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Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Background Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091) encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein ...


Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacterreadily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes ...


Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Background

To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene blaNDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL) were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the blaNDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaNDM-1 genes, and DNA ...


Campylobacter In Poultry: Ecology And Potential Interventions, Orhan Sahin, Issmat I. Kassem, Zhangqi Shen, Jun Lin, Gireesh Rajashekara, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Campylobacter In Poultry: Ecology And Potential Interventions, Orhan Sahin, Issmat I. Kassem, Zhangqi Shen, Jun Lin, Gireesh Rajashekara, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacterspecies, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization,Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source ...


Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann 2017 Iowa State University

Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. Van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann

Jack M Gallup

Rationale Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in preterm and newborn infants can result in severe bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The lamb lung has several key features conducive to modeling RSV infection in human infants, including susceptibility to human strains of RSV such as the A2, Long, and Memphis Strain 37 (M37). In this study, the kinetics of M37 infection was investigated in newborn lambs in order to better define clinical, viral, physiological, and immunological parameters as well as the pathology and lesions. Methods Newborn lambs were nebulized with M37 hRSV (6 mL of 1.27 x 107 FFU/mL), monitored daily ...


F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey 2017 College of William and Mary

F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...


Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia

Theses and Dissertations

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) presents a substantial economic risk to the poultry industry. Domesticated fowl contract HPAI initially through exposure, direct or indirect with migratory waterfowl and outbreaks can result in significant economic losses to growers and the poultry industry at large. A HPAI outbreak occurred in Minnesota and Iowa and spread across over 13 other states in 2014 and 2015. This caused an estimated $1.6 billion in losses (CDC, 2016) and led to shortages of eggs and turkeys together with elevated prices (Anni et al. 2005). Even small outbreaks of HPAI inflict substantial damages as USDA-APHIS guidelines ...


Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck 2017 Iowa State University

Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite infecting cattle throughout the world. In cows, infection results in early embryonic death and abortion. Current control methods rely on culling infected animals and there is no curative treatment. We obtained a field strain of the parasite from an Iowa bull and isolated it in axenic culture. We then developed a trophozoite killing assay suitable for identifying compounds with anti-parasite activity. Current and future studies involve screening of antimicrobial agents and identification of lead compounds for future in vivo studies.


Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

With the average American consuming 26 chickens per year, poultry is in high demand. Avian related infectious disease is rising and bacteria pose serious concerns for the health of livestock and possess zoonotic potential. The goal of the study is to evaluate surface protein EtsC highly prevalent among Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), as a vaccine antigen candidate against these pathogens in chickens. The objective of this study is to determine antibody response in chickens vaccinated with the EtsC recombinant antigen. Eighteen 4 day-old White Leghorns (N=9/group) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice at two-week interval with PBS (control) or ...


Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) significantly impacts the poultry industry by causing the disease colibacillosis in chickens. In this research study, a vaccine containing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), prevalent among APEC, was evaluated for its broad potential protectivity against APEC. The objectives of our study are to 1) evaluate whether an OmpA vaccine would stimulate an antibody response in chickens and 2) show in vitro broad protection against bacteria. At 4 days-old, White Leghorn chickens (9/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously twice at two week-intervals with either PBS (control) or 50 μg OmpA in CpG adjuvant. On day 33 of ...


Comparisons Of Salmonella Conjugation And Virulence Gene Hyperexpression Mediated By Rumen Protozoa From Domestic And Exotic Ruminants, Matt T. Brewer, Nalee Xiong, Jeffery D. Dier, Kristi L. Anderson, Mark A. Rasmussen, Sharon K. Franklin, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Comparisons Of Salmonella Conjugation And Virulence Gene Hyperexpression Mediated By Rumen Protozoa From Domestic And Exotic Ruminants, Matt T. Brewer, Nalee Xiong, Jeffery D. Dier, Kristi L. Anderson, Mark A. Rasmussen, Sharon K. Franklin, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from ...


Evidence For A Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide-Recognizing G-Proteincoupled Receptor In The Bacterial Engulfment By Entamoeba Histolytica, Matthew T. Brewer, Prince N. Agbedanu, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Evidence For A Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide-Recognizing G-Proteincoupled Receptor In The Bacterial Engulfment By Entamoeba Histolytica, Matthew T. Brewer, Prince N. Agbedanu, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, a worldwide protozoal disease that results in approximately 100,000 deaths annually. The virulence of E. histolytica may be due to interactions with the host bacterial flora, whereby trophozoites engulf colonic bacteria as a nutrient source. The engulfment process depends on trophozoite recognition of bacterial epitopes that activate phagocytosis pathways. E. histolytica GPCR-1 (EhGPCR-1) was previously recognized as a putative G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) used by Entamoeba histolytica during phagocytosis. In the present study, we attempted to characterize EhGPCR-1 by using heterologous GPCR expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered that bacterial lipopolysaccharide ...


Amelioration Of Salmonellosis In Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves Fed Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Products In Feed And Milk Replacer, Matthew T. Brewer, Kristi L. Anderson, Ilkyu Yoon, Mark F. Scott, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Amelioration Of Salmonellosis In Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves Fed Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Products In Feed And Milk Replacer, Matthew T. Brewer, Kristi L. Anderson, Ilkyu Yoon, Mark F. Scott, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

Salmonellosis is an insidious and potentially epidemic problem in pre-weaned dairy calves. Managing this disease, or any other diarrheal disease, is a financial burden to producers. Calf mortalities and medicinal treatments are overt costs of salmonellosis, while hidden costs include hampered weight gains and persistent intestinal colonization of the pathogen. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) incorporated into both the milk replacer and the starter grain. In a blinded study, 2–8 day-old calves were fed SCFP (n = 20 calves) or an SCFP-free Control (n = 20 calves) for two weeks before and ...


Survey Of Canine Monogenetic Diseases With Established Molecular Bases, Brent J. Pepin, Samantha J. Hau, Erin N. Bradley, Janessa R. Thompson, Timothy H. Helms, Amie M. Johnson, Marisa Rotolo, Miranda M. Uriell, Matthew T. Brewer, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Survey Of Canine Monogenetic Diseases With Established Molecular Bases, Brent J. Pepin, Samantha J. Hau, Erin N. Bradley, Janessa R. Thompson, Timothy H. Helms, Amie M. Johnson, Marisa Rotolo, Miranda M. Uriell, Matthew T. Brewer, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

The development of a dog breed often involves selection, which intentionally propagates valued genetic traits. Unfortunately, untoward traits can be collaterally propagated during this process. For the purpose of identifying trends in canine genetic diseases, we examined 36 randomly chosen canine pathologies involving single gene mutations. For each disease we provide a brief summary of breed predilection, clinical signs, the underlying genetic mutation, and the availability of a commercial diagnostic test. The following trends were noted in this non-exhaustive list of diseases. First, these genetic diseases primarily involve the ophthalmic (28%) and nervous systems (28%). Second, no single breed was ...


Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy

Animal Industry Report

Initial antibody titers are maternally-derived from colostrum, then decay with age. Change in antibody titer levels were compared between four viruses contributing to the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), and evaluation of response to vaccination indicated that antibody production will not occur when high levels of maternal antibodies are present. The maternal antibodies were found to decay with calf age for each of the four viruses, which allowed for the estimation of a maximum circulating titer level under which a positive antibody response to vaccination could occur. Phenotypic correlations were calculated between the antibody titers for the four viruses across ...


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