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Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller 2018 University of Wyoming

A Pharmacist's Guide To The Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Karlee Miller

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness with significant impact on the United States healthcare system. An estimated 329,000 cases of Lyme disease occur annually in the United States, making it one of the top ten most common Nationally Notifiable diseases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The treatment of Lyme disease is responsible for approximate direct medical costs between $712 million to $1.3 billion annually. This comprehensive guide is intended to be used by healthcare professionals, particularly pharmacists, to assist in the evidence-based treatment and management of Lyme disease.


Novel Determinants That Influence Azole Susceptibility In Candida Glabrata And Candida Albicans, Sarah Garland Whaley 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Novel Determinants That Influence Azole Susceptibility In Candida Glabrata And Candida Albicans, Sarah Garland Whaley

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Despite the scientific and medical communities’ best efforts, the incidence of fungal infections in susceptible populations continues to rise. The most common cause of these opportunistic fungal infections is Candida. In fact, Candida is the fourth most common pathogen associated with nosocomial blood stream infections. Reported mortality rates for patients with candidemia vary, but have not decreased in the past fifteen years and are reported to be as high as 50%. Candida glabrata, second only to Candida albicans among Candida infections, expresses high rates of resistance to treatment with arguably the best class of currently available antifungals - the azoles.

Other ...


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 Peking Union Medical College

Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, > /=256 mg/liter) was ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska 2018 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw

Amphibians And Reptiles As A Source Of Salmonella – A Review Of Salmonella Outbreaks In A Period Of Last Ten Years, Mateusz Drozdz, Gabriela Bugla-Plooskonska

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Salmonellosis is a serious problem of public health that mainly infants, young children and people with immunodeficiencies face. Human direct contact with animals is one of the possible ways of transmission of the disease. An increasing trend of keeping exotic pets, including amphibians and reptiles, has been observed for recent years in the United States and developing European countries. Most of these animals are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. However, in this review we introduced new and the most dangerous outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by contact with amphibians and reptiles that appeared in all continents in last ten years.

It was ...


How Climate Effects The Tick Vector Of Lyme Disease: A Critical And Systematic Review Of The Literature, Anita Desikan, Matias Attene Ramos 2018 George Washington University

How Climate Effects The Tick Vector Of Lyme Disease: A Critical And Systematic Review Of The Literature, Anita Desikan, Matias Attene Ramos

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background

Lyme disease (LD) is a common vector-borne disease in North America. Understanding the causes behind inter-annual fluctuations of LD incidence can help warn healthcare providers of upcoming outbreaks.

Objective

Identifying what specific climate variables affects the vector, Ixodes scapularis ticks, and ultimately LD incidence.

Methods

A systematic review was carried out to understand how climate variables affect the tick population variables that are related to LD.

Results

Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was generally rated “low” or “probably low” and quality of evidence was rated “moderate”. Strength of evidence was assessed for tick abundance, a ...


Legionnaire's Disease Presenting With Severe Rhabdomyolysis And Acute Renal Failure: A Case Report, Benjamin Plotz, Victoria K. Shanmugam 2018 George Washington University

Legionnaire's Disease Presenting With Severe Rhabdomyolysis And Acute Renal Failure: A Case Report, Benjamin Plotz, Victoria K. Shanmugam

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Legionnaire's disease is caused by Legionella species, and is a recognized but rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. Legionella species live in water, and exposure to inoculated water systems leads to transmission of the disease, and commonly causes pneumonia in infected individuals. While the mechanism of muscle destruction legionella infection causes is not fully understood, the prevailing theory is that rhabdomyolysis is linked to an endotoxin released by the bacteria into the blood stream. Massive muscle necrosis manifests as limb weakness, muscle pain, swelling, and gross pigmenturia due to the release of electrolytes, myoglobin, and other sarcoplasmic proteins into the bloodstream ...


