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Role Of Gluk1 Kainate Receptors In Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, And Epileptogenesis, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis, Maciej Gasior, Rafal M. Kaminski, Michael A. Rogawski 2014 SelectedWorks

Role Of Gluk1 Kainate Receptors In Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, And Epileptogenesis, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis, Maciej Gasior, Rafal M. Kaminski, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of ...


Control Of Inflammation In Pancreatic Β-Cells: Role Of Arylpyrazole Compounds, Whitney Lyn Powell 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Control Of Inflammation In Pancreatic Β-Cells: Role Of Arylpyrazole Compounds, Whitney Lyn Powell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement represents an event in which students involved in undergraduate research can present research projects at the University of Tennessee.


Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase (Galt) And Galactosemia A Review Of Galt Function And Current Theories On Galactosemia Pathogenesis, Lydia R. Rehrer 2014 Liberty University

Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase (Galt) And Galactosemia A Review Of Galt Function And Current Theories On Galactosemia Pathogenesis, Lydia R. Rehrer

Senior Honors Theses

All living organisms depend on the metabolism of carbohydrates for energy and the biosynthesis of necessary glycoconjugates. One of these carbohydrates is the monosaccharide galactose. Galactose is metabolized by humans through the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, which contains three enzymes to modify galactose so that it can be incorporated into glycolysis for the production of cellular energy. The middle enzyme of this pathway, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, produces uridine diphosphogalactose (UDP-gal) from galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1P), and a deficiency of this enzyme results in the human disease galactosemia. Galactosemia is diagnosed soon after an infant begins feeding, and although a galactose-restricted diet eliminates ...


Development Of A Safe And Efficient Near-Infrared Diagnostic Method For Alzheimer's Disease, Joseph Tawney 2014 Georgia State University

Development Of A Safe And Efficient Near-Infrared Diagnostic Method For Alzheimer's Disease, Joseph Tawney

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing 2014 Georgia State University

Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

E-science expands the scope of science library practices and promotes, among medical and graduate/undergraduate science students, the preservation of scientific data in relevant repositories/archives. Case studies can be used as a tool to educate and teach both medical and library science graduate/undergraduate students about the preservation of scientific data. In the medical sciences, researchers must submit a data management plan in order to secure funding for a research project. Therefore, they must understand the best practices that should be followed in their different disciplines.

This case study addresses institutional research in a biomedical neuroscience laboratory at a ...


Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones 2014 McMaster University

Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones

The Meducator

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is caused by a mutation of the anion channel termed the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Treatment for CF has improved over time; however, many therapies focus only on alleviating symptoms as they occur. There have been recent advances in therapies that repair mutant CFTR, including the administration of small molecules called CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators fall under two categories: correctors that prevent early degradation of CFTR and potentiators that increase conductance of existing CFTR. This review discusses the advantages of repairing mutant CFTR, some recent advances in treatment ...


Obesity And Alzheimer’S Disease: A Bridge Between Two Worlds, Zhen (Jason) Fan, Ishan Aditya 2014 McMaster University

Obesity And Alzheimer’S Disease: A Bridge Between Two Worlds, Zhen (Jason) Fan, Ishan Aditya

The Meducator

Obesity and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are two chronic illnesses with far reaching effects. Although both diseases are manifested in physiologically different ways, they share many molecular similarities and affect millions of individuals. Three mechanistic links for these two diseases include: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin, and chronic inflammation. BDNF has long been associated with neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity but has also been linked to hunger control. Studies independently investigating obesity and AD have shown down-regulation of BDNF in both pathologies. While insulin functions as a critical regulator of blood glucose, insulin resistance and feedback inhibition of insulin ...


Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang 2014 McMaster University

Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang

The Meducator

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a pathological condition characterized by an inadequate response to insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. NIDDM comprises of 90-95% of all cases of diabetes.1

Normally, insulin is released by pancreatic beta cells into the bloodstream, acting on receptors found in tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver.2 The binding of insulin to insulin receptors stimulates glucose uptake into cells and the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycogenesis).3 Evidence suggests that genetic mutations may increase susceptibility to NIDDM. Specifically, a reduction of insulin ...


