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Clinical Utility Of Neutrophil To Lymphocyte Ratio In Sickle Cell Disease With Vaso-Occlusive Crisis, Satish Maharaj, Simone Chang 2023 Hematology & Oncology, Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University

Clinical Utility Of Neutrophil To Lymphocyte Ratio In Sickle Cell Disease With Vaso-Occlusive Crisis, Satish Maharaj, Simone Chang

Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy

Background and objectives: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio represents a universally accessible value that correlates with inflammation and prognosis in several disease states; however, the role of this biomarker in sickle cell disease remains poorly explored. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine its potential clinical utility in patients with sickle cell disease.

Patients: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed 143 patients with sickle cell disease who presented to the emergency department with fever and painful vaso-occlusive crisis.

Results: The examined cohort had a prevalence of 11% confirmed bacterial infection, with approximately two-thirds reporting the use of hydroxyurea. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio …


Sepsis Inservice And Video At An Urban Hospital In California, Angela T. Ho 2022 University of San Francisco

Sepsis Inservice And Video At An Urban Hospital In California, Angela T. Ho

Master's Projects and Capstones

The emergency department at an urban hospital in California was performing below institutional goals related to sepsis protocols over the past few months. This intervention was targeted at nurses and was composed of a PowerPoint in-service on compliance to SEP-1 protocols and follow-along video on using the correct sepsis order set and documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). Goals included increased compliance to the SEP-1 protocol and documentation, (2) reduced time between the onset of symptoms, recognition, and intervention, (3) decline in sepsis rates and mortality rates, and (4) lower cost of care. Data was collected from the EHR …


Alternative Precautionary Measures Yielding Lower C. Diff Infection Rates In Healthcare Facilities, Matthew Kramer 2022 Kennesaw State University

Alternative Precautionary Measures Yielding Lower C. Diff Infection Rates In Healthcare Facilities, Matthew Kramer

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: An international healthcare concern is the persistent spread of Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive spore forming bacterium that is responsible for the most common hospital-acquired infection, amongst patients.

Objective: A systematic review was performed to summarize evidence that the interventions utilized in healthcare facilities which indicate a patient’s precautionary status are insufficient, outdated, and commonly lead to infection in neighboring patient rooms. Databases such as PubMed, NCBI, Google Scholar, and APHA’s Medical Care were searched, covering the period from 2017-2022. Studies were included if their focus concentrated on C. diff and the precautionary measures taken by employees at healthcare …


Partial Outpatient Oral Antibiotic Treatment Of Infective Endocarditis Is Non-Inferior To Inpatient Intravenous Antibiotic Therapy, Nicholas J. Murphy 2022 Wayne State University

Partial Outpatient Oral Antibiotic Treatment Of Infective Endocarditis Is Non-Inferior To Inpatient Intravenous Antibiotic Therapy, Nicholas J. Murphy

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report using:

Iversen K, Ihlemann N, Gill SU, et al. Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. N Engl J Med. 2019; 380:415-424. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1808312

for a patient with infective endocarditis and intravenous drug use with desire to leave the hospital.


A Cloning-Free Recyclable System For Crispr-Cas9 Mediated Mutant And Reversion Construction In Candida Albicans Clinical Isolates, Amanda K. Vogel 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

A Cloning-Free Recyclable System For Crispr-Cas9 Mediated Mutant And Reversion Construction In Candida Albicans Clinical Isolates, Amanda K. Vogel

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen and one of the most prevalent causes of fungal diseases worldwide. The reference isolate SC5314 is one of the most widely used strains for both experimental and genetic studies, but it is becoming increasingly evident that genetic diversity in clinical isolates plays an important role in antifungal resistance, virulence, and pathogenicity. These recent discoveries highlight the need for genetic tools that are capable of investigating genes in multiple strain backgrounds. Here we build on the SAT1-flipper method and combine it with CRISPR-Cas9 technology to achieve cloning-free homozygous deletion in a single transformation …


Computer-Aided Drug Discovery For Helicobacter Pylori, Nicole Ann Vita 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Computer-Aided Drug Discovery For Helicobacter Pylori, Nicole Ann Vita

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Helicobacter pylori is a high-priority drug-resistant pathogen and is currently the only bacteria considered to be a class I carcinogen and there is a critical need to identify novel chemical matter to treat H. pylori infections. Hp is responsible for greater than 60% of gastric cancer related deaths and 89% of all gastric cancer morbidities. In a previous study, our lab identified novel Hp thienopyrmidine inhibitors that target respiratory complex I, an essential enzyme in respiration. Respiratory complex I is a large asymmetric multidomain and membrane bound enzyme and due to these innate features, it is not practical for biophysical …


