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Health Professional Treatment Practices For Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease In Nigeria, Natalie Wichelt 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Health Professional Treatment Practices For Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease In Nigeria, Natalie Wichelt

Service Learning/Capstone Experience

Abstract

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a genetic defect that results in abnormal hemoglobin genes that can cause devastating health effects like chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive crises. Additionally, sickle cell disease can cause defects in the immune system, leaving those with the disease highly susceptible to a variety of different infections. In the pediatric population specifically, the complications of sickle cell disease contribute significantly to the under-five mortality rate of Nigeria. In response to the Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6, as well as with growing national concern over the challenges faced by sickle cell disease ...


Guidance For Switching From Off-Label Antipsychotics To Pimavanserin For Parkinson’S Disease Psychosis: An Expert Consensus, Kevin J. Black, Henry Nasrallah, Stuart Isaacson, Mark Stacy, Rajesh Pahwa, Charles H. Adler, Gustavo Alva, Jeffrey W. Cooney, Daniel Kremens, Matthew A. Menza, Jonathan M. Meyer, Ashwin A. Patkar, Tanya Simuni, Debbi A. Morrissette, Stephen Stahl 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Guidance For Switching From Off-Label Antipsychotics To Pimavanserin For Parkinson’S Disease Psychosis: An Expert Consensus, Kevin J. Black, Henry Nasrallah, Stuart Isaacson, Mark Stacy, Rajesh Pahwa, Charles H. Adler, Gustavo Alva, Jeffrey W. Cooney, Daniel Kremens, Matthew A. Menza, Jonathan M. Meyer, Ashwin A. Patkar, Tanya Simuni, Debbi A. Morrissette, Stephen Stahl

Kevin J. Black, MD

Patients with Parkinson’s disease psychosis (PDP) are often treated with an atypical antipsychotic, especially quetiapine or clozapine, but side effects, lack of sufficient efficacy, or both may motivate a switch to pimavanserin, the first medication approved for management of PDP. How best to implement a switch to pimavanserin has not been clear, as there are no controlled trials or case series in the literature to provide guidance. An abrupt switch may interrupt partially effective treatment or potentially trigger rebound effects from antipsychotic withdrawal, whereas cross-taper involves potential drug interactions. A panel of experts drew from published data, their experience ...


Patterns Of Bronchial Challenge Testing In Canada, Rémi Thériault, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Patterns Of Bronchial Challenge Testing In Canada, Rémi Thériault, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Bronchial challenge testing (BCT) measures airway hyperresponsiveness; asthma guidelines recommend using BCT when symptoms manifest despite normal spirometry. Improper application of these guidelines commonly results in the misdiagnosis of asthma. Yet, statistics concerning BCT remain largely obscure. The current paper addresses this gap and explores how various health variables may elucidate adherence to asthma guidelines and patterns of BCT across Canadian provinces.

Methods: Using the Access to Information Act, medical financial claims for BCT (or equivalent procedures) were requested from each of the Canadian provinces and territories. Based on the available information (from provinces only), correlations between frequency of ...


Atypical Presentation Of Obstructed Hemivagina And Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly, Christopher Grant, Christopher E. Bayne, N. Kern, Craig A. Peters 2018 George Washington University

Atypical Presentation Of Obstructed Hemivagina And Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly, Christopher Grant, Christopher E. Bayne, N. Kern, Craig A. Peters

Urology Faculty Publications

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome, otherwise known as obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA), is a rare Müllerian anomalyconsisting of uterine didelphys, hemivaginal septum, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients often present at the onset of menarche with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass from an obstructed hemivagina. We report a child who presented with a febrile urinary tract infection and upon further workup was found to have OHVIRA.


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Data From: Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is An Independent Predictor Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Us Children, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Philip Kum-Nji 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Data From: Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is An Independent Predictor Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Us Children, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Philip Kum-Nji

Pediatric Research Data

Manuscript abstract:

Importance: The role of tobacco-smoke exposure on serum vitamin D concentration in US pediatric population is not known. We hypothesized that tobacco smoke exposure would increase the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in US children.

Methods: Representative national data were accessed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 databank on 2,263 subjects of ages 3 to 17 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their age: children, if <10 years; and youth if 10 to 17 years. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect of serum cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure on vitamin D status after controlling for key sociodemographic confounders. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 25(OH)D of 20-29.9 ng/mL, and sufficiency as 25(OH)D of ≥30 ng/mL. Tobacco smoke exposure status was defined by serum cotinine concentration as follows: unexposed and non-smoking (<0.05 ng/mL) and exposed (passive and active smokers combined) (≥0.05ng/mL). Specifically, passive and active smoking were defined as cotinine of 0.05-10 ng/mL, and ≥10ng/mL respectively.

