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Maternal Anxiety Associated With Newborn Hearing Screening, Stephen J. Tueller, Karl R. White 2016 RTI International

Maternal Anxiety Associated With Newborn Hearing Screening, Stephen J. Tueller, Karl R. White

Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention

The purpose of this study was to determine if newborn hearing screening increases maternal anxiety. Mothers whose infants were screened for hearing were asked how worried they were prior to hospital discharge and again six weeks later. They were also asked if they were more concerned about their baby’s hearing than they were about other aspects of the infant’s health and behavior.

Results showed that mothers worried as much or more about many other aspects of their infants’ health and behavior as about hearing. Mothers whose infants had a false positive screening result were initially more worried about ...


Neurocognitive Dysfunction In Brain Tumor Patients Following Radiation Therapy: A Review Of Biological Hypotheses, Current Treatment Outcomes, And Novel Therapeutic Strategies, Raj Singh 2016 Marshall University

Neurocognitive Dysfunction In Brain Tumor Patients Following Radiation Therapy: A Review Of Biological Hypotheses, Current Treatment Outcomes, And Novel Therapeutic Strategies, Raj Singh

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Given the difficulty of surgical resection of brain neoplasms located adjacent to vital structures of the brain as well as the challenges posed by the blood-brain-barrier for the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are often turned to for patients with brain metastases as well as primary brain neoplasms. Though radiation therapy may be successful in local control of these tumors, many patients experience treatment-related neurocognitive issues later in life. In this review, we examine cognitive dysfunction in brain tumor patients following radiation therapy, with an emphasis on the pediatric population. Articles were ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


Asking Questions, Seeking Improvements, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Asking Questions, Seeking Improvements, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The author connects the rapid growth of scientific journals to the inquisitiveness of committed health professionals and their persistent efforts to improve patient care.


The Value Of Contrast Echocardiography, Shannon C. Treiber, Bijoy K. Khandheria 2016 Aurora Health Care

The Value Of Contrast Echocardiography, Shannon C. Treiber, Bijoy K. Khandheria

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose

There is much evidence-based research proving the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography, but there are still questions and concerns about its specific uses. This study tested the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography in defining the left ventricular endocardial border.

Methods

From 30 patients, a total of 60 echocardiograms –– 30 with and 30 without use of contrast –– were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded cardiologists with advanced training in echocardiography. No single cardiologist reviewed contrast and noncontrast images of the same patient. Each set of 30 echocardiograms was then studied for wall-motion scoring. Visualization of left ventricular wall segments and a global visualization ...


Racial Disparities In Outcomes Following Kidney Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience, Vani Nilakantan, Maharaj Singh, Ruth M. Perez, Yang Shi, Ahmed Dalmar, Brittany T. Last, Ajay Sahajpal 2016 Aurora Health Care

Racial Disparities In Outcomes Following Kidney Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience, Vani Nilakantan, Maharaj Singh, Ruth M. Perez, Yang Shi, Ahmed Dalmar, Brittany T. Last, Ajay Sahajpal

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose

Kidney transplantation remains the best treatment option for end-stage renal disease. However, despite overall improvements in patient and graft survival rates after kidney transplantation, differences in outcomes still exist among different racial and ethnic groups, with African-Americans having lower graft survival. Gaps continue to exist in the understanding of how demographic factors contribute to the varying outcomes among racial/ethnic groups.

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated kidney transplant outcomes in four racial/ethnic groups over a 12-year period at a large tertiary care center. Primary and secondary study outcomes were patient and graft survival across groups. To determine factors that ...


Development And Validation Of A Preprocedural Risk Score To Predict Access Site Complications After Peripheral Vascular Interventions Based On The Vascular Quality Initiative Database, Daniel Ortiz, Maharaj Singh, Arshad Jahangir, Suhail Allaqaband, Anjan Gupta, Tanvir Bajwa, Mark W. Mewissen 2016 Aurora Health Care

Development And Validation Of A Preprocedural Risk Score To Predict Access Site Complications After Peripheral Vascular Interventions Based On The Vascular Quality Initiative Database, Daniel Ortiz, Maharaj Singh, Arshad Jahangir, Suhail Allaqaband, Anjan Gupta, Tanvir Bajwa, Mark W. Mewissen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose

Access site complications following peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) are associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. Prediction of access site complication risk may optimize PVI care; however, there is no tool designed for this. We aimed to create a clinical scoring tool to stratify patients according to their risk of developing access site complications after PVI.

