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Plasticity And The Impact Of Increasing Temperature On A Tropical Ectotherm, Adam A. Rosso 2020 Georgia Southern University

Plasticity And The Impact Of Increasing Temperature On A Tropical Ectotherm, Adam A. Rosso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms may respond to climate change through behavior, genetic adaptation, and/or phenotypic plasticity. Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because most have a narrow range of thermal tolerance while living close to their upper thermal tolerance limits. Additionally, many tropical species live in closed-canopy forests, which provide homogenous thermal landscapes that prevent behavioral compensation for stressfully warm temperatures. Finally, tropical ectotherms are thought to have decreased capacity for phenotypic plasticity because they have evolved in thermally stable environments. We tested gene expression patterns and phenotypic plasticity in the Panamanian slender anole by a) measuring ...


Biological Pathways Associated With Wild And Domestic Animals, Cayla Steemer, Laura Carson, Jim Hu, Gloria Regisford 2020 Prairie View A&M University

Biological Pathways Associated With Wild And Domestic Animals, Cayla Steemer, Laura Carson, Jim Hu, Gloria Regisford

Pursue: Undergraduate Research Journal

Background: Zoonotic diseases are problematic, in that, they impact both wild and domestic animals alike. Thus, there is a need to investigate the genomes of wild and domestic. Gene ontology (GO) is a major bioinformatics initiative, whereby descriptions of gene products across the database are developed and unified to describe all species. This process is performed by biocurators, who gather, annotate, and validate information on the databases, consequently affording easy access to accurate and updated data. In this study, we investigated the biocuration of two biological processes, DNA integration, which is used for DNA coding, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA ...


Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. VanMeter, James N. Baraniuk 2019 Georgetown University

Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. Vanmeter, James N. Baraniuk

Faculty Publications, Department of Mathematics

One quarter of veterans returning from the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI) with chronic pain, fatigue, cognitive and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Exertion leads to characteristic, delayed onset exacerbations that are not relieved by sleep. We have modeled exertional exhaustion by comparing magnetic resonance images from before and after submaximal exercise. One third of the 27 GWI participants had brain stem atrophy and developed postural tachycardia after exercise (START: Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia). The remainder activated basal ganglia and anterior insulae during a cognitive task (STOPP: Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception). Here, the role of ...


Cancer Risk Prediction With Whole Exome Sequencing And Machine Learning, Abdulrhman Fahad M Aljouie 2019 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Cancer Risk Prediction With Whole Exome Sequencing And Machine Learning, Abdulrhman Fahad M Aljouie

Dissertations

Accurate cancer risk and survival time prediction are important problems in personalized medicine, where disease diagnosis and prognosis are tuned to individuals based on their genetic material. Cancer risk prediction provides an informed decision about making regular screening that helps to detect disease at the early stage and therefore increases the probability of successful treatments. Cancer risk prediction is a challenging problem. Lifestyle, environment, family history, and genetic predisposition are some factors that influence the disease onset. Cancer risk prediction based on predisposing genetic variants has been studied extensively. Most studies have examined the predictive ability of variants in known ...


Sensitive Detection Of Ebv Micrornas Across Cancer Spectrum Reveals Association With Decreased Survival In Adult Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, Mercedeh J. Movassagh, Cliff Oduor, Catherine Forconi, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sensitive Detection Of Ebv Micrornas Across Cancer Spectrum Reveals Association With Decreased Survival In Adult Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, Mercedeh J. Movassagh, Cliff Oduor, Catherine Forconi, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey

Open Access Articles

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is the etiologic agent involved in numerous human cancers. After infecting the host, EBV establishes a latent infection, with low levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression, evolved to evade immune recognition. Conversely, EBV microRNAs (miRNA) are expressed ubiquitously and abundantly within infected cells. Their role in tumor biology and clinical outcomes across the spectrum of cancer is not fully explained. Here, we applied our bioinformatics pipeline for quantitative EBV miRNA detection to examine sequencing data of 8,955 individual tumor samples across 27 tumor types representing the breadth of cancer. We uncover an association ...


A Minimal Crispr-Cas3 System For Genome Engineering, Bálint Csörgő, Lina M. León, Ilea J. Chau-Ly, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Joel D. Berry, Caroline Mahendra, Emily D. Crawford, Jennifer D. Lewis, Joseph Bondy-Denomy 2019 University of California, San Francisco

A Minimal Crispr-Cas3 System For Genome Engineering, Bálint Csörgő, Lina M. León, Ilea J. Chau-Ly, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Joel D. Berry, Caroline Mahendra, Emily D. Crawford, Jennifer D. Lewis, Joseph Bondy-Denomy

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CRISPR-Cas technologies have provided programmable gene editing tools that have revolutionized research. The leading CRISPR-Cas9 and Cas12a enzymes are ideal for programmed genetic manipulation, however, they are limited for genome-scale interventions. Here, we utilized a Cas3-based system featuring a processive nuclease, expressed endogenously or heterologously, for genome engineering purposes. Using an optimized and minimal CRISPR-Cas3 system (Type I-C) programmed with a single crRNA, large deletions ranging from 7 - 424 kb were generated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with high efficiency and speed. By comparison, Cas9 yielded small deletions and point mutations. Cas3-generated deletion boundaries were variable in the absence of a homology-directed ...


