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Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


An Evaluation Of African American Fathers’ Perceptions And Influences On Child Food Choices And Physical Activity Behaviors, Valerie Annette Richardson 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

An Evaluation Of African American Fathers’ Perceptions And Influences On Child Food Choices And Physical Activity Behaviors, Valerie Annette Richardson

Dissertations

Child obesity is affecting children’s health nationwide. Rates are highest among African Americans (AA) in the South. Research has explored parents’ influence on child eating and activity, but most has reported on mothers’ influences. The purpose of this research was to investigate perceptions about AA fathers’ influences on their children’s eating and physical activity. Using a structured focus group questionnaire based on the parent layer constructs of Birch and Ventura’s Ecological Model for Child Overweight (2009), four focus groups were conducted with 28 AA fathers with children 6- to 11-years-old in a rural and an urban church ...


Statin Therapy For Elderly Patients Should Be Assessed For Each Individual, Raymond Gong 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Statin Therapy For Elderly Patients Should Be Assessed For Each Individual, Raymond Gong

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB, et al. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360(9346):1623-30. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11600-X


Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Lee WM, Hynan LS, Rossaro L, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(3):856-864. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.06.006


Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr. 2016 Rockhurst University

Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...


Learning About Hiv/Aids In The Meshwork: The Nature And Value Of Indigenous Learning Processes In Community-Based Hiv/Aids Organisations, D. Plumb, Robert Allan, J. Allen, C. Porter 2016 School of Education and Human Development at the University of Colorado Denver

Learning About Hiv/Aids In The Meshwork: The Nature And Value Of Indigenous Learning Processes In Community-Based Hiv/Aids Organisations, D. Plumb, Robert Allan, J. Allen, C. Porter

Robert Allan

No abstract provided.


Holding Our Own: Needs Assessment Of Person Living With Hiv/Aids In Nova Scotia, G. MacDonald, Robert Allan 2016 School of Education and Human Development at the University of Colorado Denver

Holding Our Own: Needs Assessment Of Person Living With Hiv/Aids In Nova Scotia, G. Macdonald, Robert Allan

Robert Allan

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Infectious And Stress-Related Onsets In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis And Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptomatology And Functioning, Andrew R. Devendorf, Abigail A. Brown, Leonard A. Jason 2016 DePaul University

The Role Of Infectious And Stress-Related Onsets In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis And Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptomatology And Functioning, Andrew R. Devendorf, Abigail A. Brown, Leonard A. Jason

DePaul Discoveries

This study examined how the mode of onset for myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME and CFS) impacts patients’ presenting symptomatology. Specifically, this study investigated the differences between the most commonly reported ME and CFS onsets: infectious, stress-related, and a combined infectious and stress-related onset (referred to as ‘combined onset’). Three patient samples were combined and utilized. All participants met Fukuda et al. (1994) criteria and self-reported their illness onset. Analyses showed the infectious group reported the most impairment for general health functioning—which relates to the susceptibility of getting or feeling sick—in comparison to the stress-related group ...


Ultrasound-Guided Intralesional Bleomycin Injection (Ibi) For Treatment Of Cutaneous Hemangiomas And Vascular Malformations, Yousuf Memon, Nuzhat I. Malik, Naveed Anjum, S. Kamran Ahmed, Sadaf Saeed 2016 The Indus Hospital

Ultrasound-Guided Intralesional Bleomycin Injection (Ibi) For Treatment Of Cutaneous Hemangiomas And Vascular Malformations, Yousuf Memon, Nuzhat I. Malik, Naveed Anjum, S. Kamran Ahmed, Sadaf Saeed

The Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: To report the therapeutic outcome of ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of bleomycin in the treatment of cutaneous hemangiomas and vascular malformations.

Material & Methods: The medical records of patients with cutaneous hemangiomas and vascular malformations treated with the intralesional injection of bleomycin under ultrasound guidance between August 2009 and June 2013 at the Indus Hospital, Karachi were reviewed retrospectively using a computerized medical record information management system. Data were extracted using a pre-coded performa that included patient demographics, type and location of lesion, number of treatments, presenting/pre- and post-treatment clinical symptoms (pain, swelling, heaviness, size, discoloration), ultrasound appearance and vascularity, and post-treatment side effects. The dose range of bleomycin was 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, but not exceeding 15 mg in a single session. A maximum of four treatments were given in any given patient except for one, who presented with recurrence after a year of complete resolution. Therapeutic outcome was determined using review of ultrasound images and recorded clinical assessment. Treatment response was categorized as: (i) complete resolution [more than 90% reduction]; (ii) substantial reduction [more than 50% reduction]; (iii) mild reduction [25% reduction]; or, (iv) no improvement [ < 10% reduction].

