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Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Transmissible Dermatological Diseases Affecting Syrian Refugees In Lebanon, Nisrine Kawa, Edith Hanna, Abdul Rahman Bizri 2019 American University of Beirut

Transmissible Dermatological Diseases Affecting Syrian Refugees In Lebanon, Nisrine Kawa, Edith Hanna, Abdul Rahman Bizri

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

The Syrian war led many to seek shelter in Lebanon, creating a major refugee crisis. Displaced populations in crowded unequipped settlements are vulnerable to infectious diseases. The burden and incidence of various transmissible skin conditions affecting Syrian refugees in Lebanon and their impact on the Lebanese public health system were evaluated. Literature regarding these conditions among Syrian refugees in host countries, and epidemiological data from the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health Surveillance Unit and primary health-care network were reviewed. Lebanon has witnessed skin disorder outbreaks associated with the Refugee crisis, mainly leishmaniasis, scabies and lice infestations with little data about ...


The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer 2019 University of Western Ontario

The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background:

Due to its complex branching structure, direct drug delivery to the remote areas of the lung is a major challenge. Consequently, most therapies, such as those treating pulmonary infection and inflammation, must utilize large systemic dosing, with the potential for adverse side effects. A novel alternative strategy is to use exogenous surfactant, a material capable of distributing throughout the lung, as a pulmonary drug delivery vehicle.

Objective:

Utilize an in vitro transferring system to assess exogenous surfactant (BLES) as a pulmonary delivery vehicle for different therapeutics.

Methods:

An in vitro technique was developed to simultaneously study surfactant delivery and ...


Pneumococcal Epidemiology Among Us Adults Hospitalized For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Raul E. Isturiz, Julio Ramirez, Wesley H. Self, Carlos G. Grijalva, Francis L. Counselman, Gregory A. Volturo, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Paula Peyrani, Richard G. Wunderink, Robert Sherwin, J. Scott Overcash, Senen Pena Oliva, Thomas File, Timothy L. Wiemken, John M. McLaughlin, Michael W. Pride, Sharon Gray, Ronika Alexander, Kimbal D. Ford, Qin Jiang, Luis Jodar 2019 Pfizer, Inc.

Pneumococcal Epidemiology Among Us Adults Hospitalized For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Raul E. Isturiz, Julio Ramirez, Wesley H. Self, Carlos G. Grijalva, Francis L. Counselman, Gregory A. Volturo, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Paula Peyrani, Richard G. Wunderink, Robert Sherwin, J. Scott Overcash, Senen Pena Oliva, Thomas File, Timothy L. Wiemken, John M. Mclaughlin, Michael W. Pride, Sharon Gray, Ronika Alexander, Kimbal D. Ford, Qin Jiang, Luis Jodar

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Few studies have measured the burden of adult pneumococcal disease after the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the US infant vaccination schedule. Further, most data regarding pneumococcal serotypes are derived from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which represents only a fraction of all adult pneumococcal disease burden. Understanding which pneumococcal serotypes cause pneumonia in adults is critical for informing current immunization policy. The objective of this study was to measure the proportion of radiographically-confirmed (CXR+) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by PCV13 serotypes in hospitalized US adults.

METHODS: This observational, prospective surveillance study recruited hospitalized adults aged > /=18years ...


Plasma Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity As A Potential Biomarker For Early Diagnosis Of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis In Tuberculosis Patients, Wen Shi, Juan Wu, Qi Tan, Chun-Mei Hu, Xia Zhang, Hong-Qiu Pan, Zhen Yang, Meng-Yu He, Min Yu, Bo Zhang, Wei-Ping Xie, Hong Wang 2019 The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University

Plasma Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity As A Potential Biomarker For Early Diagnosis Of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis In Tuberculosis Patients, Wen Shi, Juan Wu, Qi Tan, Chun-Mei Hu, Xia Zhang, Hong-Qiu Pan, Zhen Yang, Meng-Yu He, Min Yu, Bo Zhang, Wei-Ping Xie, Hong Wang

Open Access Articles

Purpose: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a challenge of global TB control, with difficulty in early detection of drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB). We investigate the diagnostic significance of IDO as a potential biomarker to discriminate MDR patients among the TB patients.

