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Learning About Hiv/Aids In The Meshwork: The Nature And Value Of Indigenous Learning Processes In Community-Based Hiv/Aids Organisations, D. Plumb, Robert Allan, J. Allen, C. Porter 2016 School of Education and Human Development at the University of Colorado Denver

Learning About Hiv/Aids In The Meshwork: The Nature And Value Of Indigenous Learning Processes In Community-Based Hiv/Aids Organisations, D. Plumb, Robert Allan, J. Allen, C. Porter

Robert Allan

No abstract provided.


Holding Our Own: Needs Assessment Of Person Living With Hiv/Aids In Nova Scotia, G. MacDonald, Robert Allan 2016 School of Education and Human Development at the University of Colorado Denver

Holding Our Own: Needs Assessment Of Person Living With Hiv/Aids In Nova Scotia, G. Macdonald, Robert Allan

Robert Allan

No abstract provided.


A Bi-Stable Switch In Virus Dynamics Can Explain The Differences In Disease Outcome Following Siv Infections In Rhesus Macaques, Stanca Ciupe, Christopher Miller, Jonathan Forde 2016 Virginia Tech

A Bi-Stable Switch In Virus Dynamics Can Explain The Differences In Disease Outcome Following Siv Infections In Rhesus Macaques, Stanca Ciupe, Christopher Miller, Jonathan Forde

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Change In Anti- Gp120 Human Monoclonal Antibody Isotype Significantly Improves Hiv-1 Neutralization, Mark Duval, Melissa Gawron, Lisa Cavacini 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Change In Anti- Gp120 Human Monoclonal Antibody Isotype Significantly Improves Hiv-1 Neutralization, Mark Duval, Melissa Gawron, Lisa Cavacini

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

HIV vaccine efforts tend to focus on the induction of IgG neutralizing antibodies. In part, this may stem from the observations that most HIV infected individuals fail to produce significant mucosal IgA. However, this is unlike most other infections and in turn it can be argued that mucosal IgA with appropriate function and specificity may contribute significantly to the prevention of HIV transmission. To explore this, we previously isotype switched F425A1g8, an anti-HIV CD4i human monoclonal antibody that binds to epitopes exposed upon CD4 binding (CD4i) The VH and VL chains were amplified from the IgG hybridoma and inserted into ...


Humanized Mice For The Generation Of Hiv-1 Human Monoclonal Antibodies, Melissa Gawron, Mark Duval, Michael A. Brehm, Dale Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Smita Jaiswal, Sean M. McCauley, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban, Lisa Cavacini 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Humanized Mice For The Generation Of Hiv-1 Human Monoclonal Antibodies, Melissa Gawron, Mark Duval, Michael A. Brehm, Dale Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Smita Jaiswal, Sean M. Mccauley, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban, Lisa Cavacini

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Despite the length of time HIV has been wreaking havoc on its victims, improvements in the prevention and treatment of HIV are needed. Anti-retroviral therapy can be effective but is expensive and not entirely accessible for people infected in third world countries. Several promising broadly neutralizing antibodies have been isolated from infected individuals; we propose that generating antigen specific human monoclonal antibodies using humanized mice further represents a promising approach to engineer prophylactic antibodies to reduce spread and infection of HIV.

Methods: Immunodeficient mice were engrafted with fetal liver and thymus (BLT) prior to infection with different HIV isolates ...


Torn Between Two Diseases: Changes In Tgfβ Signaling Prevents Diabetes But Promotes Neuropathy, Vasalya Panchumarthi 2016 University of San Francisco

Torn Between Two Diseases: Changes In Tgfβ Signaling Prevents Diabetes But Promotes Neuropathy, Vasalya Panchumarthi

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that affects millions of children and adults worldwide. In this disease, white blood cells (Leukocytes) invade, attack, and destroy the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. Patients with T1D must use exogenous insulin injections, which can lead to many side effects over the lifespan of the person. Therefore, understanding the pathogenesis of this disease is crucial to develop new treatments for patients. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a rodent model of T1D as well as other autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren’s syndrome, where immune ...


Asessing The Implementation Of Hiv/Aids Programs Amongst Youth Fisherfolk: The Case Of Mbita, Kenya, Edward Ham 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Asessing The Implementation Of Hiv/Aids Programs Amongst Youth Fisherfolk: The Case Of Mbita, Kenya, Edward Ham

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Homa Bay, Nyanza Province has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Kenya (25.7%). Risky sexual behaviors are especially prevalent in fishing communities within this area. This study was conducted in Mbita, a sub-county of Homa Bay. The main objective was to determine which factors influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS programs amongst youth fisherfolk (ages 18-24) within beaches around Mbita. Data was collected through survey administration, key-informant interviews, and in depth interviews. The results highlight some interesting correlations, as well as a disturbing picture of the inequities females face within these fishing communities. Furthermore, a novel microclinic peer ...