Results: A total of 30 patients (16 female, 14 male), ranging in age from 8 months to 48 years (mean age 10.2 years), were treated from 2009 to 2013. There were 23 hemangiomas. Seven were vascular malformations, of which five were lymphatic malformations and two were venous malformations. Twenty-eight lesions were located in the head and neck region, and two were ...


Physical Activity Among Older American Indians And Alaska Natives, David Hodgins, Linda Larkey, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Colleen Keller 2016 College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University

Physical Activity Among Older American Indians And Alaska Natives, David Hodgins, Linda Larkey, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Colleen Keller

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: Life style behaviors contribute to poor health among older Americans Indians/Alaska Native (AI/AN) in the United States, with low levels of physical activity (PA) particularly tied to the chronic disease profile of this population. Searched reviews of physical activity among AI/ANs are limited in assessing prevalence and correlates to PA among older adults > 40 years.

Methods: A literature search of reported physical activity studies among older AI/AN was assessed for prevalence and predictive factors associated with levels of physical activity.

Results: Fourteen studies were included in this review that either specifically quantified the amount of ...


Ultrasonography Of The Scrotum In Adults, Anna L. Kuhn, Eduardo Scortegagna, Kristina M. Nowitzki, Young H. Kim 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ultrasonography Of The Scrotum In Adults, Anna L. Kuhn, Eduardo Scortegagna, Kristina M. Nowitzki, Young H. Kim

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most ...


Osteopetrorickets Due To Snx10 Deficiency In Mice Results From Both Failed Osteoclast Activity And Loss Of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption, Liang Ye, Leslie R. Morse, Li Zhang, Hajime Sasaki, Jason C. Mills, Paul R. Odgren, Greg Sibbel, James R.L. Stanley, Gee Wong, Ariane Zamarioli, Ricardo A. Battaglino 2016 The Forsyth Institute

Osteopetrorickets Due To Snx10 Deficiency In Mice Results From Both Failed Osteoclast Activity And Loss Of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption, Liang Ye, Leslie R. Morse, Li Zhang, Hajime Sasaki, Jason C. Mills, Paul R. Odgren, Greg Sibbel, James R.L. Stanley, Gee Wong, Ariane Zamarioli, Ricardo A. Battaglino

Paul R. Odgren PhD

Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis ...


Prostate Cancer In African American Males: Psychological Effects Of Diagnosis And Prostatectomy, M. Rehan Puri, Ernest A. Gbadebo-Goyea, Narviar C. Barker, Rahn Kennedy Bailey 2016 Meharry Medical College

Prostate Cancer In African American Males: Psychological Effects Of Diagnosis And Prostatectomy, M. Rehan Puri, Ernest A. Gbadebo-Goyea, Narviar C. Barker, Rahn Kennedy Bailey

Challenge

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men regardless of race or ethnicity, but it is more common in African American men than in white men ( American Cancer Society 2008). It is less common in Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American men. Several studies have reported diminished and poorer quality of life (i.e., disease-specific physical health and functional status) for African American men who have undergone standard treatments for prostate cancer when compared to white men. However, limited research is available on psychological adjustments to prostate cancer and even less is known about racial differences in psychological ...


Clinical Outcomes Of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting In Nonsurgical Patients: A Single-Center Experience, John-Paul Pham, Abdelazim Hashim, Naoyo Mori, Mohamed Taha, Mohamed Djelmami-Hani, Joaquin Solis, Suhail Allaqaband, Tanvir Bajwa, Anjan Gupta 2016 Center for Urban Population Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Clinical Outcomes Of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting In Nonsurgical Patients: A Single-Center Experience, John-Paul Pham, Abdelazim Hashim, Naoyo Mori, Mohamed Taha, Mohamed Djelmami-Hani, Joaquin Solis, Suhail Allaqaband, Tanvir Bajwa, Anjan Gupta

Mohamed Djelmami-Hani, MD

Purpose: Coronary artery bypass graft is the standard treatment for unprotected left main disease; however, some patients are poor surgical candidates due to comorbidities. We assessed the safety and clinical outcome of elective, unprotected left main coronary artery stenting in nonsurgical patients.

Methods: Between October 2004 and June 2006, 50 consecutive patients underwent elective, unprotected left main coronary artery stenting at our institution. Patients were followed for a median of 16 and 96 months and clinical outcomes monitored.

