An Application Of The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: Optimizing Cluster Method Parameters To Produce Predictive Data For Hiv Outbreaks, Connor J. Chato, Art Fy Poon
Western Research Forum
A popular approach to study HIV outbreaks is to cluster cases based on genetic similarity. However, there is no widely-used statistical criterion which optimizes the parameters for sequence-based clustering methods. The relationship between a cluster-defining similarity threshold and it’s associated set of clusters can be analogized to the aggregation level in the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP).
Based on the selection of aggregation level for study partitions in MAUP, we present a statistical framework to optimize the similarity threshold for pairwise distance algorithm TN93 (http://github.com/veg/tn93). We hypothesize that defining this threshold includes case ...
Genomic Analysis Of Mitochondria Of Metschnikowia, 2019 Western University
Genomic Analysis Of Mitochondria Of Metschnikowia, Dong Kyung Lee
Western Research Forum
Genomic Analysis of Mitochondria of Metschnikowia
Our current understanding of mitochondrial genomes is biased toward metazoans, which represent the majority of sequenced mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). The high diversity in size, shape, and gene synteny among yeast mitochondrial genomes make them an appealing alternative to those of metazoans for studying genomic diversity and evolution. Recently, more than 60 draft-genome assemblies of large-spored Metschnikowia species have been determined. Complete mitochondrial genomes of these yeasts, however, are yet to be constructed and characterized. Therefore, I propose to construct and analyze the mitochondrial genomes of all 61 strains of large-spored Metschnikowia species.
Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis In Methanogens, 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis In Methanogens, Cuiping Zhao
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Methanogens live in a syntrophic consortium with bacteria, taking advantage of the metabolic abilities of their syntrophic partners to overcome energetic barriers and break down compounds that they cannot digest by themselves. Interspecies electron transfer, which is a major type of microbial communication in syntrophic processes, improves methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidization of methane (AOM) processes involved in syntrophic consortia. These processes have a significant impact on the global carbon cycle. Most of the essential enzymes involved in methanogenesis are iron-sulfur proteins. Iron-sulfur clusters are one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors present in all domains of life. To date ...
Stress Response To Co2 Deprivation By Arabidopsis Thaliana In Plant Cultures, 2019 Iowa State University
Stress Response To Co2 Deprivation By Arabidopsis Thaliana In Plant Cultures, Souvik Banerjee, Oskar Siemianowski, Meiling Liu, Kara R. Lind, Xinchun Tian, Dan Nettleton, Ludovico Cademartiri
After being the standard plant propagation protocol for decades, cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana sealed with Parafilm remain common today out of practicality, habit, or necessity (as in co-cultures with microorganisms). Regardless of concerns over the aeration of these cultures, no investigation has explored the CO2 transport inside these cultures and its effect on the plants. Thereby, it was impossible to assess whether Parafilm-seals used today or in thousands of older papers in the literature constitute a treatment, and whether this treatment could potentially affect the study of other treatments.For the first time we report the CO2concentrations in Parafilm-sealed cultures ...
Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, 2019 Iowa State University
Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise
Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of ...
Evolutionary Dynamics Of Influenza Type B In The Presence Of Vaccination: An Ecological Study, 2019 University of South Florida
Evolutionary Dynamics Of Influenza Type B In The Presence Of Vaccination: An Ecological Study, Lindsey J. Fiedler
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza type B in human hosts is a public health concern as we strive to minimize the disease burden in seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is considered the best defense against contracting influenza, and everyone over the age of 6 months is advised to get vaccinated before each season. The effect that vaccine-acquired immunity has on the evolution of influenza B remains unclear. In the U.S., vaccine-uptake is irregular across the states, and the differing coverages present an opportunity to study how vaccination influences viral evolution. This thesis analyzes the evolutionary patterns of influenza B in ...
A Chromosome Folding Intermediate At The Condensin-To-Cohesin Transition During Telophase, 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A Chromosome Folding Intermediate At The Condensin-To-Cohesin Transition During Telophase, Kristin Abramo, Anne-Laure Valton, Sergey V. Venev, Hakan Ozadam, A. Nicole Fox, Job Dekker
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
Chromosome folding is extensively modulated as cells progress through the cell cycle. During mitosis, condensin complexes fold chromosomes in helically arranged nested loop arrays. In interphase, the cohesin complex generates loops that can be stalled at CTCF sites leading to positioned loops and topologically associating domains (TADs), while a separate process of compartmentalization drives the spatial segregation of active and inactive chromatin domains. We used synchronized cell cultures to determine how the mitotic chromosome conformation is transformed into the interphase state. Using Hi-C, chromatin binding assays, and immunofluorescence we show that by telophase condensin-mediated loops are lost and a transient ...
