Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye
Theses and Dissertations
Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent infectious enteritis mainly foodborne from chickens. Despite of reducing C. jejuni food contamination dramatically decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available for the bacterial reduction in chickens. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product deoxycholic acid (DCA) to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed 0 or 1.5 g/kg DCA, lithocholic acid (LCA), or urodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in diets or orally gavaged with cholic acid (CA, 1.5g/kg body weight). Birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anearo) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). Birds were infected with ...
Hidden Cost Of Disease In A Free-Ranging Ungulate: Brucellosis Reduces Mid-Winter Pregnancy In Elk, 2018 Utah State University
Hidden Cost Of Disease In A Free-Ranging Ungulate: Brucellosis Reduces Mid-Winter Pregnancy In Elk, Gavin C. Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Arthur D. Middleton, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit
Wildland Resources Faculty Publications
Demonstrating disease impacts on the vital rates of free‐ranging mammalian hosts typically requires intensive, long‐term study. Evidence for chronic pathogens affecting reproduction but not survival is rare, but has the potential for wide‐ranging effects. Accurately quantifying disease‐associated reductions in fecundity is important for advancing theory, generating accurate predictive models, and achieving effective management. We investigated the impacts of brucellosis (Brucella abortus) on elk (Cervus canadensis) productivity using serological data from over 6,000 captures since 1990 in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Over 1,000 of these records included known age and pregnancy status. Using Bayesian ...
Shifts In Assemblage Of Foraging Bats At Mammoth Cave National Park Following Arrival Of White-Nose Syndrome, 2018 University of Kentucky
Shifts In Assemblage Of Foraging Bats At Mammoth Cave National Park Following Arrival Of White-Nose Syndrome, Marissa M. Thalken, Michael J. Lacki, Joseph S. Johnson
Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications
The arrival of white-nose syndrome (WNS) to North America in 2006, and the subsequent decline in populations of cave-hibernating bats have potential long-term implications for communities of forest-dwelling bats in affected regions. Severe declines in wintering populations of bats should lead to concomitant shifts in the composition and relative abundance of species during the staging, maternity, and swarming seasons in nearby forested habitats. We examined capture rates of bats collected in mist nets from 2009 to 2016 to evaluate summer patterns in abundance of species pre- and post-arrival of WNS to Mammoth Cave National Park, KY. The data demonstrated a ...
Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, 2018 Murray State University
Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey
Honors College Theses
This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...
Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, 2018 Missouri State University
Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer
MSU Graduate Theses
Progressive accumulation of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins within renal glomeruli have implications for or result in renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, with both events culminating in renal failure. To model this accumulation the Col1a2-deficient mouse model was used. The Col1a2-deficientmouse model is characterized by a mutation in the a2(I) chain, preventing incorporation into the type I collagen molecule. As a result, an α1(I) collagen chain incorporates into the collagen triple helix forming homotrimeric type I collagen, as opposed to heterotrimeric type I collagen. This change is due to the secondary wound healing response in response to ...
Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle
Theses and Dissertations
Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...
Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo
Theses and Dissertations
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered carnivores whose population is decreasing from habitat loss and fragmentation, interspecific competition, and disease. Survival rates are especially low in Kruger National Park (KNP), though it is unclear why. I estimated the abundance in KNP and survival rates over different time spans, six years and nine months, using public photographic survey data. In 2015, there were 298 (SE=12.1) individuals. Using a mark-recapture analysis in program R, I found that the survival rate between 2009-2015 was only 3.2%, and within the 9-month survey period (September 2014 – June 2015), monthly survival rates ...
Survey Of Rickettsia Spp. In Ticks In Nacogdoches County, Texas, 2018 Stephen F Austin State University
Survey Of Rickettsia Spp. In Ticks In Nacogdoches County, Texas, Nathaniel Blakley
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium that is commonly transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Rickettsia parkeri is the causative agent of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis, which is a disease characterized by nonspecific symptomology. Significant effort by numerous research groups focuses on determining the geographic distribution of potential vectors of this pathogen. The purpose of this study was to study A. maculatum populations in Nacogdoches County, Texas, for the presence of Rickettsia parkeri. Over a two-year period, 49 ticks were collected in Nacogdoches county and taxonomically identified. The DNA was extracted using DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit ...
Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, 2018 Washington University in St Louis
Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson
Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters
Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...
Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis
Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo
Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...
Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, 2018 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw
Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska
Appalachian Student Research Forum
Salmonellosis is a serious problem of public health that mainly infants, young children and people with immunodeficiencies face. Human direct contact with animals is one of the possible ways of transmission of the disease. An increasing trend of keeping exotic pets, including amphibians and reptiles, has been observed for recent years in the United States and developing European countries. Most of these animals are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. However, in this review we introduced new and the most dangerous outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by contact with amphibians and reptiles that appeared in all continents in last ten years.
It was ...
