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Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.

Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp

Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media

Results—Of ...


Application Of Genetics And Genomics To Wildlife Epidemiology, Julie A. Blanchong, Stacie J. Robinson, Michael D. Samuel, Jeffrey T. Foster 2018 Iowa State University

Application Of Genetics And Genomics To Wildlife Epidemiology, Julie A. Blanchong, Stacie J. Robinson, Michael D. Samuel, Jeffrey T. Foster

Julie A. Blanchong

Wildlife diseases can have significant impacts on wildlife conservation and management. Many of the pathogens that affect wildlife also have important implications for domestic animal and human health. However, management interventions to prevent or control wildlife disease are hampered by uncertainties about the complex interactions between pathogens and free-ranging wildlife. We often lack crucial knowledge about host ecology, pathogen characteristics, and host–pathogen dynamics. The purpose of this review is to familiarize wildlife biologists and managers with the application of genetic and genomic methodologies for investigating pathogen and host biology to better understand and manage wildlife diseases. The genesis of ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Evaluating Corellations In Salmonella Serotypes In Swine In Four Longitudinal Dataset, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Paula Cray, Chong Wang, Catherine Logue 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating Corellations In Salmonella Serotypes In Swine In Four Longitudinal Dataset, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Paula Cray, Chong Wang, Catherine Logue

Annette O'Connor

S. enterica serovars surveillance program have been established for many years in the United State of America (USA). Data from long running surveillance programs provides the opportunity to compare prevalence of serotypes within and across surveillance programs, observed patterns and generate hypothesis. To this end, the aim of this project was to estimate the correlation between changes in the yearly changes in serotypes proportions in concurrent years and lagged years from swine, beef and avian longitudinal datasets: (The Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL), The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ( NARMS animal-based isolates only), compared to data from The ...


Evaluating Changes In Salmonella Serovars Associated With Swine Over The Past 20 Years, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Chong Wang, Paula Cray, Catherine Logue 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating Changes In Salmonella Serovars Associated With Swine Over The Past 20 Years, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Chong Wang, Paula Cray, Catherine Logue

Annette O'Connor

The aim of this project was to described changes in Salmonella serotypes prevalence over the past 20 years in the datasets from Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL), The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS animal based isolates only), and the CDC Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance (LEDS) Program.


Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno 2017 University of St. Francis

Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann 2017 Iowa State University

Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. Van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann

Jack M Gallup

Rationale Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in preterm and newborn infants can result in severe bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The lamb lung has several key features conducive to modeling RSV infection in human infants, including susceptibility to human strains of RSV such as the A2, Long, and Memphis Strain 37 (M37). In this study, the kinetics of M37 infection was investigated in newborn lambs in order to better define clinical, viral, physiological, and immunological parameters as well as the pathology and lesions. Methods Newborn lambs were nebulized with M37 hRSV (6 mL of 1.27 x 107 FFU/mL), monitored daily ...


Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia

Theses and Dissertations

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) presents a substantial economic risk to the poultry industry. Domesticated fowl contract HPAI initially through exposure, direct or indirect with migratory waterfowl and outbreaks can result in significant economic losses to growers and the poultry industry at large. A HPAI outbreak occurred in Minnesota and Iowa and spread across over 13 other states in 2014 and 2015. This caused an estimated $1.6 billion in losses (CDC, 2016) and led to shortages of eggs and turkeys together with elevated prices (Anni et al. 2005). Even small outbreaks of HPAI inflict substantial damages as USDA-APHIS guidelines ...


F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey 2017 College of William and Mary

F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...


Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck 2017 Iowa State University

Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite infecting cattle throughout the world. In cows, infection results in early embryonic death and abortion. Current control methods rely on culling infected animals and there is no curative treatment. We obtained a field strain of the parasite from an Iowa bull and isolated it in axenic culture. We then developed a trophozoite killing assay suitable for identifying compounds with anti-parasite activity. Current and future studies involve screening of antimicrobial agents and identification of lead compounds for future in vivo studies.


Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

With the average American consuming 26 chickens per year, poultry is in high demand. Avian related infectious disease is rising and bacteria pose serious concerns for the health of livestock and possess zoonotic potential. The goal of the study is to evaluate surface protein EtsC highly prevalent among Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), as a vaccine antigen candidate against these pathogens in chickens. The objective of this study is to determine antibody response in chickens vaccinated with the EtsC recombinant antigen. Eighteen 4 day-old White Leghorns (N=9/group) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice at two-week interval with PBS (control) or ...


Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) significantly impacts the poultry industry by causing the disease colibacillosis in chickens. In this research study, a vaccine containing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), prevalent among APEC, was evaluated for its broad potential protectivity against APEC. The objectives of our study are to 1) evaluate whether an OmpA vaccine would stimulate an antibody response in chickens and 2) show in vitro broad protection against bacteria. At 4 days-old, White Leghorn chickens (9/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously twice at two week-intervals with either PBS (control) or 50 μg OmpA in CpG adjuvant. On day 33 of ...


Chagas, Enfermedad Olvidada: Una Perspectiva Histórica De La Prevención Y Control Del Chagas En La Provincia De Salta, Argentina (1909 – 2017) \ Chagas, A Forgotten Disease: A Historical Perspective On The Prevention And Control Of Chagas In Salta Province, Argentina (1909 – 2017), Tara Shea 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Chagas, Enfermedad Olvidada: Una Perspectiva Histórica De La Prevención Y Control Del Chagas En La Provincia De Salta, Argentina (1909 – 2017) \ Chagas, A Forgotten Disease: A Historical Perspective On The Prevention And Control Of Chagas In Salta Province, Argentina (1909 – 2017), Tara Shea

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

El Chagas es una enfermedad vectorial más conocida en zonas rurales de América Latina y en Argentina es endémica en la región noroeste del país (MSAL, 2017). Designada una enfermedad tropical desatendida (Neglected Tropical Disease, NTD) por la OMS, la crónica del Chagas desde su “hallazgo casual” en 1909 siempre se trató de abandono (INP, 2017; MSF, 2012; OMS, 2017; Reyes López, 2009; Stamboulian, 2015; Zabala, 2009). En toda la Argentina se identifican 1.600.000 casos y 7.300.000 personas expuestas al Chagas, dando el país una de las tasas chagásicas más altas del mundo (Bär, 2015; MSAL ...


Abordajes De Nuevos Tratamientos Para La Enfermedad De Chagas Y Su Potencial Aplicación En Pacientes Desde Las Perspectivas De Los Profesionales En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Approaches To New Treatments For Chagas Disease And Their Potential Application In Patients From The Perspectives Of Professionals In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chelsea Hipwell 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Abordajes De Nuevos Tratamientos Para La Enfermedad De Chagas Y Su Potencial Aplicación En Pacientes Desde Las Perspectivas De Los Profesionales En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Approaches To New Treatments For Chagas Disease And Their Potential Application In Patients From The Perspectives Of Professionals In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chelsea Hipwell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Más de cien años después del descubrimiento de la enfermedad de Chagas, esta enfermedad desatendida sigue afectando más de 6 millones de personas en Latinoamérica, de las cuales 1.5 millones son de Argentina. Al día de hoy, solo existen dos medicamentos para tratar esta enfermedad. El presente proyecto se basa sobre un estudio exploratorio de los desafíos de tratar la enfermedad de Chagas en sus distintas fases y los abordajes actuales para nuevos tratamientos.

Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron los siguientes: en primer lugar, estudiar el contexto socio-económico en que existe esta enfermedad y las implicaciones de este ...


Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Addressing Antibiotic Resistance From Farm-Raised Fish Imported To The United States, Nicholas Ali 2017 Bard College

Addressing Antibiotic Resistance From Farm-Raised Fish Imported To The United States, Nicholas Ali

Bard Center for Environmental Policy

Misuse of medically important antibiotics in animal production threatens the effectiveness of drugs that are vital in combating disease and infections. Recently, the FDA implemented regulations to limit the use of and access to veterinary drugs. However, these regulations only affect domestic production operations. Because over 90% of seafood consumed in the U.S. is imported from countries with different regulatory standards and because the U.S. has an import inspection rate of less than 1%, antibiotic resistance stemming from imported aquaculture is still a risk that is not sufficiently accounted for. This research investigates how the U.S. has ...


Impact Of Disease On The Survival Of Three Commercially Fished Species, John M. Hoenig, Maya L. Groner, Matthew W. Smith, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David M. Taylor, Donald F. Landers Jr., John T. Swenarton, David T. Gauthier 2017 Old Dominion University

Impact Of Disease On The Survival Of Three Commercially Fished Species, John M. Hoenig, Maya L. Groner, Matthew W. Smith, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David M. Taylor, Donald F. Landers Jr., John T. Swenarton, David T. Gauthier

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Recent increases in emergent infectious diseases have raised concerns about the sustainability of some marine species. The complexity and expense of studying diseases in marine systems often dictate that conservation and management decisions are made without quantitative data on population-level impacts of disease. Mark-recapture is a powerful, underutilized, tool for calculating impacts of disease on population size and structure, even in the absence of etiological information. We applied logistic regression models to mark-recapture data to obtain estimates of disease-associated mortality rates in three commercially important marine species: snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in Newfoundland, Canada, that experience sporadic epizootics of bitter ...


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