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Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers 2017 George Washington University

Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers

Global Health Faculty Publications

Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the ...


An Exploratory Study Of The Utlization Of Evidence-Based Pharmacological Treatment On Heart Failure Patients In Mississippi And Its Impact On Readmission, Keri A. Barron 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

An Exploratory Study Of The Utlization Of Evidence-Based Pharmacological Treatment On Heart Failure Patients In Mississippi And Its Impact On Readmission, Keri A. Barron

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of adherence to evidence-based guidelines for pharmacologic management by select Mississippi hospitals and their hospital readmission rates. This was an exploratory study with a retrospective design. This design offered insight into the relationship between readmissions of heart failure patients and adherence to the national guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of heart failure. The study took place in a hospital in the southeastern section of the United States. Data were collected from a database of patients with heart failure seen between January 2011 and June 2014.

The unit of analysis for ...


The Zika Virus Threat: How Concerns About Scientists May Undermine Efforts To Combat The Pandemic, Thomas G. Safford, Lawrence C. Hamilton, Emily Whitmore 2017 University of New Hampshire

The Zika Virus Threat: How Concerns About Scientists May Undermine Efforts To Combat The Pandemic, Thomas G. Safford, Lawrence C. Hamilton, Emily Whitmore

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

Using data from the University of New Hampshire’s October 2016 Granite State Poll, authors Thomas Safford, Lawrence Hamilton, and Emily Whitmore investigate how New Hampshire residents view the Zika crisis. They report that most New Hampshire residents believe Zika is only a minor threat to public health in the United States, and they generally trust the CDC as a source of information about the virus. The data also show that, while there is doubt about the government’s ability to control the spread of the virus, the public feels that emergency federal funding to combat Zika should be a ...


Messenger Rna And Microrna Transcriptomic Signatures Of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, David D. McManus, Jian Rong, Tianxiao Huan, Sean Lacey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Peter J. Munson, Martin G. Larson, Roby Joehanes, Venkatesh Murthy, Ravi Shah, Jane Freedman, Daniel Levy 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Messenger Rna And Microrna Transcriptomic Signatures Of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, David D. Mcmanus, Jian Rong, Tianxiao Huan, Sean Lacey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Peter J. Munson, Martin G. Larson, Roby Joehanes, Venkatesh Murthy, Ravi Shah, Jane Freedman, Daniel Levy

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors are heritable and cluster in individuals. We hypothesized that CM risk factors are associated with multiple shared and unique mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) signatures. We examined associations of mRNA and miRNA levels with 6 CM traits: body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures through cross-sectional analysis of 2812 Framingham Heart Study who had whole blood collection for RNA isolation for mRNA and miRNA expression studies and who consented to genetic research. We excluded participants taking medication for hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. We measured mRNA (n = 17,318; using ...


Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin 2017 University of Kentucky

Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin

The VAD Journal

Abstract:

Background: We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy of VA-ECMO support in cardiogenic shock based on various etiologies.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 99 patients supported with VA-ECMO from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015. Outcomes included survival to discontinuation of VA-ECMO support and survival to hospital discharge. The etiologies of cardiogenic shock included cardiac arrest (CPR), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism (PE), right ventricular failure (RVF) not secondary to an acute pulmonary embolism, and post-cardiotomy syndrome (PCS). The PCS group was used as a reference group; odds ratios were estimated ...


Histamine Intolerance: Why Freshness Matters, Georgia Ede 2017 Smith College

Histamine Intolerance: Why Freshness Matters, Georgia Ede

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Diet, Kidney Stones And Kidney Failure, lynda frassetto 2017 UCSF

Diet, Kidney Stones And Kidney Failure, Lynda Frassetto

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

Clinicians have long understood the immense impact the health of our gut has on things like weight, energy, depression, autoimmunity and more. With the recent advancements in microbiota research we have learned much more about this connection. Like never before we understand how we can alleviate chronic health conditions and enhance well-being through improving the health of the gut.

However, with this increased research has also come over speculation and ill-informed recommendations. This has high impact on today's healthcare professional or consumer who could unintentionally do harm. For example by replicating the microbiota of hunter-gatherers of Africa, we could ...


Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury 2017 Ancestral Health Society

Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P McManus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu 2017 George Washington University

Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P Mcmanus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. The dynamic gene expression pattern data reveal clear sex-related characteristics, indicative of an unambiguous functional division between males and females during their interplay. Cluster analysis, in situ hybridization and RNAi assays indicate that males likely use biogenic amine neurotransmitters through the ...


P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc 2017 Western University

P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc

Western Research Forum

Background

Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) is a receptor which mediates efferocytosis – removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes such as macrophages. MERTK plays a critical role in homeostasis, with mutations in MERTK associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis, the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque in the sub-arterial space. Indeed, one MERTK allele is associated with 66% (heterozygous) to 75% (homozygous) protection from atherosclerosis, while other alleles and SNP’s pre-dispose to atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Complications resulting from atherosclerosis, including heart attack and stroke, are currently the second leading cause of mortality in Canada. Despite the importance of MERTK in atherosclerosis ...


P30. Optimizing Current Steering In Deep Brain Stimulation For Treating Parkinsonian Axial Motor Symptoms, Daphne Hui 2017 Western University

P30. Optimizing Current Steering In Deep Brain Stimulation For Treating Parkinsonian Axial Motor Symptoms, Daphne Hui

Western Research Forum

Background: The proposed study will investigate deep brain stimulation (DBS), of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to improve gait dysfunctions in advanced Parkinson’s Disease (PD). DBS requires implantation of electrodes into the brain that contain contacts where current traverses to stimulate neurons. Imprecise electrode implantations are inherent in surgical implantation; thus, contributing to the elusiveness of DBS on gait.