Training Course In Focused Assessment With Sonography For Hiv/Tb In Hiv Prevalent Medical Centers In Malawi, Timothy Canan, Risa Hoffman, Alan Schooley, Zachary Boas, Kristin Schwab, Daniel Kahn, Roger Shih, Khumbo Phiri, Julie Parent, Ben Allan Banda, Ronald Chagoma, Chifundo Chipungu, Kara-Lee Pool 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

Training Course In Focused Assessment With Sonography For Hiv/Tb In Hiv Prevalent Medical Centers In Malawi, Timothy Canan, Risa Hoffman, Alan Schooley, Zachary Boas, Kristin Schwab, Daniel Kahn, Roger Shih, Khumbo Phiri, Julie Parent, Ben Allan Banda, Ronald Chagoma, Chifundo Chipungu, Kara-Lee Pool

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: This article describes the process of training medical providers of different backgrounds about the “focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB” (FASH) exam to expand the availability of ultrasound for TB diagnosis in resource poor settings in the central region of Malawi.

Methods and Materials: A survey was completed by the 19 eligible participants before and after a 4-day training course regarding the utility of the FASH exam. A six-question quiz was used to assess knowledge of the use of ultrasound in the FASH exam before and after the course.

Results: Participants’ knowledge of the FASH technique significantly improved ...


Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen 2018 Shenzhen University

Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in clinic, especially for sputum negative pulmonary TB. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has higher sensitivity than sputum for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, bronchoscopy is invasive and costly, and not suitable for all patients. In order to make TB patients get more benefit from BALF for diagnosis, we explore which indicator might be used to optimize the choice of bronchoscopy.

METHODS: A total of 1539 sputum-smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects who underwent bronchoscopy were recruited for evaluation. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Mtb detection in sputum and BALF ...


Serum Anti-Flagellin And Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Immunoglobulins As Predictors Of Linear Growth Faltering In Pakistani Infants At Risk For Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, Sana Syed, Najeeha T. Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z. Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R. Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri B. Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P. Duggan, S Asad. Ali 2018 University of Virginia

Serum Anti-Flagellin And Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Immunoglobulins As Predictors Of Linear Growth Faltering In Pakistani Infants At Risk For Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, Sana Syed, Najeeha T. Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z. Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R. Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri B. Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P. Duggan, S Asad. Ali

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers.

OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth.

DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine longitudinal associations between quartiles of anti-flic and anti-LPS antibodies and changes in LAZ, WAZ and WLZ scores. Spearman's correlations were ...


Gas Plasma Pre-Treatment Increases Antibiotic Sensitivity And Persister Eradication In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong 2018 Old Dominion University

Gas Plasma Pre-Treatment Increases Antibiotic Sensitivity And Persister Eradication In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. The short-lived ROS and RNS generated by plasma ...


Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Articles

A past history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognised, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. Importantly, specific host and pathogen factors causing lung impairment remain unclear. Host immune responses probably play a dominant role in lung damage, as excessive inflammation and elevated expression of lung matrix-degrading proteases are common during TB. Variability in host genes that modulate these immune responses may determine the severity of lung impairment, but this hypothesis remains largely untested. In this review, we provide an overview of ...


The Conundrum Of Indeterminate Quantiferon-Tb Gold Results Before Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Initiation, Shahrad Hakimian, Yevgeniy Popov, Abbas Rupawala, Karen I. Salomon-Escoto, Steven Hatch, Randall Pellish 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Conundrum Of Indeterminate Quantiferon-Tb Gold Results Before Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Initiation, Shahrad Hakimian, Yevgeniy Popov, Abbas Rupawala, Karen I. Salomon-Escoto, Steven Hatch, Randall Pellish

Open Access Articles

Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a key cytokine in both the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the host defense against tuberculosis (TB). Consequently, anti-TNFalpha medications result in an increased risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation. Here, we sought to evaluate the factors affecting the results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay as a screening tool for LTBI.

Methods: We conducted an observational, retrospective study in patients with IBD and RA who underwent LTBI screening using QFT-GIT at UMass Memorial Medical Center between 2008 and 2016 prior to initiation of anti-TNF medications ...


