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Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy

Animal Industry Report

Initial antibody titers are maternally-derived from colostrum, then decay with age. Change in antibody titer levels were compared between four viruses contributing to the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), and evaluation of response to vaccination indicated that antibody production will not occur when high levels of maternal antibodies are present. The maternal antibodies were found to decay with calf age for each of the four viruses, which allowed for the estimation of a maximum circulating titer level under which a positive antibody response to vaccination could occur. Phenotypic correlations were calculated between the antibody titers for the four viruses across ...


Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Warsaw University of Life Sciences

Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Two high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks haveseverelyaffected the poultry industryon the American continentwithin the last four years; a 2012 H7N3 outbreak in Mexicoand a 2015 H5N2 outbreak in the US. Blood samples were collectedfrom survivors of each outbreak plus age and genetics matched non-affected controls. As surviving birds could contain natural genetic mutation(s) that make them resistant to HPAI,the goal of the present study was to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to HPAIand to determinewhether resistance regionsare the same fordifferent virus strains.Four genomic regions were identified for the H5N2 outbreak and fivedifferent regions were identified ...


Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The liver plays a variety of roles in energy metabolism, digestion, and immune response. During the challenge by anenvironmental stressor, such as heat, the liver is one of the key organs that determines the chicken’s ability to cope with the hostile environment. Sequencing RNA extracted from liver samples from a heat-susceptible broiler line and a heat-resistant Fayoumi line, we have identifieda set of genes that were differentially expressed due to an acuteheat stress challenge. Analysis of these genes in context of the biological pathways showed opposite responsesby the broiler and Fayoumichickens,but there was activation of immune signaling pathways ...


Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers 2017 University of Ghana

Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The local chicken industries in Ghana, Tanzania and several other African countries are greatly affected by mortalities due to Newcastle disease (ND). We tested local ecotypes/breeds in Ghana and Tanzania for genetic variation in growth rate and antibody levels after infection with a La Sota lentogenic ND virusstrain.We identifiedheritable variation in ND virus antibody levels, and in pre-, and post-infection growth rates, which implies that with selective breeding, genetic improvement is possible. One of the Ghanaian ecotypes had a faster growth rate than the otherecotypes, both pre-and post-infection. We however did not find significant differences between the Tanzanian ...


The Effect Of Prrs Viral Level And Isolate On Tonsil Gene Expression, Qian Dong, Joan Lunney, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Yet Nguyen, Bob Rowland, Andrew Hess, James Reecy, Jack Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Viral Level And Isolate On Tonsil Gene Expression, Qian Dong, Joan Lunney, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Yet Nguyen, Bob Rowland, Andrew Hess, James Reecy, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) can persist in tonsil tissue for >150 days post infection (dpi) without clinical signs.This can occur even when PRRSV is cleared from serumand can result insecondary outbreaks. Tonsil tissue from commercial crossbred pigs that were experimentally infected with one of two PRRSV isolates, NVSL-97-7985 (NVSL) or KS-2006-72109 (KS06),was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in pigs with extreme high or low tonsil PRRS viremia at 42 dpi. Results provide insighton the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence in tonsils and help to identify bio-markers for PRRSV persistence in tonsil tissue.This ...


Porcine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Ppiv-1) In U.S. Swine: Summary Of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Data, Michael Welch, Jie Park, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Kevin Lin, Pablo Pineyro, Jianqiang Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Porcine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Ppiv-1) In U.S. Swine: Summary Of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Data, Michael Welch, Jie Park, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Kevin Lin, Pablo Pineyro, Jianqiang Zhang

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Parainfluenza-1 (PPIV-1) is a Paramyxovirus inthe genus Respirovirus. To evaluatethe frequency of detection of PPIV-1 on farms in the United States, theIowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) conducted an analysis of clinical samples submitted from Spring toFall 2016.Thirty-four percent of diagnostic samples tested both prospectively (70/204) and retrospectively (472/1385) were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which suggests PPIV-1 is widespread.


The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman

Animal Industry Report

PRRSV is a significant economic problem for producers in the US and around the world. The genetic basis for reproductive performance in sow herds has been poorly understood.


Rabies Control And Prevention Within Wildlife Populations Of Skunks, Raccoons, And Foxes, Cassidy M. Smith 2016 University of Wyoming

Rabies Control And Prevention Within Wildlife Populations Of Skunks, Raccoons, And Foxes, Cassidy M. Smith

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Rabies is a zoonotic virus that is extremely lethal to humans and many wildlife species such as raccoons, skunks, foxes, as well as domestic animals such as cats, dogs, and livestock. Reservoirs of the rabies virus throughout species specific populations pose an enormous risk of exposure and infection of domestic animals that have direct contact with humans. The most effective way to prevent wildlife spillover of rabies is through the use of vaccine programs. The wildlife targeted with vaccines are mainly skunks, raccoons, and foxes since these species hold the most significant reservoirs of the virus within the United States ...


