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Development Of A Safe And Efficient Near-Infrared Diagnostic Method For Alzheimer's Disease, Joseph Tawney 2014 Georgia State University

Development Of A Safe And Efficient Near-Infrared Diagnostic Method For Alzheimer's Disease, Joseph Tawney

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing 2014 Georgia State University

Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones 2014 McMaster University

Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones

The Meducator

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is caused by a mutation of the anion channel termed the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Treatment for CF has improved over time; however, many therapies focus only on alleviating symptoms as they occur. There have been recent advances in therapies that repair mutant CFTR, including the administration of small molecules called CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators fall under two categories: correctors that prevent early degradation of CFTR and potentiators that increase conductance of existing CFTR. This review discusses the advantages of repairing mutant CFTR, some recent advances in treatment ...


Obesity And Alzheimer’S Disease: A Bridge Between Two Worlds, Zhen (Jason) Fan, Ishan Aditya 2014 McMaster University

Obesity And Alzheimer’S Disease: A Bridge Between Two Worlds, Zhen (Jason) Fan, Ishan Aditya

The Meducator

Obesity and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are two chronic illnesses with far reaching effects. Although both diseases are manifested in physiologically different ways, they share many molecular similarities and affect millions of individuals. Three mechanistic links for these two diseases include: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin, and chronic inflammation. BDNF has long been associated with neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity but has also been linked to hunger control. Studies independently investigating obesity and AD have shown down-regulation of BDNF in both pathologies. While insulin functions as a critical regulator of blood glucose, insulin resistance and feedback inhibition of insulin ...


Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang 2014 McMaster University

Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang

The Meducator

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a pathological condition characterized by an inadequate response to insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. NIDDM comprises of 90-95% of all cases of diabetes.1

Normally, insulin is released by pancreatic beta cells into the bloodstream, acting on receptors found in tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver.2 The binding of insulin to insulin receptors stimulates glucose uptake into cells and the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycogenesis).3 Evidence suggests that genetic mutations may increase susceptibility to NIDDM. Specifically, a reduction of insulin ...


The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua 2014 McMaster University

The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, and there has been growing insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory basis of this disease. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of asthma has progressively shifted focus from downstream effectors, such as mast cells and eosinophils, up to Th2 lymphocytes and their proallergic cytokines. Even more upstream in the allergic cascade are dendritic cells (DCs), potent APCs that orchestrate immune responses. Evidence supporting a role of DCs in regulating airway allergic inflammation is derived mainly from animal studies. In animal models of asthma, myeloid DCs (mDCs) induce and maintain ...


The Impact Of A Coronary Artery Disease Genetic Risk Score On Myocardial Infarction Risk In A Multi-Ethnic Population: An Interheart Study, Philip G. Joseph 2014 McMaster University

The Impact Of A Coronary Artery Disease Genetic Risk Score On Myocardial Infarction Risk In A Multi-Ethnic Population: An Interheart Study, Philip G. Joseph

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Background: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) performed in Caucasian populations have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), although their cumulative impact in other ethnicities is unknown. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the impact of CAD related SNPs on myocardial infarction (MI) in a multi-ethnic population.

Methods: We included 4083 MI cases and 4473 controls from the INTERHEART case: control study, stratified by six ethnic groups: European, South Asian, other Asian, Arab, Latin American, and African. We created a GRS comprised of 25 SNPS, and tested its association with MI in individual ...


Cardiovascular Events And Their Risk Factors In Adults With Cerebral Palsy., Stephen G. Noorduyn 2014 McMaster University

Cardiovascular Events And Their Risk Factors In Adults With Cerebral Palsy., Stephen G. Noorduyn

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Background

Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) may have special health care considerations related to an increased prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases. In particular, disability-related sedentary time may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and the related major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in this population.

Methods

Part I: A systematic review of major databases, trial registries, and conference abstracts identified randomized trials and observational studies exploring the prevalence and evaluating the prevention of MACE and risk factors for MACE in adults with CP. Title and abstract, data extraction, and quality of reporting assessment were completed in duplicate.

Part II ...


Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda 2014 McMaster University

Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative movement disorder involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The current dissertation, motivated by a lack of valid biomarkers and sustainable therapies, examined the potential application of a novel target for therapeutics and diagnostics of PD — the multifunctional, heat-shock like protein Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 (CRP40). The goal of this program of research was to elucidate further the implications of CRP40 in PD using a variety of molecular biology, bioinformatics, and clinical approaches through integrative collaborations with academia, government, and industry partners to translate scientific findings into real world solutions. Chapters 2 ...