Highly Adherent Antimicrobial Coatings For Orthopedic Implants, Mikhail Bredikhin 2022 Clemson University

Highly Adherent Antimicrobial Coatings For Orthopedic Implants, Mikhail Bredikhin

All Dissertations

Fracture-related infections (FRIs) are the most devasting sort of complications associated with fracture fixation devices, as they lead to patients’ morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, amputations, and even death.External fixators additionally suffer from pin site infections (PSIs), which initiate at the skin entry points of the skin-metallic pin interface present in the external fixation of the damaged bones, often causing deep tissue infection and osteomyelitis. Small percutaneous pins, commonly known as Kirschner wires (K-wires), are used to treat complex fractures and deformities.They are drilled inside the diseased bone for the healing period and are left protruding outside the skin for fixation adjustments …


Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections: We Need Urgent Action And Investment That Focus On The Weakest Link, Christiane Dolecek, Sadia Shakoor, Buddha Basnyat, Tochi Okwor, Benn Sartorius 2022 University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections: We Need Urgent Action And Investment That Focus On The Weakest Link, Christiane Dolecek, Sadia Shakoor, Buddha Basnyat, Tochi Okwor, Benn Sartorius

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Despite high mortality and morbidity, drug-resistant bacterial infections remain the forgotten pandemic. We argue for strengthening of diagnostics, WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) and infection prevention and control to reduce drug-resistant infections, as an integral part of sustainable high-quality health services, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Screening For Social Determinants Of Health To Improve Care In Pediatric Patients With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Scoping Review, Emily Gray MSN, FNP-C, Michelle Rickard DNP, CPNP-AC 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Screening For Social Determinants Of Health To Improve Care In Pediatric Patients With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Scoping Review, Emily Gray Msn, Fnp-C, Michelle Rickard Dnp, Cpnp-Ac

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Purpose: To describe what is known about how SDoH screening impacts adherence to treatment in pediatric patients with recurrent UTIs.


Exploring Stakeholders' Experiences And Perceptions Regarding Barriers To Effective Surveillance Of Communicable Diseases In A Rural District Of Pakistan: A Qualitative Study, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Sameen Siddiqi, Mmna Rehana SidIdiqui, Rumina Hasan 2022 Aga Khan University

Exploring Stakeholders' Experiences And Perceptions Regarding Barriers To Effective Surveillance Of Communicable Diseases In A Rural District Of Pakistan: A Qualitative Study, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Sameen Siddiqi, Mmna Rehana Sididiqui, Rumina Hasan

Community Health Sciences

Objective: To explore the experiences and perceptions of health system stakeholders of a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan regarding the barriers to effective surveillance of communicable diseases.
Design: This qualitative descriptive exploratory design comprised in-depth interviews. Both inductive and deductive thematic analysis was applied to identify key themes from the data.
Settings: The study was conducted in public sector healthcare facilities and the district health office of the rural district of Thatta, in Sindh province, Pakistan.
Participants: Fifteen healthcare managers and healthcare providers working in the eight public sector primary and secondary healthcare facilities were interviewed using an open-ended in-depth …


Follow-Up Blood Cultures In Gram-Negative Bacteremia: How Do They Impact Outcomes?, Azza Elamin, Faisal Khan, Rajasekhar Jagarlamudi 2022 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Trinity Health St. Joseph Mercy Hospital Ann Arbor

Follow-Up Blood Cultures In Gram-Negative Bacteremia: How Do They Impact Outcomes?, Azza Elamin, Faisal Khan, Rajasekhar Jagarlamudi

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Introduction: Several studies have questioned the utility of obtaining follow-up blood cultures in Gram-negative bacteremia, but the impact of this practice on clinical outcomes is not fully understood. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted with Gram-negative bacteremia over a two year period, to compare outcomes in those with and without follow-up blood cultures obtained. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities and presumed source of bacteremia. White blood cell count and presence of fever or hemodynamic compromise on the day of follow-up blood culture were recorded. The primary objective was to compare 30-day mortality between the two groups. Secondary …


Risk Factors For Community-Acquired Bacterial Infection Among Young Infants In South Asia: A Longitudinal Cohort Study With Nested Case–Control Analysis, Nicholas E. Connor, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Luke C. Mullany, Nong Shang, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Anita K. M. Zaidi, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Pinaki Panigrahi, Kalpana Panigrahi 2022 Child Health Research Foundation, Bangladesh

Risk Factors For Community-Acquired Bacterial Infection Among Young Infants In South Asia: A Longitudinal Cohort Study With Nested Case–Control Analysis, Nicholas E. Connor, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Luke C. Mullany, Nong Shang, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Anita K. M. Zaidi, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Pinaki Panigrahi, Kalpana Panigrahi

