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Discovering The Immune Cell Landscape In Ipf By Whole Lung Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jonas C. Schupp, Taylor Adams 2019 Yale University

Discovering The Immune Cell Landscape In Ipf By Whole Lung Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jonas C. Schupp, Taylor Adams

Yale Day of Data

Single cell transcriptomes of 27 IPF, 13 COPD and 14 control lungs were established. Cells were clustered into major cell types, then the immune cells consisting of 116,057 myeloid, 4,742 B-, and 19,165 T-& NK-cells were analyzed and subclustered. Subclustering revealed IPF-associated unique gene expression profiles subpopulations that were specific to the IPF lung. For example, we could identify an IPF-specific macrophage subpopulation which showed a pro-fibrotic profile characterized by SPP1, CHIT1, CCL18, SPARC, LGMN, CTSK, and MMP9 gene expression. Antagonistically, NK- and cytotoxic T-cells revealed a significantly increased expression of the protease inhibitors A2M and PZP ...


Association Between Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin And Cardiac Disease Hospitalizations And Deaths In Older Women, James J.H. Chong, Richard L. Prince, Peter L. Thompson, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Esther Ooi, Amanda Devine, E E.M. Lim, Elizabeth Byrnes, Germaine Wong, Wai H. Lim, Joshua R. Lewis 2019 Edith Cowan University

Association Between Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin And Cardiac Disease Hospitalizations And Deaths In Older Women, James J.H. Chong, Richard L. Prince, Peter L. Thompson, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Esther Ooi, Amanda Devine, E E.M. Lim, Elizabeth Byrnes, Germaine Wong, Wai H. Lim, Joshua R. Lewis

ECU Publications Post 2013

Background Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin ( NGAL ) or lipocalin 2 may promote atherosclerosis and plaque instability leading to increased risk of cardiac events. We investigated the relationships between plasma NGAL , cardiovascular disease biomarkers, and long-term cardiac events. Methods and Results The study population consisted of 1131 ambulant older white women (mean age 75 years) without clinical coronary heart disease ( CHD ) and measures of plasma NGAL in the Perth Longitudinal Study of Ageing Women with 14.5-year CHD and heart failure hospitalizations or death (events) captured using linked records. Over 14.5 years, 256 women had CHD events, while 118 had heart failure ...


Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam- 12 Month Follow Up Results: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Duc A. Ha, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Cuong K. Nguyen, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison 2018 Institute of Population, Health and Development

Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam- 12 Month Follow Up Results: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Duc A. Ha, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Cuong K. Nguyen, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The country needs novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions to improve hypertension control. We report the 12 month follow-up results of a cluster randomized feasibility trial in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, which evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" and a didactic intervention.

METHODS: The storytelling intervention included stories in the patients' own words about coping with hypertension and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors in controlling elevated blood pressure levels. The didactic intervention included only ...


Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr. 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr.

Open Access Articles

Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, adipose tissue (AT) remodeling and muscle wasting, is a malignant metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Here, we show that both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 were able to attenuate the main clinical markers of cachexia in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). AT remodelling was not found in LLC tumor-bearing (TB) TLR4(-/-) mice due to reduced macrophage infiltration and adipocyte atrophy. TLR4(-/-) mice were also resistant to cold-induced browning of subcutaneous AT (scAT). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 (Atorvastatin) reproduced the main protective effect against AT remodeling found in ...


Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman 2018 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were collected from a cohort of school-aged Thai children who subsequently experienced a subclinical DENV infection or developed dengue illness. PBMC collected prior to infection were stimulated in vitro with DENV and the secretion of 30 cytokines was measured using a multiplexed ...


Video-Based Diabetes Education For A Culturally Diverse Population, Heather Harris 2018 Georgia College

Video-Based Diabetes Education For A Culturally Diverse Population, Heather Harris

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Translational and Clinical Research Projects

Immigrants and refugees represent an underserved population in need of quality, accessible, and culturally appropriate healthcare and education. Diabetes is a chronic condition frequently seen in this population. The author utilized the Wagner Chronic Care Model (CCM) as a theoretical framework for planning diabetes education delivery in this diverse population. Studies report significant health disparities in diabetes care and subsequent poor diabetes quality indicators in refugees and immigrants. Research has found that culturally sensitive diabetes education can improve diabetes outcomes in ethnically diverse populations. The author implemented a translational project to develop and evaluate a video-based diabetes health education intervention ...


Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy 2018 Cleveland State University

Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Nosocomial diseases are a serious concern and detriment to hospitals’ abilities to provide appropriate patient care. Bearing this in mind, an effort must be made to determine whether infection surveillance and control programs have reduced the rates of nosocomial infection at U.S. hospitals. The data that were studied were obtained as part of the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) and used to develop a model of what variables most contribute to a patient’s length of stay at the Cleveland Clinic (Quade et al, 1980).


Keep The Beat With Heart Failure Education: A Quality Improvement Project, Brenda L. Peterson 2018 University of San Francisco

Keep The Beat With Heart Failure Education: A Quality Improvement Project, Brenda L. Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Abstract

Problem: Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is the number one diagnosis-related group (DRG) for people 65 years of age and older in the United States. This disease group is complicated and debilitating, requiring frequent hospitalizations with high mortality rates. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has identified CHF as an area for improvement in hospitals.

Context: This was a quality improvement project for an integrated medical center in the Central Valley, California with over 19,000 HF patients. In 2018, for patients 65 years and older, HF is the third-most admitted ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4(+) memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA. If rev is provided in trans, all HIV-1 coding sequences are dispensable for activation except those cis-acting sequences required ...


Nutrigenomics Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Durpri Lin 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Nutrigenomics Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Durpri Lin

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are nutrients that reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As micronutrients that selectively accumulate in the retina of the eye, L/Z can protect the macula from oxidative damage that contributes to AMD. This review will discuss the role of genes as a mediator between increased intake of dietary L/Z and decreased risk of AMD. Figure 1 outlines a pathway of L/Z that is subject to genetic influences, from 1) the diet to 2) the bloodstream to 3) the retina of the eye. First, L/Z are carotenoids that cannot be ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson 2018 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases PAD2 and PAD4 are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. PAD4 may be pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through its role in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation that promotes autoantigen externalization, immune dysregulation, and organ damage. The role of this enzyme in mouse models of autoimmunity remains unclear, as pan-PAD chemical inhibitors improve clinical phenotype, whereas PAD4-KO models have given conflicting results. The role of PAD2 in SLE has not been investigated. The differential roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in TLR-7-dependent lupus autoimmunity were examined. Padi4-/- displayed decreased autoantibodies, type I IFN responses, immune ...


Establishing Trust In Hiv/Hcv Research Among People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid): Insights From Empirical Research, Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B. Fisher 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Establishing Trust In Hiv/Hcv Research Among People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid): Insights From Empirical Research, Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B. Fisher

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Background — The establishment of trust between researchers and participants is critical to advance HIV and HCV prevention particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID) and other marginalized populations, yet empirical research on how to establish and maintain trust in the course of community health research is lacking. This paper documents ideas about trust between research participants and researchers amongst a sub-sample of PWID who were enrolled in a large, multi-year community health study of social networks and HIV/HCV risk that was recently conducted in rural Puerto Rico.

Methods — Qualitative research was nested within a multi-year Social Network and HIV ...


Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to DS myeloproliferative disorder and leukemia. A contrasting increase in neural stem and iPS cells shows cell-type specificity, supporting this approach successfully rebalances the hematopoietic developmental program. Given this, we next used ...


Real-World Comparative Effectiveness Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy Vs. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors With Methotrexate In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Real-World Comparative Effectiveness Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy Vs. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors With Methotrexate In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Controlled clinical studies have shown that the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy is superior to that of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) monotherapy and comparable to that of TCZ plus methotrexate (MTX) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study compared the real-world effectiveness of TCZ monotherapy vs. TNFis plus MTX in US patients with RA.

METHODS: TCZ-naive patients from the Corrona RA registry with prior exposure to > /= 1 TNFi who initiated TCZ monotherapy or TNFi + MTX were included. Outcomes included mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), achievement of low disease activity (LDA; CDAI < /= 10), achievement of modified American College of Rheumatology (mACR) 20/50 responses, and mean change in modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) at 6 months. Patients initiating TNFi + MTX were grouped by MTX dose ( < /= 10 mg; > 10 to ...


Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye

Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent infectious enteritis mainly foodborne from chickens. Despite of reducing C. jejuni food contamination dramatically decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available for the bacterial reduction in chickens. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product deoxycholic acid (DCA) to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed 0 or 1.5 g/kg DCA, lithocholic acid (LCA), or urodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in diets or orally gavaged with cholic acid (CA, 1.5g/kg body weight). Birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anearo) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). Birds were infected with ...