Patients and methods: Plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was measured by the ratio of kynurenine (Kyn) to tryptophan (Trp) concentrations, using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging signs from TB patients were collected and analyzed in 18 DS-TB patients, 16 MDR-TB patients, 6 lung cancer (LC) patients, and 11 healthy individuals. Lung imaging signs from ...


Gwas For Quantitative Resistance Phenotypes In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reveals Resistance Genes And Regulatory Regions, Maha R. Farhat, Luca Freschi, Roger Calderon, Thomas Ioerger, Matthew Snyder, Conor J. Meehan, Bouke de Jong, Leen Rigouts, Alexander Sloutsky, Devinder Kaur, Shamil Sunyaev, Dick van Soolingen, Jay Shendure, Jim Sacchettini, Megan Murray 2019 Harvard Medical School

Gwas For Quantitative Resistance Phenotypes In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reveals Resistance Genes And Regulatory Regions, Maha R. Farhat, Luca Freschi, Roger Calderon, Thomas Ioerger, Matthew Snyder, Conor J. Meehan, Bouke De Jong, Leen Rigouts, Alexander Sloutsky, Devinder Kaur, Shamil Sunyaev, Dick Van Soolingen, Jay Shendure, Jim Sacchettini, Megan Murray

Open Access Articles

Drug resistance diagnostics that rely on the detection of resistance-related mutations could expedite patient care and TB eradication. We perform minimum inhibitory concentration testing for 12 anti-TB drugs together with Illumina whole-genome sequencing on 1452 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates. We evaluate genome-wide associations between mutations in MTB genes or non-coding regions and resistance, followed by validation in an independent data set of 792 patient isolates. We confirm associations at 13 non-canonical loci, with two involving non-coding regions. Promoter mutations are measured to have smaller average effects on resistance than gene body mutations. We estimate the heritability of the resistance ...


Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark

Theses and Dissertations

As Americans are spending greater portions of their dollar on food consumed outside the home, the foodservice industry plays more of an integral part of daily existence compared to previous generations. Given the numerous annual foodborne illness outbreaks that threaten human lives while undermining confidence in the food supply, food safety is a pertinent issue for industry stakeholders, government regulators, and consumers. Food worker handwashing reduces the risk of foodborne illness transmission, yet compliance with this simple behavior is a complex problem. This dissertation addresses, predominantly, the issue of sub-optimal handwashing practices through applying psychology and technology, including wearable computers ...


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


The Relationship Between Gut Microbiota And Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis In Patients With Liver Cirrhosis - A Literature Review, Roxana-Emanuela Popoiag, Anca Mihaela Pantea Stoian, Adrian P. Suceveanu, Andra I. Suceveanu, Laura Mazilu, Irinel R. Parepa, Laura M. Serban, Mihai Paunica, Catalina Motofei, Carmen Fierbinteanu Braticevici 2019 Ovidius University, Faculty of Medicine Constanta, Emergency Hospital of Constanta, 1st Internal Medicine Clinic, Constanta, Romania

The Relationship Between Gut Microbiota And Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis In Patients With Liver Cirrhosis - A Literature Review, Roxana-Emanuela Popoiag, Anca Mihaela Pantea Stoian, Adrian P. Suceveanu, Andra I. Suceveanu, Laura Mazilu, Irinel R. Parepa, Laura M. Serban, Mihai Paunica, Catalina Motofei, Carmen Fierbinteanu Braticevici

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Gut microbiota is an essential component in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis and its complications. There is a direct relationship between the gut and the liver called the gutliver axis through which bacteria can reach the liver through the portal venous blood. However, it remains unclear how bacteria leave the intestine and reach the fluid collection in the abdomen. A series of mechanisms have been postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and other complications of liver cirrhosis, including bacterial translocation, bacterial overgrowth, altered intestinal permeability and dysfunctional immunity. The hepatic function may also be ...


Mortality Influenced By Sepsis Bundle Compliance And Initial Lactic Acid In Severe Sepsis And Septic Shock, Evelyn George 2019 Belmont University

Mortality Influenced By Sepsis Bundle Compliance And Initial Lactic Acid In Severe Sepsis And Septic Shock, Evelyn George

DNP Scholarly Projects

Sepsis, a life-threatening infection killing 270,000 yearly, is a concern to health care providers, policy makers, and patients due to its high volume and increasing cost. Patients older than 64 years have a higher occurrence of sepsis and greater mortality risk. The Surviving Sepsis Guidelines (SSG) recommends the use of the three-hour bundle that standardizes care to decrease cost, morbidity, and mortality. The three-hour bundle includes two treatments, intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and two tests, blood cultures and lactic acid level. One bundle element, lactic acid level, is associated with higher mortality rates, although only a few studies exist ...


Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


Stop The Potential Killer: Prevention Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa), Brody Wild, Barbara McClaskey 2019 Pittsburg State University

Stop The Potential Killer: Prevention Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa), Brody Wild, Barbara Mcclaskey

Posters

The risk for hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the ICU is great considering the length of stay and the invasive procedures most patients go through. MRSA infections may lead to death and contribute greatly to the cost of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the evidence for the best possible means of preventing MRSA. The methodology was a review of the current research. Some of the measures that were found to be beneficial included daily bathing with chlorhexidine, environmental decon­tamination, MRSA screenings upon admission, isolation precautions for positive patients, eradication therapy, and strict hand ...


Implementing Zero/Neutral Displacement Iv Connectors To Reduce Blood Stream Infections, Kirsten Mitchell, Barbara McClaskey 2019 Pittsburg State University

Implementing Zero/Neutral Displacement Iv Connectors To Reduce Blood Stream Infections, Kirsten Mitchell, Barbara Mcclaskey

Posters

Catheter related blood stream infections are a major problem in the United States and account for over $225 million each year with over 1,300 infections occurring each day. By researching the most effective type of IV connector, health care providers can provide the best and safest care possible to patients requiring IV access. Zero/neutral IV connectors may be the answer to decreasing these infections as they produce no reflux in the connector which is a breeding ground for bacteria and occlusions. This literature review found that zero/neutral connectors performed better than positive and negative IV connectors when ...


Antimicrobial Resistance In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Proceedings Of The Star Sexually Transmitted Infection-Clinical Trial Group Programmatic Meeting, Anthony D. Cristillo, Peter A. Rice 2019 Social & Scientific Systems, Inc.

Antimicrobial Resistance In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Proceedings Of The Star Sexually Transmitted Infection-Clinical Trial Group Programmatic Meeting, Anthony D. Cristillo, Peter A. Rice

Open Access Articles

The goal of the Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinical Trial Group's Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) meeting was to assemble experts from academia, government, nonprofit and industry to discuss the current state of research, gaps and challenges in research and technology and priorities and new directions to address the continued emergence of multidrug-resistant NG infections. Topics discussed at the meeting, which will be the focus of this article, include AMR NG global surveillance initiatives, the use of whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics to understand mutations associated with AMR, mechanisms of AMR, and novel antibiotics, vaccines and other methods ...


Targeting Lipooligosaccharide (Los) For A Gonococcal Vaccine, Sunita Gulati, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Peter A. Rice 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Targeting Lipooligosaccharide (Los) For A Gonococcal Vaccine, Sunita Gulati, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Peter A. Rice

Open Access Articles

The increasing incidence of gonorrhea worldwide and the global spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, constitute a public health emergency. With dwindling antibiotic treatment options, there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are potential vaccine candidates because they are densely represented on the bacterial surface and are readily accessible as targets of adaptive immunity. Less well-understood is whether LOSs evoke protective immune responses. Although gonococcal LOS-derived oligosaccharides (OSs) are major immune targets, often they undergo phase variation, a feature that seemingly makes LOS less desirable as a vaccine candidate. However, the identification ...


