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The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey 2017 Dominican University of California

The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Type 1 Diabetics have various ways of managing their diabetes that have been studied for their effectiveness. Pregnancy in the Type 1 Diabetic has been understudied. It is known that Diabetics in general have poorer pregnancy outcomes because of poor glycemic control. This coupled with the fact that the body needs 3-4 times more insulin as pregnancy comes to an end makes managing blood glucose levels challenging for diabetics (Lowdermilk, 2016, p. 689). For the Type 1 Diabetic, there are two main ways to control diabetes: multiple daily injections using at least two type of insulin and continuous subcutaneous insulin ...


The Effect Of Health Insurance Coverage And The Doctor-Patient Relationship On Health Care Utilization In High Poverty Neighborhoods, Destini Smith, Alan Akira, Kenneth Hudson, Andrea Hudson, Marcellus Hudson, Marcus Mitchell, Errol Crook 2017 George Washington University

The Effect Of Health Insurance Coverage And The Doctor-Patient Relationship On Health Care Utilization In High Poverty Neighborhoods, Destini Smith, Alan Akira, Kenneth Hudson, Andrea Hudson, Marcellus Hudson, Marcus Mitchell, Errol Crook

School of Medicine and Health Sciences Student Works

African Americans have higher rates of mortality than whites who are the same age and sex. We hypothesize that in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, having health insurance coverage and a regular health care provider increases the likelihood of receiving diagnostic tests for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We use data from a random two-stage cluster sample of 230 adults living in high poverty census tracts to examine the effects of insurance coverage and having a regular doctor on the likelihood receiving diagnostic tests for high cholesterol, high blood sugar, and blood pressure. We find that health insurance coverage increases the odds ...


Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Using the biochemically tractable Xenopus oocyte model system, we have previously characterized a novel metabolic regulation of cell death. We found that glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) via the pentose phosphate pathway leads to increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, a subsequent increase in cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently identified coenzyme A (CoA), derived from the breakdown of acetyl-CoA, as the key metabolic signal that mediates a novel mechanism of calmodulindependent activation of CaMKII. CoA binds directly to the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain (CaMBD) of CaMKII resulting in its activation and downstream inhibitory ...


Optimizing Heart Failure Outcomes Through Diet: A Review, Farley B. Neasman III 2017 Marshall University Cardiology

Optimizing Heart Failure Outcomes Through Diet: A Review, Farley B. Neasman Iii

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Heart failure is a growing epidemic that will add significant monetary and human costs to an already overtaxed health-care system. Though promising new medications have recently been approved, this complex condition is largely preventable through aggressive risk factor modification, with diet being shown to have a greater effect than exercise. An underrated component of a healthy diet is the simple addition of nuts – the anti-inflammatory fatty acids, healthy proteins, and general availability have been shown to improve survival and reduce the primary risk factors contributing to heart failure, making the addition of nuts and legumes to the diet an attractive ...


Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch 2017 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch

Wenjun Li

Previous studies have shown that DNA prime, Ad5 boost vaccines protect against neutralization-sensitive but not neutralization-resistant virus variants within the SIVsmE660 swarm. Here we show that Ad prime, Env protein boost vaccines protect against neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants. We perform two studies in rhesus monkeys with Ad35/Ad26 vectors expressing SIVmac239 Gag/Pol/Env with or without an AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H gp140 protein boost. In a repetitive, low-dose challenge study, we observe robust protection against acquisition of infection by both Ad Alone and Ad/Env vaccines. In a single, high-dose challenge study, only the Ad/Env vaccine affords significant protection against acquisition ...


Age-Dependent Changes In The Articular Cartilage And Subchondral Bone Of C57bl/6 Mice After Surgical Destabilization Of Medial Meniscus, Henry Huang, Jordan D. Skelly, David C. Ayers, Jie Song 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Age-Dependent Changes In The Articular Cartilage And Subchondral Bone Of C57bl/6 Mice After Surgical Destabilization Of Medial Meniscus, Henry Huang, Jordan D. Skelly, David C. Ayers, Jie Song

Jie Song

Age is the primary risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), yet surgical OA mouse models such as destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) used for evaluating disease-modifying OA targets are frequently performed on young adult mice only. This study investigates how age affects cartilage and subchondral bone changes in mouse joints following DMM. DMM was performed on male C57BL/6 mice at 4 months (4 M), 12 months (12 M) and 19+ months (19 M+) and on females at 12 M and 18 M+. Two months after surgery, operated and unoperated contralateral knees were harvested and evaluated using cartilage histology scores ...


