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Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno 2017 University of St. Francis

Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann 2017 Iowa State University

Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. Van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann

Jack M Gallup

Rationale Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in preterm and newborn infants can result in severe bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The lamb lung has several key features conducive to modeling RSV infection in human infants, including susceptibility to human strains of RSV such as the A2, Long, and Memphis Strain 37 (M37). In this study, the kinetics of M37 infection was investigated in newborn lambs in order to better define clinical, viral, physiological, and immunological parameters as well as the pathology and lesions. Methods Newborn lambs were nebulized with M37 hRSV (6 mL of 1.27 x 107 FFU/mL), monitored daily ...


F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey 2017 College of William and Mary

F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...


Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia

Theses and Dissertations

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) presents a substantial economic risk to the poultry industry. Domesticated fowl contract HPAI initially through exposure, direct or indirect with migratory waterfowl and outbreaks can result in significant economic losses to growers and the poultry industry at large. A HPAI outbreak occurred in Minnesota and Iowa and spread across over 13 other states in 2014 and 2015. This caused an estimated $1.6 billion in losses (CDC, 2016) and led to shortages of eggs and turkeys together with elevated prices (Anni et al. 2005). Even small outbreaks of HPAI inflict substantial damages as USDA-APHIS guidelines ...


Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck 2017 Iowa State University

Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite infecting cattle throughout the world. In cows, infection results in early embryonic death and abortion. Current control methods rely on culling infected animals and there is no curative treatment. We obtained a field strain of the parasite from an Iowa bull and isolated it in axenic culture. We then developed a trophozoite killing assay suitable for identifying compounds with anti-parasite activity. Current and future studies involve screening of antimicrobial agents and identification of lead compounds for future in vivo studies.


Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

With the average American consuming 26 chickens per year, poultry is in high demand. Avian related infectious disease is rising and bacteria pose serious concerns for the health of livestock and possess zoonotic potential. The goal of the study is to evaluate surface protein EtsC highly prevalent among Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), as a vaccine antigen candidate against these pathogens in chickens. The objective of this study is to determine antibody response in chickens vaccinated with the EtsC recombinant antigen. Eighteen 4 day-old White Leghorns (N=9/group) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice at two-week interval with PBS (control) or ...


Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) significantly impacts the poultry industry by causing the disease colibacillosis in chickens. In this research study, a vaccine containing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), prevalent among APEC, was evaluated for its broad potential protectivity against APEC. The objectives of our study are to 1) evaluate whether an OmpA vaccine would stimulate an antibody response in chickens and 2) show in vitro broad protection against bacteria. At 4 days-old, White Leghorn chickens (9/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously twice at two week-intervals with either PBS (control) or 50 μg OmpA in CpG adjuvant. On day 33 of ...


Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy

Animal Industry Report

Initial antibody titers are maternally-derived from colostrum, then decay with age. Change in antibody titer levels were compared between four viruses contributing to the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), and evaluation of response to vaccination indicated that antibody production will not occur when high levels of maternal antibodies are present. The maternal antibodies were found to decay with calf age for each of the four viruses, which allowed for the estimation of a maximum circulating titer level under which a positive antibody response to vaccination could occur. Phenotypic correlations were calculated between the antibody titers for the four viruses across ...


Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Warsaw University of Life Sciences

Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Two high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks haveseverelyaffected the poultry industryon the American continentwithin the last four years; a 2012 H7N3 outbreak in Mexicoand a 2015 H5N2 outbreak in the US. Blood samples were collectedfrom survivors of each outbreak plus age and genetics matched non-affected controls. As surviving birds could contain natural genetic mutation(s) that make them resistant to HPAI,the goal of the present study was to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to HPAIand to determinewhether resistance regionsare the same fordifferent virus strains.Four genomic regions were identified for the H5N2 outbreak and fivedifferent regions were identified ...


Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The liver plays a variety of roles in energy metabolism, digestion, and immune response. During the challenge by anenvironmental stressor, such as heat, the liver is one of the key organs that determines the chicken’s ability to cope with the hostile environment. Sequencing RNA extracted from liver samples from a heat-susceptible broiler line and a heat-resistant Fayoumi line, we have identifieda set of genes that were differentially expressed due to an acuteheat stress challenge. Analysis of these genes in context of the biological pathways showed opposite responsesby the broiler and Fayoumichickens,but there was activation of immune signaling pathways ...


Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers 2017 University of Ghana

Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The local chicken industries in Ghana, Tanzania and several other African countries are greatly affected by mortalities due to Newcastle disease (ND). We tested local ecotypes/breeds in Ghana and Tanzania for genetic variation in growth rate and antibody levels after infection with a La Sota lentogenic ND virusstrain.We identifiedheritable variation in ND virus antibody levels, and in pre-, and post-infection growth rates, which implies that with selective breeding, genetic improvement is possible. One of the Ghanaian ecotypes had a faster growth rate than the otherecotypes, both pre-and post-infection. We however did not find significant differences between the Tanzanian ...


The Effect Of Prrs Viral Level And Isolate On Tonsil Gene Expression, Qian Dong, Joan Lunney, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Yet Nguyen, Bob Rowland, Andrew Hess, James Reecy, Jack Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Viral Level And Isolate On Tonsil Gene Expression, Qian Dong, Joan Lunney, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Yet Nguyen, Bob Rowland, Andrew Hess, James Reecy, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) can persist in tonsil tissue for >150 days post infection (dpi) without clinical signs.This can occur even when PRRSV is cleared from serumand can result insecondary outbreaks. Tonsil tissue from commercial crossbred pigs that were experimentally infected with one of two PRRSV isolates, NVSL-97-7985 (NVSL) or KS-2006-72109 (KS06),was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in pigs with extreme high or low tonsil PRRS viremia at 42 dpi. Results provide insighton the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence in tonsils and help to identify bio-markers for PRRSV persistence in tonsil tissue.This ...


Porcine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Ppiv-1) In U.S. Swine: Summary Of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Data, Michael Welch, Jie Park, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Kevin Lin, Pablo Pineyro, Jianqiang Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Porcine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Ppiv-1) In U.S. Swine: Summary Of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Data, Michael Welch, Jie Park, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Kevin Lin, Pablo Pineyro, Jianqiang Zhang

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Parainfluenza-1 (PPIV-1) is a Paramyxovirus inthe genus Respirovirus. To evaluatethe frequency of detection of PPIV-1 on farms in the United States, theIowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) conducted an analysis of clinical samples submitted from Spring toFall 2016.Thirty-four percent of diagnostic samples tested both prospectively (70/204) and retrospectively (472/1385) were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which suggests PPIV-1 is widespread.


The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman

Animal Industry Report

PRRSV is a significant economic problem for producers in the US and around the world. The genetic basis for reproductive performance in sow herds has been poorly understood.


Genomic Characterization Of Staphylococcus Aureus At The Swine-Human Interface, Jisun Sun, Srinand Sreevatsan, Todd Knutson, Doug Marthaler, My Yang, Peter Davies 2017 University of Minnesota

Genomic Characterization Of Staphylococcus Aureus At The Swine-Human Interface, Jisun Sun, Srinand Sreevatsan, Todd Knutson, Doug Marthaler, My Yang, Peter Davies

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The epidemiology of S. aureus in swine held little interest until the ST398 lineage of MRSA was found to be prevalent in pigs and pig farmers in the Netherlands in 2004 (Voss et al. 2005). ST398 MRSA have since been detected in multiple livestock species and in many countries (EFSA, 2009; Smith and Pearson, 2011), while genetically distinct variants of ST398 S. aureus occur in some human populations independent of livestock reservoirs (Carrel et al., 2017). Furthermore, other genotypes of MRSA can occur in pigs, particularly ST9 MRSA in Asia, and ST5 MRSA in North America (Chuang and Huang, 2015 ...


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