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Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt 2020 University of South Dakota

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (Ccd), Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), And Β-Amyloid Accumulation: Using Ccd As A Reference For The Development Of Ad Treatments And Therapies, Isabel Gibbs 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (Ccd), Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), And Β-Amyloid Accumulation: Using Ccd As A Reference For The Development Of Ad Treatments And Therapies, Isabel Gibbs

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

I researched the similarities and differences between Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD)—a disease with symptoms and progression pattern that parallels Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)—and AD. I studied how β-amyloid accumulates in various brain regions—such as the prefrontal, occipital, entorhinal and parietal cortices—in canines to determine how β-amyloid accumulation is associated with the development of behaviors signifying cognitive decline observed in CCD and AD—such as changes in the sleep-wake cycle, social interaction, housetraining, and general orientation—in order to understand how neuroscientists may be able to derive new understandings from a canine model with CCD, and apply ...


Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch 2020 University of California, Davis and Mansoura University

Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a metabolic storage disorder caused by the deficiency of any lysosomal enzyme required for the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. A 15-month-old Boston Terrier presented with clinical signs consistent with lysosomal storage disease including corneal opacities, multifocal central nervous system disease and progressively worsening clinical course. Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy based on histopathologic evaluation of multiple organs demonstrating accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. Whole genome sequencing was used to uncover a frame-shift insertion affecting the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene (c.19_20insCGGCCCCC), a mutation confirmed in another Boston Terrier presented 2 years later with a similar clinical picture. Both dogs were homozygous ...


Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron 2020 University of New Mexico

Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron

Biology ETDs

Host-parasite systems exist across complex and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes, and may occur across taxonomically and ecologically disparate host species. Under these conditions, mechanisms underlying microevolutionary processes (i.e. gene flow, genetic drift) are not always clear, and may be mediated by numerous co-occurring factors specific to individual hosts. Host traits such as host immunology, demographics, phylogeny and ecology may act in concert to shape host-parasite relationships, and ultimately evolutionary processes. The research described herein used phylogeographic, phylogenomic, and population genetic methods to further understanding of how host traits impact the evolutionary ecology of trematode systems, using avian schistosomes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae ...


Methods To Evaluate Ruminant Animal Production Responses, Jose Manuel Diaz Gomez 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Methods To Evaluate Ruminant Animal Production Responses, Jose Manuel Diaz Gomez

Theses and Dissertations

In experiment 1, 80 steers (197.0 kg initial body weight; BW for fall, 116.9 kg for spring), were stocked at 2.45 and 4.1 calves/ha in fall and spring, respectively in 16 tall fescue pastures [fall ergovaline (EV) = 1,475 ppb and spring EV = 1,173 ppb] under 2 treatments, mineral (MIN) (n = 8) and cumulative management (CM) (n = 8). Forage allowance did not differ (P = 0.76) between CM and MIN during fall but differed during spring (P ≤ 0.05, 2.55 vs. 3.22 kg DM/kg BW, for MIN and CM, respectively). For ...


Estimation Of Genetic Components Related To Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Susceptibility In Angus And Angus Derived Cattle Produced In The Southern United States, Eric Oxford 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimation Of Genetic Components Related To Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Susceptibility In Angus And Angus Derived Cattle Produced In The Southern United States, Eric Oxford

Theses and Dissertations

The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been documented in many parts of the world. Many researchers have observed that prevention of this disease is very difficult given current methodologies. This is primarily due to the multifactorial nature of this disease. The objective of this dissertation was to determine the impact of IBK on calf performance and estimate genetic parameters, heritability and estimated breeding values for IBK susceptibility. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS; while genetic parameters were estimated using a linear animal model for both single- and two-traits through MTDFREML. Additional evaluations calculated heritability using ...


