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Digestive, Oral, and Skin Physiology Commons

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Signaling Components Involved In The Hormone Induced Translocation Of Enac In Cultured Adult Human Fungiform (Hbo) Taste Cells, Deanna Hojati 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Signaling Components Involved In The Hormone Induced Translocation Of Enac In Cultured Adult Human Fungiform (Hbo) Taste Cells, Deanna Hojati

Theses and Dissertations

The amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel, ENaC, is the Na+-specific salt taste receptor in rodents. Compared to rodents, human salt taste perception is amiloride-insensitive. In rodents the ENaC is composed of aβg-subunits. Whereas humans express an additional subunit, the d-ENaC subunit. ENaC in human taste cells is composed of aβg-subunits or dβg-subunits, with the latter being amiloride-insensitive. Currently, it is not known if dβg-ENaC expression and trafficking is regulated by hormones and their downstream intracellular signaling effectors. The aim of this study is to investigate if arginine vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone, and cAMP regulate d-ENaC expression and trafficking in cultured fungiform ...


Short And Long Chain Free Fatty Acids Differentially Regulate Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 And Peptide Yy Transcript Levels In Enteroendocrine Cells (Stc-1), Colin M. Catherman 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Short And Long Chain Free Fatty Acids Differentially Regulate Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 And Peptide Yy Transcript Levels In Enteroendocrine Cells (Stc-1), Colin M. Catherman

Theses and Dissertations

The regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY hormone levels are regulated based on different influential factors, but primarily levels are dependent upon ingested food content. As meals today become more fat-enriched, there is greater requirement for evaluation of these hormones that regulate insulin and satiety levels within the body. We have shown that the gene expression transcript production of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY are modulated by different concentrations, and times of short-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids. Although the peptide hormone levels have the influential physiological role on effector tissue, the regulation of these hormones begins at ...


The Skin Microbiome: Impact Of Modern Environments On Skin Ecology, Barrier Integrity, And Systemic Immune Programming, Susan Prescott, Danica-Lea Larcombe, Alan Logan, Christina West, Wesley Burks, Luis Caraballo, Michael Levin, Eddie van Etten, Pierre Horwitz, Anita Kozyrskyj, Dianne Campbell 2017 Edith Cowan University

The Skin Microbiome: Impact Of Modern Environments On Skin Ecology, Barrier Integrity, And Systemic Immune Programming, Susan Prescott, Danica-Lea Larcombe, Alan Logan, Christina West, Wesley Burks, Luis Caraballo, Michael Levin, Eddie Van Etten, Pierre Horwitz, Anita Kozyrskyj, Dianne Campbell

ECU Publications Post 2013

Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which ...


Oral Carbohydrate Administration Prior To Colorectal Surgery: Practice Change Outcomes And Economic Analysis, Joshua Kendrick Ezelle 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Oral Carbohydrate Administration Prior To Colorectal Surgery: Practice Change Outcomes And Economic Analysis, Joshua Kendrick Ezelle

Doctoral Projects

Difference in recovery times has been an interest of mine for many years. I observed that an open heart surgery routinely recovered and discharged on the third post-op day, while a colorectal patient often required a hospital stay of five to ten days. I began researching recovery methods of colorectal patients. I found enhanced recovery techniques like decreased narcotic, use of NSAID’s, early ambulation, and the use of medications that assist with bowel peristalsis are being employed nationally. Other techniques are now starting to be used with positive results. One of these is Carb-loading. Carb-loading is the oral intake ...


The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere 2016 Cardiology Resident Doctor, PhD Student Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania

The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Digestive cancer represents a severe public health problem, being one of the main causes of death. It is considered a multifactorial disease, with hereditary predisposition, environmental factors, and other factors involved in carcinogenesis. Both the evolution and the pathogenesis of digestive neoplasms remain incompletely elucidated. As a multifactorial disease, it can be approached by taking into account the biopsychosocial influences via enteric nervous system. Many peptides and non-peptides having a neurotransmitter role can be found in the enteric nervous system, which can influence the neoplastic process directly or indirectly by affecting some angiogenic, growth, and metastasis factors. However, neurotransmitters can ...


