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Immune System Diseases Commons

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911 full-text articles. Page 1 of 34.

Immunosuppressive Treatment And The Risk Of Diabetes In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Siri Lillegraven, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, George W. Reed, Katherine Saunders, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Leslie R. Harrold, Marc C. Hochberg, Dimitrios A. Pappas, Joel M. Kremer, Daniel H. Solomon 2019 Diakonhjemmet Hospital

Immunosuppressive Treatment And The Risk Of Diabetes In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Siri Lillegraven, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, George W. Reed, Katherine Saunders, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Leslie R. Harrold, Marc C. Hochberg, Dimitrios A. Pappas, Joel M. Kremer, Daniel H. Solomon

Leslie R. Harrold

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation and anti-inflammatory treatments might influence the risk of diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with incident diabetes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: The study population consisted of RA patients from a multi-center cohort study, Corrona. To assess risk associated with disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) exposure, we assessed five mutually exclusive DMARD groups. Additionally, we assessed the risk associated with body mass index (BMI, < 25, 25-30, > 30 kg/m2) and glucocorticoid usage. Incident cases of diabetes were confirmed through adjudication, and Cox regression models were fit to estimate the risk of incident diabetes.

RESULTS: We ...


Immunosuppressive Treatment And The Risk Of Diabetes In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Siri Lillegraven, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, George W. Reed, Katherine Saunders, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Leslie R. Harrold, Marc C. Hochberg, Dimitrios A. Pappas, Joel M. Kremer, Daniel H. Solomon 2019 Diakonhjemmet Hospital

Immunosuppressive Treatment And The Risk Of Diabetes In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Siri Lillegraven, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, George W. Reed, Katherine Saunders, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Leslie R. Harrold, Marc C. Hochberg, Dimitrios A. Pappas, Joel M. Kremer, Daniel H. Solomon

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation and anti-inflammatory treatments might influence the risk of diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with incident diabetes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: The study population consisted of RA patients from a multi-center cohort study, Corrona. To assess risk associated with disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) exposure, we assessed five mutually exclusive DMARD groups. Additionally, we assessed the risk associated with body mass index (BMI, < 25, 25-30, > 30 kg/m2) and glucocorticoid usage. Incident cases of diabetes were confirmed through adjudication, and Cox regression models were fit to estimate the risk of incident diabetes.

RESULTS: We ...


Racial Disparities In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes In Black American Youth, Kierra Mitchell 2019 Scripps College

Racial Disparities In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes In Black American Youth, Kierra Mitchell

Scripps Senior Theses

Introduction: Rates of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) are steadily increasing among American youth, yet Black Americans are more likely to suffer from serious T1D-related complications caused by poor glycemic control. The aim of this thesis is to determine the external factors that are causing discrepancies in the development, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of T1D in Black youth.

Methods: Epidemiological studies were compiled from the American Diabetes Association, Center for Disease Control (CDC), International Diabetes Foundation (IDF), Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), and the Claremont Colleges Library network to identify the sociocultural aspects that negatively affect long-term glycemic control in ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4(+) memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA. If rev is provided in trans, all HIV-1 coding sequences are dispensable for activation except those cis-acting sequences required ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson 2018 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases PAD2 and PAD4 are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. PAD4 may be pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through its role in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation that promotes autoantigen externalization, immune dysregulation, and organ damage. The role of this enzyme in mouse models of autoimmunity remains unclear, as pan-PAD chemical inhibitors improve clinical phenotype, whereas PAD4-KO models have given conflicting results. The role of PAD2 in SLE has not been investigated. The differential roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in TLR-7-dependent lupus autoimmunity were examined. Padi4-/- displayed decreased autoantibodies, type I IFN responses, immune ...


