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Limonene Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect On Lps-Induced Jejunal Injury In Mice By Inhibiting Nf-Κb/Ap-1 Pathway, Sarmed H. Kathem, Yasameen Sh. Nasrawi, Shihab H. Mutlag, Surya M. Nauli 2024 University of Baghdad

Limonene Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect On Lps-Induced Jejunal Injury In Mice By Inhibiting Nf-Κb/Ap-1 Pathway, Sarmed H. Kathem, Yasameen Sh. Nasrawi, Shihab H. Mutlag, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The human gastrointestinal system is a complex ecosystem crucial for well-being. During sepsis-induced gut injury, the integrity of the intestinal barrier can be compromised. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, disrupts the intestinal barrier, contributing to inflammation and various dysfunctions. The current study explores the protective effects of limonene, a natural compound with diverse biological properties, against LPS-induced jejunal injury in mice. Oral administration of limonene at dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg was used in the LPS mouse model. The Murine Sepsis Score (MSS) was utilized to evaluate the severity of sepsis, while serum levels of urea and …


Diagnosis And Treatment Of Helicobacter Pylori, Erin Raspet 2024 University of the Pacific

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Helicobacter Pylori, Erin Raspet

Pacific Journal of Health

Helicobacter pylori is a widespread infectious disease most commonly associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. The ability of this organism to influence immune function has been associated with a proinflammatory state that has been associated with several other conditions that can lead to significant mortality and morbidity. Treatment is possible with antibiotic regimens, however, increasing resistance requires treatment be informed by susceptibility information followed by a test of cure to ensure eradication of the infection. Given the global burden of this infection, it is important for providers to appropriately identify, diagnosis, and treat this condition to reduce …


Streptococcus Canis Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis Linked To Cat Exposure: A Case Report And Review, Michael S. Wang, Maria Huaringa, Lauren Feld, Ken Ochiai, Tiffany Whelan, Nicholas M. Frazier 2024 Corewell Health South

Streptococcus Canis Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis Linked To Cat Exposure: A Case Report And Review, Michael S. Wang, Maria Huaringa, Lauren Feld, Ken Ochiai, Tiffany Whelan, Nicholas M. Frazier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Streptococcus canis is an uncommon human pathogen, but documented infections have been mostly associated with exposure to dogs. There are only five documented cases of endocarditis secondary to streptococcus canis, with all cases except one documenting exposure to a canine. We present a 74-year-old male with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, CKD 3, moderate aortic stenosis and remote exposure to agent orange, who was found to have Streptococcus canis native valve endocarditis without exposure to a dog. To the best of our knowledge this case is the first case of endocarditis linked to feline exposure.


Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Regarding Deep Dentinal Caries Removal Before Root Canal Treatment And Restoration Among Practicing Dental Surgeons, Sangram Panda, Anamika Sinha, Shakti Rath, Kajal Kiran Sahoo 2024 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown & Bridge, Institute of Dental Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be) University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Regarding Deep Dentinal Caries Removal Before Root Canal Treatment And Restoration Among Practicing Dental Surgeons, Sangram Panda, Anamika Sinha, Shakti Rath, Kajal Kiran Sahoo

Palestinian Medical and Pharmaceutical Journal

This article aims to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Deep Dentinal Caries Removal before Root Canal Treatment (RCT) and Restoration among practicing dental surgeons. A descriptive cross-sectional study was executed amongst dental surgeons practicing with undergraduate and post-graduate degrees. A Google questionnaire form was developed and distributed, and 111 authentic entries were short-listed. Data obtained from the study were recorded in Microsoft Excel 2007 version, and SPSS version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Most dental surgeons who participated in the study practiced for over 15-20 years. Among them, 60% believe in removing dentinal caries before RCT; 83.8% …


