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Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks 2014 Wayne State University

Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory condition that results in injury of the mucosal lining of the small intestine upon ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins from barley and rye. Although the exact mechanisms leading to CD are not fully understood, the genetic basis of CD has been relatively well characterized. In this review we briefly review the history of discovery, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and current understanding of the genetics underlying CD risk. Then, we discuss what is known about the current distribution and evolutionary history of genes underlying CD risk in light of other evolutionary models ...


Comparing Partial Least Square Approaches In Gene-Or Region-Based Association Study For Multiple Quantitative Phenotypes, Zhongshang Yuan, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Fangyu Li, Jinghua Zhao, Fuzhong Xue 2014 Wayne State University

Comparing Partial Least Square Approaches In Gene-Or Region-Based Association Study For Multiple Quantitative Phenotypes, Zhongshang Yuan, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Fangyu Li, Jinghua Zhao, Fuzhong Xue

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

On thinking quantitatively of complex diseases, there are at least three statistical strategies for association study: single SNP on single trait, gene-or region (with multiple SNPs) on single trait and on multiple traits. The third of which is the most general in dissecting the genetic mechanism underlying complex diseases underpinning multiple quantitative traits. Gene-or region association methods based on partial least square (PLS) approaches have been shown to have apparent power advantage. However, few attempts are developed for multiple quantitative phenotypes or traits underlying a condition or disease, and the performance of various PLS approaches used in association study for ...


A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Rethinking Aids Website, Jennifer Dettmann 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Rethinking Aids Website, Jennifer Dettmann

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

A group of scientists known as the Group for Scientific Reappraisal of the HIV-AIDS hypothesis created a web site title, Rethinking AIDS. The group behind the web site argues that AIDS is not a sexually transmitted disease. They even question the existence of the virus entity. My analysis is driven by the critical question: Does the web site construct a reality that affectively alters our perception of HIV-AIDS? In order to answer this question, Goodnight and Poulakos 1981 article, Conspiracy rhetoric: from pragmatism to fantasy to public discourse (Western Journal of Speech), will be utilized.


Histological Evaluation Of The Cryo-Destruction Of The Zona Glomerulosa (Outermost Layer) Of The Adrenal Cortex, Huda Ahmed, Jonida Pone 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Histological Evaluation Of The Cryo-Destruction Of The Zona Glomerulosa (Outermost Layer) Of The Adrenal Cortex, Huda Ahmed, Jonida Pone

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The outer portion, or cortex, of the adrenal gland produces three hormones, two of which are highly critical to normal function of the body. The cortex itself is divided into three layers, each responsible for a certain hormone synthesis. The outermost layer (zona glomerulosa) produces aldosterone, a hormone involved in the regulation of body sodium, blood volume, and blood pressure. The middle layer produces co rticosterone, a hormone that is active in a variety of biological functions, and necessary for life. Due to its effects on blood volume, aldosterone has been implicated in the development of hypertension, or high blood ...


A Health Promotion Perspective On Transitioning Into Retirement, Catherine P. Gelinas 2014 Western University

A Health Promotion Perspective On Transitioning Into Retirement, Catherine P. Gelinas

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The transitional stages towards retirement of those with chronic disorder(s) often present a diversity of additional challenges and people look at the measurement of their anticipated quality of life as a meaningful way of determining this successful adjustment. The overall objective of this research study was to understand transition into retirement considering the impact of comorbidity and associated socio-demographic factors have on the (physical and mental) health status. Quantitative data analysis of people (aged 50-65) with chronic upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders was used to inform health impacts in the group transitioning towards retirement; or who have selected or required ...