Hiv Screening In Non-Pregnant Patients Age 13 – 64 Years Old In Primary Care Through The Implementation Of The Cdc Guidelines For Hiv Screening, Ashten M. Martin 2018 University of the Incarnate Word

Hiv Screening In Non-Pregnant Patients Age 13 – 64 Years Old In Primary Care Through The Implementation Of The Cdc Guidelines For Hiv Screening, Ashten M. Martin

Doctor of Nursing Practice

As many as 216,000 people living with HIV are unaware they have the disease. In order to combat the inadvertent spreading of HIV, the CDC recommends screening everyone 13 – 64 years of age. The purpose of this Quality Improvement project was to implement the 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines as it pertains to HIV screening within a Southeast Texas rural health clinic. The objectives were 1) educating all staff and patients regarding the CDC recommendations for HIV screening, and 2) increase the number of eligible patients who were offered and received HIV screening. A colored checklist served as ...


Real-World Comparative Effectiveness Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy Vs. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors With Methotrexate In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Real-World Comparative Effectiveness Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy Vs. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors With Methotrexate In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Controlled clinical studies have shown that the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy is superior to that of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) monotherapy and comparable to that of TCZ plus methotrexate (MTX) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study compared the real-world effectiveness of TCZ monotherapy vs. TNFis plus MTX in US patients with RA.

METHODS: TCZ-naive patients from the Corrona RA registry with prior exposure to > /= 1 TNFi who initiated TCZ monotherapy or TNFi + MTX were included. Outcomes included mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), achievement of low disease activity (LDA; CDAI < /= 10), achievement of modified American College of Rheumatology (mACR) 20/50 responses, and mean change in modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) at 6 months. Patients initiating TNFi + MTX were grouped by MTX dose ( < /= 10 mg; > 10 to ...


Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating The Functional Effects Of Chronic Alcohol Exposure Of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells, Tiyash Parira 2018 florida International University

Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating The Functional Effects Of Chronic Alcohol Exposure Of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells, Tiyash Parira

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effects of alcohol abuse are multi-dimensional since alcohol is widely known to affect both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Recently, epigenetics has come into focus and has been implicated in many diseases as well as substance abuse disorders. Therefore, research efforts of understanding the epigenetic mechanisms underlying substance abuse effects including alcohol abuse have become more predominant.

In our laboratory, we have studied different epigenetic changes induced by alcohol exposure including regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone quantity, and histone modifications such as acetylation and deacetylation. We have observed differential effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in ...


31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar 2018 Augusta University

31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related death in women globally. The greatest barrier to a treatment is the incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular regulators whose function is cellular adaptation to estrogen. One such enzyme, ATAD3A, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, has been brought under this lab’s scrutiny. The role of ATAD3A in breast cancer progression is largely unknown but it has been shown to be a crucial mediator in promoting cell cycle progression. The two objectives of this project were: to determine whether the ATAd3A is an Estrogen Receptor-α target (ERα) and to ...


Mechanisms Mediating The Pro-Fibrotic Effects Of Estradiol, Haley Fulton 2018 Clemson University

Mechanisms Mediating The Pro-Fibrotic Effects Of Estradiol, Haley Fulton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease which promotes fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Scleroderma patients have upregulated production of fibrotic extracellular matrix proteins and upregulated serum estradiol levels compared to control subjects. Estradiol effects eukaryotic transcription and gene expression when it enters the nucleus via one of its nuclear hormone receptors. Estrogen receptor one/ estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is present on the nuclear membrane and binds the ligand estrogen. These experiments were designed to study the various isoforms of ESR1 and determine if gene expression of ESR1 was greater in fibroblasts and human skin stimulated with estradiol than ...


8 - The Mechanism Of Protein Kinase C In Relation To Atpase Family Aaa-Domain Containing Protein 3a In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Ron Chemmalakuzhy 2018 Augusta University

8 - The Mechanism Of Protein Kinase C In Relation To Atpase Family Aaa-Domain Containing Protein 3a In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Ron Chemmalakuzhy

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Mechanism of Protein Kinase C in relation to ATPase family AAA-domain Containing Protein 3A in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Ron Chemmalakuzhy1, Liwei Lang2, Yong Teng2,3

1. Department of Biology, College of Science and Mathematics. Augusta University, Augusta, GA,

USA

2. Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta

University, Augusta, GA, USA

3. Georgia Cancer Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA

Abstract

One of the most important challenges of cancer treatment is inhibition of the metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC ...