The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică 2016 Valparaiso University, Department of Psychology

The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

As a 5-α reductase inhibitor, Finasteride has proven effective in ameliorating two conditions documented to be androgen dependent, namely male androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therapeutic results are maintained as long as the drug is administered, with treatment cessation generally leading to the return of symptomatology for each condition. In addition, during the therapeutic phase, several adverse effects have been reported, some of which persist long or indefinitely after treatment cessation, known as “post-finasteride syndrome.”

Herein we present and discuss the most common finasteride side effects, along with a psycho-neuroendocrine rationale that could explain the persistence of many adverse ...


Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, DO, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, II, PharmD, Samson Teka, MD 2016 Marshall University

Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Do, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, Ii, Pharmd, Samson Teka, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Title: Incidence of hypomagnesemia on proton pump inhibitors at the Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – IHOP

Purpose:

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), both prescription and over-the-counter, are widely used for the treatment of acid-related disease states such as dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflex disease, esophagitis, and peptic ulcers. These medications are generally considered safe in most patient populations; however, there are several adverse effects that may occur with long-term use. Hypomagnesemia is a newer complication arising in the literature following multiple case reports over the past several years, although the true incidence of hypomagnesemia associated with PPI use remains unclear at this ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


Evaluating The Role Of Intestinal Transporters In Fruit Juice-Drug Interactions, Mandy MJ Li 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluating The Role Of Intestinal Transporters In Fruit Juice-Drug Interactions, Mandy Mj Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fruit juice-drug interactions (FJDIs) involving non-metabolized oral medications result in decreased drug exposure that may lead to reduced therapeutic efficacy. The effect is thought to be mediated by inhibition of the intestinal drug transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 and 2B1 (OATP1A2 and OATP2B1) by fruit juice constituents, however the exact mechanisms remain controversial. We tested the hypothesis that fruit juices limit the absorption of fexofenadine through interactions with specific intestinal transporters. In vitro transport and fruit juice inhibition studies using fexofenadine, a medication involved in FJDIs, revealed that in addition to previously implicated transporters, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1 ...


There Is Relief For Constipated Patients Taking Opioids., Ahmad Mohammadieh, James Choi, MD, Chelsea Gonzalez, DO, Diyanah Elyaman, MD 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is Relief For Constipated Patients Taking Opioids., Ahmad Mohammadieh, James Choi, Md, Chelsea Gonzalez, Do, Diyanah Elyaman, Md

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Tack J, Lappalainen J, Diva U, Tummala R, Sostek M. Efficacy and safety of naloxegol in patients with opioid-induced constipation and laxative-inadequate response. United European Gastroenterol J. 2015 Oct;3(5):471-80. doi: 10.1177/2050640615604543


Daily Chocolate Consumption Is Inversely Associated With Insulin Resistance And Liver Enzymes In The Observation Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Study, Ala’a Alkerwi, Nicolas Sauvegeot, Georgina E. Crichton, Merrill F. Elias, Saverio Stranges 2016 University of Maine - Main

Daily Chocolate Consumption Is Inversely Associated With Insulin Resistance And Liver Enzymes In The Observation Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Study, Ala’A Alkerwi, Nicolas Sauvegeot, Georgina E. Crichton, Merrill F. Elias, Saverio Stranges

Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Papers

This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18–69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81 ...


Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long 2016 College Scholars Program

Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of Uv-Protective Pathways Downstream Of The Melanocortin 1 Receptor In Melanocytes, Erin M. Wolf Horrell 2016 University of Kentucky

Regulation Of Uv-Protective Pathways Downstream Of The Melanocortin 1 Receptor In Melanocytes, Erin M. Wolf Horrell

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Malignant cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, and a majority of melanoma diagnoses are a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation causes DNA damage, which if not repaired correctly via nucleotide excision repair (NER) can result in mutations and melanomagenesis. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a Gs protein coupled receptor located on melanocyte plasma membranes and is involved in protecting the skin from UV induced damage. MC1R signaling results in the activation of two protective pathways: 1) induction of eumelanin synthesis downstream of micropthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and 2) acceleration of NER ...