The Effect Of Historic Shipwrecks On Sediment Microbiomes In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Melissa Brock 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Historic Shipwrecks On Sediment Microbiomes In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Melissa Brock

Master's Theses

Microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed across all aquatic habitats, but it is the environmental conditions of a habitat that determine which microorganisms can thrive in terms of abundance or metabolic activity. Habitats that experience consistent physical and chemical environmental conditions repeatedly favor specific taxonomic groups which may result in a microbial assemblage that is commonly associated with that habitat (i.e., a core microbiome). Core microbiomes have been identified for a variety of natural marine habitats including methane seeps, wood falls, octocoral, and deep-sea sediments. However, it was unknown if the presence of man-made structures on the seafloor, including historic shipwrecks ...


Finding And Analyzing De Novo Mutations In The Exomes Of Parent-Offspring Trios Of Spontaneous Chiari Malformation Type 1 Patients, Brian Leon Ricardo 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Finding And Analyzing De Novo Mutations In The Exomes Of Parent-Offspring Trios Of Spontaneous Chiari Malformation Type 1 Patients, Brian Leon Ricardo

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chiari Malformation Type 1 (CM1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs when one of the cerebellar tonsils herniates past the foramen magnum causing headaches, motor or sensory deficits, sleep apnea, and difficulty swallowing. This disorder is estimated to affect 1% of the population but due to the need of neuroimaging for diagnosis and the presence of asymptomatic patients there is still uncertainty about the exact proportion of the population affected. CM1 often presents itself with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as syringomyelia, scoliosis, and known genetic syndromes such as Klippel-Feil and Marfan syndromes. Twin, family, and familial clustering studies have established ...


Mechanisms And Consequences Of Myb Gene Activation In Salivary Gland Tumors, Candace Frerich 2019 University of New Mexico

Mechanisms And Consequences Of Myb Gene Activation In Salivary Gland Tumors, Candace Frerich

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to infiltrate surrounding nerves and metastasize to distant sites. The standard treatment often fails to control local tumor recurrence and distant metastases and no approved targeted therapeutic options exist for these tumors. The goal of our studies was to reveal the molecular mechanisms driving ACC tumor development and novel drug targets to improve patient morbidity and mortality.

We first analyzed clinical and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data for 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ACC tumor samples and described previously unappreciated molecular heterogeneity that predicts patient outcome. The poor outcome subgroup ...


The Identification Of Long Non-Coding Rna Zfas1 Through An Exploratory Rna-Sequencing Analysis And Its Association With Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition In Colon Cancer Adenocarcinoma., Stephen J. O'Brien 2019 University of Louisville

The Identification Of Long Non-Coding Rna Zfas1 Through An Exploratory Rna-Sequencing Analysis And Its Association With Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition In Colon Cancer Adenocarcinoma., Stephen J. O'Brien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal adenocarcinoma is the fourth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This dissertation performed an exploratory RNA-sequencing analysis comparing gene expression between colon adenocarcinoma tissue and paired normal colon epithelium. After identification of a number of lncRNAs that were increased in expression in colon adenocarcinoma compared to normal colon epithelium, we aimed to validate the expression and investigate their function in vitro. Specifically, we focused on the lncRNA ZFAS1 and its association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These studies found the following: 1. Seven candidate lncRNAs were identified from the exploratory RNA-sequencing analysis to ...


Statistical Analysis Of Variability In Tnseq Data Across Conditions Using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression, Siddharth Subramaniyam, Michael A. DeJesus, Anisha Zaveri, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger, Christopher M. Sassetti, Thomas R. Ioerger 2019 Texas A&M Univeristy

Statistical Analysis Of Variability In Tnseq Data Across Conditions Using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression, Siddharth Subramaniyam, Michael A. Dejesus, Anisha Zaveri, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger, Christopher M. Sassetti, Thomas R. Ioerger

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Deep sequencing of transposon mutant libraries (or TnSeq) is a powerful method for probing essentiality of genomic loci under different environmental conditions. Various analytical methods have been described for identifying conditionally essential genes whose tolerance for insertions varies between two conditions. However, for large-scale experiments involving many conditions, a method is needed for identifying genes that exhibit significant variability in insertions across multiple conditions.