Women’S Views On The Challenges And Solutions In Preventing The Gendered Spread Of Hiv In Masxha, Cato Manor, Paige McMahon 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Women’S Views On The Challenges And Solutions In Preventing The Gendered Spread Of Hiv In Masxha, Cato Manor, Paige Mcmahon

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Despite numerous national prevention efforts, South Africa remains at the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The burden of the epidemic is extremely heterogeneous, with province, race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status serving as key variables in determining HIV prevalence rates. Black African women are disproportionately affected by the epidemic, with those between the ages of 20 and 34 having an HIV prevalence rate of 31.6%, the highest in the country (Shisana et al., 2014). The purpose of this study was to engage with black African women about the challenges they believe women face in protecting themselves against HIV ...


The Feminization Of Hiv/Aids In Yunnan, China, Leah Pinckney 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

The Feminization Of Hiv/Aids In Yunnan, China, Leah Pinckney

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The feminization of HIV is a global phenomenon in which more women are becoming HIV-positive. This not only has tragic consequences for those women but also signifies how HIV transmission in China is changing. Increased sexual transmission has given HIV the ability to move from at-risk groups, such as intravenous drug users and commercial sex workers, to the general population. Despite China’s improved health policies and programs about HIV, this situation poses a serious public health issue allowed to perpetuate because of societal problems surrounding gender. These problems are compounded by socioeconomic inequality brought upon by economic change. While ...


Dental Health Practices In Us College Students: The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Findings, Lori Dewald EdD, ATC, MCHES, F-AAHE 2016 American Public University System

Dental Health Practices In Us College Students: The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Findings, Lori Dewald Edd, Atc, Mches, F-Aahe

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dental health seeking practices of US college students. Participants: The total number of college students who participated in the ACHA-NCHA survey from 2000-2013 was 1,201,531. Methods: The data requested were the demographic questions and the dental health question from both the ACHA-NCHA I and II. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The percentage of students who reported having a dental exam and cleaning in the last year averaged 76.6% in this study period of time. However, dental health care declined annually following their freshman ...


The Association Between Vitamin A Status Or Supplementation And Hiv/Aids, Mikaela Kathleen Curtis 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Association Between Vitamin A Status Or Supplementation And Hiv/Aids, Mikaela Kathleen Curtis

Food Science and Nutrition

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected millions of people since the start of the epidemic in the early 1980s. HIV is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has taken millions of lives. It is extremely difficult for particular populations to receive medication to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS. Multiple studies have examined the effect of vitamin A on HIV infection, due to its immune stimulating effects. It is unclear whether an association exists between vitamin A and different aspects of HIV. This review examined the effect of vitamin A ...


What Is Pfapa And Why Does It Matter?, Dennis Baumgardner 2016 bepress (DC Admins)

What Is Pfapa And Why Does It Matter?, Dennis Baumgardner

Dennis Baumgardner

PFAPA, the syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical lymphadentitis, is an uncommon disease of episodic immune dysregulation that usually begins in early childhood. Symptoms occur at regular, predictable intervals, with healthy periods in between, and generally include the namesake signs and various other constitutional symptoms such as fever and fatigue. The etiology is unknown and there is no definitive diagnostic test or treatment. Uncertainty during the period of searching for a diagnosis may be disconcerting to the family and the clinician. Single-dose prednisone is effective for resolving the fever of PFAPA episodes within just a few hours ...


The Causes Of Hiv-Associated Cardiomyopathy: A Tale Of Two Worlds, Rebecca H. Lumsden, Gerald S. Bloomfield 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Causes Of Hiv-Associated Cardiomyopathy: A Tale Of Two Worlds, Rebecca H. Lumsden, Gerald S. Bloomfield

Open Access Articles

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed the clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an acute infection with a high mortality into a treatable, chronic disease. As a result, the clinical sequelae of HIV infection are changing as patients live longer. HIV-associated cardiomyopathy (HIVAC) is a stage IV, HIV-defining illness and remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected individuals despite ART. Causes and clinical manifestations of HIVAC depend on the degree of host immunosuppression. Myocarditis from direct HIV toxicity, opportunistic infections, and nutritional deficiencies are implicated in causing HIVAC when HIV viral replication is unchecked, whereas cardiac ...


Role Of Interleukin-3 In An Experimental Model Of Mouse Cerebral Malaria Caused By Plasmodium Berghei Anka, Brendon R. Perry 2016 James Madison University

Role Of Interleukin-3 In An Experimental Model Of Mouse Cerebral Malaria Caused By Plasmodium Berghei Anka, Brendon R. Perry

Senior Honors Projects

Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, with about 200 million new cases reported each year. In rodent models of malaria, a variety of immune proteins called cytokines have been noted to either promote or suppress protective immunity. While the cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) clearly promotes host defense against some intestinal nematode parasites, few studies have reported a similar function for IL-3 in the pathophysiology of malaria. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-3 in a mouse model of cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA. We infected wild-type (WT) and IL-3 deficient ...