Regulation Of Alpha-Herpesvirus Reactivation From Latency By Stress, Insun Kook 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Regulation Of Alpha-Herpesvirus Reactivation From Latency By Stress, Insun Kook

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) and Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) are crucial etiological viral agent of clinical diseases. HSV-1 and BHV-1 establish latent infection in sensory neurons. Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus excretion and transmission. Stress increases corticosteroid levels and the incidence of HSV-1 and BHV-1 reactivation from latency. The synthetic corticosteroid, dexamethasone (DEX) mimics stress and induces BHV-1 and HSV-1 reactivation. However, molecular mechanisms by which corticosteroid mediates viral reactivation are not well understood. My dissertation has focused on elucidating events that induce BHV- 1 or HSV-1 reactivation during the early stages of stress-induced escape ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli And Other E. Coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli And Other E. Coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. Hemorrhagic colitis occasionally progresses to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), an important cause of acute renal failure in children and morbidity and mortality in adults. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7) has been known to cause these syndromes since the 1980s, but clinical cases and outbreaks caused by members of other EHEC serogroups are increasingly recognized. In some areas, non-O157 EHEC may account for a greater number of cases than EHEC O157:H7. In 2011, an unusual enteroaggregative E ...


Impact Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease On The Tasmanian Devil Age Structure, Christopher Bruno, Vashni Vasquez 2016 University of St. Francis

Impact Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease On The Tasmanian Devil Age Structure, Christopher Bruno, Vashni Vasquez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Toxocariasis, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Toxocariasis, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Members of the genus Toxocara are zoonotic intestinal nematodes (roundworms) that mature in various mammals, including some domesticated species. Parasitized animals can shed large numbers of eggs in the feces, infecting people (particularly children) who ingest these eggs in contaminated soil, or on hands or objects. Although Toxocara eggs do not complete their maturation in humans, the developing larvae can migrate through the body for a time. In some cases, they cause symptoms ranging from mild, vague discomfort to ocular disturbances, blindness and neurological syndromes. Human toxocariasis is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with children ...


Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Of Animals, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Of Animals, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. Although these infections usually remain asymptomatic for years, the disease is always progressive and fatal once the clinical signs develop. TSEs affecting animals include scrapie (tremblante de mouton, rida), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “mad cow disease”), feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME, mink scrapie) and chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although some prion diseases usually occur in one or a few closely related species, other prions can cross species barriers. BSE has a particularly wide host range. Cattle are the primary hosts for this disease, but some other ruminants ...


Scrapie, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Scrapie, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that affects sheep, and less frequently, goats. Infected animals do not usually become ill for years; however, the clinical signs are progressive and invariably fatal once they develop. Scrapie can be transmitted between animals, either directly or via the environment, and infected premises are difficult to decontaminate. The presence of classical scrapie can result in trade sanctions, and many countries are conducting control or eradication programs. Breeding sheep for genetic resistance is an important tool in many of these programs; however, the understanding of resistance genes is still incomplete in goats ...


Evaluation Of The Cross-Protective Efficacy Of A Chimeric Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based On Two Field Strains, Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Bumseok Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Dong Sun, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Won-Il Kim 2016 Chonbuk National University

Evaluation Of The Cross-Protective Efficacy Of A Chimeric Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based On Two Field Strains, Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Bumseok Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Dong Sun, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Won-Il Kim

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3–4 and ORFs 5–6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332 ...


Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects ranched mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison). Most or all of the adult animals on a ranch may be affected, and once an animal becomes symptomatic, death is inevitable. This disease is still poorly understood. It is very rare, with only a few outbreaks reported in the U.S. and other countries. Outbreaks seem to result from feeding contaminated food containing prions to mink; however, the origin of these prions is unknown. Recent evidence suggests they might be an atypical variant of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent.


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that mainly affects cattle. Other ruminants, cats, nonhuman primates and humans are occasionally affected; this disease is called feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) in cats, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in people. BSE is primarily acquired by eating prion-containing tissues from an infected animal. Cooking and standard disinfection procedures do not destroy this agent. Infected animals or people do not become ill for years; however, the disease is always progressive and fatal once clinical signs develop. BSE was first reported in the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Its ...


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