The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua 2014 McMaster University

The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, and there has been growing insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory basis of this disease. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of asthma has progressively shifted focus from downstream effectors, such as mast cells and eosinophils, up to Th2 lymphocytes and their proallergic cytokines. Even more upstream in the allergic cascade are dendritic cells (DCs), potent APCs that orchestrate immune responses. Evidence supporting a role of DCs in regulating airway allergic inflammation is derived mainly from animal studies. In animal models of asthma, myeloid DCs (mDCs) induce and maintain ...


The Impact Of A Coronary Artery Disease Genetic Risk Score On Myocardial Infarction Risk In A Multi-Ethnic Population: An Interheart Study, Philip G. Joseph 2014 McMaster University

The Impact Of A Coronary Artery Disease Genetic Risk Score On Myocardial Infarction Risk In A Multi-Ethnic Population: An Interheart Study, Philip G. Joseph

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Background: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) performed in Caucasian populations have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), although their cumulative impact in other ethnicities is unknown. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the impact of CAD related SNPs on myocardial infarction (MI) in a multi-ethnic population.

Methods: We included 4083 MI cases and 4473 controls from the INTERHEART case: control study, stratified by six ethnic groups: European, South Asian, other Asian, Arab, Latin American, and African. We created a GRS comprised of 25 SNPS, and tested its association with MI in individual ...


Cardiovascular Events And Their Risk Factors In Adults With Cerebral Palsy., Stephen G. Noorduyn 2014 McMaster University

Cardiovascular Events And Their Risk Factors In Adults With Cerebral Palsy., Stephen G. Noorduyn

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Background

Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) may have special health care considerations related to an increased prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases. In particular, disability-related sedentary time may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and the related major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in this population.

Methods

Part I: A systematic review of major databases, trial registries, and conference abstracts identified randomized trials and observational studies exploring the prevalence and evaluating the prevention of MACE and risk factors for MACE in adults with CP. Title and abstract, data extraction, and quality of reporting assessment were completed in duplicate.

Part II ...


Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda 2014 McMaster University

Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative movement disorder involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The current dissertation, motivated by a lack of valid biomarkers and sustainable therapies, examined the potential application of a novel target for therapeutics and diagnostics of PD — the multifunctional, heat-shock like protein Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 (CRP40). The goal of this program of research was to elucidate further the implications of CRP40 in PD using a variety of molecular biology, bioinformatics, and clinical approaches through integrative collaborations with academia, government, and industry partners to translate scientific findings into real world solutions. Chapters 2 ...


Prognosis In Current Heart Failure Patients, Ana C. Alba 2014 McMaster University

Prognosis In Current Heart Failure Patients, Ana C. Alba

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Background: Heart failure (HF) constitutes an important growing medical and economic problem with high prevalence and mortality. Prognosis assessment remains a challenge because of the dynamic nature of HF and the existence of some unexplained variation in outcomes. Our objective was to refine the process of prognostic assessment in current HF patients.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify existing risk prediction models in ambulatory HF patients, a meta-analysis to identify mortality predictors in HF patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), a retrospective cohort study to validate a new model, the HF Meta-Score, derived from the results ...


Renal Function In Patients Undergoing Surgery, Michael Walsh 2014 McMaster University

Renal Function In Patients Undergoing Surgery, Michael Walsh

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Reduced kidney function around the time of surgery is an important risk factor for postoperative mortality. Despite this there is limited information on how reduced kidney function prior to surgery alters prognosis, what causes sudden decrements in kidney function after surgery (known as acute kidney injury), or how they might be avoided. The studies in this thesis inform these knowledge gaps. Chapter 2 describes the results of a post hoc analysis of the interaction between preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, a marker of kidney function, and postoperative cardiac troponin T, a marker of heart damage, for predicting 30-day mortality in ...


The Gut Reaction: How The Intestinal Microbiota Respond To Citrobacter Rodentium Colonization, Cassandra Black 2014 Liberty University

The Gut Reaction: How The Intestinal Microbiota Respond To Citrobacter Rodentium Colonization, Cassandra Black

Senior Honors Theses

The human intestine hosts a diverse community of bacteria known as the intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiota have a symbiotic relationship with the host organism. Current research does not clearly define the effect these commensal microorganisms have on the overall maintenance of gastrointestinal health, including protection from the invasion and pathogenesis of foreign bacteria known as pathogens. EHEC O157:H7 causes severe sickness and can be life-threatening, but is difficult to study in vivo. One challenge is that EHEC does not colonize the preferred animal model for human GI studies: the murine intestine. However, the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium has ...


