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Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust 2018 The New School

Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr. 2018 University of Louisville

Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr.

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease that affects the valves of the heart. Injection drug use is currently a leading risk factor among patients with endocarditis. We conducted a prospective study using data from hospital chart records among patients with endocarditis in London, Ontario, which has a relatively high prevalence of people who inject drugs to assess the severity of the issue and the major risk factors of mortality pertaining to this population. This study had a sample size of 353 and included a review of the incidence of admissions of endocarditis, as well as a survival analysis, using both ...


Identification And Characterization Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Infection, Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Maja Sedic, Ejemel Monir, Jessica R. Pondish, Danielle Wisheart, Zachary Schiller, William D. Thomas Jr., Eileen M. Barry, Lisa Cavacini, mark S. klempner, Yan Wang 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification And Characterization Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Infection, Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Maja Sedic, Ejemel Monir, Jessica R. Pondish, Danielle Wisheart, Zachary Schiller, William D. Thomas Jr., Eileen M. Barry, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Yan Wang

Open Access Articles

Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. ETEC infection of the host involves colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. CFA/I is one of the most common colonization factor antigens (CFAs). The CFA/I adhesin subunit, CfaE, is required for ETEC adhesion to host intestinal cells. Human antibodies against CfaE have potential to block colonization of ETEC and serve as an immunoprophylactic against ETEC-related diarrhea.

Methods. Mice transgenic for ...


Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen 2018 College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University; Institute for Family Health

Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Acute sinusitis has viral etiology in more than 90% of cases, but antibiotics are prescribed for more than 80% of adults in the United States. While applications of computer-assisted guidelines have been found effective in reducing inaccurate prescribing for acute respiratory infections, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the utilization of electronic best practice alerts (BPA) in improving treatment for acute sinusitis.

Methods: This observational cohort study examined prescribing behavior for sinusitis at a single Federally Qualified Health Center 1 year prior and during the first year of implementation of a BPA in the electronic health ...


Resistant Gonorrhoea: East Meets West, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Resistant Gonorrhoea: East Meets West, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

In 2016 and 2018, two treatment failures of ceftriaxone and azithromycin, used in combination, were reported in the UK in men who contracted gonococcal infections in Asia,1, 2 once again suggesting that antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is spreading. These treatment failures indicate the potentially waning efficacy and usefulness of this combination, which is currently recommended as the first-line therapy. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is paramount if resistance patterns of these and other antimicrobials are to be recognised in a timely manner that enables meaningful intervention and prevention of the spread of resistant organisms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (phenotyping) for ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco 2018 Tufts University

Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan Mcclure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection. Here, we defined gonococcal global transcriptional responses in urethral specimens from men with symptomatic urethritis and compared these with transcriptional responses in specimens obtained from women ...


Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Polymorphic Factor H-Binding Activity Of Cspa Protects Lyme Borreliae From The Host Complement In Feeding Ticks To Facilitate Tick-To-Host Transmission, Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Nguyen Thu, Nancy A. Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin 2018 State University of New York at Albany

Polymorphic Factor H-Binding Activity Of Cspa Protects Lyme Borreliae From The Host Complement In Feeding Ticks To Facilitate Tick-To-Host Transmission, Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Nguyen Thu, Nancy A. Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin

Open Access Articles

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), the causative agent of Lyme disease, establishes an initial infection in the host's skin following a tick bite, and then disseminates to distant organs, leading to multisystem manifestations. Tick-to-vertebrate host transmission requires that Bbsl survives during blood feeding. Complement is an important innate host defense in blood and interstitial fluid. Bbsl produces a polymorphic surface protein, CspA, that binds to a complement regulator, Factor H (FH) to block complement activation in vitro. However, the role that CspA plays in the Bbsl enzootic cycle remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that different CspA variants ...


Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Cd4+ And Cd8+ T Cells Differ In Their Capacity To Recognize Infected Macrophages, Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Stephen M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Cd4+ And Cd8+ T Cells Differ In Their Capacity To Recognize Infected Macrophages, Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Stephen M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Articles

Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and sustained CD8+ T cell response during Mtb infection, CD8+ T cells make limited contribution to protection. Here, we ask whether the ability of Mtb-specific T cells to restrict Mtb growth is related to their capacity to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We derived CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the Mtb immunodominant epitope TB10.44-11 and compared them to CD4+ T cell lines that recognized Ag85b240-254 or ESAT63-17. While the CD4+ T cells recognized Mtb-infected ...


