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3,518 full-text articles. Page 5 of 135.

Multi-Omic Understanding Of The Evolution Of Xenobiotic Tolerance In Bacterial Isolates And Communities, Tayte Paul Campbell 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Multi-Omic Understanding Of The Evolution Of Xenobiotic Tolerance In Bacterial Isolates And Communities, Tayte Paul Campbell

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Xenobiotic compounds are any chemicals that are released into an environment by human action and that occur at concentrations higher than found naturally. Xenobiotics, including aromatic compounds and antibiotics, are recalcitrant to degradation because they are often toxic or mutagenic. Despite this toxicity, bacteria account for a large portion of xenobiotic degradation in the environment. Bacteria are able to adapt to these foreign chemicals, gaining increased levels of tolerance and increased rates of xenobiotic degradation. On the strain level, increased tolerance can be caused by mutations in individual cells or through the acquisition of genes from other cells. At the ...


Formulation Of Hybrid Knowledge-Based/Molecular Mechanics Potentials For Protein Structure Refinement And A Novel Graph Theoretical Protein Structure Comparison And Analysis Technique, Aaron Maus 2019 University of New Orleans

Formulation Of Hybrid Knowledge-Based/Molecular Mechanics Potentials For Protein Structure Refinement And A Novel Graph Theoretical Protein Structure Comparison And Analysis Technique, Aaron Maus

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Proteins are the fundamental machinery that enables the functions of life. It is critical to understand them not just for basic biology, but also to enable medical advances. The field of protein structure prediction is concerned with developing computational techniques to predict protein structure and function from a protein’s amino acid sequence, encoded for directly in DNA, alone. Despite much progress since the first computational models in the late 1960’s, techniques for the prediction of protein structure still cannot reliably produce structures of high enough accuracy to enable desired applications such as rational drug design. Protein structure refinement ...


Genome Sequence Of Pseudomonas Phage Ump151, Isolated From The Female Bladder Microbiota, Catherine Putonti, Genevieve Johnson 2019 Loyola University Chicago

Genome Sequence Of Pseudomonas Phage Ump151, Isolated From The Female Bladder Microbiota, Catherine Putonti, Genevieve Johnson

Bioinformatics Faculty Publications

A temperate bacteriophage, designated UMP151, was isolated from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a catheterized urine sample of a woman with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The 41,303-bp genome sequence of Pseudomonas phage UMP151 exhibits sequence similarity to prophage and lytic phage sequences isolated from other areas of the human body.


Play-Based Design: Participatory Design Method For Developing Technologies With 3 And 4 Year-Old Children, Luiza Superti Pantoja 2019 University of Iowa

Play-Based Design: Participatory Design Method For Developing Technologies With 3 And 4 Year-Old Children, Luiza Superti Pantoja

Theses and Dissertations

Young children in the United States are widely using technology at ages 3 and 4, but to date there are no well documented participatory design methods for including this age group in the development of technologies. A few attempts at using methods designed for older children were unsuccessful. To address this gap in methods, this research developed Play-based Design, a novel participatory design method inspired by make-believe play in the style of Tools of the Mind, an evidence-based preschool curriculum.

Play-based Design first sets the context for play and design through stories. It then enables children to plan play by ...


Multi-Polygenic Risk Score Prediction Model For Bipolar Disorder, Travis Mize 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Multi-Polygenic Risk Score Prediction Model For Bipolar Disorder, Travis Mize

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bipolar disorder (BP), a severe mental disorder characterized by recurring manic and depressive episodes, has been shown to have a strong genetic underpinning. Current theory suggests that it is the summation of risk alleles, spread across the entirety of the genome, which contributes to the development of BP, as well as other polygenic traits. The comorbid nature of these polygenic traits are often problematic for diagnosticians as the symptomology of the disorders may vary substantially between individuals and can create diagnostic confusion. To alleviate issues such as these, a more objective measure, to be used alongside current diagnostic procedures, is ...


