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Rabies Control And Prevention Within Wildlife Populations Of Skunks, Raccoons, And Foxes, Cassidy M. Smith 2016 University of Wyoming

Rabies Control And Prevention Within Wildlife Populations Of Skunks, Raccoons, And Foxes, Cassidy M. Smith

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Rabies is a zoonotic virus that is extremely lethal to humans and many wildlife species such as raccoons, skunks, foxes, as well as domestic animals such as cats, dogs, and livestock. Reservoirs of the rabies virus throughout species specific populations pose an enormous risk of exposure and infection of domestic animals that have direct contact with humans. The most effective way to prevent wildlife spillover of rabies is through the use of vaccine programs. The wildlife targeted with vaccines are mainly skunks, raccoons, and foxes since these species hold the most significant reservoirs of the virus within the United States ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


Kinetics Of Uv254 Inactivation Of Selected Viral Pathogens In A Static System, T. Cutler, C. Wang, Q. Qin, F. Zhou, K. Warren, K.-J. Yoon, S. J. Hoff, J. Ridpath, J. Zimmerman 2016 Iowa State University

Kinetics Of Uv254 Inactivation Of Selected Viral Pathogens In A Static System, T. Cutler, C. Wang, Q. Qin, F. Zhou, K. Warren, K.-J. Yoon, S. J. Hoff, J. Ridpath, J. Zimmerman

Steven J. Hoff

Aims:  The objective of this study was to estimate UV254 inactivation constants for four viral pathogens: influenza virus type A, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and reovirus.

Methods and Results:  Viruses in culture medium were exposed to one of nine doses of UV254 and then titrated for infectious virus. Analysis showed that viral inactivation by UV254 was more accurately described by a two-stage inactivation model vs a standard one-stage inactivation model.

Conclusions:  The results provided evidence for the existence of two heterogeneous viral subpopulations among the viruses tested, one highly ...


Impact Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease On The Tasmanian Devil Age Structure, Christopher Bruno, Vashni Vasquez 2016 University of St. Francis

Impact Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease On The Tasmanian Devil Age Structure, Christopher Bruno, Vashni Vasquez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of The Cross-Protective Efficacy Of A Chimeric Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based On Two Field Strains, Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Bumseok Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Dong Sun, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Won-Il Kim 2016 Chonbuk National University

Evaluation Of The Cross-Protective Efficacy Of A Chimeric Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based On Two Field Strains, Nadeem Shabir, Amina Khatun, Salik Nazki, Bumseok Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Dong Sun, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Won-Il Kim

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3–4 and ORFs 5–6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332 ...


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that mainly affects cattle. Other ruminants, cats, nonhuman primates and humans are occasionally affected; this disease is called feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) in cats, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in people. BSE is primarily acquired by eating prion-containing tissues from an infected animal. Cooking and standard disinfection procedures do not destroy this agent. Infected animals or people do not become ill for years; however, the disease is always progressive and fatal once clinical signs develop. BSE was first reported in the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Its ...


Ebolavirus And Marburgvirus Infections, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Ebolavirus And Marburgvirus Infections, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses are incompletely understood pathogens that cause severe, often fatal, illnesses in humans and non-human primates. These diseases have been known as Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, respectively, after the most dramatic symptoms in severe cases. The names “Ebola virus disease” or Marburg virus disease” are now preferred by the World Health Organization (WHO) and some other groups.

Most species of ebolaviruses and the only known species of marburgvirus occur in Africa. Current evidence suggests that the reservoir hosts are probably bats, while other animals and people are incidental hosts. Humans seem to become infected with marburgviruses mainly ...


Akabane Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Akabane Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Akabane disease is an arthropod-borne viral disease that can affect cattle, sheep and goats. In the predominant syndrome, inapparent infections in adults can lead months later to abortions, stillbirths and congenital defects in newborns. Most affected neonates die or must be euthanized. Before vaccines were developed, Akabane disease caused significant economic losses in some countries. Between 1972 and 1975, this virus resulted in the birth of more than 42,000 abnormal calves in Japan. A few strains of Akabane virus can also cause outbreaks of encephalomyelitis in calves and adult cattle. In the past 20 years, these strains have become ...


Bovine Ephemeral Fever, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Ephemeral Fever, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine ephemeral fever is an economically important arboviral disease that affects cattle and water buffalo, and is widespread in tropical and semitropical areas of the Eastern Hemisphere. In most cases, the main impact is on productivity. While the illness is usually brief, it can result in decreased milk yield, loss of condition and reproductive losses, and recovery can be prolonged in some animals. Mortality is typically low (1-2%); however, significantly higher case fatality rates were reported in some recent outbreaks.


Chronic Wasting Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Chronic Wasting Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a prion that affects cervids including deer, elk and moose. At one time, CWD was an obscure illness that seemed to occur only in a small geographic area in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. However, this disease is now found in wild and/or farmed cervids in many other states in the U.S., where it appears to be slowly spreading, and in parts of Canada. South Korea reported outbreaks among captive cervids between 2004 and 2010, after importing infected animals from Canada, and Norway detected CWD in wild cervids ...


Comparison Of Host Genetic Factors Influencing Pig Response To Infection With Two North American Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Zeenath Islam, Melanie K. Hess, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Joan Lunney, Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2016 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Host Genetic Factors Influencing Pig Response To Infection With Two North American Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Zeenath Islam, Melanie K. Hess, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Joan Lunney, Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Science Publications

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important swine diseases in the world and genetic selection of pigs for increased resistance to PRRS is an attractive method to improve the health status of the swine herd. This study compared phenotypic and genetic responses to infection with one of two genetically distinct type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates: NVSL-97-7895 (NVSL) and KS-2006-72109 (KS06), and evaluated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) WUR10000125 (WUR) on chromosome 4 that was associated with viral load and weight gain under infection with NVSL also has an effect on response to ...