Description Of Cryptococcosis Following Sars-Cov-2 Infection: A Disease Survey Through The Mycosis Study Group Education And Research Consortium (Msg-19), Jeremey Walker, Todd McCarty, Gerald McGwin, Eloy E Ordaya, Paschalis Vergidis, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Mehriban Mammadova, Andrej Spec, Adriana M Rauseo, John Perfect, Julia Messina, Gabriel Vilchez, Rachel McMullen, Carolynn T Jones, Peter G Pappas 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Description Of Cryptococcosis Following Sars-Cov-2 Infection: A Disease Survey Through The Mycosis Study Group Education And Research Consortium (Msg-19), Jeremey Walker, Todd Mccarty, Gerald Mcgwin, Eloy E Ordaya, Paschalis Vergidis, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Mehriban Mammadova, Andrej Spec, Adriana M Rauseo, John Perfect, Julia Messina, Gabriel Vilchez, Rachel Mcmullen, Carolynn T Jones, Peter G Pappas

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections have been described throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Cryptococcal disease after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in several isolated case reports and 1 larger case series. We sought to describe cryptococcal infections following SARS-CoV-2 through establishing a database to investigate underlying risk factors, disease manifestations, and outcomes.

METHODS: We created a crowdsourced call for cases solicited through the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infectious Diseases Network, and infectious diseases Twitter groups. Data were collected in a web-based and secure REDCap …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya SV, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty 2024 Faculty of Dental Sciences, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


The Transmission Of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kunjal Patel, Aleesha Thomas 2024 Nova Southeastern University

The Transmission Of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kunjal Patel, Aleesha Thomas

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The existence of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) has recently been found to have correlations with the Human Papillomavirus. HPV-associated OPSCC exhibits a unique method of infection and transmission and has made this branch an emerging disease in the recent decade. This systematic review of the literature was conducted to further explore research into Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer (OPSCC). Commonly referred to as “throat cancer”, this growth originates in the oropharynx. Symptoms of this condition include sore throat, lumps in the neck, and difficulty with swallowing. OPSCC has many variants but has shown a strong association with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), …


Impaired Neutrophil Extracellular Trap-Forming Capacity Contributes To Susceptibility To Chronic Vaginitis In A Mouse Model Of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, Junko Yano, Paul L. Fidel 2024 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Impaired Neutrophil Extracellular Trap-Forming Capacity Contributes To Susceptibility To Chronic Vaginitis In A Mouse Model Of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, Junko Yano, Paul L. Fidel

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by is characterized by aberrant inflammation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the vaginal lumen. Data from the established murine model shows that despite potent antifungal properties, PMNs fail to clear due to local heparan sulfate that inhibits the interaction between PMNs and , resulting in chronic vaginal immunopathology. To understand the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in defense against at the vaginal mucosa, we investigated the NET-forming capacity of PMNs in chronic VVC-susceptible (CVVC-S/C3H) and -resistant (CVVC-R/CD-1) mouse strains. Immunofluorescence revealed the formation of NETs (release of DNA with PMN-derived antimicrobial proteins) in PMN cocultures …


Antimicrobial And Synergistic Effects Of Syzygium Cumini, Moringa Oleifera, And Tinospora Cordifolia Against Different Candida Infections, Adedayo O. Adelakun, Ayoola Awosika, Uzochukwu Adabanya, Adekunle E. Omole, Akinyode I. Olopoda, Emmanuel T. Bello 2024 Southeast Iowa Regional Medical Center, West Burlington, IA

Antimicrobial And Synergistic Effects Of Syzygium Cumini, Moringa Oleifera, And Tinospora Cordifolia Against Different Candida Infections, Adedayo O. Adelakun, Ayoola Awosika, Uzochukwu Adabanya, Adekunle E. Omole, Akinyode I. Olopoda, Emmanuel T. Bello

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Introduction The burden of multiple drug resistance in human pathogens has necessitated the search for and development of antimicrobial agents with a wide range of structural classes and potentials to selectively act on the several mechanisms of actions exhibited by the pathogens. However, most synthetic antimicrobial agents have been linked with adverse side effects and high costs, furthering the need to explore more options. Syzygium cumini, Moringa oleifera, and Tinospora cordifolia are three medicinal plants used in traditional medicine systems for various infectious diseases. They contain various phytochemicals that exhibit antimicrobial activities against various bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The mechanisms …


Building Research Capacity In Low- And Middle-Income Countries And Pandemic Preparedness: Lessons Learned And Future Directions, Peter H. Kilmarx, Karen A. Goralesk, Erum Khan, John F. Lindo, Nancy Gore Saravia 2024 National Institutes of Health, Maryland