P53r245w Mutation Elicits Metastatic Phenotype In Pten Deficient Prostate Cancer, Ky Pham 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

P53r245w Mutation Elicits Metastatic Phenotype In Pten Deficient Prostate Cancer, Ky Pham

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Trp53 mutations are the most frequent genetic alterations in prostate cancer and are associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The majority of Trp53 mutations in prostate cancer are missense mutations, resulting in amino acid substitutions with profound effect. In addition to the loss of wild type function, missense mutations in Trp53 result in a gain-of-function (GOF) phenotype. This GOF phenotype confers biologic advantages to the tumor cells, enabling them to metastasize and invade distant organs. In this study, we generated mice carrying a conditional prostate-specific p53R245W mutant and Pten deletion to access the role of this common ...


Molecular Consequences Of High Taz Expression In Gliomas, Visweswaran Ravikumar 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Molecular Consequences Of High Taz Expression In Gliomas, Visweswaran Ravikumar

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Diffuse high grade gliomas are complex and lethal neoplasms of the adult central nervous system that are driven by a range of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Molecular classification of these tumors has identified different transcriptional subtypes, the most notable being Proneural (PN) and Mesenchymal (MES) classes. The most aggressive forms of the disease have a Mesenchymal expression signature, with reported PN-to-MES transition occurring with tumor progression. Master regulatory analysis has identified the transcriptional co-activator TAZ (WWTR1) as a major driver of the MES transition. Overexpression of this single protein in glioma stem cells has been shown to drive a transition ...


Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto 2019 University of Maine

Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic carbon released into the atmosphere is driving rapid, concurrent increases in temperature and acidity across the world’s oceans, most prominently in northern latitudes. The geographic range of the iconic American lobster (Homarus americanus) spans a steep thermal gradient and one of the most rapidly warming oceanic environments. Understanding the interactive effects of ocean warming and acidification on this species’ most vulnerable early life stages is important to predict its response to climate change on a stage-specific and population level. This study compares the responses of lobster larvae from two sub-populations spanning New England’s north-south temperature gradient (southern ...


Sequence Analysis Of The Ren1 Genomic Region From The Grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’, Dani Joseph 2019 Missouri State University

Sequence Analysis Of The Ren1 Genomic Region From The Grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’, Dani Joseph

MSU Graduate Theses

The REN1 region of the grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’ was mapped as the locus that confers resistance to the economically important disease, grape powdery mildew. The purpose of this work was to extend the nucleotide sequence information of this region. By sequencing a heretofore unknown bacterial artificial chromosome clone, the sequence information of this region was extended by 46,890 nucleotides. Sequencing was performed using the third-generation sequencing method, named Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). In order to improve the accuracy of the sequence data, a modified ONT library preparation method was developed. ONT sequencing of a library prepared with the modified ...


Designing And Sample Size Calculation In Presence Of Heterogeneity In Biological Studies Involving High-Throughput Data., Sudhir Srivastava 2019 University of Louisville

Designing And Sample Size Calculation In Presence Of Heterogeneity In Biological Studies Involving High-Throughput Data., Sudhir Srivastava

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The designing and determination of sample size are important for conducting high-throughput biological experiments such as proteomics experiments and RNA-Seq expression studies, thus leading to better understanding of complex mechanisms underlying various biological processes. The variations in the biological data or technical approaches to data collection lead to heterogeneity for the samples under study. We critically worked on the issues of technical and biological heterogeneity. The quantitative measurements based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) often suffer from the problem of missing values (MVs) and data heterogeneity. We considered a proteomics data set generated from human kidney ...


Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

RNA molecules are diverse in form and function. They include messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are templates for proteins, splice products such as introns that can generate functional noncoding RNAs, and a slew of smaller RNAs such as transfer RNAs (tRNAs) that help decode mRNAs into proteins. RNAs can show distinct patterns of subcellular localization that play an important role in protein localization. However, RNA distribution in cells is incompletely understood, with prior studies focusing primarily on RNAs that are long (>200 nucleotides), fully processed, and polyadenylated. We examined the distribution of RNAs in neurons. Neuronal compartments can be separated by ...