Results: Median logistic euroSCORE was 28.6 (interquartile range: 14.6-43.4). Median baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50%. Procedural ...


Feasibility Of Atrial Delivery And Tracking Of Stem Cells In A Porcine Model, Nina Garlie, Timothy Hacker, Eric G. Schmuck, Jill Koch, Jayant Khitha, Amish Raval, Indrajit Choudhuri 2016 Regenerative Medicine Center, Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Feasibility Of Atrial Delivery And Tracking Of Stem Cells In A Porcine Model, Nina Garlie, Timothy Hacker, Eric G. Schmuck, Jill Koch, Jayant Khitha, Amish Raval, Indrajit Choudhuri

Indrajit Choudhuri

Background: Many patients undergoing open heart surgery have sinus node dysfunction and atrial fibrillation, leading to adverse outcomes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) delivered at the time of surgery may have a reparative effect on atrial tissue, thereby improving sinus node function and reducing or preventing atrial fibrillation. Stem cell delivery to the atrium is entirely unstudied. This is a significant gap in medical research, as atrial disease contributes significantly to health care costs. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study is to establish a technique to deliver MSC to the atria through an open-chest model, to assess the safety of ...


Reviews Of Science For Science Librarians: The Challenge Of The Zika Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus Disease, Frances A. Delwiche 2016 University of Vermont

Reviews Of Science For Science Librarians: The Challenge Of The Zika Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus Disease, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

First identified in Uganda in 1947, the Zika virus simmered quietly for sixty years, occasionally causing a mild dengue-like illness across parts of central Africa and equatorial Asia. However, since 2007, three large outbreaks have occurred: first in Micronesia, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, and as an epidemic involving Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015-2016. This paper reviews the virology of the Zika virus, its modes of transmission, symptoms of Zika Virus Disease, the association of Zika infections with microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome, prevention of Zika infections, and ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine.


Echocardiographic Predictors Of Admission Among Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction, Chi C. Cho, Yang Shi, Robyn Shearer, Nasir Z. Sulemanjee, Dianne L. Zwicke, T. Edward Hastings, Omar M. Cheema, Vinay Thohan 2016 Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Echocardiographic Predictors Of Admission Among Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction, Chi C. Cho, Yang Shi, Robyn Shearer, Nasir Z. Sulemanjee, Dianne L. Zwicke, T. Edward Hastings, Omar M. Cheema, Vinay Thohan

Omar Cheema

Background: Congestive heart failure afflicts 5.7 million people in the United States with annual incidence of 600,000 and mortality of 280,000. Heart failure accounts for greater than 1 million hospitalizations annually and the single largest inpatient Medicare expense. As the U.S. population ages and greater emphasis is placed on population health as a means to bend projected health care expenditures, large health care organizations will need to develop algorithms to identify patients at high risk with heart failure and possibly preempt hospitalizations. Doppler echocardiography is routinely performed in clinical assessment of severe heart failure.

Purpose: We ...


Lead Burden As A Factor For Higher Complication Rate In Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices, Christopher Kolibash, Naoyo Mori, Jasbir Sra, Masood Akhtar, M. Eyman Mortada 2016 Aurora Sinai/Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Centers, Aurora Health Care

Lead Burden As A Factor For Higher Complication Rate In Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices, Christopher Kolibash, Naoyo Mori, Jasbir Sra, Masood Akhtar, M. Eyman Mortada

Masood Akhtar

Purpose

Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 ...


Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals, is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases in later life. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. In this thesis, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on fetal lung development, and define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA were administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to 18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure ...


Adherence To Evidence-Based Secondary Prevention Pharmacotherapy In Patients After An Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Han-Yang Chen, Jane S. Saczynski, Kate L. Lapane, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adherence To Evidence-Based Secondary Prevention Pharmacotherapy In Patients After An Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Han-Yang Chen, Jane S. Saczynski, Kate L. Lapane, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg

Robert J. Goldberg

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize current evidence on medication adherence rates and associated risk factors in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

METHODS: A systematic review was conducted. Five electronic databases and article bibliographies were searched for publications from 1990 to 2013 which assessed adherence to secondary prevention pharmacotherapy in adults after hospital discharge for an ACS. Identified studies were screened using pre-defined criteria for eligibility. A standardized form was used for data abstraction. Methodological quality was assessed using modified criteria for quantitative studies.

RESULTS: Sixteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Post-discharge medication adherence rates at 1-year ranged between 54% and ...


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