Parents Of Children With Arthritis-Related Diseases: An Examination Of Knowledge Of And Participation In Select Support Programs And Services Offered By The Arthritis Foundation, Margo B. Deihl 2016 James Madison University

Parents Of Children With Arthritis-Related Diseases: An Examination Of Knowledge Of And Participation In Select Support Programs And Services Offered By The Arthritis Foundation, Margo B. Deihl

Senior Honors Projects

The purpose of this pilot study was to identify the knowledge of and participation in select Arthritis Foundation support programs and services among parents of children with arthritis-related diseases. Parents attending the 2014 Juvenile Arthritis National Conference in Keystone, Colorado completed an online survey that asked about their knowledge of and participation in these programs. The data collected for the study was quantitative and qualitative. Respondents were given the opportunity to add comments to some survey items, and these items were analyzed by grouping them according to common themes. Results indicated that the parents were more knowledgeable about the Juvenile ...


Epidemiology Of Hiv Among American Indians And Alaska Natives – United States, 2008-2011, Frances J. Walker, Jane M. Kelly, Mona Doshani, Neeraja Saduvala, Joseph Prejean 2015 Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

Epidemiology Of Hiv Among American Indians And Alaska Natives – United States, 2008-2011, Frances J. Walker, Jane M. Kelly, Mona Doshani, Neeraja Saduvala, Joseph Prejean

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) diagnosed with HIV infection have poorer survivorship and a higher percentage of Stage 3 (AIDS] diagnoses within one year of HIV diagnosis, compared to most race/ethnicity groups. National HIV surveillance data for 2008-2011 were used to determine diagnosis rates of HIV infection, persons living with HIV, and persons with a late diagnosis (Stage 3 within three months of HIV diagnosis) by selected characteristics for AI/AN and a combined other race/ethnicity group. The highest percentages of 862 AI/AN diagnosed with HIV infection were among males (75.7%), AI/AN aged 25-34 ...


Community Based Participatory Research: The Application And Lessons Learned From A Study With Lgb College Students, Caitlin M. Stover 2015 University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth

Community Based Participatory Research: The Application And Lessons Learned From A Study With Lgb College Students, Caitlin M. Stover

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are members of a vulnerable group where health disparities have been identified. To gain a better understanding of the LGB college student healthcare experience and its contribution to the healthcare disparities found in LGB population, a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to fill the gap. This paper will outline the CBPR process with an emphasis on how the principle investigator applied the tenets of CBPR when working with a local LGB college community. Several lessons learned from the research process are also shared in this paper.


Understanding How Components Of Black Racial Identity And Racial Realities May Impact Healthcare Utilization: A Randomized Study, Alexander M. Chaitoff, Thomas Wickizer, Ismail White 2015 Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine

Understanding How Components Of Black Racial Identity And Racial Realities May Impact Healthcare Utilization: A Randomized Study, Alexander M. Chaitoff, Thomas Wickizer, Ismail White

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Purpose: Studies have suggested that even when minority groups have potential access to healthcare, they may have inadequate utilization (realized access). This study explores the application of a theory from the social psychology and political science literatures concerning how racial centrality and racial realities, specifically amongst Blacks, may influence patients’ healthcare utilization preferences.

Methods: We created a survey with two (pseudo) randomized, controlled experimental treatments designed to assess whether racialized hospital and physician characteristics elicited a preference from Black or White respondents, as well as questions aimed at understanding participants’ different beliefs and levels of knowledge about past and current ...


Comparative Effectiveness And Safety Of Rituximab Versus Subsequent Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis With Prior Exposure To Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapies In The United States Corrona Registry, Leslie Harrold, George Reed, Robert Magner, Ashwini Shewade, Ani John, Jeffrey Greenberg, Joel Kremer 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Comparative Effectiveness And Safety Of Rituximab Versus Subsequent Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis With Prior Exposure To Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapies In The United States Corrona Registry, Leslie Harrold, George Reed, Robert Magner, Ashwini Shewade, Ani John, Jeffrey Greenberg, Joel Kremer

Leslie R. Harrold

INTRODUCTION: Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite anti-tumor necrosis factor(anti-TNF)agent treatment can switch to either a subsequent anti-TNF agent or a biologic with an alternative mechanism of action, such as rituximab; however, there are limited data available to help physicians decide between these 2 strategies. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effectiveness and safety of rituximab versus a subsequent anti-TNF agent in anti-TNF-experienced patients with RA using clinical practice data from the Corrona registry. METHODS: Rituximab-naive patients from the Corrona registry with prior exposure to > /=1 anti-TNF agent who initiated rituximab or anti-TNF agents ...


Cd4+ T-Cell Mediated Microvascular Endothelial Cell Death And Chronic Cardiac Allograft Rejection Involves Necroptosis, Cecilia YT Kwok 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Cd4+ T-Cell Mediated Microvascular Endothelial Cell Death And Chronic Cardiac Allograft Rejection Involves Necroptosis, Cecilia Yt Kwok

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Heart transplantation is the only viable option for patients with end-stage heart failure. Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapies, the rate of transplanted graft loss remains substantial. Graft loss is primarily due to tissue damage mediated by immune responses. Cell death and organ rejection can occur as an active molecular process through apoptotic and necrotic pathways. We now recognize that cell death may also ensue through a newly described form of programmed necrotic cell death, termed necroptosis that involves receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1/3. In this study, I aim to establish the role of RIPK3 in T cell-mediated chronic cardiac ...


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