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Chagas, Enfermedad Olvidada: Una Perspectiva Histórica De La Prevención Y Control Del Chagas En La Provincia De Salta, Argentina (1909 – 2017) \ Chagas, A Forgotten Disease: A Historical Perspective On The Prevention And Control Of Chagas In Salta Province, Argentina (1909 – 2017), Tara Shea 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Chagas, Enfermedad Olvidada: Una Perspectiva Histórica De La Prevención Y Control Del Chagas En La Provincia De Salta, Argentina (1909 – 2017) \ Chagas, A Forgotten Disease: A Historical Perspective On The Prevention And Control Of Chagas In Salta Province, Argentina (1909 – 2017), Tara Shea

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

El Chagas es una enfermedad vectorial más conocida en zonas rurales de América Latina y en Argentina es endémica en la región noroeste del país (MSAL, 2017). Designada una enfermedad tropical desatendida (Neglected Tropical Disease, NTD) por la OMS, la crónica del Chagas desde su “hallazgo casual” en 1909 siempre se trató de abandono (INP, 2017; MSF, 2012; OMS, 2017; Reyes López, 2009; Stamboulian, 2015; Zabala, 2009). En toda la Argentina se identifican 1.600.000 casos y 7.300.000 personas expuestas al Chagas, dando el país una de las tasas chagásicas más altas del mundo (Bär, 2015; MSAL ...


Complex Multimodality Central Airway Management Of Aspergillus Pseudomembranous Tracheobronchitis, S Dhillon, M Saoud, Kassem Harris 2017 New York Medical College

Complex Multimodality Central Airway Management Of Aspergillus Pseudomembranous Tracheobronchitis, S Dhillon, M Saoud, Kassem Harris

NYMC Faculty Publications

A 69-year-old woman developed central airway obstruction due to invasive Aspergillus infection resulting in pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis (PTB). Several challenges were encountered in the airway management of this patient including her having relatively smaller airways which were more prone to obstruction by pseudomembranes and made airway interventions difficult. The patient had clinical deterioration in spite of antifungal therapy and bronchoscopic debridement. The multimodality airway techniques included the use of smaller biliary balloons for dilatation, using a hybrid stent to slowly dilate and maintain patency of right main stem and finally the insertion of right secondary carina peripheral Y stent, which resulted ...


Abordajes De Nuevos Tratamientos Para La Enfermedad De Chagas Y Su Potencial Aplicación En Pacientes Desde Las Perspectivas De Los Profesionales En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Approaches To New Treatments For Chagas Disease And Their Potential Application In Patients From The Perspectives Of Professionals In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chelsea Hipwell 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Abordajes De Nuevos Tratamientos Para La Enfermedad De Chagas Y Su Potencial Aplicación En Pacientes Desde Las Perspectivas De Los Profesionales En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Approaches To New Treatments For Chagas Disease And Their Potential Application In Patients From The Perspectives Of Professionals In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chelsea Hipwell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Más de cien años después del descubrimiento de la enfermedad de Chagas, esta enfermedad desatendida sigue afectando más de 6 millones de personas en Latinoamérica, de las cuales 1.5 millones son de Argentina. Al día de hoy, solo existen dos medicamentos para tratar esta enfermedad. El presente proyecto se basa sobre un estudio exploratorio de los desafíos de tratar la enfermedad de Chagas en sus distintas fases y los abordajes actuales para nuevos tratamientos.

Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron los siguientes: en primer lugar, estudiar el contexto socio-económico en que existe esta enfermedad y las implicaciones de este ...


Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated With Anaplasmosis, T Johnson, M Brown, M Rabbat, Jihad Slim 2017 New York Medical College

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated With Anaplasmosis, T Johnson, M Brown, M Rabbat, Jihad Slim

NYMC Faculty Publications

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by unregulated macrophage and T-lymphocyte activation resulting in cytokine overproduction and subsequent histiocytic phagocytosis. Variant infections, particularly viruses have been postulated as the inciting factor for this potentially fatal disease. Herein, we will report a case of HLH associated with anaplasmosis.


