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Bacterial Infections and Mycoses Commons

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Effectiveness Of Empiric Carbapenem Versus Non-Carbapenem Therapy For Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacterales Infections In Non-Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Real-World Investigation In A Hospital With High-Prevalence Of Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacterales, Amy Y. Kang, Mary Elkomos, Danny Pham, Michelle Guerrero, Deborah Kupferwasser, Loren G. Miller 2024 Chapman University

Effectiveness Of Empiric Carbapenem Versus Non-Carbapenem Therapy For Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacterales Infections In Non-Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Real-World Investigation In A Hospital With High-Prevalence Of Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacterales, Amy Y. Kang, Mary Elkomos, Danny Pham, Michelle Guerrero, Deborah Kupferwasser, Loren G. Miller

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective:

To investigate whether empiric carbapenem therapy, compared to empiric non-carbapenem therapy, was associated with improved clinical outcomes among hospitalized, non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales infections.

Methods:

We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult, non-ICU patients admitted with ESBL-producing Enterobacterales infections. Primary outcome was time to clinical stability from the first empiric antibiotic dose. Secondary outcomes were early clinical response and 30-day all-cause hospital readmission. We used multivariate regression methods to examine time to clinical stability.

Results:

Of the 142 patients, 59 (42%) received empiric carbapenems and 83 (58%) received empiric …


Medmicromaps, A Novel Decision-Tree Guide For Infectious Diseases Differential Diagnoses, And Evaluation Of Pre- And Post-Pandemic User Engagement By Preclinical Medical Students, Jason Ceballos, Tavsimran Luthra, Lucia Garces-Torres, Valerie Lentz, Jack Nelson, Claudia Carceles-Roman, Ian Holyoak, Jane Harrington 2024 St. George's University

Medmicromaps, A Novel Decision-Tree Guide For Infectious Diseases Differential Diagnoses, And Evaluation Of Pre- And Post-Pandemic User Engagement By Preclinical Medical Students, Jason Ceballos, Tavsimran Luthra, Lucia Garces-Torres, Valerie Lentz, Jack Nelson, Claudia Carceles-Roman, Ian Holyoak, Jane Harrington

International Journal of Emerging and Disruptive Innovation in Education : VISIONARIUM

Background: Medical education has undergone major changes in the past 5 years to adapt to the digital-centered student population with diverse learning preferences. To address the challenges of shifting delivery modalities, multimedia resources were created to provide interactive e-learning material on infectious diseases for year 2 medical students.

Methods: Medical students at a USA-accredited Caribbean medical school were provided with supplemental e-learning materials including animations, illustrations, diagnostic algorithms aka MedMicroMaps, and Case-Based tutorials. Participants were classified by semester and lecture delivery: In-person: Cohort 1 (n=526); Virtual: Cohort 2 (n=651); and Hybrid: Cohort 3 ( …


Characterizing New Invasive Infections In Children’S Mercy Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation And And Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Patients, Samantha M. Davidson, Jay F. Rilinger, Jenna O. Miller, Caroline Holten, Josh Herigon 2024 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Characterizing New Invasive Infections In Children’S Mercy Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation And And Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Patients, Samantha M. Davidson, Jay F. Rilinger, Jenna O. Miller, Caroline Holten, Josh Herigon

Research Days

This abstract characterizes the patients at Children's Mercy who developed a new serious bacterial infection while on extracorporeal support.


Soluble Antimicrobial Peptide (Amp) Screening To Rationally Design Amp-Hydrogels That Selectively Prevent Biofilm Formation, Matthias Recktenwald, Muskanjot Kaur, Mohammed M. Benmassaoud, Aryanna Copling, Tulika Khanna, Michael Curry, Denise Cortes, Gilbert Fleischer, Valerie J. Carabetta, Sebastián L. Vega 2024 Rowan University

Soluble Antimicrobial Peptide (Amp) Screening To Rationally Design Amp-Hydrogels That Selectively Prevent Biofilm Formation, Matthias Recktenwald, Muskanjot Kaur, Mohammed M. Benmassaoud, Aryanna Copling, Tulika Khanna, Michael Curry, Denise Cortes, Gilbert Fleischer, Valerie J. Carabetta, Sebastián L. Vega