Methods: The proposed investigation will divide current between two contacts to receive 0, 30, 50, 70, or 100% of current, to find the best combination to improve gait. Gait changes associated with fractional combinations will be visually assessed with clinical scales ...


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


Parental Quality Of Life 10 Years After Their Child’S Epilepsy Diagnosis, Klajdi Puka, Kathy Nixon Speechley 2017 Western University

Parental Quality Of Life 10 Years After Their Child’S Epilepsy Diagnosis, Klajdi Puka, Kathy Nixon Speechley

Western Research Forum

Background: Although the long-term course of childhood epilepsy is favorable in terms of seizure control, patients often face debilitating cognitive and psychosocial deficits that persist even after seizure remission. Pediatric epilepsy also has a large impact on the family and has been shown to be associated with diminished quality of life (QOL) among parents. However, the long-term outcome of parental QOL is unknown. This study aimed to 1) evaluate parental QOL 10 years after their child was diagnosed with epilepsy and 2) identify epilepsy-, child- and family-related characteristics associated with diminished parental QOL.

Methods: Data were derived from the Health-Related ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Toward The Global Control Of Human Scabies: Introducing The International Alliance For The Control Of Scabies, Daniel Engelman, Karen Kiang, Olivier Chosidow, James McCarthy, Claire Fuller, Patrick Lammie, Roderick Hay, Andrew Steer 2017 Selected Works

Toward The Global Control Of Human Scabies: Introducing The International Alliance For The Control Of Scabies, Daniel Engelman, Karen Kiang, Olivier Chosidow, James Mccarthy, Claire Fuller, Patrick Lammie, Roderick Hay, Andrew Steer

Daniel T. Engelman MD

Scabies, the human skin disease caused by infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, causes considerable morbidity and mortality through direct effects and as a result of secondary bacterial infection. Scabies is a truly neglected disease, largely absent from the global health agenda, and its huge burden of disease is largely underappreciated. We contend that coordinated, global efforts to control this ubiquitous pathogenic mite are both important and achievable.


Risk Of Infection Associated With Subsequent Biologic Agent Use After Rituximab: Results From A National Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Registry, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Chitra Karki, Robert P. Magner, Ashwini Shewade, Ani John, Joel Kremer, Jeffrey D. Greenberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Risk Of Infection Associated With Subsequent Biologic Agent Use After Rituximab: Results From A National Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Registry, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Chitra Karki, Robert P. Magner, Ashwini Shewade, Ani John, Joel Kremer, Jeffrey D. Greenberg

Leslie R. Harrold

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the time between the last rituximab infusion and initiation of a different biologic agent influenced infection risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with RA who newly initiated rituximab within the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America registry were included if they switched to a nonrituximab biologic agent and had > /=1 followup visit within 12 months of switching. Patients were categorized by duration of time between their last rituximab infusion and initiation of a subsequent biologic agent (< /=5 months, 6-11 months, and > /=12 months). The primary outcome was time to first infectious event. Adjusted Cox regression models estimated ...


A Murine Model To Study Epilepsy And Sudep Induced By Malaria Infection., Paddy Ssentongo, Anna E Robuccio, Godfrey Thuku, Derek G Sim, Ali Nabi, Fatemeh Bahari, Balaji Shanmugasundaram, Myles W Billard, Andrew Geronimo, Kurt W Short, Patrick J Drew, Jennifer Baccon, Steven L Weinstein, Frank G Gilliam, José A Stoute, Vernon M Chinchilli, Andrew F Read, Bruce J Gluckman, Steven J Schiff 2017 George Washington University

A Murine Model To Study Epilepsy And Sudep Induced By Malaria Infection., Paddy Ssentongo, Anna E Robuccio, Godfrey Thuku, Derek G Sim, Ali Nabi, Fatemeh Bahari, Balaji Shanmugasundaram, Myles W Billard, Andrew Geronimo, Kurt W Short, Patrick J Drew, Jennifer Baccon, Steven L Weinstein, Frank G Gilliam, José A Stoute, Vernon M Chinchilli, Andrew F Read, Bruce J Gluckman, Steven J Schiff

Neurology Faculty Publications

One of the largest single sources of epilepsy in the world is produced as a neurological sequela in survivors of cerebral malaria. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanisms of such epileptogenesis remain unknown and no adjunctive therapy during cerebral malaria has been shown to reduce the rate of subsequent epilepsy. There is no existing animal model of postmalarial epilepsy. In this technical report we demonstrate the first such animal models. These models were created from multiple mouse and parasite strain combinations, so that the epilepsy observed retained universality with respect to genetic background. We also discovered spontaneous sudden unexpected death in epilepsy ...


Using Heart Models For Physiology Teaching And Learning, Sowmya Anjur 2017 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Using Heart Models For Physiology Teaching And Learning, Sowmya Anjur

Sowmya Anjur

Over the last few decades, there has been a shift in the classroom from a teacher-centered learning environment, with its emphasis on content delivery, to a student-centered environment focused on inquiry learning (http://www.nsta.org/docs/ PositionStatement_Scienti cInquiry.pdf). With the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2012) being adopted by many states, students are no longer passive listeners, but actively participate in and initiate class discussions (Weimar, 2013). Additionally, recent technological advances have allowed students to acquire information from sources such as the internet which no longer necessitates the teacher giving lectures (Silver- thorn, 2006). The more student-centered learning ...


Levodopa-Induced Morot Behavior Alterations In Dosophila Larvae, James Stanton 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Levodopa-Induced Morot Behavior Alterations In Dosophila Larvae, James Stanton

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Exposing L-Dopa to Drosophila Melanogaster larvae and recording their induced dyskinetic behavior


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