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The Gambia : Tuberculosis, Amen Belayneh 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The Gambia : Tuberculosis, Amen Belayneh

Global Public Health

Tuberculosis in the Gambia

This brief consists of some general information about Gambia, demographic information, the effects of tuberculosis in the country including the challenges brought forth by the disease, and some personal suggestions on the matter. From the general information on Gambia, we learn the location, political structure as well as major internal and external challenges faced by the country. Tuberculosis is one of the country’s major internal challenges in addition to its environmental and economic issues. Under the demographic information we get a broader idea of the Gambia people by looking at population demographic such as birth ...


Lebanon: Cholera Outbreak, Muhammad Naqvi 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Lebanon: Cholera Outbreak, Muhammad Naqvi

Global Public Health

Lebanon is a country that has always been tangled with the ever looming threat of a growing health crisis. With a failing government and massive influx of refugees, mostly the victim of their war torn economy, it seemed inevitable that sanitation procedures would run short. Now the Lebanese people and government face the challenge of the spread of Cholera, a water-borne disease, within the countries vicinity as a result of mass pollution from the formation of informal settlements as well as the country being a hotbed for political instability. These have resulted in limited success in controlling the outbreak engulfing ...


Micronesia: Tuberculosis, Mulualem Hailom 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Micronesia: Tuberculosis, Mulualem Hailom

Global Public Health

This brief contains the general information of the Federal state of Micronesia, major problems of the country, and in particular Tuberculosis disease and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Under the general information of Micronesia, the location, the political structure, the demographic information, and the internal and also external challenges are listed. This brief also has detailed information about the two simultaneous outbreaks of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis of Micronesia. Tuberculosis is one of death contributing factor in Micronesia. Tuberculosis can be cured if the therapy is properly taken but if the therapy isn’t taken properly, the TB disease can grow into Multidrug –Resistance tuberculosis ...


Niger: Meningitis, Rodrigo Medeiros 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Niger: Meningitis, Rodrigo Medeiros

Global Public Health

Niger is a semi-presidential republic located in western Africa. The majority of the population lives in the most extreme southern part of the country since 80% of Niger’s territory is occupied by the Sahara desert. The desert has been spreading in recent years forcing people to leave their subsistence farms. The majority of the population lives with less than 1 dollar per day. The first meningitis outbreak lasted from 2002 until 2012, but the 2015 outbreak was the one that caused more damage to the countries located in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa. The meningitis belt is the ...


Developing Algorithms For Quantifying The Super Resolution Microscopic Data: Applications To The Quantification Of Protein-Reorganization In Bacteria Responding To Treatment By Silver Ions, Sai Divya Challapalli 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Developing Algorithms For Quantifying The Super Resolution Microscopic Data: Applications To The Quantification Of Protein-Reorganization In Bacteria Responding To Treatment By Silver Ions, Sai Divya Challapalli

Theses and Dissertations

Histone-like nucleoid structuring proteins (HNS) play significant roles in shaping the chromosomal DNA, regulation of transcriptional networks in microbes, as well as bacterial responses to environmental changes such as temperature fluctuations. In this work, the intracellular organization of HNS proteins in E. coli bacteria was investigated utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, which surpasses conventional microscopy by 10–20 fold in spatial resolution. More importantly, the changes of the spatial distribution of HNS proteins in E. coli, by addition of silver ions into the growth medium were explored. To quantify the spatial distribution of HNS in bacteria and its changes, an automatic ...


Fmt Placed By Colonoscopy: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Nadia Huq, Veena Kumaravel, Aboud Affi, Maharaj Singh 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Fmt Placed By Colonoscopy: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Nadia Huq, Veena Kumaravel, Aboud Affi, Maharaj Singh

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Fecal transplants are successful in the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), but there is no consensus on the best method of instillation. Studies have shown greater success with lower gastrointestinal tract placement, but technical aspects of placement are not validated.

Purpose: This review aims to identify common traits and procedural techniques of successful fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) therapy via colonoscopy.

Methods: An electronic search was conducted using OVID Medline and PubMed for articles published from January 2010 to January 2016. The primary outcome of interest was cure by FMT placed via colonoscopy.

Results: Of the ...


