Valton, Johan H. Gibcus, Alec Uebersohn, Nezar Abdennur, Job Dekker, Leonid A. Mirny, Benoit Bruneau

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The molecular mechanisms underlying folding of mammalian chromosomes remain poorly understood. The transcription factor CTCF is a candidate regulator of chromosomal structure. Using the auxin-inducible degron system in mouse embryonic stem cells, we show that CTCF is absolutely and dose-dependently required for looping between CTCF target sites and segmental organization into topologically associating domains (TADs). Restoring CTCF reinstates proper architecture on altered chromosomes, indicating a powerful instructive function for CTCF in chromatin folding, and CTCF remains essential for TAD organization in non-dividing cells. Surprisingly, active and inactive genome compartments remain properly segregated upon CTCF depletion, revealing that compartmentalization of mammalian ...


Genetic Risk For Obesity Predicts Nucleus Accumbens Size And Responsivity To Real-World Food Cues, Kristina Rapuano, Amanda Zieselman, William Kelley, James Sargent, Todd Heatherton, Diane Gilbert-Diamond 2017 Dartmouth College

Genetic Risk For Obesity Predicts Nucleus Accumbens Size And Responsivity To Real-World Food Cues, Kristina Rapuano, Amanda Zieselman, William Kelley, James Sargent, Todd Heatherton, Diane Gilbert-Diamond

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Obesity is a major public health concern that involves an interaction between genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental cues (e.g., food marketing); however, the mechanisms that link these factors and contribute to unhealthy eating are unclear. Using a well-known obesity risk polymorphism (FTO rs9939609) in a sample of 78 children (ages 9-12 y), we observed that children at risk for obesity exhibited stronger responses to food commercials in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) than children not at risk. Similarly, children at a higher genetic risk for obesity demonstrated larger NAcc volumes. Although a recessive model of this polymorphism best predicted ...


Is It Time To Start Using Mitochondrial Dna Copy Number As An Indicator Of Health And Diseases?, Vasudeva G. Kamath 2017 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

Is It Time To Start Using Mitochondrial Dna Copy Number As An Indicator Of Health And Diseases?, Vasudeva G. Kamath

Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown) Publications and Research

The author discusses whether the medical community should seriously investigate the numerical relation of mitochondrial DNA copy number as a health indicator.


The Perceived Utility Of Personalized Genomic Medicine In Individuals With A Family History Of Heart Disease: A Pilot Study, Dana Margaret Mittag 2017 University of South Carolina

The Perceived Utility Of Personalized Genomic Medicine In Individuals With A Family History Of Heart Disease: A Pilot Study, Dana Margaret Mittag

Theses and Dissertations

According to the World Health Organization (2005), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in most countries. Assessing a patient’s risk for heart disease may include incorporating factors such as their gender, age, weight, tobacco history, cholesterol, blood pressure, family history, and more recently, genetics. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made it possible to identify risk loci for many of the common, complex disorders, including coronary artery disease (CAD). As the medical genetics community undergoes a shift from a genetics focus to a genomics oriented focus, genomic medicine is becoming more accessible. Research has begun to ...


The Autocrine Role Of Proteoglycan-4 (Prg4) In Modulating Osteoarthritic Synoviocyte Proliferation And Expression Of Matrix Degrading Enzymes, Ali Alquraini, Maha Jamal, Ling Zhang, Tannin Schmidt, Gregory D. Jay, Khaled A. Elsaid 2017 MCPHS University

The Autocrine Role Of Proteoglycan-4 (Prg4) In Modulating Osteoarthritic Synoviocyte Proliferation And Expression Of Matrix Degrading Enzymes, Ali Alquraini, Maha Jamal, Ling Zhang, Tannin Schmidt, Gregory D. Jay, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Lubricin/proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and superficial zone chondrocytes. Recently, we showed that recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4) is a putative ligand for CD44 receptor. rhPRG4-CD44 interaction inhibits cytokine-induced rheumatoid arthritis synoviocyte proliferation. The objective of this study is to decipher the autocrine function of PRG4 in regulating osteoarthritic synoviocyte proliferation and expression of catabolic and pro-inflammatory mediators under basal and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)- stimulated conditions.

Methods: Cytosolic and nuclear levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) p50 and p65 subunits in Prg4+/+ and Prg4-/- synoviocytes were studied using western blot. Nuclear translocation ...


Exercise Recommendations For Active Adults At Risk For Sudden Cardiac Death: “Can I Continue To Exercise?”, Kacie Lynn Baker 2017 University of South Carolina

Exercise Recommendations For Active Adults At Risk For Sudden Cardiac Death: “Can I Continue To Exercise?”, Kacie Lynn Baker

Theses and Dissertations

Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is due to genetic conditions associated with cardiac ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Many of these conditions have exercise guidelines regarding eligibility and disqualification recommendations for competitive athletes through the American Heart Association and the American College for Cardiology. This study investigates how medical professionals communicate these exercise recommendations to patients, and in turn, how well patients understand these recommendations. The study also explores motivations for either continuing or discontinuing an exercise practice after a diagnosis. A questionnaire was distributed through cardiac disease-focused support groups and organizations. Data from 67 individuals with a SADS condition were ...


A Study Of Subthreshold Hallucinatory Experiences And Their Relationship To Genetic Liability For Schizophrenia, Hannah Young 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

A Study Of Subthreshold Hallucinatory Experiences And Their Relationship To Genetic Liability For Schizophrenia, Hannah Young

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background

One of the hallmarks of schizophrenia is the presence of psychosis. However, subthreshold psychotic symptoms characterized by attenuated delusions and hallucinations also occur in healthy individuals from the general population. A body of evidence suggests that this phenomenon represents a continuum of schizophrenia, with severe and attenuated symptoms sharing a common genetic etiology. Hallucinations are one subthreshold psychotic symptom in which a clear continuum has been observed. The aim of this study is to assess if subthreshold hallucinatory experiences and schizophrenia share genetic liability.

Method

3,028 participants were administered the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS), which measures a predisposition ...


Multipoint Genome-Wide Linkage Scan For Nonword Repetition In A Multigenerational Family Further Supports Chromosome 13q As A Locus For Verbal Trait Disorders, D. T. Truong, L. D. Shriberg, S. D. Smith, K. L. Chapman, A. R. Scheer-Cohen, M. M.C. DeMille, A. K. Adams, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., E. M. Wijsman, J. D. Eicher, J. R. Gruen 2016 Marshall University

Multipoint Genome-Wide Linkage Scan For Nonword Repetition In A Multigenerational Family Further Supports Chromosome 13q As A Locus For Verbal Trait Disorders, D. T. Truong, L. D. Shriberg, S. D. Smith, K. L. Chapman, A. R. Scheer-Cohen, M. M.C. Demille, A. K. Adams, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., E. M. Wijsman, J. D. Eicher, J. R. Gruen

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Verbal trait disorders encompass a wide range of conditions and are marked by deficits in five domains that impair a person’s ability to communicate: speech, language, reading, spelling, and writing. Nonword repetition is a robust endophenotype for verbal trait disorders that is sensitive to cognitive processes critical to verbal development, including auditory processing, phonological working memory, and motor planning and programming. In the present study, we present a six-generation extended pedigree with a history of verbal trait disorders. Using genome-wide multipoint variance component linkage analysis of nonword repetition, we identified a region spanning chromosome 13q14–q21 with LOD = 4 ...


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