Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, 2019 Kansas State University Libraries
Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno
Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference
Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...
Sepsis: Triage Triggers, Outcomes Quicker, 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital
Sepsis: Triage Triggers, Outcomes Quicker, Rylee Ainge, Mackenzie Flaws, Natalie Heim, Emily Herndon, Hayley Norris, Amy L. Scott
No abstract provided.
Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., 2019 University of Pretoria
Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi
Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences
The objective of this study was to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections and resistance patterns of clinical isolates from dogs from Gauteng province in South Africa. Data from records of 1,497 dog clinical samples submitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between 2007 and 2012 were used in the study. Spatial empirical Bayesian smoothed risk maps were used to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and multidrug resistance (MDR). Moran’s I and spatial scan statistics were used to investigate spatial clusters at municipal and town spatial scales. Significant clusters of staphylococcal infections were identified at ...
Candida Albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked To The Cell Wall And Impairs Phagocytosis And Killing By Human Neutrophils, 2019 Medical University of Innsbruck
Candida Albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked To The Cell Wall And Impairs Phagocytosis And Killing By Human Neutrophils, Samyr Kenno, Cornelia Speth, Gunter Rambach, Ulrike Binder, Sneha Chatterjee, Rita Caramalho, Hubertus Haas, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Neil A.R. Gow, Dorothea Orth-Holler, Reinhard Wurzner
Open Access Articles
Complement is a tightly controlled arm of the innate immune system, facilitating phagocytosis and killing of invading pathogens. Factor H (FH) is the main fluid-phase inhibitor of the alternative pathway. Many pathogens can hijack FH from the host and protect themselves from complement-dependent killing. Candida albicans is a clinically important opportunistic yeast, expressing different FH binding molecules on its cell surface, which allow complement evasion. One such FH binding molecule is the transmembrane protein "High affinity glucose transporter 1" (Hgt1p), involved in glucose metabolism. This study demonstrated that Hgt1p transcription and expression is induced and highest at the low, but ...
Evolution Of The Exclusively Human Pathogen Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Human-Specific Engagement Of Immunoregulatory Siglecs, 2019 University of California - San Diego
Evolution Of The Exclusively Human Pathogen Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Human-Specific Engagement Of Immunoregulatory Siglecs, Corinna S. Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P. Kellman, Jerry J. Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E. Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki
Open Access Articles
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea exclusively in humans and uses multiple strategies to infect, including acquisition of host sialic acids that cap and mask lipooligosaccharide termini, while restricting complement activation. We hypothesized that gonococci selectively target human anti-inflammatory sialic acid-recognizing Siglec receptors on innate immune cells to blunt host responses and that pro-inflammatory Siglecs and SIGLEC pseudogene polymorphisms represent host evolutionary adaptations to counteract this interaction. N. gonorrhoeae can indeed engage multiple human but not chimpanzee CD33rSiglecs expressed on innate immune cells and in the genitourinary tract--including Siglec-11 (inhibitory) and Siglec-16 (activating), which we detected for the ...
Is Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain By Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography In Sepsis Cardiomyopathy Ready For Prime Time Use In The Icu, Venu Madhav Velagapudi, Rahul Pidikiti, Dennis A. Tighe
Open Access Articles
Myocardial deformation imaging (strain imaging) is a technique to directly quantify the extent of myocardial contractility and overcomes several of the limitations of ejection fraction. The application of the most commonly used strain imaging method; speckle-tracking echocardiography to patients with sepsis cardiomyopathy heralds an exciting development to the field. However; the body of evidence and knowledge on the utility, feasibility and prognostic value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy is still evolving. We conducted a review of literature on utility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy. We discuss the role of left ventricular global ...
Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, 2018 Cleveland State University
Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy
The Downtown Review
Nosocomial diseases are a serious concern and detriment to hospitals’ abilities to provide appropriate patient care. Bearing this in mind, an effort must be made to determine whether infection surveillance and control programs have reduced the rates of nosocomial infection at U.S. hospitals. The data that were studied were obtained as part of the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) and used to develop a model of what variables most contribute to a patient’s length of stay at the Cleveland Clinic (Quade et al, 1980).
Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams
Physician Assistant Capstones
Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles were excluded ...
Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti
Open Access Articles
Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...
Deviating From Idsa Treatment Guidelines For Non-Purulent Skin Infections Increases The Risk Of Treatment Failure In Emergency Department Patients, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Deviating From Idsa Treatment Guidelines For Non-Purulent Skin Infections Increases The Risk Of Treatment Failure In Emergency Department Patients, John P. Haran, E. Wilsterman, T. Zeoli, Melissa Goulding, Emily Mclendon, Melissa A. Clark
Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications
The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes guidelines regularly for the management of skin and soft tissue infections; however, the extent to which practice patterns follow these guidelines and if this can affect treatment failure rates is unknown. We observed the treatment failure rates from a multicentre retrospective ambulatory cohort of adult emergency department patients treated for a non-purulent skin infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of IDSA classification and whether adherence to IDSA guidelines reduced treatment failure. A total of 759 ambulatory patients were included in the cohort with 17.4% failing treatment. Among ...
