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Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Inside Unlv, Gian Galassi, Jennifer Vaughan, Carol C. Harter, Richard Flaherty, Rebecca Mills 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Inside Unlv, Gian Galassi, Jennifer Vaughan, Carol C. Harter, Richard Flaherty, Rebecca Mills

Rebecca Mills

No abstract provided.


Workplace Pollution: Nuclear Safety, Ethics, And The Exploitation--Avoidance Argument, Kristin Shrader-Frechette 2017 University of New Hampshire

Workplace Pollution: Nuclear Safety, Ethics, And The Exploitation--Avoidance Argument, Kristin Shrader-Frechette

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author reviews evidence of poor worker health and safety practices in United States Department of Energy nuclear facilities in contending that less protective standards for workplace hazards constitute an environmental injustice not rectified by a hazard pay premium.


Judging The Risk Of Becoming Infected Through Sexual Encounters, Simeone Arnaud, Daniele Hermand, Etienne Mullet 2017 University of New Hampshire

Judging The Risk Of Becoming Infected Through Sexual Encounters, Simeone Arnaud, Daniele Hermand, Etienne Mullet

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors examine the manner in which people integrate pieces of information to assess the risk of becoming infected through sexual encounters.


Public Reaction To Mandated Language For U.S. Drinking Water Quality Reports, Branden B. Johnson 2017 University of New Hampshire

Public Reaction To Mandated Language For U.S. Drinking Water Quality Reports, Branden B. Johnson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author discusses results of a survey evaluating the mandated language for United States drinking water quality reports.


Sustained Use Of Patient Portal Features And Improvements In Diabetes Physiological Measures, Stephanie L. Shimada, Jeroan J. Allison, Amy K. Rosen, Hua Feng, Thomas K. Houston 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sustained Use Of Patient Portal Features And Improvements In Diabetes Physiological Measures, Stephanie L. Shimada, Jeroan J. Allison, Amy K. Rosen, Hua Feng, Thomas K. Houston

Jeroan J. Allison

BACKGROUND: Personal health records (PHRs) have the potential to improve patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes. However, evidence is mixed as to whether there is an association between PHR use and improved health outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sustained use of specific patient portal features (Web-based prescription refill and secure messaging-SM) and physiological measures important for the management of type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, including Veterans with diabetes registered for the My Health e Vet patient portal who had not yet used the Web-based refill or ...


Patient-Reported Outcome Measures In Arthroplasty Registries Report Of The Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Working Group Of The International Society Of Arthroplasty Registries Part Ii. Recommendations For Selection, Administration, And Analysis, Ola Rolfson, Eric Bohm, Patricia D. Franklin, Stephen Lyman, Geke Denissen, Jill Dawson, Jennifer Dunn, Kate Eresian Chenok, Michael Dunbar, Soren Overgaard, Goran Garellick, Anne Lubbeke 2017 University of Gothenburg

Patient-Reported Outcome Measures In Arthroplasty Registries Report Of The Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Working Group Of The International Society Of Arthroplasty Registries Part Ii. Recommendations For Selection, Administration, And Analysis, Ola Rolfson, Eric Bohm, Patricia D. Franklin, Stephen Lyman, Geke Denissen, Jill Dawson, Jennifer Dunn, Kate Eresian Chenok, Michael Dunbar, Soren Overgaard, Goran Garellick, Anne Lubbeke

Patricia D. Franklin

The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group have evaluated and recommended best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty registries. The 2 generic PROMs in common use are the Short Form health surveys (SF-36 or SF-12) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D). The Working Group recommends that registries should choose specific PROMs that have been appropriately developed with good measurement properties for arthroplasty patients. The Working Group recommend the use of a 1-item pain question ("During the past 4 weeks, how would you describe the pain you usually have ...


