Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas
Library Publications and Presentations
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...
Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 Iowa State University
Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacterreadily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes ...
Burkholderia Pseudomallei Enters The Brain And Spinal Cord Via The Trigeminal Nerve, 2017 Bond University
Burkholderia Pseudomallei Enters The Brain And Spinal Cord Via The Trigeminal Nerve, Heidi Walkden, James St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny Ekberg
The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as chewing. It constitutes a direct route from the nasal cavity into the brain (Fig. 1). Despite this, only a handful of microorganisms are thought to infect the brain via this route.
The tropical disease melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic to the northern Australia and south-east Asia. The main route of transmission is via inhalation of droplets and soil. The Australian variant can result in brain infection, but the mechanism of infection is unknown.
Here, we investigated whether B ...
Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz
Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...
Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez
The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections
The goals of this study were to investigate the relationship of systemic and local cytokine responses with time to clinical stability (TCS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to develop a model to integrate multiple cytokine data into “cytokine response profiles” based on local vs. systemic and pro- vs. anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns in order to better understand their relationships with measures of CAP severity and outcomes. Forty hospitalized patients enrolled through the Community Acquired Pneumonia Inflammatory Study Group (CAPISG) were analyzed. Based on the ranked distribution of the levels of eight different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 ...
In Vivo Protection With Human Monoclonal Antibody S315 Following Challenge With Diphtheria Toxin, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
In Vivo Protection With Human Monoclonal Antibody S315 Following Challenge With Diphtheria Toxin, Heidi L. Smith, Maria Lobikin, Wenda Gao, Greg Saia, Yan Wang, Mark Leney, Deborah C. Molrine
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Background: Morbidity and mortality from Corynebacterium diphtheriae is reduced by prompt administration of equine-derived diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT), which is in short supply worldwide. MassBiologics has developed a human monoclonal antibody (S315) to diphtheria toxin to provide a safer alternative to DAT and address critical supply issues. S315 prevents toxin binding to its putative host receptor and S315 pre-mixed with toxin increased survival in a guinea pig model of intoxication. To further evaluate the ability of S315 to provide in vivo protection, we established a post-exposure treatment model.
Methods: Female Hartley guinea pigs (300-350g) were challenged subcutaneously with diphtheria toxin (0 ...
Identification And Characterization Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Identification And Characterization Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Monir Ejemel, Danielle Wisheart, Mark S. Klempner, Yan Wang
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are the major cause of diarrheal morbidity among children living in developing countries. ETEC mediates small intestine adherence through bacterial adhesion followed by production of enterotoxins that induce diarrhea. Currently there is no vaccine available for ETEC. One of the most predominant adhesin of pathogenic ETEC strains is colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). The CFA/I adhesion tip, CfaE, is required for ETEC binding to human intestinal cells and colonization. Human antibodies against CfaE have potential to block colonization of ETEC and serve as a potent immunoprophylactic against ETEC-related diarrhea.
Methods. A panel ...
Pre-Exposure Immunoprophylaxis By Genetically Encoded Dmab Anti-Ospa Human Monoclonal Antibody To Prevent Lyme Disease, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Pre-Exposure Immunoprophylaxis By Genetically Encoded Dmab Anti-Ospa Human Monoclonal Antibody To Prevent Lyme Disease, Yan Wang, Seleeke Flingai, Aurelie Kern, Sangya Agarwal, Zachary Schiller, Kaori Graybeal, Rianne Esquivel, Ami Patel, Linden Hu, David Weiner, Mark S. Klempner
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Tick transmission of Borrelia spirochetes to humans results in significant morbidity from Lyme disease. Animal studies have demonstrated that transmission of Borrelia from tick vector to the mammalian host can be blocked by antibodies against outer surface protein A (OspA). We have recently developed borreliacidal human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (HuMabs) directed against OspA. HuMab 319-44 was borreliacidal against B. burgdorferi (IC50Borreliatransmission after a single dose of 2 mg/kg administered on the day of tick challenge. Since passively administered IgG1 antibodies do not have a sufficient half-life to provide protection for the 6-7 month peak risk period, we investigated a ...
The Effect Of Bundled Interventions On Prevention Of Hospital Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infection, 2017 Valparaiso University
The Effect Of Bundled Interventions On Prevention Of Hospital Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infection, Kaitlin Kendys
Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates have steadily increased in hospitalized patients due to the change in epidemiology. Approximately 13 of every 1,000 inpatients are either infected or colonized with C. difficile (CDC, 2013). CDI rates continue to rise due to the hyper-virulent strain of C. difficile and length of therapy needed to treat CDI. The average cost for a single inpatient CDI is more than $35,000, and the estimated annual cost burden for the healthcare system exceeds $3 billion (Walsh, 2012). The purpose of this evidence-based project (EBP) was to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates over a 3-month period-oftime ...