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that lives on surfaces and skin and can cause serious infections once inside the body. While antibiotics effectively kill bacteria, there are a growing number of infections with antibiotic-resistant strains. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune system and can eliminate pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and are a promising alternative to antibiotics. Although studies have reported that AMP-functionalized hydrogels can prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, these materials generally consist of one AMP at an arbitrary concentration, and AMP dosing and the combined effects of multiple AMPs are not well …


‘Not So Atypical’: An Atypical Presentation Of West Nile Virus And Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Matthew Orap, Sana Tahir, Ugonna Ononuju, Naresh Kumar 2024 Rowan University

‘Not So Atypical’: An Atypical Presentation Of West Nile Virus And Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Matthew Orap, Sana Tahir, Ugonna Ononuju, Naresh Kumar

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is defined by acute areflexic paralysis, usually starting in the distal lower extremities, and ascending to the upper extremities. It is associated with albuminocytologic dissociation, which involves elevated protein levels and normal cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid. One of the types of GBS, called Miller-Fischer Syndrome (MFS), is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. This case report focuses on a 49-year-old male with an atypical presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Guillain-Barre syndrome can be classically caused by Campylobacter jejuni. However, there can be other infectious causes as well, namely Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Varicella-Zoster virus, …


Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Novel Drugs And Combinations Against Extensively- And Pan-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates, Keertana Jonnalagadda, Rachel Carr, Valerie Carabetta 2024 Rowan University

Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Novel Drugs And Combinations Against Extensively- And Pan-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates, Keertana Jonnalagadda, Rachel Carr, Valerie Carabetta

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative, nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen is commonly infectious in immunocompromised patients. More specifically patients develop healthcare-associated infections (HAI) spanning beyond sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Due to its rapid ability to acquire antibiotic resistance, it has raised the necessity to discern a novel therapeutic treatment that can be effectively used against the multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii. Cooper University Hospital (CUH) faced an increased case load of patients that were infected with MDR A. baumannii. The patient isolates obtained from CUH were highly resistant to the 22 standard-of-care antibiotics. With the recent introduction …


Clostridium Perfringens Sepsis From A Hepatic Abscess With Hemolysis And Renal Failure, Requiring Hemodialysis, Joel Collins II, Katelyn Courtney, James A. Espinosa, Alan Lucerna 2024 Jefferson Health NJ

Clostridium Perfringens Sepsis From A Hepatic Abscess With Hemolysis And Renal Failure, Requiring Hemodialysis, Joel Collins Ii, Katelyn Courtney, James A. Espinosa, Alan Lucerna

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

The prognosis of sepsis caused by Clostridium perfringens is extremely poor, with a mortality rate of 70%-100%. Management includes antibiotic regimens specific to toxin production as well as source control via surgical or interventional mechanisms. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain and was diagnosed with Clostridium perfringens bacteremia with associated acalculous cholecystitis, hepatic abscess, and acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. It is felt that early hemodialysis was an associated factor in the patient's survival.


A Meta-Analysis For Laboratory Diagnostics For Coccidioidomycosis, Mary C. Cowen 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Meta-Analysis For Laboratory Diagnostics For Coccidioidomycosis, Mary C. Cowen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Coccidioidomycosis, commonly referred to as Valley Fever, is a fungal infection found in arid regions of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Infection occurs through inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides species, Coccidioides immitis and/or Coccidioides posadasii, and proceeds in both pulmonary and disseminated fashions. Approximately 60% of patients with coccidioidomycosis remain asymptomatic, while 40% will experience symptoms. Within the literature, there are no papers that summarize sensitivity and specificity values between different tests; therefore, this paper presents sensitivity and specificity results across different tests and companies (Meridian, IMMY, and MiraVista).


The Case For Using Composition Tomography To Evaluate Perirectal Necrotizing Fasciitis: Is It Really Necessary?, Tyler Bayliss, David Denning 2024 Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

The Case For Using Composition Tomography To Evaluate Perirectal Necrotizing Fasciitis: Is It Really Necessary?, Tyler Bayliss, David Denning

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Clinical reviews of Fournier’s Gangrene state that diagnostic protocol includes interpreting CT, MRI, or Ultrasound imaging along with clinical symptoms and lab findings. We think that the use of imaging techniques as a diagnostic tool is no longer needed as Fournier’s Gangrene is specific enough of a disease that clinicians can diagnose using labs and physical examination alone.