RESULTS: In this paper, we introduce a novel statistical method for identifying genes with significant variability of insertion counts across multiple conditions based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression. Using likelihood ratio tests, we show ...


Deep Sequencing Of Pre-Translational Mrnps Reveals Hidden Flux Through Evolutionarily Conserved As-Nmd Pathways, Carrie Kovalak, Mihir Metkar, Melissa J. Moore 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Deep Sequencing Of Pre-Translational Mrnps Reveals Hidden Flux Through Evolutionarily Conserved As-Nmd Pathways, Carrie Kovalak, Mihir Metkar, Melissa J. Moore

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background The ability to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene by alternative splicing (AS) is crucial for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Because different mRNA isoforms can have widely differing decay rates, however, the flux through competing AS pathways cannot be determined by traditional RNA-Seq data alone. Further, some mRNA isoforms with extremely short half-lives, such as those subject to translation-dependent nonsense-mediated decay (AS-NMD), may be completely overlooked in even the most extensive RNA-Seq analyses.

Results RNA immunoprecipitation in tandem (RIPiT) of exon junction complex (EJC) components allows for the purification of post-splicing mRNA-protein particles (mRNPs) not ...


Wormcat: An Online Tool For Annotation And Visualization Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Genome-Scale Data, Amy D. Holdorf, Daniel P. Higgins, Anne C. Hart, Peter R. Boag, Gregory J. Pazour, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Amy K. Walker 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Wormcat: An Online Tool For Annotation And Visualization Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Genome-Scale Data, Amy D. Holdorf, Daniel P. Higgins, Anne C. Hart, Peter R. Boag, Gregory J. Pazour, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Amy K. Walker

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The emergence of large gene expression datasets has revealed the need for improved tools to identify enriched gene categories and visualize enrichment patterns. While Gene Ontogeny (GO) provides a valuable tool for gene set enrichment analysis, it has several limitations. First, it is difficult to graphically compare multiple GO analyses. Second, genes from some model systems are not well represented. For example, around 30% of Caenorhabditis elegans genes are missing from analysis in commonly used databases. To allow categorization and visualization of enriched C. elegans gene sets in different types of genome-scale data, we developed WormCat, a web-based tool that ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Global Fungal Distribution Reveals Climate-Driven Patterns, Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecký, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Meszárošová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Salvador Lladó, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, Tereza Mašínová, Daniel Morais, Diana Navrátilová, Iñaki Odriozola, Martina Štursová, Karel Švec, Vojtěch Tláskal, Michaela Urbanová, Joe Wan, Lucia Žifčáková, Adina Howe, Joshua Ladau, Kabir Gabriel Peay, David Storch, Jan Wild, Petr Baldrian 2019 Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences

A Meta-Analysis Of Global Fungal Distribution Reveals Climate-Driven Patterns, Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecký, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Meszárošová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Salvador Lladó, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, Tereza Mašínová, Daniel Morais, Diana Navrátilová, Iñaki Odriozola, Martina Štursová, Karel Švec, Vojtěch Tláskal, Michaela Urbanová, Joe Wan, Lucia Žifčáková, Adina Howe, Joshua Ladau, Kabir Gabriel Peay, David Storch, Jan Wild, Petr Baldrian

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes ...


Anti-Crispr Acriia5 Potently Inhibits All Cas9 Homologs Used For Genome Editing, Bianca Garcia, Jooyoung Lee, Alireza Edraki, Yurima Hidalgo-Reyes, Steven Erwood, Aamir Mir, Chantel N. Trost, Uri Seroussi, Sabrina Y. Stanley, Ronald D. Cohn, Julie M. Claycomb, Erik J. Sontheimer, Karen L. Maxwell, Alan R. Davidson 2019 University of Toronto

Anti-Crispr Acriia5 Potently Inhibits All Cas9 Homologs Used For Genome Editing, Bianca Garcia, Jooyoung Lee, Alireza Edraki, Yurima Hidalgo-Reyes, Steven Erwood, Aamir Mir, Chantel N. Trost, Uri Seroussi, Sabrina Y. Stanley, Ronald D. Cohn, Julie M. Claycomb, Erik J. Sontheimer, Karen L. Maxwell, Alan R. Davidson

Open Access Articles

CRISPR-Cas9 systems provide powerful tools for genome editing. However, optimal employment of this technology will require control of Cas9 activity so that the timing, tissue specificity, and accuracy of editing may be precisely modulated. Anti-CRISPR proteins, which are small, naturally occurring inhibitors of CRISPR-Cas systems, are well suited for this purpose. A number of anti-CRISPR proteins have been shown to potently inhibit subgroups of CRISPR-Cas9 systems, but their maximal inhibitory activity is generally restricted to specific Cas9 homologs. Since Cas9 homologs vary in important properties, differing Cas9s may be optimal for particular genome-editing applications. To facilitate the practical exploitation of ...


