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Determination Of Ownership Practices And Cytauxzoon Felis Prevalence In Domestic Felines Of Northwest Arkansas, Daniella M. Duran 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determination Of Ownership Practices And Cytauxzoon Felis Prevalence In Domestic Felines Of Northwest Arkansas, Daniella M. Duran

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cytauxzoon felis is a protozoan pathogen that causes the infectious disease, cytauxzoonosis in wild and domestic felines. The natural host of this pathogen is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which is why this disease is also commonly referred to as “bobcat fever”. The C. felis pathogen infects wild and domestic cats upon transmission by infected ticks. Amblyomma americanum, also known as the Lone Star tick, the primary transmission vector for C. felis. This tick species is largely populated throughout the state of Arkansas, making C. felis a large threat to wild and domestic felines in these areas. Cytauxzoonosis is commonly thought ...


Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats 2021 Pepperdine University

Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Many local streams of the Santa Monica Mountains are populated by the native California Newt, Taricha torosa, a species of special concern. Arroyo Sequit is one of these streams, the upper and lower portions of which are split by a culvert and the Mulholland Highway. This stream and the surrounding areas burned during the Woolsey fire of 2018. Since the fire, construction has been ongoing in and around the stream. Two years post-fire (during the summer of 2020) significantly more newts were found in the stream than years prior. A large proportion of these newts were unhealthy in appearance, presenting ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Food Safety-A Review, Iram Asim, Humaira Yasmeen 2021 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Women University Multan, Pakistan

Challenges And Opportunities In Food Safety-A Review, Iram Asim, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

Food-borne diseases are the group of disorders that are caused by consuming food having microbial existence in it. So safe food handling is to make sure the lessening of detrimental effects in growth to the packaging of food to minimize health issues on consumers which otherwise can lead to large scale disease outburst. This review concludes the findings of the studies on how food is being handled from farm to fork, how airlines are contributing towards the spreading of diseases, how any negligence in any one of the steps can cause havoc to mankind in the light of the recent ...


Piglet Immunization With A Spike Subunit Vaccine Enhances Disease By Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Jieshi Yu, Chithra Sreenivasan, Tirth Uprety, Rongyuan Gao, Chen Huang, Ella J. Lee, Steven Lawson, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Radhey S. Kaushik, Eric Nelson, Diego G. Diel, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang 2021 University of Kentucky

Piglet Immunization With A Spike Subunit Vaccine Enhances Disease By Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Jieshi Yu, Chithra Sreenivasan, Tirth Uprety, Rongyuan Gao, Chen Huang, Ella J. Lee, Steven Lawson, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Radhey S. Kaushik, Eric Nelson, Diego G. Diel, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Immunization with an insect cell lysate/baculovirus mixture containing recombinant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike protein induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies in both mice and piglets. However, immunization of piglets with this vaccine resulted in enhancement of disease symptoms and virus replication in vaccine recipients exposed to PEDV challenge. Thus, these observations demonstrate a previously unrecognized challenge of PEDV vaccine research, which has important implications for coronavirus vaccine development.


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


遺忘、記憶和想像 : 關於「鼠疫鬥士」伍連德的敘事研究(1990-2010), Yayuan MA 2020 Lingnan University

遺忘、記憶和想像 : 關於「鼠疫鬥士」伍連德的敘事研究(1990-2010), Yayuan Ma

Cultural Studies@Lingnan 文化研究@嶺南

因日軍全面侵華,伍連德博士(1879-1960)在一九三七年返回出生地馬來亞,此後半個多世紀,中國大陸鮮少有人再提起他和他對中國醫療衛生事業的貢獻。直到一九九零年後,他才開始逐漸重返中國醫學界和大衆傳媒的視野,但時至今日其名聲也尚未達到廣爲人知的程度。


Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft

Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the fate and dissemination of Salmonella Reading (SR) in market-age turkeys using an oral gavage challenge model. One hundred twenty-eight-week-old commercial turkey hens were moved from commercial production to research facilities. Upon arrival, a combination of enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg, and florfenicol, 20 mg/kg, were orally administered sequentially before comingled placement on fresh pine shavings. Turkeys were challenged with 108 cfu SR by oral gavage on days 4 and 7 post-placement. Subsets were subjected to simulated commercial processing on days 14 (n=40), 21 (n=40) and 28 (n=32) post-placement (corresponding to 10 ...