Building Research Capacity In Low- And Middle-Income Countries And Pandemic Preparedness: Lessons Learned And Future Directions, Peter H. Kilmarx, Karen A. Goralesk, Erum Khan, John F. Lindo, Nancy Gore Saravia

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Research capacity is a critical component of pandemic preparedness, as highlighted by the challenges faced during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Recent global initiatives, such as the Research & Development Task Force of the Global Health Security Agenda and the World Health Assembly's resolution on strengthening clinical trials, emphasize the need for robust research capabilities. This Perspective discusses the experiences of leaders in infectious disease research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries, focusing on Colombia, Jamaica, and Pakistan. These case studies underscore the importance of collaborative efforts, interdisciplinary training, and global partnerships in pandemic response. The experiences …


The Development Of A Rabies Virus-Vectored Vaccine Against Borrelia Burgdorferi, Targeting Bbi39, Shantel Rios, Bibek Bhattachan, Kruthi Vavilikolanu, Chrysoula Kitsou, Utpal Pal, Matthias J. Schnell 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

The Development Of A Rabies Virus-Vectored Vaccine Against Borrelia Burgdorferi, Targeting Bbi39, Shantel Rios, Bibek Bhattachan, Kruthi Vavilikolanu, Chrysoula Kitsou, Utpal Pal, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States (U.S.), Europe, and Asia. Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis, causes LD in the U.S. If untreated, Lyme arthritis, heart block, and meningitis can occur. Given the absence of a human Lyme disease vaccine, we developed a vaccine using the rabies virus (RABV) vaccine vector BNSP333 and an outer surface borrelial protein, BBI39. BBI39 was previously utilized as a recombinant protein vaccine and was protective in challenge experiments; therefore, we decided to utilize this protective antigen in a rabies virus-vectored vaccine …


A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier 2024 Department of Medicine, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

IgA vasculitis, previously known as Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP), is a disease more common in children and occurs when IgA1 immune complexes attach to the walls of small blood vessels causing inflammation. This case report is of an adult male who presented with a purpuric rash affecting both legs, microhematuria, and knee pain. Blood cultures were positive for Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Computed tomography of the pelvis revealed a prostate abscess. Skin biopsy demonstrated IgA and C3 in the dermal vessels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgA vasculitis associated with MSSA bacteremia due to a prostate …


Rare Case Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex Peritonitis In A Patient With Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis, Sacide S. Ozgur, Nida Ansari, Dhruv Patel, Ryan Rahman, Raymond Shih 2024 St. Joseph’s University Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, USA

Rare Case Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex Peritonitis In A Patient With Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis, Sacide S. Ozgur, Nida Ansari, Dhruv Patel, Ryan Rahman, Raymond Shih

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections can present as a variety of severe diseases. While it has a predilection for immunocompromised patients such as those with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it can also affect immunocompetent patients as well. One of the rare yet severe diseases that MAC infections can present is MAC peritonitis. Often hard to distinguish from other causes of peritonitis, high clinical suspicion should be maintained for those who are susceptible. Here we present an 85-year-old female with a past medical history of end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis who presented with nausea and vomiting. She was found to …


Microbial Co-Occurrences On Catheters From Long-Term Catheterized Patients, Taylor M Nye, Zongsen Zou, Chloe L P Obernuefemann, Jerome S Pinkner, Erin Lowry, Kent Kleinschmidt, Karla Bergeron, Aleksandra Klim, Karen W Dodson, Ana L Flores-Mireles, Jennifer N Walker, Daniel Garrett Wong, Alana Desai, Michael G Caparon, Scott J Hultgren 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Microbial Co-Occurrences On Catheters From Long-Term Catheterized Patients, Taylor M Nye, Zongsen Zou, Chloe L P Obernuefemann, Jerome S Pinkner, Erin Lowry, Kent Kleinschmidt, Karla Bergeron, Aleksandra Klim, Karen W Dodson, Ana L Flores-Mireles, Jennifer N Walker, Daniel Garrett Wong, Alana Desai, Michael G Caparon, Scott J Hultgren

Journal Articles

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, are caused by a diverse array of pathogens that are increasingly becoming antibiotic resistant. We analyze the microbial occurrences in catheter and urine samples from 55 human long-term catheterized patients collected over one year. Although most of these patients were prescribed antibiotics over several collection periods, their catheter samples remain colonized by one or more bacterial species. Examination of a total of 366 catheter and urine samples identify 13 positive and 13 negative genus co-occurrences over 12 collection periods, representing associations that occur more or less frequently than expected …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori 2024 Old Dominion University

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


The Role Of Intracellular Growth During The Systemic Spread Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Jamila S. Tucker 2024 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Intracellular Growth During The Systemic Spread Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Jamila S. Tucker

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food products. Typically, infections range from mild, self-limiting gastroenteritis to life-threatening systemic infections; however, the events that occur in the gut to allow for this spread are unclear.

