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Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Background Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091) encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein ...


Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacterreadily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes ...


Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Background

To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene blaNDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL) were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the blaNDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaNDM-1 genes, and DNA ...


Campylobacter In Poultry: Ecology And Potential Interventions, Orhan Sahin, Issmat I. Kassem, Zhangqi Shen, Jun Lin, Gireesh Rajashekara, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Campylobacter In Poultry: Ecology And Potential Interventions, Orhan Sahin, Issmat I. Kassem, Zhangqi Shen, Jun Lin, Gireesh Rajashekara, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacterspecies, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization,Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source ...


Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia

Theses and Dissertations

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) presents a substantial economic risk to the poultry industry. Domesticated fowl contract HPAI initially through exposure, direct or indirect with migratory waterfowl and outbreaks can result in significant economic losses to growers and the poultry industry at large. A HPAI outbreak occurred in Minnesota and Iowa and spread across over 13 other states in 2014 and 2015. This caused an estimated $1.6 billion in losses (CDC, 2016) and led to shortages of eggs and turkeys together with elevated prices (Anni et al. 2005). Even small outbreaks of HPAI inflict substantial damages as USDA-APHIS guidelines ...


Comparisons Of Salmonella Conjugation And Virulence Gene Hyperexpression Mediated By Rumen Protozoa From Domestic And Exotic Ruminants, Matt T. Brewer, Nalee Xiong, Jeffery D. Dier, Kristi L. Anderson, Mark A. Rasmussen, Sharon K. Franklin, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Comparisons Of Salmonella Conjugation And Virulence Gene Hyperexpression Mediated By Rumen Protozoa From Domestic And Exotic Ruminants, Matt T. Brewer, Nalee Xiong, Jeffery D. Dier, Kristi L. Anderson, Mark A. Rasmussen, Sharon K. Franklin, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from ...


Evidence For A Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide-Recognizing G-Proteincoupled Receptor In The Bacterial Engulfment By Entamoeba Histolytica, Matthew T. Brewer, Prince N. Agbedanu, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Evidence For A Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide-Recognizing G-Proteincoupled Receptor In The Bacterial Engulfment By Entamoeba Histolytica, Matthew T. Brewer, Prince N. Agbedanu, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, a worldwide protozoal disease that results in approximately 100,000 deaths annually. The virulence of E. histolytica may be due to interactions with the host bacterial flora, whereby trophozoites engulf colonic bacteria as a nutrient source. The engulfment process depends on trophozoite recognition of bacterial epitopes that activate phagocytosis pathways. E. histolytica GPCR-1 (EhGPCR-1) was previously recognized as a putative G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) used by Entamoeba histolytica during phagocytosis. In the present study, we attempted to characterize EhGPCR-1 by using heterologous GPCR expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered that bacterial lipopolysaccharide ...


Amelioration Of Salmonellosis In Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves Fed Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Products In Feed And Milk Replacer, Matthew T. Brewer, Kristi L. Anderson, Ilkyu Yoon, Mark F. Scott, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Amelioration Of Salmonellosis In Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves Fed Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Products In Feed And Milk Replacer, Matthew T. Brewer, Kristi L. Anderson, Ilkyu Yoon, Mark F. Scott, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

Salmonellosis is an insidious and potentially epidemic problem in pre-weaned dairy calves. Managing this disease, or any other diarrheal disease, is a financial burden to producers. Calf mortalities and medicinal treatments are overt costs of salmonellosis, while hidden costs include hampered weight gains and persistent intestinal colonization of the pathogen. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) incorporated into both the milk replacer and the starter grain. In a blinded study, 2–8 day-old calves were fed SCFP (n = 20 calves) or an SCFP-free Control (n = 20 calves) for two weeks before and ...


Survey Of Canine Monogenetic Diseases With Established Molecular Bases, Brent J. Pepin, Samantha J. Hau, Erin N. Bradley, Janessa R. Thompson, Timothy H. Helms, Amie M. Johnson, Marisa Rotolo, Miranda M. Uriell, Matthew T. Brewer, Steve A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Survey Of Canine Monogenetic Diseases With Established Molecular Bases, Brent J. Pepin, Samantha J. Hau, Erin N. Bradley, Janessa R. Thompson, Timothy H. Helms, Amie M. Johnson, Marisa Rotolo, Miranda M. Uriell, Matthew T. Brewer, Steve A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

The development of a dog breed often involves selection, which intentionally propagates valued genetic traits. Unfortunately, untoward traits can be collaterally propagated during this process. For the purpose of identifying trends in canine genetic diseases, we examined 36 randomly chosen canine pathologies involving single gene mutations. For each disease we provide a brief summary of breed predilection, clinical signs, the underlying genetic mutation, and the availability of a commercial diagnostic test. The following trends were noted in this non-exhaustive list of diseases. First, these genetic diseases primarily involve the ophthalmic (28%) and nervous systems (28%). Second, no single breed was ...


Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The liver plays a variety of roles in energy metabolism, digestion, and immune response. During the challenge by anenvironmental stressor, such as heat, the liver is one of the key organs that determines the chicken’s ability to cope with the hostile environment. Sequencing RNA extracted from liver samples from a heat-susceptible broiler line and a heat-resistant Fayoumi line, we have identifieda set of genes that were differentially expressed due to an acuteheat stress challenge. Analysis of these genes in context of the biological pathways showed opposite responsesby the broiler and Fayoumichickens,but there was activation of immune signaling pathways ...


The Effect Of Prrs Viral Level And Isolate On Tonsil Gene Expression, Qian Dong, Joan Lunney, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Yet Nguyen, Bob Rowland, Andrew Hess, James Reecy, Jack Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Viral Level And Isolate On Tonsil Gene Expression, Qian Dong, Joan Lunney, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Yet Nguyen, Bob Rowland, Andrew Hess, James Reecy, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) can persist in tonsil tissue for >150 days post infection (dpi) without clinical signs.This can occur even when PRRSV is cleared from serumand can result insecondary outbreaks. Tonsil tissue from commercial crossbred pigs that were experimentally infected with one of two PRRSV isolates, NVSL-97-7985 (NVSL) or KS-2006-72109 (KS06),was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in pigs with extreme high or low tonsil PRRS viremia at 42 dpi. Results provide insighton the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence in tonsils and help to identify bio-markers for PRRSV persistence in tonsil tissue.This ...


Porcine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Ppiv-1) In U.S. Swine: Summary Of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Data, Michael Welch, Jie Park, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Kevin Lin, Pablo Pineyro, Jianqiang Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Porcine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Ppiv-1) In U.S. Swine: Summary Of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Data, Michael Welch, Jie Park, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Kevin Lin, Pablo Pineyro, Jianqiang Zhang

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Parainfluenza-1 (PPIV-1) is a Paramyxovirus inthe genus Respirovirus. To evaluatethe frequency of detection of PPIV-1 on farms in the United States, theIowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) conducted an analysis of clinical samples submitted from Spring toFall 2016.Thirty-four percent of diagnostic samples tested both prospectively (70/204) and retrospectively (472/1385) were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which suggests PPIV-1 is widespread.


The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman

Animal Industry Report

PRRSV is a significant economic problem for producers in the US and around the world. The genetic basis for reproductive performance in sow herds has been poorly understood.


Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy

Animal Industry Report

Initial antibody titers are maternally-derived from colostrum, then decay with age. Change in antibody titer levels were compared between four viruses contributing to the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), and evaluation of response to vaccination indicated that antibody production will not occur when high levels of maternal antibodies are present. The maternal antibodies were found to decay with calf age for each of the four viruses, which allowed for the estimation of a maximum circulating titer level under which a positive antibody response to vaccination could occur. Phenotypic correlations were calculated between the antibody titers for the four viruses across ...


Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers 2017 University of Ghana

Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The local chicken industries in Ghana, Tanzania and several other African countries are greatly affected by mortalities due to Newcastle disease (ND). We tested local ecotypes/breeds in Ghana and Tanzania for genetic variation in growth rate and antibody levels after infection with a La Sota lentogenic ND virusstrain.We identifiedheritable variation in ND virus antibody levels, and in pre-, and post-infection growth rates, which implies that with selective breeding, genetic improvement is possible. One of the Ghanaian ecotypes had a faster growth rate than the otherecotypes, both pre-and post-infection. We however did not find significant differences between the Tanzanian ...


Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Warsaw University of Life Sciences

Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Two high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks haveseverelyaffected the poultry industryon the American continentwithin the last four years; a 2012 H7N3 outbreak in Mexicoand a 2015 H5N2 outbreak in the US. Blood samples were collectedfrom survivors of each outbreak plus age and genetics matched non-affected controls. As surviving birds could contain natural genetic mutation(s) that make them resistant to HPAI,the goal of the present study was to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to HPAIand to determinewhether resistance regionsare the same fordifferent virus strains.Four genomic regions were identified for the H5N2 outbreak and fivedifferent regions were identified ...


Understanding The Effect Of Bvdv On Innate Immune Response Of Neutrophils, Neelu Singh Thakur 2017 South Dakota State University

Understanding The Effect Of Bvdv On Innate Immune Response Of Neutrophils, Neelu Singh Thakur

Theses and Dissertations

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the highly prevalent and economically important diseases of cattle industry worldwide. The two major consequences of this disease are persistent infection and immunosuppression. Several studies have been done to determine the underline mechanisms of BVDV-induced immunosuppression targeting antigen presenting cells, adaptive immune system cells and cytokine gene expression. However, very little research has been done to determine the effect of BVDV on neutrophils. Neutrophils are one of the most abundant while blood cells (WBC) in the peripheral blood, which play a critical role in the innate as well as adaptive immune response ...


Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis., Catherine-Jane Angwin 2017 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis., Catherine-Jane Angwin

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), caused by the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, is one of the most important neurological diseases of horses in the Americas. While seroprevalence of S. neurona in horses is high, clinical manifestation of EPM occurs in less than 1% of infected horses. Factors governing the occurrence and severity of EPM are largely unknown, although horse immunity might play an important role in clinical outcome. We hypothesize that EPM occurs due to an aberrant immune response, which will be discernable in the equine IgG subisotypes a, b, and (T) that recognize S. neurona in infected diseased horses versus ...


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