Creating The First Indoor Tan-Free Skin Smart College Campus, Jessica S. Mounessa, Sherry L. Pagoto, Katie Baker, John Antonishak, Robert P. Dellavalle 2017 University of Colorado

Creating The First Indoor Tan-Free Skin Smart College Campus, Jessica S. Mounessa, Sherry L. Pagoto, Katie Baker, John Antonishak, Robert P. Dellavalle

Sherry L. Pagoto

Given the prevalence and risk associated with indoor tanning among college students, university campuses constitute a prime target for skin cancer prevention. This report identifies the successes and challenges faced in promoting a campus-wide tan-free policy through the National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP) Indoor Tan-Free Skin Smart Campus Initiative. Beginning in February 2016, we communicated with university faculty or staff members who have participated in skin cancer prevention via education, clinical care, or research at 20 universities regarding the steps to adopt the tan-free policy. One campus, East Tennessee State University (ETSU), successfully fulfilled all criteria and implemented ...


Developing A Community-Based Screening And Referral Mechanism For Atrial Fibrillation In Low Resource Settings: “Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time – India (Smart-India)”, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Harshil Patel, Kandarp Talati, Anna Handorf, John A. Bostrom, Shyamsundar Raihatha, Ravi Shah, Sunil Karna, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, Ki Chon, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Developing A Community-Based Screening And Referral Mechanism For Atrial Fibrillation In Low Resource Settings: “Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time – India (Smart-India)”, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Harshil Patel, Kandarp Talati, Anna Handorf, John A. Bostrom, Shyamsundar Raihatha, Ravi Shah, Sunil Karna, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, Ki Chon, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar, David D. Mcmanus

Jeroan J. Allison

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the world’s most common arrhythmia, often goes undetected and untreated in low-resource communities, including India. Moreover, AF is an important risk factor for stroke, which plagues an estimated 1.6 million Indians annually. As such, early detection of AF and management of high-risk patients is critically important to decrease stroke burden in individuals with AF.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the age- and sex-stratified epidemiology of AF in Anand District, Gujarat India; characterize the profile of individuals who are diagnosed with AF; and determine the performance of two mobile technologies for ...


“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel

Kathleen M. Mazor

Objective: Surrogate decision-makers (“surrogates”) and physicians of incapacitated patients have different views of prognosis and how it should be communicated, but this has not been investigated in neurocritically-ill patients. We examined communication preferences in surrogates and physician practices during the outcome prognostication for critically-ill traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) patients in neuroICUs.

Design: Qualitative study using in-person semi-structured interviews with surrogates of ciTBI patients and physicians with expertise in TBI.

Setting: Two neuroICUs at two level-1 trauma centers (surrogates); seven academic U.S. medical centers (physicians).

Subjects: Sixteen surrogates for 15 ciTBI patients and 20 attending physicians from neurocritical care, neurosurgery ...


Developing A Community-Based Screening And Referral Mechanism For Atrial Fibrillation In Low Resource Settings: “Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time – India (Smart-India)”, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Harshil Patel, Kandarp Talati, Anna Handorf, John A. Bostrom, Shyamsundar Raihatha, Ravi Shah, Sunil Karna, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, Ki Chon, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Developing A Community-Based Screening And Referral Mechanism For Atrial Fibrillation In Low Resource Settings: “Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time – India (Smart-India)”, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Harshil Patel, Kandarp Talati, Anna Handorf, John A. Bostrom, Shyamsundar Raihatha, Ravi Shah, Sunil Karna, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, Ki Chon, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar, David D. Mcmanus

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the world’s most common arrhythmia, often goes undetected and untreated in low-resource communities, including India. Moreover, AF is an important risk factor for stroke, which plagues an estimated 1.6 million Indians annually. As such, early detection of AF and management of high-risk patients is critically important to decrease stroke burden in individuals with AF.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the age- and sex-stratified epidemiology of AF in Anand District, Gujarat India; characterize the profile of individuals who are diagnosed with AF; and determine the performance of two mobile technologies for ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Cardiac Remodeling In A Porcine Model With Validation In Human Subjects, Aditya Vaze, David D. McManus, Kevin Donahue 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcriptional Regulation Of Cardiac Remodeling In A Porcine Model With Validation In Human Subjects, Aditya Vaze, David D. Mcmanus, Kevin Donahue

David D. McManus

Introduction: The majority of new atrial fibrillation (AF) cases occur in elderly patients with cardiac remodeling (CR) in the setting of structural heart disease and heart failure (HF). We leveraged a unique animal model to identify cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs) and gene regulatory mechanisms that drive this process. Methods: We prospectively quantified atrial expression of 48 miRNAs by high-throughput qRT-PCR in 15 pigs with right-atrial pacing-induced heart disease (5 pigs with AF/severe HF, 5 pigs with AF/mild HF, and 5 control pigs) as well as in 21 patients (11 with AF and CR and 10 controls) undergoing cardiac surgery ...