Potential Antimicrobials For Controlling Listeria Monocytogenes In Frankfurters, Aaron Rashad Bodie 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Potential Antimicrobials For Controlling Listeria Monocytogenes In Frankfurters, Aaron Rashad Bodie

Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic microorganism that causes Listeriosis. Listeriosis is a highly mortal disease with approximately 20% mortality rate. Listeria is psychrophilic, therefore it is able to survive in the refrigerator. This affects foods at cool storage such as fresh produce and RTE meats. To ensure the safety of RTE meat, post processing treatments are used such as vacuum packing, edible films, dip and treatment. One-way RTE can be treated is with the use of antimicrobials. However, in the past chemical substances were used. Currently, consumers want more natural and organic preservatives to combat health problems from toxic components ...


Prediction And Evaluation Of Breast Myopathy, Barbara de Almeida Mallmann 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Prediction And Evaluation Of Breast Myopathy, Barbara De Almeida Mallmann

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breast myopathies, including woody breast, white striping, and spaghetti breast, negatively impact the industry. Therefore, evaluation, prediction, and frequency of these muscle abnormalities on modern birds are important for decision making. Modern broilers are not highly active and often sit with the breast of the bird resting on the floor. Therefore, the first experiment was to promote bird movement and explore the impact on the breast myopathies. The movement was stimulated by human interaction (walking through pen) and higher light intensity so that birds walked around the pen more often throughout the day. The control group had normal low ...


Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari

Theses and Dissertations

The microbiotas play vital roles in health and diseases of both humans and animals. 16S rRNA genes sequence analysis is one of the most popular and commonly used methods in the analysis of microbiotas associated with hosts. In this dissertation, the microbiotas of chickens (broilers, breeders, and layers) and turkeys were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Characterization of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus in the chicken gut can serve as a valuable resource for probiotic development. In Chapter 2, Lactobacillus subpopulations recovered on MRS from chicken gut were defined comprehensively for the first time using 16S rRNA gene profiling ...


What Does Tolerance Mean For Animal Disease Dynamics When Pathology Enhances Transmission?, Amberleigh E. Henschen, James S. Adelman 2019 Iowa State University

What Does Tolerance Mean For Animal Disease Dynamics When Pathology Enhances Transmission?, Amberleigh E. Henschen, James S. Adelman

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Host competence, or how well an individual transmits pathogens, varies substantially within and among animal populations. As this variation can alter the course of epidemics and epizootics, revealing its underlying causes will help predict and control the spread of disease. One host trait that could drive heterogeneity in competence is host tolerance, which minimizes fitness losses during infection without decreasing pathogen load. In many cases, tolerance should increase competence by extending infectious periods and enabling behaviors that facilitate contact among hosts. However, we argue that the links between tolerance and competence are more varied. Specifically, the different physiological and behavioral ...


Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson 2019 University of Connecticut

Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson

Honors Scholar Theses

Ecosystems are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic stressors that could make animals and thus populations more susceptible to disease. For example, the application of deicing salts to roads is increasing in the northeastern United States. Chronic stress that larval amphibians experience when living in vernal pools with high salinity may alter their susceptibility to ranavirus, a pathogen responsible for mass mortality events worldwide. This project quantifies the effects of road salts and ranavirus exposure on larval wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) growth and survival. Using outdoor mesocsoms, we raised wood frog tadpoles in salt treatments and then exposed them to the ...


Adoption Of Secure Pork Supply Plan Biosecurity By U.S. Swine Producers, Christopher C. Pudenz, Lee L. Schulz, Glynn T. Tonsor 2019 Iowa State University

Adoption Of Secure Pork Supply Plan Biosecurity By U.S. Swine Producers, Christopher C. Pudenz, Lee L. Schulz, Glynn T. Tonsor

Economics Publications

There is mounting concern about the negative animal health and supply chain consequences of animal disease outbreaks in the United States. Recent disease outbreaks have drawn attention to the need for additional understanding of biosecurity efforts to reduce disease frequency, spread, and impact. Biosecurity is a key component of the Secure Pork Supply (SPS) Plan designed to provide business continuity in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak as well as help protect operations from endemic diseases. Core biosecurity recommendations outlined in the SPS Plan are a written site-specific biosecurity plan and implementation of a perimeter buffer area and ...


