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Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle

Theses and Dissertations

Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo

Theses and Dissertations

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered carnivores whose population is decreasing from habitat loss and fragmentation, interspecific competition, and disease. Survival rates are especially low in Kruger National Park (KNP), though it is unclear why. I estimated the abundance in KNP and survival rates over different time spans, six years and nine months, using public photographic survey data. In 2015, there were 298 (SE=12.1) individuals. Using a mark-recapture analysis in program R, I found that the survival rate between 2009-2015 was only 3.2%, and within the 9-month survey period (September 2014 – June 2015), monthly survival rates ...


Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska 2018 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw

Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Salmonellosis is a serious problem of public health that mainly infants, young children and people with immunodeficiencies face. Human direct contact with animals is one of the possible ways of transmission of the disease. An increasing trend of keeping exotic pets, including amphibians and reptiles, has been observed for recent years in the United States and developing European countries. Most of these animals are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. However, in this review we introduced new and the most dangerous outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by contact with amphibians and reptiles that appeared in all continents in last ten years.

It was ...


Feeder Density Enhances House Finch Disease Transmission In Experimental Epidemics, Sahnzi C. Moyers, James S. Adelman, Damien R. Farine, Courtney A. Thomason, Dana M. Hawley 2018 Virginia Tech

Feeder Density Enhances House Finch Disease Transmission In Experimental Epidemics, Sahnzi C. Moyers, James S. Adelman, Damien R. Farine, Courtney A. Thomason, Dana M. Hawley

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of backyard bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naïve, groups of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) and continuously tracked behaviors at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behavior ...


Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.

Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp

Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media

Results—Of ...


Application Of Genetics And Genomics To Wildlife Epidemiology, Julie A. Blanchong, Stacie J. Robinson, Michael D. Samuel, Jeffrey T. Foster 2018 Iowa State University

Application Of Genetics And Genomics To Wildlife Epidemiology, Julie A. Blanchong, Stacie J. Robinson, Michael D. Samuel, Jeffrey T. Foster

Julie A. Blanchong

Wildlife diseases can have significant impacts on wildlife conservation and management. Many of the pathogens that affect wildlife also have important implications for domestic animal and human health. However, management interventions to prevent or control wildlife disease are hampered by uncertainties about the complex interactions between pathogens and free-ranging wildlife. We often lack crucial knowledge about host ecology, pathogen characteristics, and host–pathogen dynamics. The purpose of this review is to familiarize wildlife biologists and managers with the application of genetic and genomic methodologies for investigating pathogen and host biology to better understand and manage wildlife diseases. The genesis of ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan

Global Public Health

United Arab Emirates is a federal absolute monarchy in Western Asia at the South East end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the East and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The current population of the UAE is 9,457,851. It is a federation of hereditary absolute monarchies, governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of seven Emirs. The external and internal challenges faced by United Arab Emirates are some security and political issues and in the field ...


Bulgaria: Brucellosis, Austin Wheeler 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Bulgaria: Brucellosis, Austin Wheeler

Global Public Health

In this brief we will discuss how a disease called Brucellosis has affected the country of Bulgaria. Bulgaria is a European country located towards the South Eastern part of Europe. A few points mentioned in the brief are what the disease can do to your body, through education of the disease we can show what a serious problem it is. The brief will also cover how you can contract the disease through animals, and how you can prevent contraction from occurring. The brief also includes a lot about the religious background of the country. This should hopefully be used to ...


How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2018 Iowa State University

How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to determine if nursery pigs display different behaviors and postures pre- and post-injection using a live- and digital image methodology. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Barrows and gilts were approximately 6-wk of age from a commercial crossbred genetic line. The pen applied injection treatments were (1) Ingelvac CircoFLEX®/Ingelvac MycoFLEX® vaccine, (2) Circumvent® PCVM vaccine (3) Saline. Pre-injection were conducted at 1600h the day before injections were administered. Pigs received their treatments ...


Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu 2018 Iowa State University

Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu

Animal Industry Report

The tumorigenesis caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV) occurs through a complex regulatory architecture. , We applied a novel methodology to jointly analyze four different types of datasets: mRNA expression, the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. The pathway analysis shows that combined analysis produced more informative results than single data-type analyses, and the co-expression network analysis found key elements involved in the host-pathogen interaction. The integration of multiple data sources yielded deeper insights into the pathogenesis of the virus and the host immune response.


Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton 2018 The University of Akron

Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton

Honors Research Projects

White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emergent epidemic disease of bats in North America. Caused by the novel fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, with a mortality rate of >75%, in the last decade WNS has led to the local extinction of numerous bat species. Despite this high mortality, one species, the Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) remains unaffected. Virginia big-eared bats (VBEs) are commonly found covered in a yellow, oily substance, with a pelage commensal population dominated by the yeast, Debaryomyces udenii. As D. udenii is an oleaginous yeast that produces yellow colonies, the fungus may be responsible for the production ...


Spatial Modelling And Wildlife Health Surveillance: A Case Study Of White Nose Syndrome In Ontario, Lauren Yee 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Spatial Modelling And Wildlife Health Surveillance: A Case Study Of White Nose Syndrome In Ontario, Lauren Yee

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Wildlife data is often limited by survey effort, small sample sizes, and spatial biases associated with collection and missing data. These factors can create unique challenges from a surveillance perspective when trying to extract spatial patterns of habitat suitability and disease distributions for conservation and management purposes. This thesis examined data quality from a wildlife health database in the context of spatial analysis of wildlife disease. Spatial analysis of the data to predict habitat suitability of bats and white nose syndrome afflicted bats was examined by using the MaxEnt modelling method. Methods to reduce spatial bias were examined and specific ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, AnnaMaria Marcel 2018 Regis University

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Annamaria Marcel

All Regis University Theses

Due to the worldwide decline of biodiversity, protected nature reserves are necessary for species facing extinction. Many frog species have been experiencing rapid population decline and extinction due to the threat of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which inflicts the highly transmittable and deadly disease chytridiomycosis. Chytridiomycosis causes increased skin tissue growth which disrupts respiration and the maintenance of water balance, which can ultimately lead to death. Certain ecological and geographical characteristics have been studied in order to assess their influence on Bd’s prevalence. Specifically, it is hypothesized that high elevations, lotic habitats, and low species richness have a ...


Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2018 Iowa State University

Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Novel phenotypes from a commercial testing system could add value to selection for resilience to disease and other stressors beyond simply collecting mortality. Day-to-day variability in feed intake (FI) and in duration at the feeder (DUR), quantified by root mean squared errors (RMSE), were investigated as novel measures of resilience using data from grow-finish pigs in a natural disease challenge facility. • RMSE of FI and DUR were moderately heritable • RMSE of FI and DUR showed moderate to strong genetic correlations with mortality and treatments These results show that day-to-day variation in FI and DUR in a challenge environment can be ...


Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid

Theses and Dissertations

The extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin (FN) plays an important role in cell contractility, differentiation, growth, adhesion, and migration. The 12th -14th Type III repeats of FN (FNIII 12-14), also referred to as the Heparin-II domain, comprise a highly promiscuous growth factor (GF) binding region. This binding domain aids in cellular signaling initiated from the ECM. Additionally, FN has the ability to assemble into fibrils under certain conditions, mostly observed during cell contractile processes such as those that initiate due to upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) [1], [2]. Previous work from our lab has shown that self-assembly of ...


Evaluation Of The Effects Of Formaldehyde On Growth Parameters Of Broiler Chicks, Paula Johnson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Effects Of Formaldehyde On Growth Parameters Of Broiler Chicks, Paula Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Formaldehyde has been used as a disinfectant in poultry hatching cabinets to aid in controlling key pathogenic organisms, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E.coli). There is some evidence that prolonged exposure of chicks to formaldehyde can reduce tracheal ciliary function and thus reasons to believe that exposure to formaldehyde, in the absence of pathogen challenge, may reduce chick vitality. It has been found that elevated temperatures during incubation may adversely affect body weights of broiler chicks, as well as post-hatch environmental heat stress on performance in poultry. Post-hatch environmental heat stress has been shown to impact performance in ...


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