Decreasing Time To Broad Spectrum Antibiotics For Septic Patients In The Emergency Department, Joseph J. Zieminski, Emily E. Bryant 2017 Department of Pharmacy, Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Center

Decreasing Time To Broad Spectrum Antibiotics For Septic Patients In The Emergency Department, Joseph J. Zieminski, Emily E. Bryant

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Timely administration of broad spectrum antibiotics has been shown to be directly correlated with decreased mortality for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. As such, both the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and the SEP-1 CMS measure recognize timely antibiotic administration as a cornerstone of therapy for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

Purpose: Decrease time to broad spectrum antibiotic administration for septic patients in the emergency department (ED) of Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Center.

Methods: An alert within the electronic medical record was created to more rapidly identify potentially septic patients in the ED. After receiving the ...


Acute Bacterial Cellulitis: Emergency Department Management, Aetiological Epidemiology And Clinical Risk Factors For Antibiotic Treatment Failure, Michael Quirke 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Acute Bacterial Cellulitis: Emergency Department Management, Aetiological Epidemiology And Clinical Risk Factors For Antibiotic Treatment Failure, Michael Quirke

MD theses

This thesis consists of 6 work-packages (WPs) that describe the Emergency Department (ED) management of cellulitis; it’s aetiological epidemiology, and risk factors for antibiotic treatment failure.

In order to provide a context for this thesis, I performed a scientometric analysis of research output related to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) between 1945 and 2014. Overall, research output was low but increased as a result of the community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in North American settings.

My observational research work began with two studies describing the ED incidence of cellulitis, antibiotic prescribing practices and physician adherence to ...


Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu 2017 National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research

Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood.

METHODS: To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB).

RESULTS: Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the ...


Sipa Activation Of Caspase-3 Is A Decisive Mediator Of Host Cell Survival At Early Stages Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection, Anne McIntosh, Lynsey M. Meikle, Michael J. Ormsby, Beth A. McCormick, John M. Christie, James M. Brewer, Mark Roberts, Daniel M. Wall 2017 University of Glasgow

Sipa Activation Of Caspase-3 Is A Decisive Mediator Of Host Cell Survival At Early Stages Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection, Anne Mcintosh, Lynsey M. Meikle, Michael J. Ormsby, Beth A. Mccormick, John M. Christie, James M. Brewer, Mark Roberts, Daniel M. Wall

Open Access Articles

Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) is a dual-function effector protein that plays roles in both actin polymerization and caspase-3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells. To date its function in other cell types has remained largely unknown despite its expression in multiple cell types and its extracellular secretion during infection. Here we show that in macrophages SipA induces increased caspase-3 activation early in infection. This activation required a threshold level of SipA linked to multiplicity of infection and may be a limiting factor controlling bacterial numbers in infected macrophages. In polymorphonuclear leukocytes, SipA or other Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 effectors had ...


Bacterial Development Of Resistance To Botanical Antimicrobials, Guillermo Ruiz, Tiffany Turner, Erik Nelson, Linda Sparks, Jeffrey Langland 2017 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Bacterial Development Of Resistance To Botanical Antimicrobials, Guillermo Ruiz, Tiffany Turner, Erik Nelson, Linda Sparks, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

In recent years, increased numbers of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria have opportunistically and selectively expanded while the pharmaceutical discovery of new antimicrobial therapies has been lacking to combat this growing threat. Like traditional antibiotics, botanicals have historically been used to treat bacterial infections, but it remains unclear if bacteria may have the capability to develop resistance to these therapeutic botanicals. It is believed that one advantage that may prevent or slow resistance to botanical antimicrobials is the presumed presence of the multiple endogenous substances contained within a plant that may act synergistically to inhibit microbial growth. This study examined the ...


Effectiveness Of Four-Decontamination Techniques On Bacterial Growth On Cpr Manikins After Use In A Cpr Course, Rachel K. Katch, David C. Berry 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Effectiveness Of Four-Decontamination Techniques On Bacterial Growth On Cpr Manikins After Use In A Cpr Course, Rachel K. Katch, David C. Berry

International Journal of First Aid Education

Context: The American Red Cross and American Heart Association are strong advocates of preventing disease transmission during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training by promoting careful and consistent manikin decontamination. Because CPR is taught worldwide, identifying low-cost, efficient, and effective means of decontamination is imperative. Objective: Determine the degree of contamination on CPR manikins after routine use, and evaluate the efficacy of four disinfecting methods to reduce bacterial growth. Design: Descriptive laboratory. Setting: CPR class; microbiology laboratory. Subjects Forty-eight Actar 911™ CPR manikins (Armstrong Medical Industries, Lincolnshire, IL). Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variable was bacterial colony growth (count); independent variable was ...