Examining The Impact Of Hiv Medical And Social Case Management Program On Viral Load For Clients Living With Hiv/Aids In Nebraska, Abdulla Munir 2018 University of Nebraska Medical center

Examining The Impact Of Hiv Medical And Social Case Management Program On Viral Load For Clients Living With Hiv/Aids In Nebraska, Abdulla Munir

Service Learning/Capstone Experience

Abstract

Case management (CM) is one of the standard practices that has been implemented since 1990 to help people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the United States. The program is designed for low-income populations and it aims to address the barriers related to access to health care and improve the HIV outcomes. Previous studies identified a positive association with the provision of CM and improvement in viral outcomes. Increasing the viral suppression rates among HIV diagnosed individuals proved to reduce the risk of transmitting the infection, and disease incidence. Although CM program is provided to Nebraskans diagnosed with HIV ...


Risky Business: Millennials’ Protection Motivation Factors For Norovirus Outbreaks On College Campuses, Dylan Conrad Martinez 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Risky Business: Millennials’ Protection Motivation Factors For Norovirus Outbreaks On College Campuses, Dylan Conrad Martinez

Theses and Dissertations

The risk and severity of hNoV transmission is obscurely recognized to foodservice millennial customers. Most commonly associated with cruise ships, consumers are not aware of its full potential to strike at other locations, especially college campuses. For the foodservice industry and the university community, it is imperative that a proactive method for increasing millennials’ motivation to practice mitigation methods emerges to reduce future hNoV outbreaks on college campuses. Research has shown that students can play a major role in the spread of hNoV on college campuses. Therefore, the purpose of these studies is to examine motivations for health protective behaviors ...


Ectopic High Endothelial Venules In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Unique Site For Targeted Delivery, Baharak Bahmani, Mayuko Uehara, Farideh Ordikhani, Xiaofei Li, Liwei Jiang, Naima Banouni, Takaharu Ichimura, Vivek Kasinath, Siawosh K. Eskandari, Nasim Annabi, Jonathan S. Bromberg, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Reza Abdi 2018 Harvard Medical School

Ectopic High Endothelial Venules In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Unique Site For Targeted Delivery, Baharak Bahmani, Mayuko Uehara, Farideh Ordikhani, Xiaofei Li, Liwei Jiang, Naima Banouni, Takaharu Ichimura, Vivek Kasinath, Siawosh K. Eskandari, Nasim Annabi, Jonathan S. Bromberg, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Reza Abdi

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Nanomedicine offers an excellent opportunity to tackle treatment-refractory malignancies by enhancing the delivery of therapeutics to the tumor site. High endothelial venules (HEVs) are found primarily in lymph nodes or formed de novo in peripheral tissues during inflammatory responses. They express peripheral node addressin (PNAd), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody MECA79.

METHODS: Here, we demonstrated that HEVs form de novo in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We engineered MECA79 coated nanoparticles (MECA79-NPs) that recognize these ectopic HEVs in PDAC.

FINDINGS: The trafficking of MECA79-NPs following intravenous delivery to human PDAC implanted in a humanized mouse model was ...


S.E.E. Program Guide, Antonio Perez 2018 California State University, Monterey Bay

S.E.E. Program Guide, Antonio Perez

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Salinas Valley Memorial Hospital Foundation: Children Miracle Network Hospitals (CMNH) Screen, Educate, and Equip (S.E.E.) Program provides free of cost cardiac screenings by EKGs, hands-only CPR training, and an AED to participating high schools for student athletes within Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Benito County. Its purpose is to prevent and/or reduce sudden cardiac arrest among student athletes. To insure easier access to the programs information and history to potential participating high schools a program guide has been created. The guide contains information on sudden cardiac arrest, history of the program and CMNH, and the contracts and ...


Magnitude And Impact Of Multiple Chronic Conditions With Advancing Age In Older Adults Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jerry H. Gurwitz, David D. McManus, Joel M. Gore, Sonal Singh, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Robert J. Goldberg 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Magnitude And Impact Of Multiple Chronic Conditions With Advancing Age In Older Adults Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jerry H. Gurwitz, David D. Mcmanus, Joel M. Gore, Sonal Singh, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Robert J. Goldberg

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: To examine age-specific differences in the frequency and impact of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions among patients aged 65years and older hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

METHODS: Study population consisted of 3863 adults hospitalized with AMI at 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 2001 and 2011. The presence of 11 chronic conditions (five cardiac and six non-cardiac) was based on the review of hospital medical records.

RESULTS: Participants' median age was 79years, 49% were men, and had an average of three chronic conditions (average of cardiac conditions: 2.6 and average of non-cardiac conditions ...


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