Patient-Reported Outcome Measures In Arthroplasty Registries, Ola Rolfson, Kate Eresian Chenok, Eric Bohm, Anne Lubbeke, Geke Denissen, Jennifer Dunn, Stephen Lyman, Patricia D. Franklin, Michael Dunbar, Soren Overgaard, Goran Garellick, Jill Dawson 2017 University of Gothenburg

Patient-Reported Outcome Measures In Arthroplasty Registries, Ola Rolfson, Kate Eresian Chenok, Eric Bohm, Anne Lubbeke, Geke Denissen, Jennifer Dunn, Stephen Lyman, Patricia D. Franklin, Michael Dunbar, Soren Overgaard, Goran Garellick, Jill Dawson

Patricia D. Franklin

The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Steering Committee established the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group to convene, evaluate, and advise on best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs and to support the adoption and use of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty in registries worldwide. The 2 main types of PROMs include generic (general health) PROMs, which provide a measure of general health for any health state, and specific PROMs, which focus on specific symptoms, diseases, organs, body regions, or body functions. The establishment of a PROM instrument requires the fulfillment of methodological standards and ...


What Outcomes Are Important For Gout Patients? In-Depth Qualitative Research Into The Gout Patient Experience To Determine Optimal Endpoints For Evaluating Therapeutic Interventions, Sophi Tatlock, Katja Rudell, Charlotte Panter, Rob Arbuckle, Leslie R. Harrold, William J. Taylor, Tara Symonds 2017 Adelphi Values

What Outcomes Are Important For Gout Patients? In-Depth Qualitative Research Into The Gout Patient Experience To Determine Optimal Endpoints For Evaluating Therapeutic Interventions, Sophi Tatlock, Katja Rudell, Charlotte Panter, Rob Arbuckle, Leslie R. Harrold, William J. Taylor, Tara Symonds

Leslie R. Harrold

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Characterized by sudden onset of severe joint pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness to touch, gout 'flare ups' have a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). This research employed a patient-centered approach to explore the symptoms and impacts of gout, and assess the content validity of existing patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 US gout patients (non-tophaceous: n = 20, tophaceous: n = 10) and five expert rheumatologists. Each interview included both concept elicitation (CE) questioning to learn about the patient experience and cognitive debriefing to assess the content validity of three PRO instruments (HAQ-DI ...


Physical Activity/Fitness Peaks During Perimenopause And Bmi Change Patterns Are Not Associated With Baseline Activity/Fitness In Women: A Longitudinal Study With A Median 7-Year Follow-Up, Xuemei Sui, Jiajia Zhang, Duck-Chul Lee, Timothy S. Church, Wenbin Lu, Junxiu Liu, Steven N. Blair 2017 University of South Carolina

Physical Activity/Fitness Peaks During Perimenopause And Bmi Change Patterns Are Not Associated With Baseline Activity/Fitness In Women: A Longitudinal Study With A Median 7-Year Follow-Up, Xuemei Sui, Jiajia Zhang, Duck-Chul Lee, Timothy S. Church, Wenbin Lu, Junxiu Liu, Steven N. Blair

Duck-Chul Lee

Objective To assess the age-associated longitudinal trends in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), leisure-time physical activity (PA), and body mass index (BMI) across the lifespan in a cohort of adult women. Methods The sample included 1467 women from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who were 30–79 years old at baseline and had 3–22 health examinations between 1971 and 2006. CRF was quantified by maximal Balke treadmill exercise tests. The total metabolic equivalent-minutes/week of self-reported PA and measured BMI (kg/m2 ) were calculated. Results The overall pattern of CRF decreased over time. After age 60 years, fitness level tended to ...


Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2017 George Washington University

Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Recent reports suggest that Opisthorchis viverrini serves as a reservoir of Helicobacter and implicate Helicobacter in pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Here, 553 age-sex matched cases and controls, 293 and 260 positive and negative for liver fluke O. viverrini eggs, of residents in Northeastern Thailand were investigated for associations among infection with liver fluke, Helicobacter and hepatobiliary fibrosis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in O. viverrini-infected than uninfected participants. H. pylori bacterial load correlated positively with intensity of O. viverrini infection, and participants with opisthorchiasis exhibited higher frequency of virulent cagA-positive H. pylori than those free of ...