#1 - Alu-Derived Orthologous Chromosome Classification For The Primate Order, Mehul Mehra, Nitish Sood, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates 2019 Augusta University

#1 - Alu-Derived Orthologous Chromosome Classification For The Primate Order, Mehul Mehra, Nitish Sood, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Orthologous chromosomes between any family of related species have been difficult thus far to obtain, often requiring substantial biochemical testing and computationally-intensive genomic analysis. By employing computational strategies on repeated non-coding DNA, numerous advantages to accurately determining orthologous chromosomes between species can be ascertained. Throughout the primate genome, the Alu repeated element covers 10% of the genome among higher order primates, spanning across each chromosome. These non-protein-coding sequences replicate themselves repeatedly, with each iteration allowed to mutate more than their protein-coding counterparts. Therefore, upon examining the genetic sequences of such “junk” DNA, increasingly specific distinctions can be made between any ...


#11 - Sequence Analysis Of Alu Repeated Elements For Primate Phylogenetic Tree Construction, Nitish Sood, Mehul Mehra, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates 2019 Augusta University

#11 - Sequence Analysis Of Alu Repeated Elements For Primate Phylogenetic Tree Construction, Nitish Sood, Mehul Mehra, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Phylogenetic tree construction can be a particularly challenging and time-intensive process. This study employs a novel computational approach to phylogenetic tree construction, using the Alu repeating element, a SINE. Repetitive elements including Short and Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs/LINEs) have successfully been applied as accurate tools for phylogenetic analysis, as they are predominately unidirectional and homoplasy-free. However, previous analysis of phylogenetic relationships using these repeating elements has been limited to a small number of isolated repeats among relatively few organisms.

As a highly repetitive sequence, the Alu element and its associated subfamilies can provide detailed analysis on evolutionary divergence ...


Discovery Of An Egfr Inhibitor For The Treatment Of Lung And Other Cancers, Jodie Meng '20 2019 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Discovery Of An Egfr Inhibitor For The Treatment Of Lung And Other Cancers, Jodie Meng '20

Student Publications & Research

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein involved in the regulation of signaling pathways, is frequently overexpressed in epithelial tumors. First generation EGFR TKIs, such as erlotinib and gefitinib, traditionally improved outcomes for non-small-cell lung carcinoma and pancreatic cancer patients by attaching competitively and reversibly to the ATP binding domain of EGFR. Second-generation EGFR TKIs have been developed to combat resistance among patients, despite demonstrating toxic side effects. In the present study, 1400 selective inhibitors were designed based on the molecular scaffolds of first and second generation EGFR TKIs. Results were refined by parameters outlined in Lipinski’s ...


Transcriptomic Analyses And Computational Modeling Reveal That Fatty Acid Transport Protein 2 (Fatp2) Impacts The Transcriptional Activity Of Pparα Thus Altering The Lipid Metabolic Landscape, Vincent M. Perez 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Transcriptomic Analyses And Computational Modeling Reveal That Fatty Acid Transport Protein 2 (Fatp2) Impacts The Transcriptional Activity Of Pparα Thus Altering The Lipid Metabolic Landscape, Vincent M. Perez

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) is highly expressed in liver, small intestine, and kidney where it functions in both the uptake of exogenous long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Here we address the phenotypic impacts of deleting FATP2 with the following three separate approaches: [1] Utilizing an unbiased next-generation sequencing analysis of FATP2-null (fatp2-/-) mice fed a standard chow diet; [2] Utilizing an unbiased next-generation sequencing analysis of fatp2-null (fatp2-/-) mice fed a high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) and fasted for 24-hours [3] Building dynamic computer models built with data ...


Evidence That App Gene Copy Number Changes Reflect Recombinant Vector Contamination, Junho Kim, Boxun Zhao, August Yue Huang, Michael B. Miller, Michael A. Lodato, Christopher A. Walsh, Eunjung Alice Lee 2019 Harvard Medical School

Evidence That App Gene Copy Number Changes Reflect Recombinant Vector Contamination, Junho Kim, Boxun Zhao, August Yue Huang, Michael B. Miller, Michael A. Lodato, Christopher A. Walsh, Eunjung Alice Lee

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Mutations that occur in cells of the body, called somatic mutations, cause human diseases including cancer and some neurological disorders1. In a recent study published in Nature, Lee et al.2 (hereafter “the Lee study”) reported somatic copy number gains of the APP gene, a known risk locus of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in the neurons of AD-patients and controls (69% vs 25% of neurons with at least one APP copy gain on average). The authors argue that the mechanism of these copy number gains was somatic integration of APP mRNA into the genome, creating what they called genomic ...


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