A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller 2018 University of Wyoming

A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness with significant impact on the United States healthcare system. An estimated 329,000 cases of Lyme disease occur annually in the United States, making it one of the top ten most common Nationally Notifiable diseases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The treatment of Lyme disease is responsible for approximate direct medical costs between $712 million to $1.3 billion annually. This comprehensive guide is intended to be used by healthcare professionals, particularly pharmacists, to assist in the evidence-based treatment and management of Lyme disease.


Novel Determinants That Influence Azole Susceptibility In Candida Glabrata And Candida Albicans, Sarah Garland Whaley 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Novel Determinants That Influence Azole Susceptibility In Candida Glabrata And Candida Albicans, Sarah Garland Whaley

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Despite the scientific and medical communities’ best efforts, the incidence of fungal infections in susceptible populations continues to rise. The most common cause of these opportunistic fungal infections is Candida. In fact, Candida is the fourth most common pathogen associated with nosocomial blood stream infections. Reported mortality rates for patients with candidemia vary, but have not decreased in the past fifteen years and are reported to be as high as 50%. Candida glabrata, second only to Candida albicans among Candida infections, expresses high rates of resistance to treatment with arguably the best class of currently available antifungals - the azoles.

Other ...


Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best 2018 University of Louisville

Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legionella pneumophila is an environment organism that parasitizes a wide range of protozoa. Growth within the environmental host primes L. pneumophila for infection of human alveolar macrophages when contaminated aerosols are inhaled. Intracellular replication within either host requires the establishment a replicative niche, known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV depends on the type IVb translocation system, the Dot/Icm, to translocation >320 effectors into the host cytosol. Effectors are responsible for preventing lysosome fusion to the LCV, recruitment of ER-derived vesicles to the LCV, and modulation of a plethora of host processes to promote the ...


Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez 2018 Missouri State University

Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez

MSU Graduate Theses

Viral bacterial coinfections are known to cause severe pneumonia, especially in the elderly and in pediatric patients. Antibiotics like β-Lactams kill the bacteria but fail to improve symptoms suggesting a faulty immune system may play an important role in the disease. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important immune signaling cytokine responsible for inflammation. It exists as an inactive precursor that can be activated by caspase-1 containing inflammasomes (multi-protein complex). Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) activate the inflammasome through the NOD-like receptor protein NLRP3 and/or AIM2. Previous reports in mice indicate that IL-1β levels are dramatically elevated ...


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 Peking Union Medical College

Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, > /=256 mg/liter) was ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Survey Of Rickettsia Spp. In Ticks In Nacogdoches County, Texas, Nathaniel Blakley 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

Survey Of Rickettsia Spp. In Ticks In Nacogdoches County, Texas, Nathaniel Blakley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium that is commonly transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Rickettsia parkeri is the causative agent of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis, which is a disease characterized by nonspecific symptomology. Significant effort by numerous research groups focuses on determining the geographic distribution of potential vectors of this pathogen. The purpose of this study was to study A. maculatum populations in Nacogdoches County, Texas, for the presence of Rickettsia parkeri. Over a two-year period, 49 ticks were collected in Nacogdoches county and taxonomically identified. The DNA was extracted using DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit ...


A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. de Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. De Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) extending from heptose I (HepI) of gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contributes to pathogenesis. Previously, gonococcal LOS sialyltransterase (Lst) was shown to sialylate LOS in Triton X-100 extracts of strain 15253, which expresses lactose from both HepI and HepII, the minimal structure required for mAb 2C7 binding. Ongoing work has shown that growth of 15253 in cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac)-containing media enables binding to CD33/Siglec-3, a cell surface receptor that binds sialic acid, suggesting that lactose termini on LOS of intact gonococci can be sialylated. Neu5Ac was detected on LOSs of strains 15253 and a MS11 ...


Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska 2018 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw

Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Salmonellosis is a serious problem of public health that mainly infants, young children and people with immunodeficiencies face. Human direct contact with animals is one of the possible ways of transmission of the disease. An increasing trend of keeping exotic pets, including amphibians and reptiles, has been observed for recent years in the United States and developing European countries. Most of these animals are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. However, in this review we introduced new and the most dangerous outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by contact with amphibians and reptiles that appeared in all continents in last ten years.

It was ...


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