Data From: Vitamin D Status In Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Louise S. Maranda, Ninfa Candela 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Data From: Vitamin D Status In Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Louise S. Maranda, Ninfa Candela

Benjamin U. Nwosu

Manuscript abstract:

IMPORTANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.

AIM: To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design.

HYPOTHESIS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls.

SUBJECTS ...


Review Of: Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, And Archaeology (David A. Poirer & Kenneth L. Feder Eds.), Natalie Duval 2017 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, And Archaeology (David A. Poirer & Kenneth L. Feder Eds.), Natalie Duval

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, and Archaeology (David A. Poirier& Kenneth L. Feder eds., Bergin & Garvey, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. 2001). Introduction, bibliographic references, index. ISBN0-89789-632-7 [264 pp. $65.00. Cloth, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box5007, Westport, CT 06881-5007.


Review Of: Health And Disease In Human History (Robert I. Rotberg Ed.), Terry Cromwell 2017 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Health And Disease In Human History (Robert I. Rotberg Ed.), Terry Cromwell

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: Health and Disease in Human History: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader (Robert I. Rotberg ed., MIT Press 2000). ISBN 0- 262-18207-6 [345 pp. $25.00 Paper, 5 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02142].


Risk Communication, The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study And Draft Reports, Sharon M. Friedman 2017 University of New Hampshire

Risk Communication, The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study And Draft Reports, Sharon M. Friedman

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author reviews the release of the draft Hanford Thyroid Disease Study as a case study in risk communication problems arising from public disclosure of draft reports.


Over A Decade Of Comparative Risk Analysis: A Review Of The Human Health Rankings, David M. Konisky 2017 University of New Hampshire

Over A Decade Of Comparative Risk Analysis: A Review Of The Human Health Rankings, David M. Konisky

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author reviews a method for undertaking a cross-project comparison of comparative risk analyses to understand which environmental problem areas have been cited most as often posing the severest risks.


Contrasting Treatments Of Recall Bias In Two Epidemiological Settings, Daniel Barry 2017 University of New Hampshire

Contrasting Treatments Of Recall Bias In Two Epidemiological Settings, Daniel Barry

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author contrasts the treatment of recall bias in the literature on induced abortions and breast cancer, and on environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer.


Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony 2017 George Washington University

Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative ...


Taking Be Proud! Be Responsible! To The Suburbs: A Replication Study, Elaine A. Borawski, Erika S. Trapl, Kimberly Adams-Tufts, Laura L. Hayman, Merdith A. Goodwin, Loren D. Lovegreen 2017 Old Dominion University

Taking Be Proud! Be Responsible! To The Suburbs: A Replication Study, Elaine A. Borawski, Erika S. Trapl, Kimberly Adams-Tufts, Laura L. Hayman, Merdith A. Goodwin, Loren D. Lovegreen

Laura L. Hayman

CONTEXT: An important phase of HIV prevention research is replicating successful interventions with different groups and in different settings. METHODS: Be Proud! Be Responsible!, a successful intervention originally targeting black urban males and carried out in nonschool settings, was presented in health classes at urban and suburban schools with diverse student bodies. A group-randomized intervention study, which included 1,357 ninth and 10th graders from 10 paired schools in a Midwestern metropolitan area, was conducted in 2000-2002. Half the schools received the intervention, and half received a general health promotion program. Students' reports of their sexual behavior and selected cognitive ...


A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman

Laura L. Hayman

Background: Diet plays an important role in the prevention and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Previous studies suggest that soy protein and isoflavones may have beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Little is known regarding the cardiometabolic effects of soy intake during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, safety and acceptability of daily consumption of soy foods during pregnancy in women at high risk for GDM, and participant adherence to their assigned treatment.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted among pregnant women at high risk for GDM. The Soy group were counseled to consume a ...


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