Superbugs Versus Outsourced Cleaners: Employment Arrangements And The Spread Of Health Care-Associated Infections, Adam Seth Litwin, Ariel C. Avgar, Edmund R. Becker
Articles and Chapters
On any given day, about one in 25 hospital patients in the United States has a health care–associated infection (HAI) that the patient contracts as a direct result of his or her treatment. Fortunately, the spread of most HAIs can be halted through proper disinfection of surfaces and equipment. Consequently, cleaners—“environmental services” (EVS) in hospital parlance—must take on the important task of defending hospital patients (as well as staff and the broader community) from the spread of HAIs. Despite the importance of this task, hospitals frequently outsource this function, increasing the likelihood that these workers are under-rewarded ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte
University Scholar Projects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...
Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, 2017 Northern Michigan University
Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel
All NMU Master's Theses
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of human bacterial infections; however, humans can also be asymptomatically colonized with S. aureus. Asymptomatic carriers can potentially spread S. aureus infection to others. These infections can range from mild to severe. The pathology of a S. aureus infection is often dependent on which toxins are expressed and the virulence factors with which they are associated. One goal of this study was to isolate S. aureus from healthy, consenting adult volunteers who submitted nasal swabs for culture and qRT-PCR analysis to determine which strains are present in the community. This knowledge could potentially ...
The Msaabcr Operon Mutant Staphylococcus Aureus Is Deficient In Persister Cells, 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi
The Msaabcr Operon Mutant Staphylococcus Aureus Is Deficient In Persister Cells, Aaliyah D. Cole
Persister cells comprise a phenotypic variant that shows extreme antibiotic tolerance resulting in chronic infections. While this phenomenon has posed a great threat in public health, mechanism underlying their formation in Staphylococcus aureus remains largely unknown. Increasing evidence of the presence of persister cells in recalcitrant infections underscores the great urgency to unravel the mechanism by which these cells are developed. The Elasri Research group characterized msaABCR operon that plays roles in regulation of virulence, biofilm development and antibiotic resistance. It was hypothesized that the operon also plays a role in persister cell formation. In this study, the persister cell ...
F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, 2017 College of William and Mary
F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...
Ticked Off: An Analysis Of The Inadequate Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lyme Disease, 2017 Liberty University
Ticked Off: An Analysis Of The Inadequate Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Virginia P. Yoder
Senior Honors Theses
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and has a high prevalence among people in the northeast. Lyme disease can be a debilitating illness if not diagnosed early, and can lead to long-term health problems for many patients. This thesis serves as a review of scientific literature on Lyme disease, with the prevalence, symptomology, the bacterial mechanism of infection, the diagnostic process, transmission, and treatment therapies. Further research and development could lead to better primary care for those suffering with Lyme disease.
Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; Center for Urban Population Health
Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.
Diagnostic Challenges And Treatment Difficulties In A Patient With Excoriated Acne Conglobata, 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Dermatology
Diagnostic Challenges And Treatment Difficulties In A Patient With Excoriated Acne Conglobata, Simona R. Georgescu, Maria I. Sârbu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Acne conglobata is a rare and severe form of acne vulgaris, characterized by the presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and sometimes hematic or meliceric crusts. Acne excoriée is a form of self-inflicted skin condition in which the patient picks on imaginary or real acne lesions.
We report the case of a 16 year old Caucasian female patient from the urban area who addressed our dermatology department for erythematous, edematous plaques covered by pustules and crusts, located on the face. The anamnesis revealed that during the last weeks she had had a depressive mood after ending a relationship with her ...
Involvement Of A Putative Intercellular Signal-Recognizing G Protein-Coupled Receptor In The Engulfment Of Salmonella By The Protozoan Tetrahymena, P. N. Agbedanu, M. T. Brewer, T. A. Day, M. J. Kimber, K. L. Anderson, S. K. Rasmussen, M. A. Rasmussen, S. A. Carlson
Matthew T. Brewer
In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoanTetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena) engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates byTetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and ...
Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, 2017 University of Western Ontario
Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer
Western Research Forum
Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...
Two Cases Of Lyme Arthritis In Winter In New England: A Case Series, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Two Cases Of Lyme Arthritis In Winter In New England: A Case Series, Jennifer Baima, Lauren Woo
Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations
Case Diagnosis: Lyme Arthritis
Case Description: Patient 1 is a 26 year old male who presented in March with severe right knee pain and swelling for two weeks. He had a similar episode a month prior, but it resolved. The second episode progressed with pain from knee to foot and numbness on top of the foot. He had no known history of tick bites, travel, or trauma, but endorsed contact with a dog. On physical exam, he had a right knee effusion with limited ROM, diffuse joint line tenderness, positive McMurray’s, and pain with ligamentous testing. Synovial fluid of ...