Prognosis In Current Heart Failure Patients, Ana C. Alba 2014 McMaster University

Prognosis In Current Heart Failure Patients, Ana C. Alba

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Background: Heart failure (HF) constitutes an important growing medical and economic problem with high prevalence and mortality. Prognosis assessment remains a challenge because of the dynamic nature of HF and the existence of some unexplained variation in outcomes. Our objective was to refine the process of prognostic assessment in current HF patients.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify existing risk prediction models in ambulatory HF patients, a meta-analysis to identify mortality predictors in HF patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), a retrospective cohort study to validate a new model, the HF Meta-Score, derived from the results ...


Renal Function In Patients Undergoing Surgery, Michael Walsh 2014 McMaster University

Renal Function In Patients Undergoing Surgery, Michael Walsh

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Reduced kidney function around the time of surgery is an important risk factor for postoperative mortality. Despite this there is limited information on how reduced kidney function prior to surgery alters prognosis, what causes sudden decrements in kidney function after surgery (known as acute kidney injury), or how they might be avoided. The studies in this thesis inform these knowledge gaps. Chapter 2 describes the results of a post hoc analysis of the interaction between preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, a marker of kidney function, and postoperative cardiac troponin T, a marker of heart damage, for predicting 30-day mortality in ...


Should Patients With Acute Coronary Disease Be Stratified For Management According To Their Risk? Derivation, External Validation And Outcomes Using The Updated Grace Risk Score, Keith A. A. Fox, Gordon FitzGerald, Etienne Puymirat, Wei Huang, Kathryn Carruthers, Tabassome Simon, Pierre Coste, Jacques Monsegu, Phillippe Gabriel Steg, Nicolas Danchin, Frederick A. Anderson Jr. 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Should Patients With Acute Coronary Disease Be Stratified For Management According To Their Risk? Derivation, External Validation And Outcomes Using The Updated Grace Risk Score, Keith A. A. Fox, Gordon Fitzgerald, Etienne Puymirat, Wei Huang, Kathryn Carruthers, Tabassome Simon, Pierre Coste, Jacques Monsegu, Phillippe Gabriel Steg, Nicolas Danchin, Frederick A. Anderson Jr.

GRACE Publications

OBJECTIVES: Risk scores are recommended in guidelines to facilitate the management of patients who present with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Internationally, such scores are not systematically used because they are not easy to apply and some risk indicators are not available at first presentation. We aimed to derive and externally validate a more accurate version of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score for predicting the risk of death or death/myocardial infarction (MI) both acutely and over the longer term. The risk score was designed to be suitable for acute and emergency clinical settings and usable ...


An Integrative Review Of Literature Regarding Health Concerns Of Rural Dwelling Adolescents, Donna Scott Tilley, Gayle Roux, Fuqin Liu, Kyoung-Eun Lee, Suzanne Ackers, Vicki L. Zeigler 2014 Kansas State University Libraries

An Integrative Review Of Literature Regarding Health Concerns Of Rural Dwelling Adolescents, Donna Scott Tilley, Gayle Roux, Fuqin Liu, Kyoung-Eun Lee, Suzanne Ackers, Vicki L. Zeigler

Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy

Those living in rural areas face particular risks to health and well-being as they are more likely to be poor, have no health insurance, and have less access to health care. Many obstacles exist in achieving optimal rural health outcomes. Many of the health related issues experienced by adolescents are preventable and are often related to risky behavior such as substance use and abuse, smoking, and unprotected sex. The purpose of this review is to define the current primary health concerns of rural dwelling adolescents worldwide. Based on current research, the primary health related problems of rural adolescents were identified ...


Computational Model For Survey And Trend Analysis Of Patients With Endometriosis : A Decision Aid Tool For Ebm, Salvo Reina, Vito Reina, Franco Ameglio, Mauro Costa, Alessandro Fasciani 2014 COBRA

Computational Model For Survey And Trend Analysis Of Patients With Endometriosis : A Decision Aid Tool For Ebm, Salvo Reina, Vito Reina, Franco Ameglio, Mauro Costa, Alessandro Fasciani

COBRA Preprint Series

Endometriosis is increasingly collecting worldwide attention due to its medical complexity and social impact. The European community has identified this as a “social disease”. A large amount of information comes from scientists, yet several aspects of this pathology and staging criteria need to be clearly defined on a suitable number of individuals. In fact, available studies on endometriosis are not easily comparable due to a lack of standardized criteria to collect patients’ informations and scarce definitions of symptoms. Currently, only retrospective surgical stadiation is used to measure pathology intensity, while the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) requires shareable methods and correct ...


Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfections. Malaria appears to dysregulate immunity that would otherwise control EBV, thereby contributing to eBL etiology. Juxtaposed to human genetic variants associated with protection from malaria, it has been hypothesized that such variants could decrease eBL susceptibility, historically referred to as "the protective hypothesis." Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered. Therefore, using a case-control study design, we examined HbAS frequency in 306 Kenyan children diagnosed with eBL compared ...


The Comparative Effectiveness Of Abatacept Versus Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Switching For Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Previously Treated With An Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Joel M. Kremer, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Daniel H. Solomon, Marc C. Hochberg, Jeffrey D. Greenberg 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Comparative Effectiveness Of Abatacept Versus Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Switching For Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Previously Treated With An Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Joel M. Kremer, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Daniel H. Solomon, Marc C. Hochberg, Jeffrey D. Greenberg

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations

OBJECTIVE: We compared the effectiveness of abatacept (ABA) versus a subsequent anti-tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (anti-TNF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with prior anti-TNF use.

METHODS: We identified RA patients from a large observational US cohort (2/1/2000-8/7/2011) who had discontinued at least one anti-TNF and initiated either ABA or a subsequent anti-TNF. Using propensity score (PS) matching (n:1 match), effectiveness was measured at 6 and 12 months after initiation based on mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), modified American College of Rheumatology (mACR) 20, 50 and 70 responses, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ ...


A Case Study Of Pediatric Asthma Alerts From The Beacon Community Program In Cincinnati: Technology Is Just The First Step, Tara Trudnak, Mona Monsour, Keith Mandel, Hadley Sauers, Gerry Pandzik, Carl Donisi, Gerry Fairbrother 2014 EDM Forum

A Case Study Of Pediatric Asthma Alerts From The Beacon Community Program In Cincinnati: Technology Is Just The First Step, Tara Trudnak, Mona Monsour, Keith Mandel, Hadley Sauers, Gerry Pandzik, Carl Donisi, Gerry Fairbrother

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: The Beacon Community in Cincinnati, Ohio was an innovative, community-wide initiative to use technology to transform care. One important feature was the development of regional alerts to notify practices when patients were hospitalized or seen in the emergency department. The purpose of this paper is to describe the way in which technology engages the improvement process, and to describe the early stages of learning how to use technology to enhance quality improvement.

Methods: We interviewed key Beacon leaders as well as providers and office staff in selected practices. We also collected preliminary data from practices that reflected handling of ...


Washington, Rebecca (Smith), 1776-1861 (Sc 1254), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2014 Western Kentucky University

Washington, Rebecca (Smith), 1776-1861 (Sc 1254), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 1254. Letter, 10 August 1835, written by Rebecca Washington, Logan County, Kentucky, to her daughter Jane Walker in Arkansas Territory. She vividly describes the cholera epidemic that has devastated the white and African American residents of Russellville and Logan County, and relates family news. Information about the letter is included.


The Politics Of Transition & The Economics Of Hiv: Aids & Pepfar In South Africa, Matthew M. Kavanagh 2014 University of Pennsylvania

The Politics Of Transition & The Economics Of Hiv: Aids & Pepfar In South Africa, Matthew M. Kavanagh

Matthew Kavanagh

AIDS poses a unique and unprecedented challenge to South Africa. The country has the largest HIV epidemic in the world—with 6.4 million people living with HIV—and one of the largest TB epidemics in the world as well. The country’s recent AIDS response has generated enormous optimism, both in South Africa and internationally. The biggest change, in many ways, has been political—dramatic shifts in ideology and motivation at the highest levels of government have moved the country from denialism and inaction to a bold national mobilization to bring anti-retroviral treatment to scale. Meanwhile, the approach of ...


All Purulence Is Local - Epidemiology And Management Of Skin And Soft Tissue Infections In Three Urban Emergency Departments, Chris Merritt, John P. Haran, Jacob Mintzer, Joseph Stricker, Roland C. Merchant 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

All Purulence Is Local - Epidemiology And Management Of Skin And Soft Tissue Infections In Three Urban Emergency Departments, Chris Merritt, John P. Haran, Jacob Mintzer, Joseph Stricker, Roland C. Merchant

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infection (SSTIs) are commonly treated in emergency departments (EDs). While the precise role of antibiotics in treating SSTIs remains unclear, most SSTI patients receive empiric antibiotics, often targeted toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The goal of this study was to assess the efficiency with which ED clinicians targeted empiric therapy against MRSA, and to identify factors that may allow ED clinicians to safely target antibiotic use.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patient visits for community-acquired SSTIs to three urban, academic EDs in one northeastern US city during the first quarter of 2010. We ...


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