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Objective: Risk factors predisposing infants to community-acquired bacterial infections during the first 2 months of life are poorly understood in South Asia. Identifying risk factors for infection could lead to improved preventive measures and antibiotic stewardship.
Methods: Five sites in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan enrolled mother-child pairs via population-based pregnancy surveillance by community health workers. Medical, sociodemographic and epidemiological risk factor data were collected. Young infants aged 0-59 days with signs of possible serious bacterial infection (pSBI) and age-matched controls provided blood and respiratory specimens that were analysed by blood culture and real-time PCR. These tests were used to build …


Chronic Cavitary Pulmonary Aspergillosis: An Unusual Cause Of Chronic Cough, Pleuritic Chest Pain, And Hemoptysis In A 24-Year-Old Coal Mine Worker, Emma I. Sherfinski, Emily J. Vore, Mark H. Cooper MD, PhD, Peimei He MD 2022 Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Chronic Cavitary Pulmonary Aspergillosis: An Unusual Cause Of Chronic Cough, Pleuritic Chest Pain, And Hemoptysis In A 24-Year-Old Coal Mine Worker, Emma I. Sherfinski, Emily J. Vore, Mark H. Cooper Md, Phd, Peimei He Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Pulmonary Aspergillus infections are caused by the ubiquitous fungus mold when spores found in compost, dust, and plant material are inhaled. Manifestation of the disease is represented by a delicate balance between host and pathogen interactions, making Aspergillus infection more commonly observed in immunocompromised individuals. Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) is a subtype of pulmonary Aspergillosis associated with history of chronic or prior lung disease. Here we present the case of a non-immunocompromised 24-year-old male with a history of intermittent asthma with chronic pulmonary symptoms and finding of a lung mass on imaging. We describe the diagnostic challenge and surgical …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Emergence Of A Multidrug-Resistant And Virulent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Mediates Serotype Replacement After Pcv13: An International Whole-Genome Sequencing Study, Stephanie W. Lo, Kate Mellor, Robert Cohen, Alba Redin Alonso, Sophie Belman, Narender Kumar, Paulina A. Hawkins, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Sadia Shakoor, Muhammad Imran Nisar 2022 Wellcome Sanger Institute, United Kingdom

Emergence Of A Multidrug-Resistant And Virulent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Mediates Serotype Replacement After Pcv13: An International Whole-Genome Sequencing Study, Stephanie W. Lo, Kate Mellor, Robert Cohen, Alba Redin Alonso, Sophie Belman, Narender Kumar, Paulina A. Hawkins, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Sadia Shakoor, Muhammad Imran Nisar

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Serotype 24F is one of the emerging pneumococcal serotypes after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aimed to identify lineages driving the increase of serotype 24F in France and place these findings into a global context.
Methods: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on a collection of serotype 24F pneumococci from asymptomatic colonisation (n=229) and invasive disease (n=190) isolates among individuals younger than 18 years in France, from 2003 to 2018. To provide a global context, we included an additional collection of 24F isolates in the Global Pneumococcal Sequencing (GPS) project database for analysis. A Global Pneumococcal Sequence Cluster …


Novel Drugs Approved In 2021-2022, Michael Do, Bona Shin, Elaina Lioudis, Emaleigh Munn 2022 Reading Hospital-Tower Health, West Reading, PA

Novel Drugs Approved In 2021-2022, Michael Do, Bona Shin, Elaina Lioudis, Emaleigh Munn

Transformative Medicine (T-Med)

This article provides an abbreviated overview of the newly Federal Drug Administration (FDA)approved novel drugs of 2021-2022 with their respective approved indication(s). The FDA serves as the governing body that regularly evaluates and approves medications that will eventually be introduced to the market for routine use. These medications include both drugs that are the same or related to previously approved products (e.g., Extended indications of priorly approved medications) and novel drugs. By definition, a novel drug is an innovative product which serves to improve quality care in patient populations with unmet or advanced medical needs to overall advance patient care …


Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Developing Methods For Testing Inhibition Of E. Coli Strains By Urinary Lactobacilli, Layla Jeries, Rayan Haque 2022 University of Alabama in Huntsville

Developing Methods For Testing Inhibition Of E. Coli Strains By Urinary Lactobacilli, Layla Jeries, Rayan Haque

Summer Community of Scholars Posters (RCEU and HCR Combined Programs)

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Serum Resistance Function Of Plasmid-Encoded Virulence Factor Trat, Chaehee Lim 2022 University of Alabama in Huntsville

Characterizing The Serum Resistance Function Of Plasmid-Encoded Virulence Factor Trat, Chaehee Lim

Summer Community of Scholars Posters (RCEU and HCR Combined Programs)

No abstract provided.


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