Accuracy And Coverage Of Using The Assigned International Classification Of Diseases, 9th And 10th Revision, Clinical Modification Codes For Detecting Bleeding Events In Electronic Health Record, Victoria J. Wang, David D. McManus, Hong Yu 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Accuracy And Coverage Of Using The Assigned International Classification Of Diseases, 9th And 10th Revision, Clinical Modification Codes For Detecting Bleeding Events In Electronic Health Record, Victoria J. Wang, David D. Mcmanus, Hong Yu

David D. McManus

Background: Hemorrhages are common events that confer significant risk for in-hospital and post-discharge morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients treated with anticoagulation. International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) codes have been widely used in CVD research and managements. Objective: To determine the accuracy and coverage of assigned ICD-CM codes for reporting bleeding events. Methods: From the University of Massachusetts Medical School electronic health record (EHR) database we identified 21k patients on anticoagulation with high bleeding risks based on their ICD-9-CM or ICD-10-CM codes. Through manual chart review, we selected one unstructured note ...


Using Mhealth App To Support Treatment Decision-Making For Knee Arthritis: Patient Perspective, Hua Zheng, Bengisu Tulu, Wonchan Choi, Patricia Franklin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Using Mhealth App To Support Treatment Decision-Making For Knee Arthritis: Patient Perspective, Hua Zheng, Bengisu Tulu, Wonchan Choi, Patricia Franklin

Patricia D. Franklin

Introduction: Mobile health (mHealth) technology can be used to integrate into medical decision-making for patients with advanced knee arthritis. We explored patient preferences on content and design of a mobile health app to facilitate daily symptom capture and summary feedback reporting, in order to inform treatment decisions, including use of total knee replacement surgery (TKR).

Methods: Patient focus groups were conducted to gather requirements for mHealth app development and to refine the design and content of the app. Clinician (physical therapist, surgeon) interviews were conducted to understand clinician expectations from the summary trend report generated by the app.

Results: Sixteen ...


Variable Knowledge, Use And Perceptions Of The Impact Model Among Physicians During Prognostication Meetings For Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients – Results From A Qualitative Study, Jesse Moskowitz, Thomas Quinn, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Variable Knowledge, Use And Perceptions Of The Impact Model Among Physicians During Prognostication Meetings For Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients – Results From A Qualitative Study, Jesse Moskowitz, Thomas Quinn, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel

Kathleen M. Mazor

Introduction: The International Patient Decision Aid Standards, a framework for the creation of high-quality decision aids, calls for the presentation of probabilities. To inform the content of a goals-of-care decision aid in critically-ill TBI (ciTBI) patients, we examined physician’s awareness, perceptions, and use of the IMPACT-model, the most widely validated ciTBI outcome model, and explored their preferences for communicating prognostic information towards families.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 20 attending physicians (neurocritical care, neurosurgery, trauma, palliative care) at 7 U.S. academic medical centers. We used descriptive statistics and performed qualitative content analysis of ...


Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

The PiZ mutation in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene causes the PiZ mutant protein to be sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, causing significant liver pathology in ~10% of PiZZ homozygous AAT disease patients. Current transgenic mouse models of the disease include the liver-specific over-expression of mutant PiZ protein. However, these animal models do not efficiently recapitulate the liver damage found in PiZZ homozygous patients. Since only a small percentage of patients develop liver disease and it is not reproducible in animal models of AATD, it suggests that there are other factors that participate in disease pathogenesis. Here, we ...