Obesity, Physical Activity, And Their Interaction In Incident Atrial Fibrillation In Postmenopausal Women, Farnaz Azarbal, Marcia L. Stefanick, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, JoAnn E. Manson, Christine M. Albert, Michael J. Lamonte, Joseph C. Larson, Wenjun Li, Lisa W. Martin, Rami Nassir, Lorena Garcia, Themistocles L. Assimes, Katie M. Tharp, Mark A. Hlatky, Marco V. Perez 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Obesity, Physical Activity, And Their Interaction In Incident Atrial Fibrillation In Postmenopausal Women, Farnaz Azarbal, Marcia L. Stefanick, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Joann E. Manson, Christine M. Albert, Michael J. Lamonte, Joseph C. Larson, Wenjun Li, Lisa W. Martin, Rami Nassir, Lorena Garcia, Themistocles L. Assimes, Katie M. Tharp, Mark A. Hlatky, Marco V. Perez

UMass Worcester Prevention Research Center Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with increased risk of stroke and death. Obesity is an independent risk factor for AF, but modifiers of this risk are not well known. We studied the roles of obesity, physical activity, and their interaction in conferring risk of incident AF.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study was a prospective observational study of 93 676 postmenopausal women followed for an average of 11.5 years. Incident AF was identified using WHI-ascertained hospitalization records and diagnostic codes from Medicare claims. A multivariate Cox ...


Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Normal abundant dietary sugars such as fructose and sucrose can contribute to hypertension and other health issues. To avoid these health complications, many individuals use artificial sweeteners. An equivalent intake of some artificial sweeteners also can lead to hypertension. However, Stevia, a sweetener that is isolated from a Paraguayan plant, was shown in relevant literature to decrease blood pressure in both rat specimens and humans. The general purpose of this research project was to study the effect of Stevia, saccharin, and sucrose on the expression of two key components of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS): prorenin receptor (PRR) and angiotensin ...


An Uncommon Presentation For Cardiac Melanoma, Burcu Gul, Michael N. Young, David A. Slosky, Mark A. Lawson, Jeffrey N. Rottman 2014 Aurora Health Care

An Uncommon Presentation For Cardiac Melanoma, Burcu Gul, Michael N. Young, David A. Slosky, Mark A. Lawson, Jeffrey N. Rottman

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

A 66-year-old man with locally advanced malignant melanoma, which was surgically resected, presented with a 3-week history of dizziness, recurrent near-syncopal episodes and generalized weakness. He was found to have sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the setting of cardiac melanoma. We draw attention to an unusual presentation of malignant melanoma with cardiac metastasis and discuss both its etiology and treatment options.


Clinical Outcomes Of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting In Nonsurgical Patients: A Single-Center Experience, John-Paul Pham, Abdelazim Hashim, Naoyo Mori, Mohamed Taha, Mohamed Djelmami-Hani, Joaquin Solis, Suhail Allaqaband, Tanvir Bajwa, Anjan Gupta 2014 Aurora Health Care

Clinical Outcomes Of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting In Nonsurgical Patients: A Single-Center Experience, John-Paul Pham, Abdelazim Hashim, Naoyo Mori, Mohamed Taha, Mohamed Djelmami-Hani, Joaquin Solis, Suhail Allaqaband, Tanvir Bajwa, Anjan Gupta

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Coronary artery bypass graft is the standard treatment for unprotected left main disease; however, some patients are poor surgical candidates due to comorbidities. We assessed the safety and clinical outcome of elective, unprotected left main coronary artery stenting in nonsurgical patients.

Methods: Between October 2004 and June 2006, 50 consecutive patients underwent elective, unprotected left main coronary artery stenting at our institution. Patients were followed for a median of 16 and 96 months and clinical outcomes monitored.

Results: Median logistic euroSCORE was 28.6 (interquartile range: 14.6-43.4). Median baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50%. Procedural ...


Cardio-Oncology: Success Breeds New Challenges, Opportunities, Charles A. Bomzer, Bijoy K. Khandheria 2014 Aurora Health Care

Cardio-Oncology: Success Breeds New Challenges, Opportunities, Charles A. Bomzer, Bijoy K. Khandheria

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

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Computational Model Of A Left Ventricle: Showing The Effects Of Inertia On Cardiac Dyssynchrony, Andrew McNally, Matthew Korpela, Erin Lamke, Matthew Hudson 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Computational Model Of A Left Ventricle: Showing The Effects Of Inertia On Cardiac Dyssynchrony, Andrew Mcnally, Matthew Korpela, Erin Lamke, Matthew Hudson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In an effort to research heart failure, a leading cause of death in the industrialized world, this research team has developed a segmented lumped parameter model of the left ventricle. The computations model developed focuses on dyssynchrony, a heart condition where some regions of the heart vary significantly in properties like internal muscle resistance, mass, or elastance. Inertial effects are often assumed as negligible by cardiovascular models. One primary function of this model is to investigate inertial effects as they relate to mechanical cardiac dyssynchrony. An added dimension of this analysis is to observe the thermodynamics of the cardiac cycle ...