Results: The prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure was 42.0% (95%CI, 36.7%-47.5%); while the prevalence of active smoking among teenagers ...


The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth KC Ip 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth Kc Ip

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An in-vitro musculoskeletal loading simulator was developed to replicate the internal forces of mastication, and then employed in a comparison of clinically relevant facial fracture repairs. Muscle forces are simulated by pneumatic pistons via 3D printed mounts that are reverse-engineered from CT scan to match muscle attachment sites, which are adhered to bone in order to simulate native stress distributions. Bite force and bone strain pattern of the craniofacial structure under load were measured using a force sensor and strain gauges respectively. In a series of five fresh-frozen cadaveric heads, it was found that strain patterns of the craniofacial structure ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Review Of Kawasaki Disease, Rani Shah, Hisham Hirzallah, Munes Fares, Ashwini Mallad, Gudjon Karlsson, Mehiar El-Hamdani 2018 Marshall University

Review Of Kawasaki Disease, Rani Shah, Hisham Hirzallah, Munes Fares, Ashwini Mallad, Gudjon Karlsson, Mehiar El-Hamdani

Hisham Hirzallah

Abstract

Background: Kawasaki disease is one of the leading causes of acquired heart disease in children. It is an acute self-limited vasculitis that predominantly affects infants and children younger than 5 years of age. These patients present with nonspecific symptoms, such as fever and lymphadenopathy, making the diagnosis challenging. This disease can have serious and potentially fatal outcomes, and prompt recognition of this disease is vital to the patient’s outcome. We present a complete review of the disease, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of acute Kawasaki disease, the natural history of this disease, and follow up of ...


A Rationally Engineered Capsid Variant Of Aav9 For Systemic Cns-Directed And Peripheral Tissue-Detargeted Gene Delivery In Neonates, Dan Wang, Shaoyong Li, Dominic J. Gessler, Jun Xie, Li Zhong, Jia Li, Karen Tran, Kim Van Vliet, Lingzhi Ren, Qin Su, Ran He, Jason E. Goetzmann, Terence R. Flotte, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Guangping Gao 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Rationally Engineered Capsid Variant Of Aav9 For Systemic Cns-Directed And Peripheral Tissue-Detargeted Gene Delivery In Neonates, Dan Wang, Shaoyong Li, Dominic J. Gessler, Jun Xie, Li Zhong, Jia Li, Karen Tran, Kim Van Vliet, Lingzhi Ren, Qin Su, Ran He, Jason E. Goetzmann, Terence R. Flotte, Mavis Agbandje-Mckenna, Guangping Gao

Open Access Articles

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has provided the gene therapy field with the most powerful in vivo gene delivery vector to realize safe, efficacious, and sustainable therapeutic gene expression. Because many clinically relevant properties of AAV-based vectors are governed by the capsid, much research effort has been devoted to the development of AAV capsids for desired features. Here, we combine AAV capsid discovery from nature and rational engineering to report an AAV9 capsid variant, designated as AAV9.HR, which retains AAV9's capability to traverse the blood-brain barrier and transduce neurons. This variant shows reduced transduction in peripheral tissues when delivered through ...


Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart 2018 George Washington University

Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that ...


Economic Evaluation Of Patient Navigation Programs In Colorectal Cancer Care, A Systematic Review., Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Anne Girault, Serena Phillips, Sarah Raskin, Mandi Pratt-Chapman 2018 George Washington University

Economic Evaluation Of Patient Navigation Programs In Colorectal Cancer Care, A Systematic Review., Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Anne Girault, Serena Phillips, Sarah Raskin, Mandi Pratt-Chapman

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Patient navigation has expanded as a promising approach to improve cancer care coordination and patient adherence. This paper addresses the need to identify the evidence on the economic impact of patient navigation in colorectal cancer, following the Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines. Articles indexed in Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Web of Science between January 2000 and March 2017 were analyzed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The quality assessment of the included studies was based on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. Inclusion criteria ...


Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman 2018 George Washington University

Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Carbamyl phosphate (CP) is well-known as an essential intermediate of pyrimidine and arginine/urea biosynthesis. Chemically, CP can be easily synthesized from dihydrogen phosphate and cyanate. Enzymatically, CP can be synthesized using three different classes of enzymes: (1) ATP-grasp fold protein based carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS); (2) Amino-acid kinase fold carbamate kinase (CK)-like CPS (anabolic CK or aCK); and (3) Catabolic transcarbamylase. The first class of CPS can be further divided into three different types of CPS as CPS I, CPS II, and CPS III depending on the usage of ammonium or glutamine as its nitrogen source, and whether


Association Of Religiosity And Spirituality With Quality Of Life In Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review, Hawa Abu, Christine M. Ulbricht, Eric Y. Ding, Jeroan J. Allison, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Of Religiosity And Spirituality With Quality Of Life In Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review, Hawa Abu, Christine M. Ulbricht, Eric Y. Ding, Jeroan J. Allison, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe

Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations

Purpose: This review systematically identified and critically appraised the available literature that has examined the association between religiosity and/or spirituality (R/S) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: We searched several electronic online databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) from database inception until October 2017. Included articles were peer-reviewed, published in English, and quantitatively examined the association between R/S and QOL. We assessed the methodological quality of each included study.

Results: The 15 articles included were published between 2002 and 2017. Most studies were conducted in the US and enrolled patients with ...


Www.Cd-Genomics.Com, Rachel Ann 2018 University of California, San Francisco

Www.Cd-Genomics.Com, Rachel Ann

Rachel Ann

No abstract provided.


Doacs Least Harmful For Patients With Calciphylaxis On Hemodialysis Needing Anticoagulation, Mona Fayad 2018 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Doacs Least Harmful For Patients With Calciphylaxis On Hemodialysis Needing Anticoagulation, Mona Fayad

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of King BJ, El-Azhary RA, Mcevoy MT, et al. Direct oral anticoagulant medications in calciphylaxis. International Journal of Dermatology. 30 August 2017;56(1):1065-1070. doi: 10.1111/ijd.13685


Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz NMD, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland 2018 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz Nmd, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Oral Clefts As A Risk Factor For Hearing Loss During Newborn Hearing Screening, Patricia L. Purcell, Kathleen CY Sie, Todd C. Edwards, Debra Lochner Doyle, Karin Neidt 2018 University of Washington

Identification Of Oral Clefts As A Risk Factor For Hearing Loss During Newborn Hearing Screening, Patricia L. Purcell, Kathleen Cy Sie, Todd C. Edwards, Debra Lochner Doyle, Karin Neidt

Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention

Objective: This study assessed whether children with oral clefts are appropriately classified as at-risk for hearing loss at the time of newborn hearing screening and describes their screening and diagnostic results.

Design: Birth certificates were used to identify children with cleft lip and palate or isolated cleft palate born in Washington State from 2008–2013. These were cross-referenced with the state’s Early Hearing Detection, Diagnosis and Intervention (EHDDI) database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations.

Results: Birth records identified 235 children with cleft lip and palate and 116 with isolated cleft palate. Six children were listed as ...


Characterization Of Human Prostate Cancer Using Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nolan Christopher Broeke 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of Human Prostate Cancer Using Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nolan Christopher Broeke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Overtreatment of prostate cancer is a significant problem in the health care of men. Development of non-invasive imaging tools for improved characterization of prostate lesions has the potential to reduce overtreatment. In this thesis work, we will evaluate the ability of tissue sodium concentration obtained from sodium magnetic resonance imaging (sodium-MRI) to characterize in vivo prostate lesions. Imaging data, including multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and sodium-MRI, were obtained from a cohort of men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and compared to digitized whole-mount histopathology after prostatectomy. Histopathology was independently graded for Gleason score to be used as the ground truth ...


Inertial Sensor-Based Variables Are Indicators Of Frailty And Adverse Post-Operative Outcomes In Cardiovascular Disease Patients, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart 2018 Chapman University

Inertial Sensor-Based Variables Are Indicators Of Frailty And Adverse Post-Operative Outcomes In Cardiovascular Disease Patients, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients with intrinsic cardiac cause for falling have been found to be frail and submissive to morbidity and mortality as post-operative outcomes. In these older CVD patients, gait speed is conjectured by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) as an independent predictor of post-operative morbidity and mortality. However, this guideline by STS has not been studied adequately with a large sample size; rather it is based largely on expert opinions of cardiac surgeons and researchers. Although one’s gait speed is not completely associated with one’s risk of falls, gait speed is a quick robust measure ...


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