Cases of perirectal necrotizing soft tissue infection recorded at St. Marys Medical Center were reviewed. Results of physical exams and imaging were compared along with measurements of severity upon admittance and length of stay. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we investigated if …


Educating Nurses On Frequent Oral Care For Mechanically Ventilated Patients: An Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal, Grace Alford, Susan Butz, Ruth Chavez, Joy Shoemaker 2024 Otterbein University

Educating Nurses On Frequent Oral Care For Mechanically Ventilated Patients: An Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal, Grace Alford, Susan Butz, Ruth Chavez, Joy Shoemaker

Doctor of Nursing Practice Scholarly Projects

The final scholarly project proposal is to implement oral care education for nurses in an intensive care unit (ICU). The proposal aims to create a guideline for an investigator to implement oral care recommendations for mechanically ventilated patients in order to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The proposal consists of obtaining VAP data and oral care charting data for the unit studied, steps for providing oral care education, and analysis recommendations. Oral care involves swabbing the patient’s mouth every two hours with a swab and mouthwash. Oral care education would include handouts and direct teaching. The proposal aims to increase oral …


Analyzing Wisp Dna Sequences And Building Primers For Dna Separation, Paige Spicer, Payton Crum 2024 Ouachita Baptist University

Analyzing Wisp Dna Sequences And Building Primers For Dna Separation, Paige Spicer, Payton Crum

Scholars Day Conference

A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria. Bacteriophage DNA was isolated from a lysate sample, but two separate, unrelated genome sequences were returned. Plaque assays and plaque streaking were used to in an effort to separate the phages. After plaque isolation was unsuccessful, NCBI BLAST and IDT software were used to build unique primers for each of the two unrelated genomes. After receiving the primers, PCR and gel electrophoresis were run on plaques and lysate from each phage to classify each phage in the correct cluster and sub cluster as identified by the original DNA sequencing.


Progress Towards Phage Stability For Possible Oral Phage Therapy, Erin Russo 2024 Ouachita Baptist University

Progress Towards Phage Stability For Possible Oral Phage Therapy, Erin Russo

Scholars Day Conference

Oral cavities or caries is a localized deterioration of the tooth caused by an accumulation of harmful bacteria. This research intends to integrate bacteriophages onto unwaxed dental floss as a possible future preventative treatment for oral cavities. Bacteriophages are viruses that degrade the composition of bacterial populations by invading and reproducing inside bacterial hosts. The experimental framework involves soaking unwaxed floss in the bacteriophages named Phrick and Stonehill. The effectiveness of infection is measured by applying the phage-infused floss on an agar plate with Gordonia terrae CAG3, then analyzing the diameter of the plaque around the floss. This research will …


Broad-Spectrum Activity Of Membranolytic Cationic Macrocyclic Peptides Against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria And Fungi, Sandeep Lohan, Anastasia G. Konshina, Rakesh K. Tiwari, Roman G. Efremov, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Keykavous Parang 2024 Chapman University

Broad-Spectrum Activity Of Membranolytic Cationic Macrocyclic Peptides Against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria And Fungi, Sandeep Lohan, Anastasia G. Konshina, Rakesh K. Tiwari, Roman G. Efremov, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains causes severe problems in the treatment of microbial infections owing to limited treatment options. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are drawing considerable attention as promising antibiotic alternative candidates to combat MDR bacterial and fungal infections. Herein, we present a series of small amphiphilic membrane-active cyclic peptides composed, in part, of various nongenetically encoded hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. Notably, lead cyclic peptides 3b and 4b showed broad-spectrum activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive (MIC = 1.5–6.2 µg/mL) and Gram-negative (MIC = 12.5–25 µg/mL) bacteria, and fungi (MIC = 3.1–12.5 µg/mL). Furthermore, lead peptides displayed substantial antibiofilm action comparable …


Exploration Of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteriophages Diversity: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis And Discovery Isolation Of Enterococcus Faecalis Phage From A Soil Sample In South Florida, Hailey N. Jauernick 2024 Nova Southeastern University

Exploration Of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteriophages Diversity: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis And Discovery Isolation Of Enterococcus Faecalis Phage From A Soil Sample In South Florida, Hailey N. Jauernick