Dermatomyositis And Polymyositis, Apoorva Cheeti, Sreelakshmi Panginikkod 2018 Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences

Dermatomyositis And Polymyositis, Apoorva Cheeti, Sreelakshmi Panginikkod

Open Access Articles

Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into 4 subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM) are 2 of those subtypes in addition to immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy and inclusion body myositis. The presence of autoantibodies and inflammatory infiltration in the muscles suggests that idiopathic inflammatory myositis is an autoimmune condition, but the target autoantigens have not yet been identified. Apart from symmetric proximal muscle weakness, polymyositis and dermatomyositis have several clinical manifestations in common when compared to inclusion body myositis and necrotizing myopathy and can be grouped for discussion. The most commonly used criteria for PM ...


Breathing New Life Into Interstitial Lung Disease In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Peter K. Gregersen, Ellen M. Gravallese 2018 Feinstein Institute for Medical Research

Breathing New Life Into Interstitial Lung Disease In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Peter K. Gregersen, Ellen M. Gravallese

Open Access Articles

Clinical heterogeneity is a hallmark of many autoimmune disorders, and clinical or subclinical pulmonary involvement is a common extraarticular feature of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotype. High-resolution computed tomography reveals evidence of pulmonary abnormalities in more than half of patients with RA, and clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD) will develop in approximately 10% of patients.It is currently difficult to identify these patients and to intervene early in the clinical course of their lung disease.


The Importance Of Early Arthritis In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Georgiana Iftimie, Ana Maria Alexandra Stanescu, Mihaela A. Iancu, Anca Pantea Stoian, Razvan Hainarosie, Bogdan Socea, Gheorghita Isvoranu, Dragos Marcu, Tiberiu P. Neagu, Camelia C. Diaconu 2018 Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

The Importance Of Early Arthritis In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Georgiana Iftimie, Ana Maria Alexandra Stanescu, Mihaela A. Iancu, Anca Pantea Stoian, Razvan Hainarosie, Bogdan Socea, Gheorghita Isvoranu, Dragos Marcu, Tiberiu P. Neagu, Camelia C. Diaconu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder that manifests predominantly in the synovial joint, where it causes a chronic inflammatory process, leading to early osteoarticular destructions. These destructions are progressive and irreversible, generating a significant functional deficiency. During the last years, the diagnostic approach of RA has focused on early arthritis. Early arthritis can develop into established RA or another established arthropathy, like systemic lupus erythematosus or psoriatic arthritis. It can have a spontaneous resolution or may remain undifferentiated for indefinite periods of time.

The management of early arthritis has changed considerably in the past few years, under the ...


Food Allergy In Youth: A Primer For Allied Health Professionals, Philip Welch, Lauren Maziarz, Macy McCartney, Chelsea Raker 2018 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Food Allergy In Youth: A Primer For Allied Health Professionals, Philip Welch, Lauren Maziarz, Macy Mccartney, Chelsea Raker

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: Many youth struggle with the physical, mental, and social burdens of food allergy. The exact cause of food allergies is unknown, but several theories exist such as the “couch potato theory”, “hygiene hypothesis”, “microflora theory”, and “alarmins” theory. This non-systematic literature review summarizes the problem of youth food allergy and provides guidance to allied health professionals.

Method: A literature search of the relevant literature from years 2000 through 2017 was conducted using PubMed with the key words “food allergy”, “youth”, and “management”.

Results: Youth with food allergy may experience anxiety, social isolation, bullying, and depression, in addition to life-threatening ...


Hand Issues On Scleroderma Patients, Ana Font Hernandez 2018 City University of New York (CUNY)

Hand Issues On Scleroderma Patients, Ana Font Hernandez

Publications and Research

Based on the design of a 3D-printed spoon prototype, we surveyed scleroderma patients about the device's value. 75% of patients mentioned having problems on their hands due to scleroderma. 85% of patients said their hand form changed because of the disease. Answers to the frequency or speed of the changes provide inconclusive results. The 3D printing technology has the potential to solve specific issues scleroderma patients face in their daily lives. Nevertheless, further research is needed to fully understand how hands shape change over time.