Brucellosis In Pakistan: A Neglected Zoonotic Disease, Meesha Iqbal, Zafar Fatmi, Mumtaz Ali Khan 2020 Aga Khan University

Brucellosis In Pakistan: A Neglected Zoonotic Disease, Meesha Iqbal, Zafar Fatmi, Mumtaz Ali Khan

Community Health Sciences

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease; endemic but neglected in the South Asian countries including Pakistan. It causes economic loss to the livestock sector and leads to systemic infection in humans. Brucellosis was neglected in Pakistan since long. According to the Staged Tool for the Elimination of Brucellosis (STEB), Pakistan carries a grim landscape of the disease with no structured control activities. This article describes the five-year national brucellosis control strategic plan (2018-2023) formulated by the government of Pakistan using the one-health approach for the prevention and control of disease across the country. The plan incorporates components of surveillance, research, diagnostic ...


Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim 2020 Independent Researcher

Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim

Animal Sentience

Wiebers & Feigin accurately propose that reducing the risks posed by infectious disease outbreaks and other global health challenges will depend critically on transitioning away from intensive animal farming practices. Creating the right incentive structure for this transition to happen is one of the great challenges in the years to come, but a much-needed step to ensure the health and well-being of current and future generations.


Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Inhibitory Effects Of Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus On Cell Survival And Immune Function In Spleen Of Commercial Layer Chicks, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2020 Iowa State University

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Inhibitory Effects Of Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus On Cell Survival And Immune Function In Spleen Of Commercial Layer Chicks, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

As a major infectious disease in chickens, Newcastle disease causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries where there is limited access to effective vaccination. Therefore, enhancing resistance to the virus in commercial chickens through breeding is a promising way to promote poultry production. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes at 2 and 6 dpi after infection at day21 with a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in a commercial egg-laying chicken hybrid using RNA sequencing analysis. By comparing NDV challenged and nonchallenged groups, 526 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) were identified at 2 dpi, and only 36 at 6 dpi. For the DEGs at 2 dpi, IPA analysis predicted inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in response to NDV that regulate immune cell development and activity, neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Upregulation of Interferon Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) in response to NDV was consistent between the current and most previous studies. Sprouty RTK Signaling Antagonist 1 (SPRY1), a DEG in the current study is located in a significant QTL associated with virus load at 6 dpi in the same population. These identified pathways and DEGs provide potential targets to further study breeding strategy to enhance NDV resistance in chickens.


The Use Of Animal-Assisted Therapeutic Interventions In The Hospital Setting During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Alicia Cesare 2020 Missouri State University

The Use Of Animal-Assisted Therapeutic Interventions In The Hospital Setting During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Alicia Cesare

MSU Graduate Theses

Handlers of therapy and/or facility dogs working within hospital settings have experienced various barriers and challenges within their practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Animal-assisted interventions, specifically therapeutic working dogs, are a valued source of support to individuals, communities, hospital settings, and disaster sites during times of community distress. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and solutions to the continued use of animal-assisted therapeutic interventions in support of patients and families within the hospital setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. This researcher’s position within the research is the knowledge and experience of being a facility dog handler ...


Reviewing The Potential Link Between Grain-Free Diets And Dilated Cardiomyopathy In Canines, Larissa J. Webster 2020 Portland State University

Reviewing The Potential Link Between Grain-Free Diets And Dilated Cardiomyopathy In Canines, Larissa J. Webster

University Honors Theses

Grain-free diets for dogs are becoming increasingly popular, but concerns are emerging following the FDA's recent investigation that there might be a link between grain-free diets and Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs with no known genetic predisposition. Contrary to the majority of the public thought, dogs do nutritionally require grains, and there is rarely a medical reason to switch to a grain-free diet. Not all cases of DCM are linked to diet, and many dogs who are fed grain-free diets do not develop the disease; the extent of this issue therefore is not entirely known. This review aims to ...


Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt 2020 University of South Dakota

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Therapies In A Fall Calving Beef Cowherd, Laine Zammit 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Therapies In A Fall Calving Beef Cowherd, Laine Zammit

Theses and Dissertations

Internal parasitism inevitability prompts economic loss in beef cattle production by decreasing growth performance and reproductive traits. Today, the most widely used class of anthelmintic used to treat parasitism, is the macrocyclic lactone. Many studies have conflicting results on the efficacy of macrocyclic lactones (ML) efficacy against internal parasitism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of moxidectin and eprinomectin, two of the MLs, on cow performance. Multiparous fall calving, crossbred beef cows (n = 106) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 anthelmintic treatments: 1) Negative control (CON), in which cows did not receive an anthelmintic, 2 ...


Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (Ccd), Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), And Β-Amyloid Accumulation: Using Ccd As A Reference For The Development Of Ad Treatments And Therapies, Isabel Gibbs 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (Ccd), Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), And Β-Amyloid Accumulation: Using Ccd As A Reference For The Development Of Ad Treatments And Therapies, Isabel Gibbs

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

I researched the similarities and differences between Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD)—a disease with symptoms and progression pattern that parallels Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)—and AD. I studied how β-amyloid accumulates in various brain regions—such as the prefrontal, occipital, entorhinal and parietal cortices—in canines to determine how β-amyloid accumulation is associated with the development of behaviors signifying cognitive decline observed in CCD and AD—such as changes in the sleep-wake cycle, social interaction, housetraining, and general orientation—in order to understand how neuroscientists may be able to derive new understandings from a canine model with CCD, and apply ...


Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch 2020 University of California, Davis and Mansoura University

Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a metabolic storage disorder caused by the deficiency of any lysosomal enzyme required for the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. A 15-month-old Boston Terrier presented with clinical signs consistent with lysosomal storage disease including corneal opacities, multifocal central nervous system disease and progressively worsening clinical course. Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy based on histopathologic evaluation of multiple organs demonstrating accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. Whole genome sequencing was used to uncover a frame-shift insertion affecting the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene (c.19_20insCGGCCCCC), a mutation confirmed in another Boston Terrier presented 2 years later with a similar clinical picture. Both dogs were homozygous ...


Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron 2020 University of New Mexico

Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron

Biology ETDs

Host-parasite systems exist across complex and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes, and may occur across taxonomically and ecologically disparate host species. Under these conditions, mechanisms underlying microevolutionary processes (i.e. gene flow, genetic drift) are not always clear, and may be mediated by numerous co-occurring factors specific to individual hosts. Host traits such as host immunology, demographics, phylogeny and ecology may act in concert to shape host-parasite relationships, and ultimately evolutionary processes. The research described herein used phylogeographic, phylogenomic, and population genetic methods to further understanding of how host traits impact the evolutionary ecology of trematode systems, using avian schistosomes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae ...


Sars-Cov-2: Current Therapeutics Human And Veterinary Medicine, Andrea Garcia 2020 Iowa State University

Sars-Cov-2: Current Therapeutics Human And Veterinary Medicine, Andrea Garcia

Creative Components

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019. Health and environmental risk factors are crucial in this current pandemic, yet it is essential to note that even though individuals of all ages are susceptive to this virus, there are risk factors associated with developing the severe disease. It is also eminent to establish the human-animal interaction by tackling important past pathogenic viruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and its zoonotic links. In need of a clinically established management for this outbreak, approved drugs' therapeutic interventions could help treat this disease ...


The Impact Of Delayed Treatment Of Uncomplicated P. Falciparum Malaria On Progression To Severe Malaria: A Systematic Review And A Pooled Multicentre Individual-Patient Meta-Analysis, Andria Mousa, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Nicholas M. Anstey, Cyril Badaut, Bridget E. Barber, Quique Bassat, Joseph D. Challenger, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Dibyadyuti Datta, Chris Drakeley, Azra C. Ghani, Victor R. Gordeuk, Matthew J. Grigg, Pierre Hugo, Chandy C. John, Alfredo Mayor, Florence Migot-Nabias, Robert O. Opoka, Geoffrey Pasvoi, Claire Rees, Hugh Reyburn, Eleanor M. Riley, Binal N. Shah, Antonio Sitoe, Colin J. Sutherland, Philip E. Thuma, Stefan A. Unger, Firmine Viwami, Michael Walther, Christopher J.M. Whitty, Timothy William, Lucy C. Okell 2020 Old Dominion University

The Impact Of Delayed Treatment Of Uncomplicated P. Falciparum Malaria On Progression To Severe Malaria: A Systematic Review And A Pooled Multicentre Individual-Patient Meta-Analysis, Andria Mousa, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Nicholas M. Anstey, Cyril Badaut, Bridget E. Barber, Quique Bassat, Joseph D. Challenger, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Dibyadyuti Datta, Chris Drakeley, Azra C. Ghani, Victor R. Gordeuk, Matthew J. Grigg, Pierre Hugo, Chandy C. John, Alfredo Mayor, Florence Migot-Nabias, Robert O. Opoka, Geoffrey Pasvoi, Claire Rees, Hugh Reyburn, Eleanor M. Riley, Binal N. Shah, Antonio Sitoe, Colin J. Sutherland, Philip E. Thuma, Stefan A. Unger, Firmine Viwami, Michael Walther, Christopher J.M. Whitty, Timothy William, Lucy C. Okell

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Delay in receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria (UM) is often reported to increase the risk of developing severe malaria (SM), but access to treatment remains low in most high-burden areas. Understanding the contribution of treatment delay on progression to severe disease is critical to determine how quickly patients need to receive treatment and to quantify the impact of widely implemented treatment interventions, such as 'test-and-treat' policies administered by community health workers (CHWs). We conducted a pooled individual-participant meta-analysis to estimate the association between treatment delay and presenting with SM.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search using Ovid MEDLINE and Embase ...


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