Methods

The Society for Vascular Surgery’s Vascular Quality Initiative database yielded 27,997 patients who had undergone PVI at 131 North American centers. Clinically and statistically significant preprocedural risk factors associated with in-hospital, post-PVI access site complications were included in a multivariate ...


Going Mainstream Or Just A Passing Fad? The Future Of The Ancestral Health Movement, Hamilton M. Stapell 2016 SUNY New Paltz

Going Mainstream Or Just A Passing Fad? The Future Of The Ancestral Health Movement, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

The current ancestral health (“paleo”) movement is often thought to be on the verge of going mainstream. Many within the movement believe this would lead to positive health and financial outcomes for both individuals and society as a whole. However, the transition from a small, highly-devoted group of adherents to a mass following will be far more difficult than commonly assumed. This paper argues there are three main obstacles to it becoming a mass phenomenon in the United States. First, Neolithic foods are tightly woven into the fabric of our culture (for example, bread within the Christian tradition). Second, refined ...


Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

We have frequently implemented crossover studies to evaluate new therapeutic interventions for genital herpes simplex virus infection. The outcome measured to assess the efficacy of interventions on herpes disease severity is the viral shedding rate, defined as the frequency of detection of HSV on the genital skin and mucosa. We performed a simulation study to ascertain whether our standard model, which we have used previously, was appropriately considering all the necessary features of the shedding data to provide correct inference. We simulated shedding data under our standard, validated assumptions and assessed the ability of 5 different models to reproduce the ...


Sucrose Stabilization Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) During Nebulization And Experimental Infection, Drew Grosz, Albert van Geelen, Jack Gallup, Shannon Hostetter, Rachel Derscheid, Mark Ackermann 2016 Iowa State University

Sucrose Stabilization Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) During Nebulization And Experimental Infection, Drew Grosz, Albert Van Geelen, Jack Gallup, Shannon Hostetter, Rachel Derscheid, Mark Ackermann

Jack M Gallup

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory pathogen that can cause severe pneumonia. In vivo studies of RSV can be difficult due to variation in viral infection and disease severity in some animal models. Factors that may contribute to the variation are decreases in viral titer due to preparation and storage and method of virus administration. Nebulization is one method of RSV administration that provides even distribution of virus to all lung lobes; however, the exact quantity of the virus killed by nebulization is not defined. To test the hypothesis that sucrose enhances RSV stability and infectivity, a ...


Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Causes Acute Respiratory Disease In Perinatal Lamb Lung, Rachel Derscheid, Albert van Geelen, Jack Gallup, Thomas Kienzle, Daniel Shelly, Tomas Cihlar, Robert King, Mark Ackermann 2016 Iowa State University

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Causes Acute Respiratory Disease In Perinatal Lamb Lung, Rachel Derscheid, Albert Van Geelen, Jack Gallup, Thomas Kienzle, Daniel Shelly, Tomas Cihlar, Robert King, Mark Ackermann

Jack M Gallup

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used ...


Space-Time Modelling Of Emerging Infectious Diseases: Assessing Leptospirosis Risk In Sri Lanka, Cameron C F Plouffe 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Space-Time Modelling Of Emerging Infectious Diseases: Assessing Leptospirosis Risk In Sri Lanka, Cameron C F Plouffe

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In this research, models were developed to analyze leptospirosis incidence in Sri Lanka and its relation to rainfall. Before any leptospirosis risk models were developed, rainfall data were evaluated from an agro-ecological monitoring network for producing maps of total monthly rainfall in Sri Lanka. Four spatial interpolation techniques were compared: inverse distance weighting, thin-plate splines, ordinary kriging, and Bayesian kriging. Error metrics were used to validate interpolations against independent data. Satellite data were used to assess the spatial pattern of rainfall. Results indicated that Bayesian kriging and splines performed best in low and high rainfall, respectively. Rainfall maps generated from ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr. 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Toxic build-ups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). The mechanisms of ammonia-induced brain swelling and tolerance remain elusive, but several studies have suggested a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of astrocytes in the brain. As a result, osmotic gradients across cell membranes may be altered leading to water uptake by astrocytes and swelling. While a role for ROS has been proposed in mammals, no studies have addressed this question in teleosts, in ...