Investigation Of Β-Catenin-Mediated Regulation Of Igfbp-6 And The Roles Of Igfbp-6 And Igf-Ii In Dupuytren's Disease, Christina N. Raykha 2014 Western University

Investigation Of Β-Catenin-Mediated Regulation Of Igfbp-6 And The Roles Of Igfbp-6 And Igf-Ii In Dupuytren's Disease, Christina N. Raykha

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dupuytren’s Disease (DD) is a benign and heritable connective tissue fibrosis that affects the palmar fascia and typically results in permanent finger contracture(s). Similar to other fibroses, DD is characterized by increased fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation and excess collagen deposition. Currently, there are no truly effective treatment options for connective tissue fibroses.

Increased levels of β-catenin, an intracellular trans-regulator of gene transcription, have been previously reported in DD. Genes that are associated with, and therefore potentially transcriptionally regulated by, β-catenin during DD development were identified in this thesis. One of these gene targets, IGFBP6, was shown to consistently ...


Principles Of Multidisciplinary Management, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles Of Multidisciplinary Management, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in the Cancer Concepts textbook describes the principles of multi-disciplinary management, meaning multi-specialty physician management of malignancies. Tumor Boards are the model for multi-disciplinary management. They may be site specific or include the entire spectrum of malignancy. At Tumor Boards, staging workup and treatment recommendations are made collectively, and then the treatments are delivered by the respective modality specialists and their individual teams. Improved clinical decision making leading to superior survival for patients with some diseases and better quality of life has been documented with multi-disciplinary management. Just like curative patients, palliative patients require multi-disciplinary management.


Overall Survival And Biochemical Failure-Free Survival Comparison Of Brachytherapy Treatment Options Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy For Both Low And Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Propensity-Score Matched Analysis, Graham D. Smith 2014 Western University

Overall Survival And Biochemical Failure-Free Survival Comparison Of Brachytherapy Treatment Options Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy For Both Low And Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Propensity-Score Matched Analysis, Graham D. Smith

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: This study compares overall survival (OS) and biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients that received brachytherapy [low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy (HDR-BT+EBRT)] versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone.

Materials/Methods: Patient data was obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated at four Canadian institutions. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to generate matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors.

Results/Conclusions: Final PS matches included two 1:1 intermediate-risk patient matches, LDR-BT vs. EBRT (total n = 254) and HDR-BT+EBRT vs ...


Infectious Diseases, Bert Chapman 2014 Purdue University

Infectious Diseases, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides information about the role of infectious diseases in the early years of U.S. History, with particular emphasis on how they impacted injuries sustained in military conflict.


Quantitative Ultrasound: Measurement Considerations For The Assessment Of Muscular Dystrophy And Sarcopenia, Michael O. Harris-Love, Reza Monfaredi, Catheeja Ismail, Marc R. Blackman, Kevin Cleary 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Quantitative Ultrasound: Measurement Considerations For The Assessment Of Muscular Dystrophy And Sarcopenia, Michael O. Harris-Love, Reza Monfaredi, Catheeja Ismail, Marc R. Blackman, Kevin Cleary

Exercise Science Faculty Publications

Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound has potential clinical utility in characterizing pathological muscle tissue. Sonography has been long proposed as method of assessing muscle damage due to neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, and more recently, changes in body and tissue composition associated with muscle wasting disorders such as sarcopenia. The use of quantitative ultrasound as an adjunct diagnostic procedure has different technical challenges than the traditional use of ultrasound in clinical medicine. Operator-dependent technique and variation are critical considerations when obtaining measures of echointensity (i.e., tissue composition estimates) and tissue dimensions (i.e., muscle thickness) – key elements of the ultrasound ...