The focus of my thesis aims to determine how L. monocytogenes escape the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), the final barrier to systemic spread for both commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the gut. I have shown that intracellular replication of L. monocytogenes in an as-yet-unidentified cell type is essential for the colonization and dissemination of the bacteria from the MLN. …


Evaluating A High School Mrsa Prevention Program: A Case Study, Jamie Henning 2024 University of Kentucky

Evaluating A High School Mrsa Prevention Program: A Case Study, Jamie Henning

Theses and Dissertations--Public Health (M.P.H. & Dr.P.H.)

MRSA poses a significant health risk to athletes nationwide. This case study examines the application of an online training module to address knowledge gaps regarding Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among key decision-makers for high school athletes. It reviews the development and initial evaluation of a web-based training program designed to empower decision-makers with the knowledge to prevent MRSA infection and respond to suspected cases. Program evaluation recommended expanding the training module to wrestling staff with improved evaluation methods while continuing implementation and effectiveness assessment for the football staff. Despite initial data quality limitations, the online training module evaluation offered valuable …


Harnessing Antagonistic Pleiotropy: Tolc-Dependent Coliphages Can Drive Reduced Antibiotic Resistance In E. Coli, Cooper McKenna 2024 Claremont Colleges

Harnessing Antagonistic Pleiotropy: Tolc-Dependent Coliphages Can Drive Reduced Antibiotic Resistance In E. Coli, Cooper Mckenna

CMC Senior Theses

The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens has been a growing concern in healthcare around the world, and bacteriophage (phage) therapy is a promising method to combat MDR infections. One defense mechanism of E. coli against antibiotics is the TolC-AcrAB efflux pump. At the same time, some phages use TolC as a surface receptor to infect the cell. This puts TolC at a crossroads in which it is beneficial to the bacteria to protect against antibiotics but harmful by allowing phage infection, creating the potential for evolutionary trade-offs. Previous research has identified only three TolC-dependent phages and shown phage-resistant E. …


Managing Stress: A Study Of Stress Response Mechanisms In Mycobacteria, Augusto C. Hunt Serracin 2024 University of Texas at Arlington

Managing Stress: A Study Of Stress Response Mechanisms In Mycobacteria, Augusto C. Hunt Serracin

Biology Dissertations

Mycobacteria encompass many pathogenic species known to cause severe disease in humans. A well-known example is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the lung disease tuberculosis, which kills millions of humans worldwide yearly. Pathogenic mycobacteria like Mtb are challenging to treat because of their innate ability to adapt to environmental stress. Their unique cell physiology and conserved stress responses allow them to combat biological insults, regulate growth, and regulate genes involved in stress; all these responses increase tolerance to antibiotics. The current therapies to treat mycobacterial infections are lengthy and, at times, unsuccessful, partly due to antibiotic tolerance. A …


Mast Cell Colitis Associated With Yersinia Enterocolitica, Olufemi Osikoya, Gregory Brennan 2024 HCA Healthcare

Mast Cell Colitis Associated With Yersinia Enterocolitica, Olufemi Osikoya, Gregory Brennan

North Texas GME Research Forum 2024

Introduction: Mast cells (MCs) have many functions including regulation of GI epithelial homeostasis, cross talk of the brain gut axis, host immune defenses, and inflammatory pathways. MCs are found in all layers of the GI tract and have been implicated in various gastrointestinal diseases. Although previously described in the literature, mast cell colitis is not considered a distinct clinical entity. This poses a challenge to the gastroenterologist who encounters such pathologic findings. Case Presentation: This is a case of a 76-year-old woman who was referred to the gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of a new diagnosis of colitis. The patient …


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