Adaptive Evolution Targets A Pirna Precursor Transcription Network, 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Adaptive Evolution Targets A Pirna Precursor Transcription Network, Swapnil S. Parhad, Tianxiong Yu, Gen Zhang, Nicholas P. Rice, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
In Drosophila, transposon-silencing piRNAs are derived from heterochromatic clusters and a subset of euchromatic transposon insertions, which are transcribed from internal non-canonical initiation sites and flanking canonical promoters. Rhino binds to Deadlock, which recruits TRF2 to promote non-canonical transcription of these loci. Cuff co-localizes with Rhino and Del. The role of Cuff is less well understood, but the cuff gene shows hallmarks of adaptive evolution, which frequently targets functional interactions within host defense systems. We show that Drosophila simulans cuff is a dominant negative allele when expressed in Drosophila melanogaster, where it traps Deadlock, TRF2 and the transcriptional co-repressor CtBP ...
Mu Transposon Insertion Sites And Meiotic Recombination Events Co-Localize With Epigenetic Marks For Open Chromatin Across The Maize Genome, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Tieming Ji, Kai Ying, Haiyan Wu, Ho Man Tang, Yan Fu, Daniel S. Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable
The Mu transposon system of maize is highly active, with each of the ∼50–100 copies transposing on average once each generation. The approximately one dozen distinct Mutransposons contain highly similar ∼215 bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and generate 9-bp target site duplications (TSDs) upon insertion. Using a novel genome walking strategy that uses these conserved TIRs as primer binding sites, Mu insertion sites were amplified from Mu stocks and sequenced via 454 technology. 94% of ∼965,000 reads carried Mu TIRs, demonstrating the specificity of this strategy. Among these TIRs, 21 novel Mu TIRs were discovered, revealing additional ...
Flor Revisited (Again): Eqtl And Mutational Analysis Of Nb-Lrr Mediated Immunity To Powdery Mildew In Barley, 2019 United States Department of Agriculture
Flor Revisited (Again): Eqtl And Mutational Analysis Of Nb-Lrr Mediated Immunity To Powdery Mildew In Barley, Roger P. Wise, Priyanka Surana, Gregory S. Fuerst, Ruo Xu, Divya Mistry, Julie A. Dickerson, Dan Nettleton Dr.
Genes encoding early signaling events in pathogen defense often are identified only by their phenotype. Such genes involved in barley-powdery mildew interactions include Mla, specifying race-specific resistance; Rar1 (Required for Mla12-specified resistance1), and Rom1 (Restoration of Mla-specified resistance1). The HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 complex appears to function as chaperone in MLA-specified resistance, however, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise signaling underlying plant immunity. Genetic analyses of fast-neutron mutants derived from CI 16151 (Mla6) uncovered a novel locus, designated Rar3 (Required for Mla6-specified resistance3). Rar3 segregates independent of Mla6 and Rar1, and rar3 mutants are susceptible to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei ...
Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, 2019 Iowa State University
Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg
The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...
Differentially Expressed Genes In Blood From Young Pigs Between Two Swine Lines Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency: Potential Biomarkers For Improving Feed Efficiency, 2019 Iowa State University
Differentially Expressed Genes In Blood From Young Pigs Between Two Swine Lines Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency: Potential Biomarkers For Improving Feed Efficiency, Haibo Liu, Yet T. Nguyen, Daniel S. Nettleton, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle
The goal of this study was to find potential gene expression biomarkers in blood of piglets that can be used to predict pigs’ future feed efficiency. Using RNA-seq technology, we found 453 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05) in the blood of two Yorkshire lines of pigs divergently selected for feed efficiency (FE) based on residual feed intake (RFI). Genes involved in several biosynthetic processes were overrepresented among genes more highly expressed in the low RFI line compared to the high RFI line. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) also revealed genes involved in some of ...
An In Silico Study Of G Protein-Coupled-Receptor Activation, Specifically In The Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor And The Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptor, Nicolas Angelo Scorese
Theses and Dissertations
The drug discovery process is an extremely long and expensive process that modern computational methods help to alleviate. Through the use of computational methods, we provide information and insight into the activation methods of class B GPCRs so that future drugs can be developed to have less side effects. The first study focuses on the corticotropin releasing factor receptor, which is a good drug target for anxiety and depression. A mechanism of activation was theorized which focuses less on molecular switches (as has been the focus of several papers) and more on large scale conformation at the intracellular region of ...
Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang
Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as ...
Barkbase: Epigenomic Annotation Of Canine Genomes, 2019 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Barkbase: Epigenomic Annotation Of Canine Genomes, Kate Megquier, Xue Li, Kathleen Morrill, Brittney Logan, Elinor K. Karlsson
Program in Molecular Medicine Publications
Dogs are an unparalleled natural model for investigating the genetics of health and disease, particularly for complex diseases like cancer. Comprehensive genomic annotation of regulatory elements active in healthy canine tissues is crucial both for identifying candidate causal variants and for designing functional studies needed to translate genetic associations into disease insight. Currently, canine geneticists rely primarily on annotations of the human or mouse genome that have been remapped to dog, an approach that misses dog-specific features. Here, we describe BarkBase, a canine epigenomic resource available at barkbase.org. BarkBase hosts data for 27 adult tissue types, with biological replicates ...
Matria: A Unified Centrality Algorithm, 2019 Bioinformatics Research Group (BioRG) & Biomolecular Sciences Institute, School of Computing & Information Sciences, Florida International University
Matria: A Unified Centrality Algorithm, Trevor Cickovski, Vanessa Aguiar-Pulido, Giri Narasimhan
Biomolecular Sciences Institute: Faculty Publications
Computing centrality is a foundational concept in social networking that involves finding the most “central” or important nodes. In some biological networks defining importance is difficult, which then creates challenges in finding an appropriate centrality algorithm.
We instead generalize the results of any k centrality algorithms through our iterative algorithm MATRIA, producing a single ranked and unified set of central nodes. Through tests on three biological networks, we demonstrate evident and balanced correlations with the results of these k algorithms. We also improve its speed through GPU parallelism.
Our results show iteration to be a powerful technique ...
High-Performance Computing Frameworks For Large-Scale Genome Assembly, 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
High-Performance Computing Frameworks For Large-Scale Genome Assembly, Sayan Goswami
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Genome sequencing technology has witnessed tremendous progress in terms of throughput and cost per base pair, resulting in an explosion in the size of data. Typical de Bruijn graph-based assembly tools demand a lot of processing power and memory and cannot assemble big datasets unless running on a scaled-up server with terabytes of RAMs or scaled-out cluster with several dozens of nodes. In the first part of this work, we present a distributed next-generation sequence (NGS) assembler called Lazer, that achieves both scalability and memory efficiency by using partitioned de Bruijn graphs. By enhancing the memory-to-disk swapping and reducing the ...
Coupling Dynamics And Evolutionary Information With Structure To Identify Protein Regulatory And Functional Binding Sites, Sambit Kumar Mishra, Gaurav Kandoi, Robert L. Jernigan
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications
Binding sites in proteins can be either specifically functional binding sites (active sites) that bind specific substrates with high affinity or regulatory binding sites (allosteric sites), that modulate the activity of functional binding sites through effector molecules. Owing to their significance in determining protein function, the identification of protein functional and regulatory binding sites is widely acknowledged as an important biological problem. In this work, we present a novel binding site prediction method, AR-Pred (Active and Regulatory site Prediction), which supplements protein geometry, evolutionary and physicochemical features with information about protein dynamics to predict putative active and allosteric site residues ...
De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In The Biosynthesis Of Secondary Metabolites, James Wimberley
Computational and Data Sciences (MS) Theses
Salvia hispanica L. (commonly known as chia) is gaining popularity worldwide and specially in US as a healthy oil and food supplement for human and animal consumption due to its favorable oil composition, and high protein, fiber, and antioxidant contents. Despite these benefits and its growing public demand, very limited gene sequence information is currently available in public databases. In this project, we generated 90 million high quality 150 bp paired-end sequences from the chia leaf and root tissues. The sequences were de novo assembled into 103,367 contigs with average length of 1,445 bp. The resulted assembly represented ...
The Evolutionary And Functional Roles Of Synonymous Codon Usage In Eukaryotes, 2019 Washington University in St. Louis
The Evolutionary And Functional Roles Of Synonymous Codon Usage In Eukaryotes, Zhen Peng
Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. Although alternative usage of synonymous codons does not affect the amino acid sequences of proteins, researchers have been reporting evidence for functional synonymous codon usage at the species- and gene-specific levels for over four decades. It has been shown that variations in synonymous codon usage can affect phenotypes through diverse mechanisms such as shaping translation efficiency and mRNA stability. On the other hand, the common view that cellular and organismal phenotypes are primarily determined by proteins whose functions are primarily determined by amino acid sequences, often drives the assumption that synonymous ...