Diagnostic Challenges And Treatment Difficulties In A Patient With Excoriated Acne Conglobata, Simona R. Georgescu, Maria I. Sârbu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Dermatology

Diagnostic Challenges And Treatment Difficulties In A Patient With Excoriated Acne Conglobata, Simona R. Georgescu, Maria I. Sârbu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Acne conglobata is a rare and severe form of acne vulgaris, characterized by the presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and sometimes hematic or meliceric crusts. Acne excoriée is a form of self-inflicted skin condition in which the patient picks on imaginary or real acne lesions.

We report the case of a 16 year old Caucasian female patient from the urban area who addressed our dermatology department for erythematous, edematous plaques covered by pustules and crusts, located on the face. The anamnesis revealed that during the last weeks she had had a depressive mood after ending a relationship with her ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Enhanced Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Extrapulmonary Dissemination In Mice By An Arabinomannan-Protein Conjugate Vaccine, R Prados-Rosales, L Carreno, T Cheng, C Blanc, B Weinrick, A Malek, T Lowary, A Baena, M Joe, Y Bai, R Kalscheuer, A Batista-Gonzalez, N Saavedra, L Sampedro, J Tomas, J Anguita, S Hung, A Tripathi, J Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, W Jacobs Jr., J Chan, S Porcelli, J Achkar, A Casadevall 2017 New York Medical College

Enhanced Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Extrapulmonary Dissemination In Mice By An Arabinomannan-Protein Conjugate Vaccine, R Prados-Rosales, L Carreno, T Cheng, C Blanc, B Weinrick, A Malek, T Lowary, A Baena, M Joe, Y Bai, R Kalscheuer, A Batista-Gonzalez, N Saavedra, L Sampedro, J Tomas, J Anguita, S Hung, A Tripathi, J Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, W Jacobs Jr., J Chan, S Porcelli, J Achkar, A Casadevall

NYMC Faculty Publications

Currently there are a dozen or so of new vaccine candidates in clinical trials for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) and each formulation attempts to elicit protection by enhancement of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In contrast, most approved vaccines against other bacterial pathogens are believed to mediate protection by eliciting antibody responses. However, it has been difficult to apply this formula to TB because of the difficulty in reliably eliciting protective antibodies. Here, we developed capsular polysaccharide conjugates by linking mycobacterial capsular arabinomannan (AM) to either Mtb Ag85b or B. anthracis protective antigen (PA). Further, we studied their immunogenicity by ELISA and ...


Plasmid Diversity And Phylogenetic Consistency In The Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia Burgdorferi, Sherwood R. Casjens, Eddie B. Gilcrease, Marija Vujadinovic, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Benjamin J. Luft, Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu 2017 University of Utah

Plasmid Diversity And Phylogenetic Consistency In The Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia Burgdorferi, Sherwood R. Casjens, Eddie B. Gilcrease, Marija Vujadinovic, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Benjamin J. Luft, Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu

Publications and Research

Background: Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi.

Results: We have sequenced the genomes of 14 B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates that carry a total of 236 plasmids. These individual isolates carry between seven and 23 plasmids. Their chromosomes, the cp26 and cp32 circular plasmids, as well as the lp54 linear plasmid, are quite evolutionarily stable; however, the remaining plasmids have undergone numerous non-homologous and often duplicative recombination ...


Two Cases Of Lyme Arthritis In Winter In New England: A Case Series, Jennifer Baima, Lauren Woo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Two Cases Of Lyme Arthritis In Winter In New England: A Case Series, Jennifer Baima, Lauren Woo

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations

Case Diagnosis: Lyme Arthritis

Case Description: Patient 1 is a 26 year old male who presented in March with severe right knee pain and swelling for two weeks. He had a similar episode a month prior, but it resolved. The second episode progressed with pain from knee to foot and numbness on top of the foot. He had no known history of tick bites, travel, or trauma, but endorsed contact with a dog. On physical exam, he had a right knee effusion with limited ROM, diffuse joint line tenderness, positive McMurray’s, and pain with ligamentous testing. Synovial fluid of ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


Discovering A Novel Antifungal Target In Downstream Sterol Biosynthesis Using A Squalene Synthase Functional Motif, Kristin Brooke Linscott 2017 University of Kentucky