Initiation Of A Roundtable Meeting To Determine Safety Hazards And Provide Education To Range Bison Herd Workers, Lucia Finocchiaro 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Initiation Of A Roundtable Meeting To Determine Safety Hazards And Provide Education To Range Bison Herd Workers, Lucia Finocchiaro

Capstone Experience

This capstone project serves as an important piece of greater project studying bison handling. Bison production is both a growing and dangerous industry. As a new enterprise in many parts of the country and on tribal lands, significant numbers of untrained employees may be hired. This project undertakes methods to better understand the risks associated with bison handling and to thereby improve handling procedures and increase safety. Herd managers (from tribal and non-tribal sites), researchers, safety experts, and stakeholders were brought together for a roundtable meeting in Omaha. This meeting was designed to provide stakeholders a forum to discuss common ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank

Entomology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular, arthropod-borne bacteria with a potential to cause multiple diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Fleas, mites, and ticks serve as vectors for Rickettsia, but ticks are the primary vector of interest. RMSF and other rickettsial diseases have continued to gain importance in both human and veterinary medicine as RMSF is the most common tick-borne disease within the United States according to the Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Research Center. A statewide citizen science project was utilized to determine the prevalence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia in Arkansas. This project yielded results in 64 of ...


Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...


Preventing Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis In Salmonid Fish Along The Columbia River Basin, Whitney L. Wright 2019 Oregon Health & Science University

Preventing Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis In Salmonid Fish Along The Columbia River Basin, Whitney L. Wright

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family and causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) disease in many salmonid species during the juvenile or “fry” stage of life. IHNV is endemic to Western North America and occurs in the Columbia River Basin, where Steelhead and Chinook salmon are the most abundant IHNV-vulnerable species. IHNV can cause an epidemic in wild or farmed stocks, killing 90-95 percent of the fish it infects. Transmission is currently understood to occur by direct exposure through the gills, and the virus is shed typically from asymptomatic or clinically ill carrier adults at ...


Male Determining Gene Nix May Bring An End To Transmission Of Diseases Through Mosquitoes, Mohammed Mahdi 2019 University of Southern Maine

Male Determining Gene Nix May Bring An End To Transmission Of Diseases Through Mosquitoes, Mohammed Mahdi

Thinking Matters Symposium Archive

Female mosquitoes take blood from humans to gain protein needed to produce eggs, and in the process they can transmit viruses, such as Zika, Dengue, and chikungunya, or parasites, such as malaria. Male mosquitoes do not transmit diseases. This literature review will examine what is known about how sex is determined in mosquitoes and how this can be used to manipulate the females that spread diseases to humans. Using CRISPR Cas9, the lab of Zhijian Tu removed the Nix gene from mosquito embryos; all of these were feminized. Ectopic overexpression of Nix gene product in mosquito embryos caused even genetically ...


Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi 2019 University of Pretoria

Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

The objective of this study was to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections and resistance patterns of clinical isolates from dogs from Gauteng province in South Africa. Data from records of 1,497 dog clinical samples submitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between 2007 and 2012 were used in the study. Spatial empirical Bayesian smoothed risk maps were used to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and multidrug resistance (MDR). Moran’s I and spatial scan statistics were used to investigate spatial clusters at municipal and town spatial scales. Significant clusters of staphylococcal infections were identified at ...


Quantifying Resilience In Sows And Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin Michael Putz 2019 Iowa State University

Quantifying Resilience In Sows And Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin Michael Putz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resilience is defined as the ability of an animal to maintain a high level of performance in any environment. Swine breeding companies are organized in a pyramid-like structure. As a result of management differences between the different tiers of the pyramid, genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions have become a much bigger issue that continues today. Genetic selection for resilience can be accomplished in at least two ways, i) measuring indicator traits in the nucleus, such as antibody levels, and ii) measuring performance phenotypes in commercial testing herds. Both of these techniques provide opportunities to improve resilience in livestock.

Total lost productivity in ...


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