You Are What You (Can) Eat: Cultivating Resistance Through Food, Justice, And Gardens On The South Side Of Chicago, Ida B. Kassa 2016 Pomona College

You Are What You (Can) Eat: Cultivating Resistance Through Food, Justice, And Gardens On The South Side Of Chicago, Ida B. Kassa

Pomona Senior Theses

Though food is widely recognized as a basic necessity for humanity, disparate access to it highlights whose bodies, environments, health, nutrition, and utter existence has mattered most in American society—and whose has mattered the least. Through interviews with residents of the South Side of Chicago about the alternative food pathway they’ve forged for themselves, we learn that food becomes much more than just sustenance. Interviewees describe our present day food system as undeniably rooted in a history of enslavement and exploitation of Black and Brown bodies; they regard food justice work by communities of color as an important ...


Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan 2016 Marshall University

Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan

Internal Medicine

Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels.We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis ...


Comparing Global Alcohol And Tobacco Control Efforts: Network Formation And Evolution In International Health Governance, Uwe Gneiting, Hans Peter Schmitz 2015 Free University of Berlin

Comparing Global Alcohol And Tobacco Control Efforts: Network Formation And Evolution In International Health Governance, Uwe Gneiting, Hans Peter Schmitz

Hans Peter Schmitz

Health Policy and Planning


Principles Of Multidisciplinary Management, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles Of Multidisciplinary Management, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: a Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist describes the principles of multi-disciplinary management, meaning multi-specialty physician management of malignancies. Tumor Boards are the model for multi-disciplinary management. They may be site specific or include the entire spectrum of malignancy. At Tumor Boards, staging workup and treatment recommendations are made collectively, and then the treatments are delivered by the respective modality specialists and their individual teams. Improved clinical decision making leading to superior survival for patients with some diseases and better quality of life has been documented with multi-disciplinary management. Just like curative patients, palliative patients require multi-disciplinary ...


Epidemiology Of Hiv Among American Indians And Alaska Natives – United States, 2008-2011, Frances J. Walker, Jane M. Kelly, Mona Doshani, Neeraja Saduvala, Joseph Prejean 2015 Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

Epidemiology Of Hiv Among American Indians And Alaska Natives – United States, 2008-2011, Frances J. Walker, Jane M. Kelly, Mona Doshani, Neeraja Saduvala, Joseph Prejean

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) diagnosed with HIV infection have poorer survivorship and a higher percentage of Stage 3 (AIDS] diagnoses within one year of HIV diagnosis, compared to most race/ethnicity groups. National HIV surveillance data for 2008-2011 were used to determine diagnosis rates of HIV infection, persons living with HIV, and persons with a late diagnosis (Stage 3 within three months of HIV diagnosis) by selected characteristics for AI/AN and a combined other race/ethnicity group. The highest percentages of 862 AI/AN diagnosed with HIV infection were among males (75.7%), AI/AN aged 25-34 ...


Community Based Participatory Research: The Application And Lessons Learned From A Study With Lgb College Students, Caitlin M. Stover 2015 University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth

Community Based Participatory Research: The Application And Lessons Learned From A Study With Lgb College Students, Caitlin M. Stover

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are members of a vulnerable group where health disparities have been identified. To gain a better understanding of the LGB college student healthcare experience and its contribution to the healthcare disparities found in LGB population, a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to fill the gap. This paper will outline the CBPR process with an emphasis on how the principle investigator applied the tenets of CBPR when working with a local LGB college community. Several lessons learned from the research process are also shared in this paper.


Understanding How Components Of Black Racial Identity And Racial Realities May Impact Healthcare Utilization: A Randomized Study, Alexander M. Chaitoff, Thomas Wickizer, Ismail White 2015 Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine

Understanding How Components Of Black Racial Identity And Racial Realities May Impact Healthcare Utilization: A Randomized Study, Alexander M. Chaitoff, Thomas Wickizer, Ismail White

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Purpose: Studies have suggested that even when minority groups have potential access to healthcare, they may have inadequate utilization (realized access). This study explores the application of a theory from the social psychology and political science literatures concerning how racial centrality and racial realities, specifically amongst Blacks, may influence patients’ healthcare utilization preferences.

Methods: We created a survey with two (pseudo) randomized, controlled experimental treatments designed to assess whether racialized hospital and physician characteristics elicited a preference from Black or White respondents, as well as questions aimed at understanding participants’ different beliefs and levels of knowledge about past and current ...


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