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium found in the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and vagina of humans, which can transition to pathogenic states, leading to diverse infections. Many E. faecalis infections are becoming progressively challenging to treat, stemming from the lack of effective antibiotic therapies against its virulence factors, including biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Phage therapy emerges as a promising alternative, targeting bacteria with minimal impact on host flora. However, despite phages' ubiquitous presence and potential applications in medicine and biotechnology, their diversity and ecological niches are vastly understudied. Here, we investigated the diversity of sequenced E. faecalis phages …


The Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health On Adherence To Urinary Tract Infection Treatment: A Scoping Review, Barrett S. Patel, MS, BSN, RN, Emily A. Gentry, BSN, RN, Sally Humphrey DNP, APRN, CPNP-PC, Bobby Bellflower DNSc, NNP-BC, FAANP, FNAP 2024 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health On Adherence To Urinary Tract Infection Treatment: A Scoping Review, Barrett S. Patel, Ms, Bsn, Rn, Emily A. Gentry, Bsn, Rn, Sally Humphrey Dnp, Aprn, Cpnp-Pc, Bobby Bellflower Dnsc, Nnp-Bc, Faanp, Fnap

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Purpose/Background

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common diagnosis among children. Patients must fully comply with treatment regimens to reduce the risk of recurring UTIs and prevent long-term complications. This scoping review aims to evaluate the literature and examine the association between screening for social determinants of health (SDH) and adherence to UTI treatment.

Methods

A thorough literature search via PubMed, Cochrane Library, Elsevier Clinical Key, CINAHL, and JAMA was conducted with the following keywords: Pediatric UTI, Adherence to Treatment Plans, Social Determinants of Health, Social Needs Screening, and others. Ten articles were appraised for their evidence and quality. The …


Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He BS, Wern Lynn Ng MD, Lay She Ng MD, Si Yuan Khor MD, Chandi Garg MD 2024 Drexel University College of Medicine

Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Uti With A New Renal Mass: Chicken Or The Egg?, Grant Nugent, Adam Sigal, Courtney Cassella 2024 Tower Health

Uti With A New Renal Mass: Chicken Or The Egg?, Grant Nugent, Adam Sigal, Courtney Cassella

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Tick-Borne Disease In Central Pennsylvania: Considering Anaplasmosis, Kishan V. Patel, Fredrick T. Murphy, Jason G. Bankert, Alan J. Kivitz 2024 Drexel University College of Medicine

Tick-Borne Disease In Central Pennsylvania: Considering Anaplasmosis, Kishan V. Patel, Fredrick T. Murphy, Jason G. Bankert, Alan J. Kivitz

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Debone The Fish Carefully: A Case Of Vibrio Vulnificus Septicemia, Simranpreet Singh, Devi Parvathy Jyothi Ramachandran Nair, Zohaib Yousaf, Tahminah Kausar, Hamzah Moh'd 2024 Tower Health

Debone The Fish Carefully: A Case Of Vibrio Vulnificus Septicemia, Simranpreet Singh, Devi Parvathy Jyothi Ramachandran Nair, Zohaib Yousaf, Tahminah Kausar, Hamzah Moh'd

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Limonene Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect On Lps-Induced Jejunal Injury In Mice By Inhibiting Nf-Κb/Ap-1 Pathway, Sarmed H. Kathem, Yasameen Sh. Nasrawi, Shihab H. Mutlag, Surya M. Nauli 2024 University of Baghdad

Limonene Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect On Lps-Induced Jejunal Injury In Mice By Inhibiting Nf-Κb/Ap-1 Pathway, Sarmed H. Kathem, Yasameen Sh. Nasrawi, Shihab H. Mutlag, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The human gastrointestinal system is a complex ecosystem crucial for well-being. During sepsis-induced gut injury, the integrity of the intestinal barrier can be compromised. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, disrupts the intestinal barrier, contributing to inflammation and various dysfunctions. The current study explores the protective effects of limonene, a natural compound with diverse biological properties, against LPS-induced jejunal injury in mice. Oral administration of limonene at dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg was used in the LPS mouse model. The Murine Sepsis Score (MSS) was utilized to evaluate the severity of sepsis, while serum levels of urea and …


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