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Catherine W. Carr

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Library Publications and Presentations

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


The Feoabc Locus Of Yersinia Pestis Likely Has Two Promoters Causing Unique Iron Regulation, Lauren O'Connor, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, Robert D. Perry 2017 University of Kentucky

The Feoabc Locus Of Yersinia Pestis Likely Has Two Promoters Causing Unique Iron Regulation, Lauren O'Connor, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, Robert D. Perry

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The FeoABC ferrous transporter is a wide-spread bacterial system. While the feoABC locus is regulated by a number of factors in the bacteria studied, we have previously found that regulation of feoABC in Yersinia pestis appears to be unique. None of the non-iron responsive transcriptional regulators that control expression of feoABC in other bacteria do so in Y. pestis. Another unique factor is the iron and Fur regulation of the Y. pestis feoABC locus occurs during microaerobic but not aerobic growth. Here we show that this unique iron-regulation is not due to a unique aspect of the Y. pestis Fur ...


Superbugs Versus Outsourced Cleaners: Employment Arrangements And The Spread Of Health Care-Associated Infections, Adam Seth Litwin, Ariel C. Avgar, Edmund R. Becker 2017 Cornell University

Superbugs Versus Outsourced Cleaners: Employment Arrangements And The Spread Of Health Care-Associated Infections, Adam Seth Litwin, Ariel C. Avgar, Edmund R. Becker

Adam Seth Litwin

On any given day, about one in 25 hospital patients in the United States has a health care–associated infection (HAI) that the patient contracts as a direct result of his or her treatment. Fortunately, the spread of most HAIs can be halted through proper disinfection of surfaces and equipment. Consequently, cleaners—“environmental services” (EVS) in hospital parlance—must take on the important task of defending hospital patients (as well as staff and the broader community) from the spread of HAIs. Despite the importance of this task, hospitals frequently outsource this function, increasing the likelihood that these workers are under-rewarded ...


Burkholderia Pseudomallei Enters The Brain And Spinal Cord Via The Trigeminal Nerve, Heidi Walkden, James St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny Ekberg 2017 Bond University

Burkholderia Pseudomallei Enters The Brain And Spinal Cord Via The Trigeminal Nerve, Heidi Walkden, James St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny Ekberg

Jenny Ekberg

Background

The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as chewing. It constitutes a direct route from the nasal cavity into the brain (Fig. 1). Despite this, only a handful of microorganisms are thought to infect the brain via this route.

The tropical disease melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic to the northern Australia and south-east Asia. The main route of transmission is via inhalation of droplets and soil. The Australian variant can result in brain infection, but the mechanism of infection is unknown.

Here, we investigated whether B ...


Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; Center for Urban Population Health

Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.


Colonization Density Of The Upper Respiratory Tract As A Predictor Of Pneumonia-Haemophilus Influenzae, Moraxella Catarrhalis, Staphylococcus Aureus, And Pneumocystis Jirovecii., Daniel E Park, Henry C Baggett, Stephen R C Howie, Qiyuan Shi, Nora L Watson, W Abdullah Brooks, PERCH Study Group 2017 George Washington University

Colonization Density Of The Upper Respiratory Tract As A Predictor Of Pneumonia-Haemophilus Influenzae, Moraxella Catarrhalis, Staphylococcus Aureus, And Pneumocystis Jirovecii., Daniel E Park, Henry C Baggett, Stephen R C Howie, Qiyuan Shi, Nora L Watson, W Abdullah Brooks, Perch Study Group

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

There is limited information on the association between colonization density of upper respiratory tract colonizers and pathogen-specific pneumonia. We assessed this association for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Methods.

In 7 low- and middle-income countries, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with severe pneumonia and age-frequency matched community controls were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Differences in median colonization density were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Density cutoffs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Cases with a pathogen identified from lung aspirate culture or PCR, pleural fluid culture or PCR, blood culture ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

Christian Mueller

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


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