Urine Sodium Concentrations Are Predictive Of Hypoadrenocorticism In Hyponatremic Dogs: A Retrospective Pilot Study, 2018 North Carolina State University
Urine Sodium Concentrations Are Predictive Of Hypoadrenocorticism In Hyponatremic Dogs: A Retrospective Pilot Study, Elizabeth More Lennon, Shelly L. Vaden
Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Small Animal Clinical Sciences
To determine if a urine sodium concentration could be used to rule out hypoadrenocorticism in hyponatraemic dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Medical records were reviewed for hyponatraemic dogs (serum sodium/L) that had recorded urine sodium concentrations. Twenty hyponatraemic dogs were included: 11 diagnosed with classical hypoadrenocorticism and nine with non-adrenal causes of hyponatraemia. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare results between groups.
No dog with hypoadrenocorticism had a urine sodium concentration less than 30 mmol/L. Urine sodium concentration in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism was significantly higher (median 103 mmol/L, range: 41 to 225) than ...
Feeder Density Enhances House Finch Disease Transmission In Experimental Epidemics, Sahnzi C. Moyers, James S. Adelman, Damien R. Farine, Courtney A. Thomason, Dana M. Hawley
Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications
Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of backyard bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naïve, groups of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) and continuously tracked behaviors at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behavior ...
United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan
Global Public Health
United Arab Emirates is a federal absolute monarchy in Western Asia at the South East end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the East and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The current population of the UAE is 9,457,851. It is a federation of hereditary absolute monarchies, governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of seven Emirs. The external and internal challenges faced by United Arab Emirates are some security and political issues and in the field ...
Bulgaria: Brucellosis, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Bulgaria: Brucellosis, Austin Wheeler
Global Public Health
In this brief we will discuss how a disease called Brucellosis has affected the country of Bulgaria. Bulgaria is a European country located towards the South Eastern part of Europe. A few points mentioned in the brief are what the disease can do to your body, through education of the disease we can show what a serious problem it is. The brief will also cover how you can contract the disease through animals, and how you can prevent contraction from occurring. The brief also includes a lot about the religious background of the country. This should hopefully be used to ...
How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, 2018 Iowa State University
How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman
Animal Industry Report
The objective of this study was to determine if nursery pigs display different behaviors and postures pre- and post-injection using a live- and digital image methodology. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Barrows and gilts were approximately 6-wk of age from a commercial crossbred genetic line. The pen applied injection treatments were (1) Ingelvac CircoFLEX®/Ingelvac MycoFLEX® vaccine, (2) Circumvent® PCVM vaccine (3) Saline. Pre-injection were conducted at 1600h the day before injections were administered. Pigs received their treatments ...
Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, 2018 Iowa State University
Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu
Animal Industry Report
The tumorigenesis caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV) occurs through a complex regulatory architecture. , We applied a novel methodology to jointly analyze four different types of datasets: mRNA expression, the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. The pathway analysis shows that combined analysis produced more informative results than single data-type analyses, and the co-expression network analysis found key elements involved in the host-pathogen interaction. The integration of multiple data sources yielded deeper insights into the pathogenesis of the virus and the host immune response.
Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, 2018 Iowa State University
Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers
Animal Industry Report
Novel phenotypes from a commercial testing system could add value to selection for resilience to disease and other stressors beyond simply collecting mortality. Day-to-day variability in feed intake (FI) and in duration at the feeder (DUR), quantified by root mean squared errors (RMSE), were investigated as novel measures of resilience using data from grow-finish pigs in a natural disease challenge facility. • RMSE of FI and DUR were moderately heritable • RMSE of FI and DUR showed moderate to strong genetic correlations with mortality and treatments These results show that day-to-day variation in FI and DUR in a challenge environment can be ...
Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, 2018 The University of Akron
Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emergent epidemic disease of bats in North America. Caused by the novel fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, with a mortality rate of >75%, in the last decade WNS has led to the local extinction of numerous bat species. Despite this high mortality, one species, the Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) remains unaffected. Virginia big-eared bats (VBEs) are commonly found covered in a yellow, oily substance, with a pelage commensal population dominated by the yeast, Debaryomyces udenii. As D. udenii is an oleaginous yeast that produces yellow colonies, the fungus may be responsible for the production ...
Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, 2018 Regis University
Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Annamaria Marcel
All Regis University Theses
Due to the worldwide decline of biodiversity, protected nature reserves are necessary for species facing extinction. Many frog species have been experiencing rapid population decline and extinction due to the threat of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which inflicts the highly transmittable and deadly disease chytridiomycosis. Chytridiomycosis causes increased skin tissue growth which disrupts respiration and the maintenance of water balance, which can ultimately lead to death. Certain ecological and geographical characteristics have been studied in order to assess their influence on Bd’s prevalence. Specifically, it is hypothesized that high elevations, lotic habitats, and low species richness have a ...