Physical Activity And Its Effect On Reducing Disease: A Literature Review Of The National Runner's Health Study, Graham William Edson 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Physical Activity And Its Effect On Reducing Disease: A Literature Review Of The National Runner's Health Study, Graham William Edson

Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies Publications and Other Works

In 1996, Dr. Paul Williams began The National Runner’s Health Study. The study had over one hundred thousand respondents who were questioned about their physical activity habits (walking or running), diet, weight, height, and use or previous use of tobacco and alcohol. Some of the participants were involved in case studies of several years. Primarily, the study tested the effects of vigorous physical activity and its ability to reduce disease. For close to twenty years, Dr. Williams has continued an impressive amount of research on various topics in the health and exercise field. The study is one of the ...


Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Confers Resistance To Chemotherapy And Γ Radiation To Cancer Cells, Independent Of Direct Immune Involvement, Saman Maleki Vareki 2014 Western University

Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Confers Resistance To Chemotherapy And Γ Radiation To Cancer Cells, Independent Of Direct Immune Involvement, Saman Maleki Vareki

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) is an immunosuppressive molecule expressed by most human tumours. IDO levels correlate with poor prognosis in cancer patients and IDO inhibitors are under investigation to enhance endogenous anticancer immunosurveillance. Little is known regarding the immune-independent functions of IDO relevant to cancer therapy. In this thesis I show, for the first time, that IDO mediates human tumour cell resistance, in a cell-autonomous fashion, to single and combination treatment with a diverse group of chemotherapy drugs and g radiation. These drugs include a PARP inhibitor (olaparib), a DNA cross-linking agent (cisplatin), a folate antimetabolite (pemetrexed), a nucleoside analogue ...


Should Patients With Acute Coronary Disease Be Stratified For Management According To Their Risk? Derivation, External Validation And Outcomes Using The Updated Grace Risk Score, Keith A. A. Fox, Gordon FitzGerald, Etienne Puymirat, Wei Huang, Kathryn Carruthers, Tabassome Simon, Pierre Coste, Jacques Monsegu, Phillippe Gabriel Steg, Nicolas Danchin, Frederick A. Anderson Jr. 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Should Patients With Acute Coronary Disease Be Stratified For Management According To Their Risk? Derivation, External Validation And Outcomes Using The Updated Grace Risk Score, Keith A. A. Fox, Gordon Fitzgerald, Etienne Puymirat, Wei Huang, Kathryn Carruthers, Tabassome Simon, Pierre Coste, Jacques Monsegu, Phillippe Gabriel Steg, Nicolas Danchin, Frederick A. Anderson Jr.

GRACE Publications

OBJECTIVES: Risk scores are recommended in guidelines to facilitate the management of patients who present with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Internationally, such scores are not systematically used because they are not easy to apply and some risk indicators are not available at first presentation. We aimed to derive and externally validate a more accurate version of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score for predicting the risk of death or death/myocardial infarction (MI) both acutely and over the longer term. The risk score was designed to be suitable for acute and emergency clinical settings and usable ...


An Integrative Review Of Literature Regarding Health Concerns Of Rural Dwelling Adolescents, Donna Scott Tilley, Gayle Roux, Fuqin Liu, Kyoung-Eun Lee, Suzanne Ackers, Vicki L. Zeigler 2014 Kansas State University Libraries

An Integrative Review Of Literature Regarding Health Concerns Of Rural Dwelling Adolescents, Donna Scott Tilley, Gayle Roux, Fuqin Liu, Kyoung-Eun Lee, Suzanne Ackers, Vicki L. Zeigler

Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy

Those living in rural areas face particular risks to health and well-being as they are more likely to be poor, have no health insurance, and have less access to health care. Many obstacles exist in achieving optimal rural health outcomes. Many of the health related issues experienced by adolescents are preventable and are often related to risky behavior such as substance use and abuse, smoking, and unprotected sex. The purpose of this review is to define the current primary health concerns of rural dwelling adolescents worldwide. Based on current research, the primary health related problems of rural adolescents were identified ...


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