Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animal Diseases Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1477 Full-Text Articles 2989 Authors 81635 Downloads 37 Institutions

All Articles in Animal Diseases

Faceted Search

1477 full-text articles. Page 1 of 27.

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Rabies Control And Prevention Within Wildlife Populations Of Skunks, Raccoons, And Foxes, Cassidy M. Smith 2016 University of Wyoming

Rabies Control And Prevention Within Wildlife Populations Of Skunks, Raccoons, And Foxes, Cassidy M. Smith

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Rabies is a zoonotic virus that is extremely lethal to humans and many wildlife species such as raccoons, skunks, foxes, as well as domestic animals such as cats, dogs, and livestock. Reservoirs of the rabies virus throughout species specific populations pose an enormous risk of exposure and infection of domestic animals that have direct contact with humans. The most effective way to prevent wildlife spillover of rabies is through the use of vaccine programs. The wildlife targeted with vaccines are mainly skunks, raccoons, and foxes since these species hold the most significant reservoirs of the virus within the United States ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli And Other E. Coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli And Other E. Coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. Hemorrhagic colitis occasionally progresses to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), an important cause of acute renal failure in children and morbidity and mortality in adults. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7) has been known to cause these syndromes since the 1980s, but clinical cases and outbreaks caused by members of other EHEC serogroups are increasingly recognized. In some areas, non-O157 EHEC may account for a greater number of cases than EHEC O157:H7. In 2011, an unusual enteroaggregative E ...


Impact Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease On The Tasmanian Devil Age Structure, Christopher Bruno, Vashni Vasquez 2016 University of St. Francis

Impact Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease On The Tasmanian Devil Age Structure, Christopher Bruno, Vashni Vasquez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Toxocariasis, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Toxocariasis, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Members of the genus Toxocara are zoonotic intestinal nematodes (roundworms) that mature in various mammals, including some domesticated species. Parasitized animals can shed large numbers of eggs in the feces, infecting people (particularly children) who ingest these eggs in contaminated soil, or on hands or objects. Although Toxocara eggs do not complete their maturation in humans, the developing larvae can migrate through the body for a time. In some cases, they cause symptoms ranging from mild, vague discomfort to ocular disturbances, blindness and neurological syndromes. Human toxocariasis is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with children ...


Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Of Animals, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Of Animals, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. Although these infections usually remain asymptomatic for years, the disease is always progressive and fatal once the clinical signs develop. TSEs affecting animals include scrapie (tremblante de mouton, rida), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “mad cow disease”), feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME, mink scrapie) and chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although some prion diseases usually occur in one or a few closely related species, other prions can cross species barriers. BSE has a particularly wide host range. Cattle are the primary hosts for this disease, but some other ruminants ...


Scrapie, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Scrapie, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that affects sheep, and less frequently, goats. Infected animals do not usually become ill for years; however, the clinical signs are progressive and invariably fatal once they develop. Scrapie can be transmitted between animals, either directly or via the environment, and infected premises are difficult to decontaminate. The presence of classical scrapie can result in trade sanctions, and many countries are conducting control or eradication programs. Breeding sheep for genetic resistance is an important tool in many of these programs; however, the understanding of resistance genes is still incomplete in goats ...


Evaluation Of The Cross-Protective Efficacy Of A Chimeric Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based On Two Field Strains, Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Bumseok Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Dong Sun, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Won-Il Kim 2016 Chonbuk National University

Evaluation Of The Cross-Protective Efficacy Of A Chimeric Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based On Two Field Strains, Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Bumseok Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Dong Sun, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Won-Il Kim

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3–4 and ORFs 5–6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332 ...


Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects ranched mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison). Most or all of the adult animals on a ranch may be affected, and once an animal becomes symptomatic, death is inevitable. This disease is still poorly understood. It is very rare, with only a few outbreaks reported in the U.S. and other countries. Outbreaks seem to result from feeding contaminated food containing prions to mink; however, the origin of these prions is unknown. Recent evidence suggests they might be an atypical variant of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent.


Ebolavirus And Marburgvirus Infections, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Ebolavirus And Marburgvirus Infections, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses are incompletely understood pathogens that cause severe, often fatal, illnesses in humans and non-human primates. These diseases have been known as Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, respectively, after the most dramatic symptoms in severe cases. The names “Ebola virus disease” or Marburg virus disease” are now preferred by the World Health Organization (WHO) and some other groups.