Hla-C Downregulation By Hiv-1 Adapts To Host Hla Genotype, Nathaniel D. Batchel, Gisele Umviligihozo, Suzanne Pickering, Talia Mota, Hua Liang, Gregory Q. Del Prete, Pramita Chatterjee, Guinevere Q. Lee, Rasmi Thomas, Mark A. Brockman, Stuart Neil, Mary Carrington, Bosco M. Bwana, David Bangsberg, +several additional authors 2018 The George Washington University, Washington DC

Hla-C Downregulation By Hiv-1 Adapts To Host Hla Genotype, Nathaniel D. Batchel, Gisele Umviligihozo, Suzanne Pickering, Talia Mota, Hua Liang, Gregory Q. Del Prete, Pramita Chatterjee, Guinevere Q. Lee, Rasmi Thomas, Mark A. Brockman, Stuart Neil, Mary Carrington, Bosco M. Bwana, David Bangsberg, +Several Additional Authors

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

HIV-1 can downregulate HLA-C on infected cells, using the viral protein Vpu, and the magnitude of this downregulation varies widely between primary HIV-1 variants. The selection pressures that result in viral downregulation of HLA-C in some individuals, but preservation of surface HLA-C in others are not clear. To better understand viral immune evasion targeting HLA-C, we have characterized HLA-C downregulation by a range of primary HIV-1 viruses. 128 replication competent viral isolates from 19 individuals with effective anti-retroviral therapy, show that a substantial minority of individuals harbor latent reservoir virus which strongly downregulates HLA-C. Untreated infections display no change in ...


Nitro-Fatty Acids Are Formed In Response To Virus Infection And Are Potent Inhibitors Of Sting Palmitoylation And Signaling, Anne Louise Hansen, Mona Motwani, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Christian K. Holm 2018 Aarhus University

Nitro-Fatty Acids Are Formed In Response To Virus Infection And Are Potent Inhibitors Of Sting Palmitoylation And Signaling, Anne Louise Hansen, Mona Motwani, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Christian K. Holm

Open Access Articles

The adaptor molecule stimulator of IFN genes (STING) is central to production of type I IFNs in response to infection with DNA viruses and to presence of host DNA in the cytosol. Excessive release of type I IFNs through STING-dependent mechanisms has emerged as a central driver of several interferonopathies, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS), and stimulator of IFN genes-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). The involvement of STING in these diseases points to an unmet need for the development of agents that inhibit STING signaling. Here, we report that endogenously formed nitro-fatty acids can covalently ...


Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies

Open Access Articles

Severe lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage can be life-threatening in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients if not treated early and aggressively. Neutrophil influx is the driver key of this pathology, but little is known regarding the molecular events regulating this recruitment. Here, we uncover a role for IL-16/mir-125a in this pathology and show not only that IL-16 is a target for miR-125a but that reduced miR-125a expression in SLE patients associates with lung involvement. Furthermore, in the pristane model of acute "SLE-like" lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage, we observed reduced pulmonary miR-125a and enhanced IL-16 expression. Neutrophil infiltration was ...


Implementing A Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Intervention For Safer Conception Among Hiv Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations For Health Care Providers, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Dea L. Biancarelli, Ashley A. Leech, Meg Sullivan, Angela R. Bazzi 2018 Boston University School of Public Health

Implementing A Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Intervention For Safer Conception Among Hiv Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations For Health Care Providers, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Dea L. Biancarelli, Ashley A. Leech, Meg Sullivan, Angela R. Bazzi

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships frequently desire children. Although partners who are virally suppressed pose almost no risk of transmitting HIV to their partners, partners who are inconsistently on therapy may transmit HIV to their partners when attempting to conceive. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an available safer conception strategy for these couples but is not consistently offered. We sought to better understand barriers to PrEP implementation for couples seeking conception and patient perceptions on what providers could do to encourage use. We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 11 participants representing six couples taking PrEP for safer conception in a safety-net ...


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