Discovering A Novel Antifungal Target In Downstream Sterol Biosynthesis Using A Squalene Synthase Functional Motif, Kristin Brooke Linscott

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The sterol biosynthetic pathway is essential for growth of all eukaryotic cells and the main target of antifungal agents. The emergence of resistance to these antifungals in an already ill patient population indicates a need to develop drugs that have a broad spectrum of activity among pathogenic fungi and have minimal patient toxicity. Squalene synthase is the first committed step in the sterol pathway and has been studied intensively for development of antifungal agents. While the overall architecture of this enzyme is identical throughout eukaryotes, it was shown that plant and animal genes cannot complement a squalene synthase knockout mutation ...


Fluoride Varnish Application In The Pediatric Population, Ellen Gnaedinger 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Fluoride Varnish Application In The Pediatric Population, Ellen Gnaedinger

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Purpose: The United States (U.S.) has a persistent problem of dental caries in primary teeth with a greater prevalence of dental caries found in minority and poor children. The majority of children in the U.S. experience dental caries in their primary teeth by age eight. This problem could be addressed by primary care providers applying fluoride varnish (FV) to children's teeth starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. The causes of dental caries in children’s primary teeth are multifactorial and therefore require multiple interventions. Around the world providers are utilizing FV as an effective and ...


Determining The Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol, And Glycerol On Both Thermal Stability And Catalytic Activity Of Rv0045c, An Enzyme From M. Tuberculosis, Katelyn Baumer 2017 Butler University

Determining The Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol, And Glycerol On Both Thermal Stability And Catalytic Activity Of Rv0045c, An Enzyme From M. Tuberculosis, Katelyn Baumer

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious respiratory disease contracted through the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Serine hydrolases are abundant in M. tuberculosis and serve as a model for studying the inhibition of TB. Rv0045c is an example of such with little known regarding its biological function. Rv0045c was exposed to methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or glycerol and the effects of varying concentration of these alcohols on the catalytic efficiency and thermal stability of the enzyme was determined. The thermal stability of Rv0045c was found to decrease with concentration of methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol. The opposite was true of the thermal stability ...


Epidemiological Investigation Of Candida Species Causing Bloodstream Infection In Pediatric Small Bowel Transplant Recipients, Mallory J. Suhr, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Nabaraj Banjara, Diana F. Florescu, David F. Mercer, Peter C. Iwen, Heather E. Hallen-Adams 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Epidemiological Investigation Of Candida Species Causing Bloodstream Infection In Pediatric Small Bowel Transplant Recipients, Mallory J. Suhr, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Nabaraj Banjara, Diana F. Florescu, David F. Mercer, Peter C. Iwen, Heather E. Hallen-Adams

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Small bowel transplantation (SBT) can be a life-saving medical procedure. However, these recipients experience high risk of bloodstream infections caused by Candida. This research aims to characterize the SBT recipient gut microbiota over time following transplantation and investigate the epidemiology of candidemia in seven pediatric patients. Candida species from the recipients’ ileum and bloodstream were identified by internal transcribed spacer sequence and distinguished to strain by multilocus sequence typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream isolates was determined against nine antifungals. Twenty-two ileostomy samples harbored at least one Candida species. Fungemia were caused by Candida parapsilosis, Candida ...


Mucosal Fluid Glycoprotein Dmbt1 Suppresses Twitching Motility And Virulence Of The Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Jianfang Li, Matteo E. O. Metruccio, David J. Evans, Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig 2017 Touro University California

Mucosal Fluid Glycoprotein Dmbt1 Suppresses Twitching Motility And Virulence Of The Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Jianfang Li, Matteo E. O. Metruccio, David J. Evans, Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

It is generally thought that mucosal fluids protect underlying epithelial surfaces against opportunistic infection via their antimicrobial activity. However, our published data show that human tear fluid can protect against the major opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa independently of bacteriostatic activity. Here, we explored the mechanisms for tear protection, focusing on impacts of tear fluid on bacterial virulence factor expression. Results showed that tear fluid suppressed twitching motility, a type of surface-associated movement conferred by pili. Previously, we showed that twitching is critical for P. aeruginosa traversal of corneal epithelia, exit from epithelial cells after internalization, and corneal virulence. Inhibition of ...