Lessons Learned From The Canadian Cattle Industry: National Animal Identification And The Mad Cow, John D. Lawrence, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Daniel D. Loy, Reginald J. Clause 2016 Iowa State University

Lessons Learned From The Canadian Cattle Industry: National Animal Identification And The Mad Cow, John D. Lawrence, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Daniel D. Loy, Reginald J. Clause

John Lawrence

Canada implemented a national cattle identification system, led and developed by the industry. Initially a voluntary program beginning in July 2001, it became mandatory in July 2002 and achieved 92-95 percent compliance by that fall. The costs to develop and initiate the system were low; animals are tagged before leaving the farm of origin and the tags are read when the animal dies or is exported. The national identification system did not protect Canadian cattle from a sole case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease, found in the spring of 2003, but it did help speed and ...


Assessment Of The Zoonotic Potential Of A Novel Bovine Influenza Virus, Laura Evelyn Eckard 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Assessment Of The Zoonotic Potential Of A Novel Bovine Influenza Virus, Laura Evelyn Eckard

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

A novel orthomyxovirus was recently identified from pigs, with subsequent work suggesting the natural reservoir being bovine populations. The virus had genome characteristics most similar to influenza C viruses (ICV) but, due to the extent of sequence divergence, was proposed as a new genus, influenza D virus (IDV). Current literature on IDV has largely focused on the agricultural significance of the virus and provided evidence for the agricultural impact via observation of widespread prevalence and pathology in laboratory infected cattle. However, only one study, which identified 1.3% seroprevalence in a small cohort, has addressed the zoonotic potential of IDV ...


The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in many aspects of biological processes and diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Although it has been suggested thatNF-κB is critical in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, the molecular mechanism by which NF-κB is activated in solid tumor remains largely unknown. In the current work, we focus on growth factor receptor-induced NF-κB activation and tumor progression, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-induced NF-κB in lung cancer and heregulin receptor (HER2)-induced NF-κB in breast cancer. We found that Mucosa-associated lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), also known as paracaspase, is required for EGFR-induced ...


Gene Expression Profiling In An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model, Matthew R. Dalton 2016 Liberty University

Gene Expression Profiling In An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model, Matthew R. Dalton

Senior Honors Theses

Explaining precisely how Alzheimer’s disease (AD)—the world’s most common form of dementia—materializes in the human brain has proven to be one of the most elusive ends in modern medicine. Progressive memory loss, neurodegeneration, and the presence of abnormal protein aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) characterize this disease. Genome sequencing provides researchers with the ability to better identify disease-related changes in gene expression, some of which may play a role in the initiation and progression toward the AD-like state. Intimate interactions between tissues have been observed in many diseases, particularly between the brain and ...


Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg 2016 Liberty University

Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg

Senior Honors Theses

The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...


Disparities In Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates In The Abattoirs Of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study, Nenene D. Qekwana, James W. Oguttu, Dries Venter, Agricola Odoi 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Disparities In Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates In The Abattoirs Of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study, Nenene D. Qekwana, James W. Oguttu, Dries Venter, Agricola Odoi

Agricola Odoi

BACKGROUND: Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. METHODS: Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to ...


Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa Monson, Michael Kaiser, Susan Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa Monson, Michael Kaiser, Susan Lamont

Melissa Monson

Colonization levels in five tissues after avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) inoculation were investigated in chickens to generate phenotypic data for a genome wide association study (GWAS). Bacterial loads were measured in 370 birds and varied among individuals and tissues. Mean bacterial levels were significantly different between tissues (right lung > spleen > left lung and liver > blood). There were also significant correlations in bacterial load between tissues. These data suggest that colonization levels could be used as phenotypes in GWAS and could help identify markers associated with poultry resistance to APEC infections. After verification, these markers could be used for genetic ...


Photoreceptor Dysplasia: An Inherited Progressive Retinal Atrophy Of Miniature Schnauzer Dogs, Charles Parshall, Milton Wyman, Susan Nitroy, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Photoreceptor Dysplasia: An Inherited Progressive Retinal Atrophy Of Miniature Schnauzer Dogs, Charles Parshall, Milton Wyman, Susan Nitroy, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

A progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) affecting Miniature Schnauzer dogs is reported. Of the 287 individuals (148 female, 139 male) comprising the study population, 66 (23 percent) were affected (33 female, 33 male) and 221 animals (115 female, 106 male) were phenotypically normal. There was no sex predilection for the disease. Results of histologic and electroretinographic studies indicate that the disease is a new and different type of PRA, characterized by unique morphologic and functional deficits during rod and cone development. Accordingly, the disease has been termed photoreceptor dysplasia. Clinically, and particularly ophthalmoscopically, diagnosis is only practicable in very late stages ...


Identification Of Genetic Variation And Haplotype Structure Of The Canine Abca4 Gene For Retinal Disease Association Studies, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah Lindauer, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Identification Of Genetic Variation And Haplotype Structure Of The Canine Abca4 Gene For Retinal Disease Association Studies, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah Lindauer, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Over 200 mutations in the retina specific member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily (ABCA4) have been associated with a diverse group of human retinal diseases. The disease mechanisms, and genotype–phenotype associations, nonetheless, remain elusive in many cases. As orthologous genes are commonly mutated in canine models of human blinding disorders, canine ABCA4 appears to be an ideal candidate gene to identify and study sequence changes in dogs affected by various forms of inherited retinal degeneration. However, the size of the gene and lack of haplotype assignment significantly limit targeted association and/or linkage approaches. This study assessed the ...


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