Sepsis: Triage Triggers, Outcomes Quicker, Rylee Ainge, Mackenzie Flaws, Natalie Heim, Emily Herndon, Hayley Norris, Amy L. Scott 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital

Sepsis: Triage Triggers, Outcomes Quicker, Rylee Ainge, Mackenzie Flaws, Natalie Heim, Emily Herndon, Hayley Norris, Amy L. Scott

Posters

No abstract provided.


Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi 2019 University of Pretoria

Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

The objective of this study was to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections and resistance patterns of clinical isolates from dogs from Gauteng province in South Africa. Data from records of 1,497 dog clinical samples submitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between 2007 and 2012 were used in the study. Spatial empirical Bayesian smoothed risk maps were used to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and multidrug resistance (MDR). Moran’s I and spatial scan statistics were used to investigate spatial clusters at municipal and town spatial scales. Significant clusters of staphylococcal infections were identified at ...


Candida Albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked To The Cell Wall And Impairs Phagocytosis And Killing By Human Neutrophils, Samyr Kenno, Cornelia Speth, Gunter Rambach, Ulrike Binder, Sneha Chatterjee, Rita Caramalho, Hubertus Haas, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Neil A.R. Gow, Dorothea Orth-Holler, Reinhard Wurzner 2019 Medical University of Innsbruck

Candida Albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked To The Cell Wall And Impairs Phagocytosis And Killing By Human Neutrophils, Samyr Kenno, Cornelia Speth, Gunter Rambach, Ulrike Binder, Sneha Chatterjee, Rita Caramalho, Hubertus Haas, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Neil A.R. Gow, Dorothea Orth-Holler, Reinhard Wurzner

Open Access Articles

Complement is a tightly controlled arm of the innate immune system, facilitating phagocytosis and killing of invading pathogens. Factor H (FH) is the main fluid-phase inhibitor of the alternative pathway. Many pathogens can hijack FH from the host and protect themselves from complement-dependent killing. Candida albicans is a clinically important opportunistic yeast, expressing different FH binding molecules on its cell surface, which allow complement evasion. One such FH binding molecule is the transmembrane protein "High affinity glucose transporter 1" (Hgt1p), involved in glucose metabolism. This study demonstrated that Hgt1p transcription and expression is induced and highest at the low, but ...


Is Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain By Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography In Sepsis Cardiomyopathy Ready For Prime Time Use In The Icu, Venu Madhav Velagapudi, Rahul Pidikiti, Dennis A. Tighe 2019 Yale University

Is Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain By Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography In Sepsis Cardiomyopathy Ready For Prime Time Use In The Icu, Venu Madhav Velagapudi, Rahul Pidikiti, Dennis A. Tighe

Open Access Articles

Myocardial deformation imaging (strain imaging) is a technique to directly quantify the extent of myocardial contractility and overcomes several of the limitations of ejection fraction. The application of the most commonly used strain imaging method; speckle-tracking echocardiography to patients with sepsis cardiomyopathy heralds an exciting development to the field. However; the body of evidence and knowledge on the utility, feasibility and prognostic value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy is still evolving. We conducted a review of literature on utility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy. We discuss the role of left ventricular global ...


Evolution Of The Exclusively Human Pathogen Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Human-Specific Engagement Of Immunoregulatory Siglecs, Corinna S. Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P. Kellman, Jerry J. Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E. Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki 2019 University of California - San Diego

Evolution Of The Exclusively Human Pathogen Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Human-Specific Engagement Of Immunoregulatory Siglecs, Corinna S. Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P. Kellman, Jerry J. Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E. Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea exclusively in humans and uses multiple strategies to infect, including acquisition of host sialic acids that cap and mask lipooligosaccharide termini, while restricting complement activation. We hypothesized that gonococci selectively target human anti-inflammatory sialic acid-recognizing Siglec receptors on innate immune cells to blunt host responses and that pro-inflammatory Siglecs and SIGLEC pseudogene polymorphisms represent host evolutionary adaptations to counteract this interaction. N. gonorrhoeae can indeed engage multiple human but not chimpanzee CD33rSiglecs expressed on innate immune cells and in the genitourinary tract--including Siglec-11 (inhibitory) and Siglec-16 (activating), which we detected for the ...


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