Similarity Of Chest X-Ray And Thermal Imaging Of Focal Pneumonia: A Randomised Proof Of Concept Study At A Large Urban Teaching Hospital, Linda T. Wang, Robert H. Cleveland, William Binder, Robert G. Zwerdling, Caterina Stamoulis, Thomas Ptak, Mindy Sherman, Kenan Haver, Pallavi Sagar, Patricia Hibberd 2018 Massachusetts General Hospital

Similarity Of Chest X-Ray And Thermal Imaging Of Focal Pneumonia: A Randomised Proof Of Concept Study At A Large Urban Teaching Hospital, Linda T. Wang, Robert H. Cleveland, William Binder, Robert G. Zwerdling, Caterina Stamoulis, Thomas Ptak, Mindy Sherman, Kenan Haver, Pallavi Sagar, Patricia Hibberd

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of thermal imaging (TI) in the setting of focal consolidative pneumonia with chest X-ray (CXR) as the gold standard.

SETTING: A large, 973-bed teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.

PARTICIPANTS: 47 patients enrolled, 15 in a training set, 32 in a test set. Age range 10 months to 82 years (median=50 years).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects received CXR with subsequent TI within 4 hours of each other. CXR and TI were assessed in blinded random order. Presence of focal opacity (pneumonia) on CXR, the outcome parameter, was recorded. For TI, presence of area(s ...


Lebanon: Cholera Outbreak, Muhammad Naqvi 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Lebanon: Cholera Outbreak, Muhammad Naqvi

Global Public Health

Lebanon is a country that has always been tangled with the ever looming threat of a growing health crisis. With a failing government and massive influx of refugees, mostly the victim of their war torn economy, it seemed inevitable that sanitation procedures would run short. Now the Lebanese people and government face the challenge of the spread of Cholera, a water-borne disease, within the countries vicinity as a result of mass pollution from the formation of informal settlements as well as the country being a hotbed for political instability. These have resulted in limited success in controlling the outbreak engulfing ...


Micronesia: Tuberculosis, Mulualem Hailom 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Micronesia: Tuberculosis, Mulualem Hailom

Global Public Health

This brief contains the general information of the Federal state of Micronesia, major problems of the country, and in particular Tuberculosis disease and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Under the general information of Micronesia, the location, the political structure, the demographic information, and the internal and also external challenges are listed. This brief also has detailed information about the two simultaneous outbreaks of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis of Micronesia. Tuberculosis is one of death contributing factor in Micronesia. Tuberculosis can be cured if the therapy is properly taken but if the therapy isn’t taken properly, the TB disease can grow into Multidrug –Resistance tuberculosis ...


Niger: Meningitis, Rodrigo Medeiros 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Niger: Meningitis, Rodrigo Medeiros

Global Public Health

Niger is a semi-presidential republic located in western Africa. The majority of the population lives in the most extreme southern part of the country since 80% of Niger’s territory is occupied by the Sahara desert. The desert has been spreading in recent years forcing people to leave their subsistence farms. The majority of the population lives with less than 1 dollar per day. The first meningitis outbreak lasted from 2002 until 2012, but the 2015 outbreak was the one that caused more damage to the countries located in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa. The meningitis belt is the ...


“When One Shingle Sends Up Smoke”: The Summit Beacon Advises Akron About The Epidemic Cholera, 1849, Elizabeth Hall 2018 The University of Akron

“When One Shingle Sends Up Smoke”: The Summit Beacon Advises Akron About The Epidemic Cholera, 1849, Elizabeth Hall

Nineteenth-Century Ohio Literature

Elizabeth Hall explains the American cholera epidemic of 1849, with special attention to how cholera afflicted Akron, a booming canal town in Northeast Ohio. The article presents the full text of 1849 Akron newspaper articles on cholera and explains how their mix of good and bad information was published right before scientific breakthroughs in cholera research.


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