Towards Shared Decision Making: Exploring New Ways Of Communicating Evidence To Patients About Benefits And Harms Of Antibiotics For Acute Respiratory Infections., Peter D. Coxeter 2017 Bond University

Towards Shared Decision Making: Exploring New Ways Of Communicating Evidence To Patients About Benefits And Harms Of Antibiotics For Acute Respiratory Infections., Peter D. Coxeter

Theses

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are one of the most common reasons for consultations in primary care and receiving an antibiotic, despite good evidence that they confer only marginal benefit and that these benefits may be outweighed by harms, as well as the potential contribution to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to naturally adapt to antibiotics used to treat them and reduces their effectiveness, and is now a global threat to public health. Potentially modifiable factors contributing to primary care prescribing of antibiotics for ARIs include diagnostic uncertainty, perceived and expressed patient expectations for an antibiotic, and ...


Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts 2017 The University of Akron

Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts

Honors Research Projects

Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...


Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability Of Contact Lens-Associated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms But Induces Expression Of The Virulence-Associated Type Iii Secretion System, Yvonne T. Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S. Zhu, David J. Evans, Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig 2017 Touro University California

Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability Of Contact Lens-Associated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms But Induces Expression Of The Virulence-Associated Type Iii Secretion System, Yvonne T. Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S. Zhu, David J. Evans, Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

Purpose

The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens(CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression.

Methods

P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h. Biofilms were imaged using confocal microscopy. Bacterial culturability was quantified by viable counts, and T3SS gene expression measured by RT-qPCR ...


Performance Of The G4 Xpert(R) Mtb/Rif Assay For The Detection Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis And Rifampin Resistance: A Retrospective Case-Control Study Of Analytical And Clinical Samples From High- And Low-Tuberculosis Prevalence Settings, Nila J. Dharan, Robert Blakemore, Alexander Sloutsky, Devinder Kaur, Richard C. Alexander, Minoo Ghajar, Kimberlee A. Musser, Vincent E. Escuyer, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Susanne Crowe, Rafael Laniado-Laborin, Eloise Valli, Pamela Nabeta, Pamela Johnson, David Alland 2016 The State University of New Jersey

Performance Of The G4 Xpert(R) Mtb/Rif Assay For The Detection Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis And Rifampin Resistance: A Retrospective Case-Control Study Of Analytical And Clinical Samples From High- And Low-Tuberculosis Prevalence Settings, Nila J. Dharan, Robert Blakemore, Alexander Sloutsky, Devinder Kaur, Richard C. Alexander, Minoo Ghajar, Kimberlee A. Musser, Vincent E. Escuyer, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Susanne Crowe, Rafael Laniado-Laborin, Eloise Valli, Pamela Nabeta, Pamela Johnson, David Alland

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The Xpert(R) MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is a rapid PCR-based assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (MTBc) and mutations associated with rifampin resistance (RIF). An updated version introduced in 2011, the G4 Xpert, included modifications to probe B and updated analytic software.

METHODS: An analytical study was performed to assess Xpert detection of mutations associated with rifampin resistance in rifampin-susceptible and -resistant isolates. A clinical study was performed in which specimens from US and non-US persons suspected of tuberculosis (TB) were tested to determine Xpert performance characteristics. All specimens underwent smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, conventional ...


Geographical Incidence Of Antimicrobial Resistant Gonorrhea, Christofer A. Rodriguez 2016 University of San Francisco

Geographical Incidence Of Antimicrobial Resistant Gonorrhea, Christofer A. Rodriguez

Master's Projects and Capstones

Evolving throughout the last century, Gonorrhea has become a superbug, becoming difficult to treat. As the second most commonly reported notifiable disease, gonorrhea rates have been increasing, despite efforts in prevention and treatment. Populations at risk are mainly MSM and FSW. In 2015, men’s gonorrhea rates in the United States were higher compared to women, at 140.9 and 107.2 per 100,000 population, respectively. Illinois has consecutively had higher rates of infection compared to the US, at 133.5 per 100,000 population compared to the US rate of 123.9 per 100,000 population. The surveillance ...


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