Most species of ebolaviruses and the only known species of marburgvirus occur in Africa. Current evidence suggests that the reservoir hosts are probably bats, while other animals and people are incidental hosts. Humans seem to become infected with marburgviruses mainly ...


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that mainly affects cattle. Other ruminants, cats, nonhuman primates and humans are occasionally affected; this disease is called feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) in cats, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in people. BSE is primarily acquired by eating prion-containing tissues from an infected animal. Cooking and standard disinfection procedures do not destroy this agent. Infected animals or people do not become ill for years; however, the disease is always progressive and fatal once clinical signs develop. BSE was first reported in the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Its ...


Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is a neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that affects members of the cat family. Once the clinical signs appear, this disease is invariably fatal. FSE is caused by the same agent that is responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. BSE was first reported in the 1980s, when it caused an explosive epidemic among cattle in the U.K. This disease eventually spread to many other countries. FSE was first reported in 1990, and was apparently transmitted to individual cats in BSE-contaminated food. As the BSE epidemic has declined, and controls have been placed ...


Akabane Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Akabane Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Akabane disease is an arthropod-borne viral disease that can affect cattle, sheep and goats. In the predominant syndrome, inapparent infections in adults can lead months later to abortions, stillbirths and congenital defects in newborns. Most affected neonates die or must be euthanized. Before vaccines were developed, Akabane disease caused significant economic losses in some countries. Between 1972 and 1975, this virus resulted in the birth of more than 42,000 abnormal calves in Japan. A few strains of Akabane virus can also cause outbreaks of encephalomyelitis in calves and adult cattle. In the past 20 years, these strains have become ...


Bovine Ephemeral Fever, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Ephemeral Fever, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine ephemeral fever is an economically important arboviral disease that affects cattle and water buffalo, and is widespread in tropical and semitropical areas of the Eastern Hemisphere. In most cases, the main impact is on productivity. While the illness is usually brief, it can result in decreased milk yield, loss of condition and reproductive losses, and recovery can be prolonged in some animals. Mortality is typically low (1-2%); however, significantly higher case fatality rates were reported in some recent outbreaks.


Chronic Wasting Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Chronic Wasting Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a prion that affects cervids including deer, elk and moose. At one time, CWD was an obscure illness that seemed to occur only in a small geographic area in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. However, this disease is now found in wild and/or farmed cervids in many other states in the U.S., where it appears to be slowly spreading, and in parts of Canada. South Korea reported outbreaks among captive cervids between 2004 and 2010, after importing infected animals from Canada, and Norway detected CWD in wild cervids ...


Comparison Of Host Genetic Factors Influencing Pig Response To Infection With Two North American Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Zeenath Islam, Melanie K. Hess, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Joan Lunney, Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2016 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Host Genetic Factors Influencing Pig Response To Infection With Two North American Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Zeenath Islam, Melanie K. Hess, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Joan Lunney, Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Science Publications

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important swine diseases in the world and genetic selection of pigs for increased resistance to PRRS is an attractive method to improve the health status of the swine herd. This study compared phenotypic and genetic responses to infection with one of two genetically distinct type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates: NVSL-97-7895 (NVSL) and KS-2006-72109 (KS06), and evaluated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) WUR10000125 (WUR) on chromosome 4 that was associated with viral load and weight gain under infection with NVSL also has an effect on response to ...


Nairobi Sheep Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Nairobi Sheep Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Nairobi sheep disease is a one of the most pathogenic diseases of small ruminants. In susceptible animals, this tick-borne viral infection results in a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with very high morbidity and mortality rates. Until recently, the causative viruses were only known to exist in parts of Africa and on the Indian subcontinent. However, viral RNA was recently identified in ticks in China. There is no effective treatment, and eradication is generally not feasible once the virus has become established in ticks.


Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is a serious and extremely contagious viral disease of domesticated and wild rabbits. Morbidity and mortality rates are high in unvaccinated animals; on some farms, most or all of the rabbits may die. This disease has also caused dramatic declines in some wild rabbit populations, particularly when it is first introduced. This has had a detrimental effect on some ecosystems in Europe, where wild rabbits are an important food source for certain endangered predators, such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Conversely, rabbit hemorrhagic disease has been used to help control excessive numbers of wild, non-native European rabbits ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress