Geographical Incidence Of Antimicrobial Resistant Gonorrhea, 2016 University of San Francisco
Geographical Incidence Of Antimicrobial Resistant Gonorrhea, Christofer A. Rodriguez
Evolving throughout the last century, Gonorrhea has become a superbug, becoming difficult to treat. As the second most commonly reported notifiable disease, gonorrhea rates have been increasing, despite efforts in prevention and treatment. Populations at risk are mainly MSM and FSW. In 2015, men’s gonorrhea rates in the United States were higher compared to women, at 140.9 and 107.2 per 100,000 population, respectively. Illinois has consecutively had higher rates of infection compared to the US, at 133.5 per 100,000 population compared to the US rate of 123.9 per 100,000 population. The surveillance ...
Xpert Mtb/Rif Assay Shows Faster Clearance Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Dna With Higher Levels Of Rifapentine Exposure., 2016 George Washington University
Xpert Mtb/Rif Assay Shows Faster Clearance Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Dna With Higher Levels Of Rifapentine Exposure., A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, Debra Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid
Medicine Faculty Publications
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle threshold (CT) values, which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert CT trajectory and drug exposure during tuberculosis (TB) treatment to assess the potential utility of Xpert CT for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB who were consecutively enrolled at 10 international clinical trial sites participating in study 29X, a CDC-sponsored Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial ...
Cost Of Care For Hospitalized Patients With Pulmonary Mycobacterial Diseases In The United States., 2016 University of Louisville
Cost Of Care For Hospitalized Patients With Pulmonary Mycobacterial Diseases In The United States., Mary Beth Wells Allen
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Background: Pulmonary mycobacterial diseases describe both tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Few data are available measuring the cost burden of mycobacterial diseases on the national level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost burden and measure emerging trends in hospitalization of pulmonary TB and NTM in the US from 2001 through 2012. Methods: This study was a retrospective community based cost analysis of hospitalized patients with a principal diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacterial diseases from 2001 through 2012. Data for pulmonary TB and NTM were retrieved from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), US Department of ...
Pertussis-Associated Pneumonia In Infants And Children From Low- And Middle-Income Countries Participating In The Perch Study., 2016 George Washington University
Pertussis-Associated Pneumonia In Infants And Children From Low- And Middle-Income Countries Participating In The Perch Study., Breanna Barger-Kamate, Maria Deloria Knoll, E Wangeci Kagucia, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E. Park, +31 Additional Authors
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Few data exist describing pertussis epidemiology among infants and children in low- and middle-income countries to guide preventive strategies.
METHODS: Children 1-59 months of age hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 African and Asian countries and similarly aged community controls were enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study. They underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and provided nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs and induced sputum (cases only) for Bordetella pertussis polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors and pertussis-associated clinical findings were identified.
RESULTS: Bordetella pertussis was detected in 53 of 4200 (1.3 ...
Tb Screening Guidelines For Transitional Care Unit, 2016 Murray State University
Tb Screening Guidelines For Transitional Care Unit, Caleb E. Newcomer
The basis of this research was the formation of new TB screening and risk assessment guidelines on a Transitional Care Unit within a medical center. Current evidence-based research studies helped to guide the recommendations for the policy changes based on their results and findings. The most pertinent policy changes are the treatment offered for patients suspected with HIV, the rigorous use of the Risk Assessment Tool, and BAMT testing for TB.
Path To Resistance: Risk Factors Associated With Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, 2016 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center
Path To Resistance: Risk Factors Associated With Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Kushal Patel, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Background: An estimated 51,000 health care-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections occur in the United States annually. More than 13% are secondary to non-carbapenem multidrug-resistant strains, which result in 400 yearly deaths. Traditional risk factors for resistance include ICU stay, mechanical ventilation, previous hospitalization and major comorbidities. As microbes evolve, risk factors also may evolve.
Purpose: To determine if traditional and/or new risk factors for P. aeruginosa resistance are valid and predictive of infection with carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.
Methods: We retrospectively studied inpatients and outpatients ≥ 18 years old who presented to an Aurora Health Care facility with a positive P ...