Iamhappy: Towards An Iot Knowledge-Based Cross-Domain Well-Being Recommendation System For Everyday Happiness, Amelia Gyrard, Amit Sheth 2019 Wright State University - Main Campus

Iamhappy: Towards An Iot Knowledge-Based Cross-Domain Well-Being Recommendation System For Everyday Happiness, Amelia Gyrard, Amit Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

Nowadays, healthy lifestyle, fitness, and diet habits have become central applications in our daily life. Positive psychology such as well-being and happiness is the ultimate dream of everyday people’s feelings (even without being aware of it). Wearable devices are being increasingly employed to support well-being and fitness. Those devices produce physiological signals that are analyzed by machines to understand emotions and physical state. The Internetof Things (IoT) technology connects (wearable) devices to the Internet to easily access and process data, even using Web technologies (aka Web of Things).

We design IAMHAPPY, an innovative IoT-based well-being recommendation system to encourage ...


Gene Expression Profiling In Salmonella Choleraesuis-Infected Porcine Lung Using A Long Oligonucleotide Microarray, Shu-Hong Zhao, Daniel Kuhar, Joan K. Lunney, Harry Dawson, Catherine Guidry, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Christopher K. Tuggle 2019 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Profiling In Salmonella Choleraesuis-Infected Porcine Lung Using A Long Oligonucleotide Microarray, Shu-Hong Zhao, Daniel Kuhar, Joan K. Lunney, Harry Dawson, Catherine Guidry, Jolita J. Uthe, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Justin Recknor, Dan Nettleton, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Understanding the transcriptional response to pathogenic bacterial infection within food animals is of fundamental and applied interest. To determine the transcriptional response to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (SC) infection, a 13,297-oligonucleotide swine array was used to analyze RNA from control, 24-h postinoculation (hpi), and 48-hpi porcine lung tissue from pigs infected with SC. In total, 57 genes showed differential expression (p < 0.001; false discovery rate = 12%). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of 61 genes was used to confirm the microarray results and to identify pathways responding to infection. Of the 33 genes identified by microarray analysis as differentially expressed, 23 were confirmed by qRT-PCR results. A novel finding was that two transglutaminase family genes (TGM1 and TGM3) showed dramatic increases in expression postinoculation; combined with several other apoptotic genes, they indicated the induction of apoptotic pathways during SC infection. A predominant T helper 1-type immune response occurred during infection, with interferon γ ...


Scanning Microarrays At Multiple Intensities Enhances Discovery Of Differentially Expressed Genes, David S. Skibbe, Xiujuan Wang, Xuefeng Zhao, Lisa A. Borsuk, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable 2019 Iowa State University

Scanning Microarrays At Multiple Intensities Enhances Discovery Of Differentially Expressed Genes, David S. Skibbe, Xiujuan Wang, Xuefeng Zhao, Lisa A. Borsuk, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Motivation: Scanning parameters are often overlooked when optimizing microarray experiments. A scanning approach that extends the dynamic data range by acquiring multiple scans of different intensities has been developed.

Results: Data from each of three scan intensities (low, medium, high) were analyzed separately using multiple scan and linear regression approaches to identify and compare the sets of genes that exhibit statistically significant differential expression. In the multiple scan approach only one-third of the differentially expressed genes were shared among the three intensities, and each scan intensity identified unique sets of differentially expressed genes. The set of differentially expressed genes from ...


Large Scale Microbiome Profiling In The Cloud, Camilo Valdes, Vitalii Stebliankin, Giri Narasimhan 2019 Bioinformatics Research Group (BioRG), School of Computing and Information Sciences and Biomolecular Sciences Institute, Florida International University

Large Scale Microbiome Profiling In The Cloud, Camilo Valdes, Vitalii Stebliankin, Giri Narasimhan

Biomolecular Sciences Institute: Faculty Publications

Motivation

Bacterial metagenomics profiling for metagenomic whole sequencing (mWGS) usually starts by aligning sequencing reads to a collection of reference genomes. Current profiling tools are designed to work against a small representative collection of genomes, and do not scale very well to larger reference genome collections. However, large reference genome collections are capable of providing a more complete and accurate profile of the bacterial population in a metagenomics dataset. In this paper, we discuss a scalable, efficient and affordable approach to this problem, bringing big data solutions within the reach of laboratories with modest resources. Results

We developed FLINT, a ...