Chronic Pancreatitis, Pain, And Anxiety In An Alcohol And High Fat Mouse Model, Tiffanie Clinkinbeard 2016 University of Kentucky

Chronic Pancreatitis, Pain, And Anxiety In An Alcohol And High Fat Mouse Model, Tiffanie Clinkinbeard

Theses and Dissertations--Gerontology

Homeodynamic space (HDS) shrinks as vulnerability increases with aging and repeated damage to the cells. HDS is lost in alcoholic pancreatitis patients due to overconsumption of alcohol, smoking, and high fat diets. Etiologically relevant animal models for study of chronic pancreatitis (CP) are needed. In order to begin filling this gap a central purpose of this dissertation research was to examine relationships between the alcohol and high fat diet (AHF) and pancreatitis with attention to hypersensitivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The AHF diet induced pancreatitis described here etiologically mimics human risk factors of AHF consumption for advancement to alcoholic CP.

In ...


Interleukin 10 Restores Gastric Emptying, Electrical Activity, And Interstitial Cells Of Cajal Networks In Diabetic Mice, Anthony J. Bauer 2015 Liberty University

Interleukin 10 Restores Gastric Emptying, Electrical Activity, And Interstitial Cells Of Cajal Networks In Diabetic Mice, Anthony J. Bauer

Anthony Bauer

Background and Aims—Gastroparesis is a complication of diabetes, characterized by delayed emptying of stomach contents and accompanied by early satiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. No safe and reliable treatments are available. Interleukin 10 (IL10) activates the M2 cytoprotective phenotype of macrophages and induces expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) protein. We investigated whether IL10 administration could improve gastric emptying and reverse the associated cellular and electrical abnormalities in diabetic mice.
Methods—Non-obese diabetic mice with delayed gastric emptying were given either IL10 (0.1-1μg, twice/day) or vehicle (controls). Stomach tissues were isolated, and sharp microelectrode recordings were made ...


Restoring Digestive Health, Kristin M. Corbin, DNP, APRN, FNP-C 2015 Georgia College and State University

Restoring Digestive Health, Kristin M. Corbin, Dnp, Aprn, Fnp-C

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Translational and Clinical Research Projects

Purpose: The purpose of this translational research project was to outline the healthcare problems associated with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and to explore the effectiveness of a gastrointestinal protocol utilized at Atlanta Center for Holistic and Integrative Medicine. The goal of this protocol is to restore digestive health with probiotics, digestive enzymes, and glutamine.

Background: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders affect one in every four adults in the United States. These disorders encompass a variety of symptoms including diarrhea, constipation, cramping, abdominal pain, flatulence, reflux, and bloating without an identified physiological cause. There is currently no cure for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and treatment ...


Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in various fruits and plants, such as berries, pomegranates, muscadine grapes, nuts and bark of oak tree. EA has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of EA on obesity. Herein, 1) the lipid-lowering role of EA was identified in primary human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells; 2) the molecular mechanisms by which EA attenuates adipogenesis by epigenetic modification were identified; 3) the effects of EA on high fat and high sucrose-mediated obesity was determined ...


The Conserved G-Protein Coupled Receptor Fshr-1 Regulates Protective Host Responses To Infection And Oxidative Stress, Elizabeth V. Miller, Leah N. Grandi, Jennifer A. Giannini, Joseph D. Robinson, Jennifer R. Powell 2015 Gettysburg College

The Conserved G-Protein Coupled Receptor Fshr-1 Regulates Protective Host Responses To Infection And Oxidative Stress, Elizabeth V. Miller, Leah N. Grandi, Jennifer A. Giannini, Joseph D. Robinson, Jennifer R. Powell

Biology Faculty Publications

The innate immune system’s ability to sense an infection is critical so that it can rapidly respond if pathogenic microorganisms threaten the host, but otherwise maintain a quiescent baseline state to avoid causing damage to the host or to commensal microorganisms. One important mechanism for discriminating between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria is the recognition of cellular damage caused by a pathogen during the course of infection. InCaenorhabditis elegans, the conserved G-protein coupled receptor FSHR-1 is an important constituent of the innate immune response. FSHR-1 activates the expression of antimicrobial infection response genes in infected worms and delays accumulation ...


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome ...


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