Novel Mutation Of Interferon-Γ Receptor 1 Gene Presenting As Early Life Mycobacterial Bronchial Disease, 2016 George Washington University
Novel Mutation Of Interferon-Γ Receptor 1 Gene Presenting As Early Life Mycobacterial Bronchial Disease, Maria J. Gutierrez, Neelu Kaira, Alexandra Horwitz, Gustavo Nino
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a spectrum of inherited disorders characterized by localized or disseminated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) deficiency was the first identified genetic disorder recognized as MSMD. Mutations in the genes encoding IFNGR1 can be recessive or dominant and cause complete or partial receptor deficiency. We present the case of a 2½-year-old boy with a history of recurrent wheezing, diagnosed with endobronchial mycobacterial infection. Immunological workup revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the IFNGR1 gene, a novel mutation predicted in silico to cause complete IFNGR1 deficiency. This case demonstrates that (a ...
When It Isn’T Always Lyme: Expanding The Differential Diagnosis For Acute-Onset Polyarthralgia In The West Virginia Eastern Panhandle, Natalie A. Moffett, Rosemarie Lorenzetti
Marshall Journal of Medicine
This case presentation discusses a 36 year-old female animal care worker presenting with an acute-onset polyarthropathy during the summer months in a Lyme endemic region. Though she appeared to be a good candidate for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, her screening serology reported negative results and alternative diagnoses were considered. Her subsequent diagnosis with parvovirus B19 acts to remind the general practitioner to have confidence in the accuracy of a negative Lyme screen and, upon negative result, to expand the differential to include less common infections including parvovirus B19. It also highlights the need to remember parvovirus B19 in a ...
There Is A Trend Favoring Vancomycin Vs. Metronidazole In Treating Severe C. Difficile Infection, 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine
There Is A Trend Favoring Vancomycin Vs. Metronidazole In Treating Severe C. Difficile Infection, Dean D. Fouchia
Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates
A critical appraisal and clinical application of Johnson S, Louie TJ, Gerding DN, et al. Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(3):345-354. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu313
Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, 2016 University of Maine
Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...
N-Methylation Of A Bactericidal Compound As A Resistance Mechanism In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
N-Methylation Of A Bactericidal Compound As A Resistance Mechanism In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Kenan C. Murphy, Carl F. Nathan
Open Access Articles
The rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) makes it imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the single leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen and estimated to be the leading cause of death from AMR. A pyrido-benzimidazole, 14, was reported to have potent bactericidal activity against Mtb. Here, we isolated multiple Mtb clones resistant to 14. Each had mutations in the putative DNA-binding and dimerization domains of rv2887, a gene encoding a transcriptional repressor of the MarR family. The mutations in Rv2887 led to markedly increased expression of rv0560c. We characterized Rv0560c as an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent ...
Genomic Insights Into The Ixodes Scapularis Tick Vector Of Lyme Disease, 2016 Purdue University
Genomic Insights Into The Ixodes Scapularis Tick Vector Of Lyme Disease, Monika Gulia-Nuss,, Daniel R. Caffrey, Neal S. Silverman, Adam R. Wespiser, Catherine A. Hill
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing approximately 57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host 'questing ...
Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, 2016 James Madison University
Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards
Physician Assistant Capstones
Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...
Linezolid Induced Delirium In The Absence Of Serotonin Syndrome: A Psychiatric Consultation/Liaison Case Report, Hani Nazha, Md, Nathan T. Harrington, Md
Marshall Journal of Medicine
Delirium is one of the most common mental illnesses that can affect elderly patients and patients with advanced medical problems. Because these patients are frequently on multiple medications and/or are more sensitive to medications secondary to their age, interactions with current medications, or existing medical problems; medication toxicity is frequently the etiology behind their delirium. This is a case report of a patient admitted for cellulitis that developed delirium from Linezolid however did not develop any other signs or symptoms of Serotonin Syndrome; a known side effect of Linezolid. This distinctive case highlights the importance of a careful analysis ...
Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, 2016 Otterbein University
Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, Christine D. Ridge
Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship
Today’s medical world encompasses an environment in which gram-negative bacteria that once were defeated with common antibiotics, have now become resistant. Gram-negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter are pathogens that are an emerging threat causing sepsis due to multidrug-resistance (Pop-Vicas & Opal, 2014, p.189). The multidrug-resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria coupled with a patient population commonly seen in hospital settings, that consist of immunocompromised adults due to advancing age, comorbidities (e.g. AIDS, history of transplants, diabetes, and chemotherapy), and immunotherapies, create an environment for advanced infection or sepsis to take place.
Complications of multidrug-resistant ...
Memory Cd8+ T Cell Function During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: A Dissertation, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Memory Cd8+ T Cell Function During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: A Dissertation, Stephen M. Carpenter
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells conferred by vaccination to be short-lived after Mtb challenge. To compare memory and naïve CD8+ T cell function during their response to Mtb, we track their expansions using TB10.4-specific retrogenic CD8+ T cells. We find that the primary (naïve) response outnumbers the ...
Type I Interferon Induction By Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Dual Requirement Of Cyclic Gmp-Amp Synthase And Toll-Like Receptor 4, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Type I Interferon Induction By Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Dual Requirement Of Cyclic Gmp-Amp Synthase And Toll-Like Receptor 4, Warrison A. Andrade, Sarika Agarwal, Shunyan Mo, Scott A. Shaffer, Joseph P. Dillard, Tobias Schmidt, Veit Hornung, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Douglas T. Golenbock
Open Access Articles
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Exposure of cells to GC lipooligosaccharides induces a strong immune response, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production via TLR4/MD-2. In addition to living freely in the extracellular space, GC can invade the cytoplasm to evade detection and elimination. Double-stranded DNA introduced into the cytosol binds and activates the enzyme cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces 2'3'-cGAMP and triggers STING/TBK-1/IRF3 activation, resulting in type I IFN expression. Here, we reveal a cytosolic response to GC DNA that also contributes to type I ...
Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, 2016 Chapman University
Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...
The Effect Of Oral Antibiotics On The Development Of Community Acquired Clostridium Difficile Colitis In Medicare Beneficiaries, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Effect Of Oral Antibiotics On The Development Of Community Acquired Clostridium Difficile Colitis In Medicare Beneficiaries, Charles M. Psoinos, Courtney E. Collins, M. Didem Ayturk, Julie Flahive, Frederick A. Anderson Jr., Heena Santry
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly prevalent among community dwelling Americans. Older Americans are particularly vulnerable to community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CACD), in part to increasing use of antibiotics. We studied the association between outpatient antibiotics and CACD among Medicare beneficiaries.
Case-control study utilizing a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (2009-2011). Patients with CACD severe enough to warrant hospitalization were identified by a primary diagnosis code for CDI and no exposure to a healthcare environment within 90-days of admission. 1,514 CACD cases were matched to ten controls each on birth year and sex. Potential controls with exposure to healthcare environment ...
Immune Features That Afford Protection From Clinical Disease Versus Sterilizing Immunity To Bordetella Pertussis Infection In A Nonhuman Primate Model Of Whooping Cough, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Immune Features That Afford Protection From Clinical Disease Versus Sterilizing Immunity To Bordetella Pertussis Infection In A Nonhuman Primate Model Of Whooping Cough, Keith A. Reimann, Aaron J. Belli, Sarah Fulco, Jason M. Warfel, Rijian Wang, Lisa Cavacini, James F. Papin, Steven F. Merkel, Tod J. Merkel, Mark S. Klempner
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
The respiratory bacterial infection caused by Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) is the only vaccine-preventable disease whose incidence has been increasing over the last 3 decades. To better understand the resurgence of this infection, a baboon animal model of pertussis infection has been developed. Naïve baboons that recover from experimental pertussis infection are resistant both to clinical disease and to airway colonization when re-challenged. In contrast, animals vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine and experimentally challenged do not develop disease, but airways remain colonized for 4-6 weeks. We explored the possibility that the IgG antibody response to pertussis infection is qualitatively different ...