Evolution Of The Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Muscle Gene Therapy: Translation From Clinical Trial To Benchtop And Back Again, Alisha M. Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Jeff Chulay, Dave Knop, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evolution Of The Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Muscle Gene Therapy: Translation From Clinical Trial To Benchtop And Back Again, Alisha M. Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Jeff Chulay, Dave Knop, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Alpha-one antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disease affecting the lungs due to inadequate anti-protease activity in the pulmonary interstitium. On-going human trials use intra-muscular delivery of adeno-associated virus (rAAV1), allowing expressing myofibers to secrete normal (M)AAT protein. In the Phase IIa trial, patients in the highest dose cohort (6x1012vg/kg) were given 100 intra-muscular (IM) injections of undiluted vector, with serum AAT levels still substantially below target levels. Previous work has shown that delivering rAAV vector to the musculature via limb perfusion leads to widespread gene expression in myofibers. We hypothesize that widespread delivery would result in an ...


Survivors Of An Acute Coronary Syndrome With Lower Patient Activation Are More Likely To Experience Declines In Health-Related Quality Of Life, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Barbara L. Gandek, Molly E. Waring, Rebecca L. Kinney, Darleen M. Lessard, Randolph S. Devereaux, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Survivors Of An Acute Coronary Syndrome With Lower Patient Activation Are More Likely To Experience Declines In Health-Related Quality Of Life, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Barbara L. Gandek, Molly E. Waring, Rebecca L. Kinney, Darleen M. Lessard, Randolph S. Devereaux, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg

Catarina I. Kiefe

Background: Patient activation comprises the knowledge, skills, and confidence for self-care, and may lead to better health outcomes.

Objectives: We examined the relationship between patient activation and changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: We studied patients from 6 medical centers in central Massachusetts and Georgia who had been hospitalized for an ACS between 2011 and 2013. At 1 month after hospital discharge, patients completed the 6-item Patient Activation Measure and were categorized into 4 levels of activation. Multinomial logistic regression analyses compared activation level with clinically meaningful changes (≥ 3.0 ...


Survivors Of An Acute Coronary Syndrome With Lower Patient Activation Are More Likely To Experience Declines In Health-Related Quality Of Life, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Barbara L. Gandek, Molly E. Waring, Rebecca L. Kinney, Darleen M. Lessard, Randolph S. Devereaux, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Survivors Of An Acute Coronary Syndrome With Lower Patient Activation Are More Likely To Experience Declines In Health-Related Quality Of Life, Nathaniel A. Erskine, Barbara L. Gandek, Molly E. Waring, Rebecca L. Kinney, Darleen M. Lessard, Randolph S. Devereaux, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg

Molly E. Waring

Background: Patient activation comprises the knowledge, skills, and confidence for self-care, and may lead to better health outcomes.

Objectives: We examined the relationship between patient activation and changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: We studied patients from 6 medical centers in central Massachusetts and Georgia who had been hospitalized for an ACS between 2011 and 2013. At 1 month after hospital discharge, patients completed the 6-item Patient Activation Measure and were categorized into 4 levels of activation. Multinomial logistic regression analyses compared activation level with clinically meaningful changes (≥ 3.0 ...


Association Between Psychosocial Factors, Quality Of Life And Atrial Fibrillation, Summer Aldrugh, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Jane S. Saczynski, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Psychosocial Factors, Quality Of Life And Atrial Fibrillation, Summer Aldrugh, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Jane S. Saczynski, David D. Mcmanus

David D. McManus

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive and psychosocial comorbidities, and poorer quality of life (QOL). In this study, we aimed to study the association between cognition, psychosocial status and QOL at baseline and AF recurrence. Methods: We enrolled 222 symptomatic AF patients (64±10.0 years, 36% women) treated with a rhythm-control strategy. We performed cognitive, psychosocial, and QOL assessments using Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA, cognitive impairment Results: A total of 123 (55%) participants experienced an AF recurrence over the 6-month follow-up period. Participants with an AF recurrence had higher rates of depression (31% vs.14%, p=0 ...


Risk For Cardiovascular Disease In Blacks With Hiv/Aids In America: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Calvin Odhiambo, Jessica Davis, Bernard Omolo 2017 University of South Carolina Upstate

Risk For Cardiovascular Disease In Blacks With Hiv/Aids In America: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Calvin Odhiambo, Jessica Davis, Bernard Omolo

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to HIV infection is becoming a major public health concern in the United Stated. Epidemiologic studies show that prolonged use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV/AIDS itself, and a combination of traditional vascular risk factors increase the risk for CVD among people with HIV/AIDS. However, little is known about any racial disparities in the risk for CVD in the HIV/AIDS population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature on HIV/AIDS and CVD (June 1, 2010-July 31, 2014) through MEDLINE to examine whether and how HIV-positive African Americans are disproportionately affected ...


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