Entrna: A Framework To Predict Rna Foldability, Congzhe Su, Jefferey D. Weir, Fei Zhang, Hao Yan, Teresa Wu 2019 Arizona State University

Entrna: A Framework To Predict Rna Foldability, Congzhe Su, Jefferey D. Weir, Fei Zhang, Hao Yan, Teresa Wu

Faculty Publications

RNA molecules play many crucial roles in living systems. The spatial complexity that exists in RNA structures determines their cellular functions. Therefore, understanding RNA folding conformations, in particular, RNA secondary structures, is critical for elucidating biological functions. Existing literature has focused on RNA design as either an RNA structure prediction problem or an RNA inverse folding problem where free energy has played a key role.


Gene Mapping Via Bulked Segregant Rna-Seq (Bsr-Seq), Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Ho Man Tang, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable 2019 Iowa State University

Gene Mapping Via Bulked Segregant Rna-Seq (Bsr-Seq), Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Ho Man Tang, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is an efficient method to rapidly and efficiently map genes responsible for mutant phenotypes. BSA requires access to quantitative genetic markers that are polymorphic in the mapping population. We have developed a modification of BSA (BSR-Seq) that makes use of RNA-Seq reads to efficiently map genes even in populations for which no polymorphic markers have been previously identified. Because of the digital nature of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, it is possible to conduct de novo SNP discovery and quantitatively genotype BSA samples by analyzing the same RNA-Seq data using an empirical Bayesian approach. In addition, analysis ...


The Gene Sculpt Suite: A Set Of Tools For Genome Editing, Carla M. Mann, Gabriel Martínez-Gálvez, Jordan M. Welker, Wesley A. Wierson, Hirotaka Ata, Maira P. Almeida, Karl J. Clark, Jeffrey J. Essner, Maura McGrail, Stephen C. Ekker, Drena Dobbs 2019 Iowa State University

The Gene Sculpt Suite: A Set Of Tools For Genome Editing, Carla M. Mann, Gabriel Martínez-Gálvez, Jordan M. Welker, Wesley A. Wierson, Hirotaka Ata, Maira P. Almeida, Karl J. Clark, Jeffrey J. Essner, Maura Mcgrail, Stephen C. Ekker, Drena Dobbs

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The discovery and development of DNA-editing nucleases (Zinc Finger Nucleases, TALENs, CRISPR/Cas systems) has given scientists the ability to precisely engineer or edit genomes as never before. Several different platforms, protocols and vectors for precision genome editing are now available, leading to the development of supporting web-based software. Here we present the Gene Sculpt Suite (GSS), which comprises three tools: (i) GTagHD, which automatically designs and generates oligonucleotides for use with the GeneWeld knock-in protocol; (ii) MEDJED, a machine learning method, which predicts the extent to which a double-stranded DNA break site will utilize the microhomology-mediated repair pathway; and ...


Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet 2019 University of Western Ontario

Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet

Western Research Forum

Background:

In chronic HIV patients, the viral populations are genetically diverse due to mutations introduced by the viral reverse transcriptase during HIV replication. However, more than 80% new infections result from single transmission founder (TF) viruses; therefore, targeting the TFs is key to control AIDS worldwide.

Gp120 is a glycosylated envelope protein required for HIV infection, propagation, and transmission. Glycans on gp120 influence HIV infectivity through their interactions with lectins, the carbohydrate-binding immune proteins in the host mucosa. To transmit sexually, viruses must overcome the lectin traps to access more target T cells.

Hypothesis:

TF viruses are less likely to ...


Reverse Engineering And Analysis Of Large Genome-Scale Gene Networks, Maneesha Aluru, Jaroslaw Zola, Dan Nettleton, Srinivas Aluru 2019 Iowa State University

Reverse Engineering And Analysis Of Large Genome-Scale Gene Networks, Maneesha Aluru, Jaroslaw Zola, Dan Nettleton, Srinivas Aluru

Dan Nettleton

Reverse engineering the whole-genome networks of complex multicellular organisms continues to remain a challenge. While simpler models easily scale to large number of genes and gene expression datasets, more accurate models are compute intensive limiting their scale of applicability. To enable fast and accurate reconstruction of large networks, we developed Tool for Inferring Network of Genes (TINGe), a parallel mutual information (MI)-based program. The novel features of our approach include: (i) B-spline-based formulation for linear-time computation of MI, (ii) a novel algorithm for direct permutation testing and (iii) development of parallel algorithms to reduce run-time and facilitate construction of ...


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