A Systematic Review Of Electronic Portal Usage Among Patients With Diabetes, Daniel J. Amante, Timothy P. Hogan, Sherry L. Pagoto, Thomas M. English 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review Of Electronic Portal Usage Among Patients With Diabetes, Daniel J. Amante, Timothy P. Hogan, Sherry L. Pagoto, Thomas M. English

GSBS Student Publications

The objectives of this review were (1) to examine characteristics associated with enrollment and utilization of portals among patients with diabetes and (2) to identify barriers and facilitators of electronic patient portal enrollment and utilization. PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were systematically searched for papers reporting original research using quantitative or qualitative methods on characteristics, barriers, and facilitators associated with portal enrollment and utilization among patients with diabetes in the United States. The search was limited to articles published between February 1, 2005 (the date of the national symposium on personal health records ...


Probiotic Therapy For Heart Failure: Investigating The Potential Anti-Hypertrophic Properties Of Probiotics, Grace L. Ettinger 2014 Western University

Probiotic Therapy For Heart Failure: Investigating The Potential Anti-Hypertrophic Properties Of Probiotics, Grace L. Ettinger

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Heart failure patients face a five-year 50% mortality rate, due to impaired cardiac function and hypertrophy of the heart. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Considering the established cardiovascular benefits of some probiotics, including reduction of cholesterol and hypertension, it was hypothesized that probiotics can improve outcomes of heart failure. Probiotics or controls were administered orally to an animal model for heart failure. Those receiving probiotics showed a significant improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and an attenuation of heart failure compared to control. No changes in gut microbial composition occurred ...


The Vitamin D Status In Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Lauren Veit, Louise Maranda, Jay G. Fong, Benjamin U. Nwosu 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Vitamin D Status In Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Lauren Veit, Louise Maranda, Jay G. Fong, Benjamin U. Nwosu

Endocrinology/Diabetes

CONTEXT: There is no consensus on the vitamin D status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

AIM: To determine the vitamin D status of patients with IBD by comparing their serum 25(OH)D concentration to that of healthy controls.

HYPOTHESIS: Serum 25(OH)D concentration will be lower in patients with IBD compared to controls.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-controlled retrospective study of subjects with IBD (n = 58) of 2-20 years (male n = 31, age 16.38±2.21 years; female n = 27, age16.56±2.08 years) and healthy controls (n = 116; male n = 49 ...


Small-Molecule Probes Targeting The Viral Ppxy-Host Nedd4 Interface Block Egress Of A Broad Range Of Rna Viruses., Ziying Han, Jianhong Lu, Yuliang Liu, Benjamin Davis, Michael S Lee, Mark A Olson, Gordon Ruthel, Bruce D Freedman, Matthias J. Schnell, Jay E Wrobel, Allen B Reitz, Ronald N Harty 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Small-Molecule Probes Targeting The Viral Ppxy-Host Nedd4 Interface Block Egress Of A Broad Range Of Rna Viruses., Ziying Han, Jianhong Lu, Yuliang Liu, Benjamin Davis, Michael S Lee, Mark A Olson, Gordon Ruthel, Bruce D Freedman, Matthias J. Schnell, Jay E Wrobel, Allen B Reitz, Ronald N Harty

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Budding of filoviruses, arenaviruses, and rhabdoviruses is facilitated by subversion of host proteins, such as Nedd4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, by viral PPxY late (L) budding domains expressed within the matrix proteins of these RNA viruses. As L domains are important for budding and are highly conserved in a wide array of RNA viruses, they represent potential broad-spectrum targets for the development of antiviral drugs. To identify potential competitive blockers, we used the known Nedd4 WW domain-PPxY interaction interface as the basis of an in silico screen. Using PPxY-dependent budding of Marburg (MARV) VP40 virus-like particles (VLPs) as our model system ...


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