Explantation Of Infected Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Explantation Of Infected Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair, Emily Y. Fan, Dejah R. Judelson, Andres Schanzer
Open Access Articles
Prosthetic graft infection is a rare and serious complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair associated with high mortality and posing unique challenges for treatment. The prosthetic graft infection is often identified late as patients present with mild nonspecific symptoms. We describe the successful medical management and surgical explantation of an infected thoracic endograft with an aorta-bronchial fistula, using an inline reconstruction with an antibiotic-soaked synthetic graft. In this report, we provide an example of a patient with an infected thoracic endograft and how inline reconstruction combined with appropriate medical management is an acceptable treatment strategy.
Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, 2018 Western Oregon University
Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer
Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...
Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that induces severe inflammation resulting in gastroenteritis. In the case of S. Typhimurium infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its primary virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response.
One such effector, SifA, is a bi-functional T3SS effector protein that plays an important role in Salmonella virulence. The N-terminal domain of SifA binds SifA-Kinesin-Interacting-Protein (SKIP), and via an interaction ...
Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, 2018 University of Toulouse
Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou
Open Access Articles
Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin involved in the recognition of several pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Schistosoma mansonii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that triggers Th17 immune responses. Identifying pathogen ligands and understanding the molecular basis of their recognition is one of the current challenges. Purified M. tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was shown to induce signaling via Dectin-2, an activity that requires the (alpha1 --> 2)-linked mannosides forming the caps. Here, using isogenic M. tuberculosis mutant strains, we demonstrate that ManLAM is a bona fide and actually the sole ligand mediating bacilli recognition by Dectin-2, although M. tuberculosis produces a ...
Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic And Linear Peptides Composed Of Hydrophobic And Positively-Charged Amino Acids As Antibacterial Agents, Neda Riahifard, Saghar Mozaffari, Taibah Aldakhil, Francisco Nunez, Qamar Alshammari, Saud Alshammari, Jason Yamaki, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) contain amphipathic structures and are derived from natural resources. AMPs have been found to be effective in treating the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and thus, are potential lead compounds against ARB. AMPs’ physicochemical properties, such as cationic nature, amphiphilicity, and their size, will provide the opportunity to interact with membrane bilayers leading to damage and death of microorganisms. Herein, AMP analogs of [R4W4] were designed and synthesized by changing the hydrophobicity and cationic nature of the lead compound with other amino acids to provide insights into a structure-activity relationship against selected model ...
First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, 2018 Saint Vincent Hospital
First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham
Open Access Articles
Staphylococcus simulans is a coagulase-negative organism, mainly an animal pathogen. Reports of human infection have been infrequent, mainly in patients with repeated animal contact. We report the first case of pleural empyema in an elderly woman. S. simulans tends to cause more severe infection because of a biofilm layer which helps in adherence and colonization of smooth surfaces, especially prosthetic devices, shunts, and catheters. The challenging problem even after CoNS isolation and identification is the assessment of their clinical relevance. Major factors that inhibit the penetration of antibiotics is the large-sized effusions/empyema, thickness of pleura, and the nature of ...
Protection Induced By A Francisella Tularensis Subunit Vaccine Delivered By Glucan Particles, 2018 Dstl Porton Down
Protection Induced By A Francisella Tularensis Subunit Vaccine Delivered By Glucan Particles, Adam O. Whelan, Helen C. Flick-Smith, Jane Homan, Zu T. Shen, Zoe Carpenter, Payam Khoshkenar, Ambily Abraham, Nicola J. Walker, Stuart M. Levitz, Gary R. Ostroff, Petra C. F. Oyston
Open Access Articles
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen causing the disease tularemia, and an organism of concern to biodefence. There is no licensed vaccine available. Subunit approaches have failed to induce protection, which requires both humoral and cellular immune memory responses, and have been hampered by a lack of understanding as to which antigens are immunoprotective. We undertook a preliminary in silico analysis to identify candidate protein antigens. These antigens were then recombinantly expressed and encapsulated into glucan particles (GPs), purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of beta-1,3-glucans. Immunological profiling in the mouse was used to down-selection to seven lead ...
Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
A Phage-Based Assay For The Rapid, Quantitative, And Single Cfu Visualization Of E. Coli (Ecor #13) In Drinking Water, Troy C. Hinkely, S. Singh, Spencer Garing, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen
Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications
Drinking water standards in the United States mandate a zero tolerance of generic E. coli in 100mL of water. The presence of E. coli in drinking water indicates that favorable environmental conditions exist that could have resulted in pathogen contamination. Therefore, the rapid and specifc enumeration of E. coli in contaminated drinking water is critical to mitigate signifcant risks to public health. To meet this challenge, we developed a bacteriophage-based membrane fltration assay that employs novel fusion reporter enzymes to fully quantify E. coli in less than half the time required for traditional enrichment assays. A luciferase and an alkaline ...
Mrsa In The United States, Sweden, And Syria, 2018 Liberty University
Mrsa In The United States, Sweden, And Syria, Derek J. Lillestolen
Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an opportunistic pathogen that is resistant to many broad and narrow-spectrum antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of S. aureus. There has been much fanfare about MRSA, receiving nicknames like “superbug” because of its varying degrees of resistance to the most common broad and narrow-spectrum antibiotics such as penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin and amoxicillin (2). The reality, however, is that MRSA is still susceptible to certain antibiotics and can be treated effectively. This study displays the factors which help and hurt MRSA treatments. There is shown a strong link between the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and ...