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Immune System Diseases Commons

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Cancer-Targeting Immunostimulatory Peptides As An Immunotherapeutic Approach To Cancer, Rachel Montel 2020 Seton Hall University

Cancer-Targeting Immunostimulatory Peptides As An Immunotherapeutic Approach To Cancer, Rachel Montel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This dissertation reports the synthesis and biological applications of bifunctional trimeric peptides with B7H6-derived NKp30 binding motifs that serve to activate an immunocytotoxic response in natural killer cells and a GRP78-binding motif that can target tumors that express surface GRP78. In this manner the cancer-targeting immunostimulatory peptides are anticipated to directly bind and activate effector NK92-MI cells while also recognizing and binding to target A549 tumor cells to facilitate NK cell-dependent immunocytotoxicity of the targeted tumors. The NKp30 binding peptide motifs are derived from the tumor associated B7H6 antigen that is often downregulated or shed from the surface of tumors ...


Insights From Individuals With Chronic Conditions In The Context Of Covid-19, B. Stephen Burton, Jonathan Patterson, Mackenzie Robinson, Dhiren Patel, Matt Allison, Kelly J. Brassil 2020 Pack Health

Insights From Individuals With Chronic Conditions In The Context Of Covid-19, B. Stephen Burton, Jonathan Patterson, Mackenzie Robinson, Dhiren Patel, Matt Allison, Kelly J. Brassil

Patient Experience Journal

The objective of this prospective survey series was to evaluate knowledge and concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic among individuals with one or more chronic conditions, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, respiratory and cancer diagnoses. Two surveys were distributed consisting of up to 55 items (March; n=1069) and up to 71 items (April, n=1126), with 24 items repeated from the first survey. Questions focused on healthcare access, barriers and concerns related to the COVID-19 virus. Descriptive analysis evaluated central tendencies, spread, and frequencies of the demographic data, disease states, and survey results within and between the two survey timepoints. Results ...


Delayed Interventions, Low Compliance, And Health Disparities Amplified The Early Spread Of Covid-19, Aliea M. Jalali, Sumaia G. Khoury, JongWon See, Alexis M. Gulsvig, Brent M. Peterson, Richard S. Gunasekera, Gentian Buzi, Jason Wilson, Thushara Galbadage 2020 Biola University

Delayed Interventions, Low Compliance, And Health Disparities Amplified The Early Spread Of Covid-19, Aliea M. Jalali, Sumaia G. Khoury, Jongwon See, Alexis M. Gulsvig, Brent M. Peterson, Richard S. Gunasekera, Gentian Buzi, Jason Wilson, Thushara Galbadage

Faculty Articles & Research

The United States (US) public health interventions were rigorous and rapid, yet failed to arrest the spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as infections spread throughout the US. Many factors have contributed to the spread of COVID-19, and the success of public health interventions depends on the level of community adherence to preventative measures. Public health professionals must also understand regional demographic variation in health disparities and determinants to target interventions more effectively. In this study, a systematic evaluation of three significant interventions employed in the US, and their effectiveness in slowing the early spread of COVID-19 was ...


Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Nayara C. Leite, Elad Sintov, Torsten B. Meissner, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Douglas A. Melton 2020 Harvard University

Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Nayara C. Leite, Elad Sintov, Torsten B. Meissner, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Douglas A. Melton

Open Access Articles

Understanding the root causes of autoimmune diseases is hampered by the inability to access relevant human tissues and identify the time of disease onset. To examine the interaction of immune cells and their cellular targets in type 1 diabetes, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic endocrine cells, including beta cells. Here, we describe an in vitro platform that models features of human type 1 diabetes using stress-induced patient-derived endocrine cells and autologous immune cells. We demonstrate a cell-type-specific response by autologous immune cells against induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells, along with a reduced effect on alpha ...


A Case Of Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma, Adrian Lugo MD, Andrew Cappiello MD, Nemer Dabage MD, Guruswamy Ramamurthy MD 2020 HCA Healthcare

A Case Of Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma, Adrian Lugo Md, Andrew Cappiello Md, Nemer Dabage Md, Guruswamy Ramamurthy Md

West Florida Division Virtual Research Day

  • Scleroderma and systemic sclerosis are autoimmune phenomena that can cause progressive and permanent damage to the organs of the human body.
  • They can cause fibrosis of various internal organs, including the kidneys, lungs, GI tract, and heart
  • Rarely, the only manifestation of systemic sclerosis is severe hypertension with renal failure, a subset known as systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma.


Development And Evaluation Of A Heterogenous Virus-Like Particle (Vlp) Formulation To Achieve Hiv-1 Latency Reversal And Cure., Joshua P. Pankrac 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Development And Evaluation Of A Heterogenous Virus-Like Particle (Vlp) Formulation To Achieve Hiv-1 Latency Reversal And Cure., Joshua P. Pankrac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

HIV-1 is the etiological agent behind acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) – a chronic, life-threatening condition that compromises host immune function. After nearly four decades and despite ongoing global efforts, HIV-1 persists in nearly 38 million individuals worldwide. Of this population, only 60% have access to life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), clearly emphasizing the need to realize a cure. Unfortunately, the establishment of replication-competent provirus in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes represents a significant barrier to HIV-1 curative research. The viral reservoir is highly stable and has a half-life of ~44 months. Therefore, it is unlikely that infection will naturally exhaust over ...


Body Mass Index And Treatment Survival In Patients With Ra Starting Treatment With Tnfalpha-Inhibitors: Long-Term Follow-Up In The Real-Life Meteor Registry, Sytske Anne Bergstra, Cornelia F. Allaart, David Vega-Morales, Marieke De Buck, Elizabeth Murphy, Karen I. Salomon-Escoto, Tom W. J. Huizinga 2020 Leiden University Medical Center

Body Mass Index And Treatment Survival In Patients With Ra Starting Treatment With Tnfalpha-Inhibitors: Long-Term Follow-Up In The Real-Life Meteor Registry, Sytske Anne Bergstra, Cornelia F. Allaart, David Vega-Morales, Marieke De Buck, Elizabeth Murphy, Karen I. Salomon-Escoto, Tom W. J. Huizinga

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVES: To study whether there is an association between body mass index (BMI) category and survival of various tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a real-life longitudinal international registry.

METHODS: Data from 5230 patients with RA starting treatment with any TNFi were selected from the METEOR registry. Patients were divided into six BMI categories: 3.7% underweight, BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2); 46% normal weight, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2); 32% pre-obesity, BMI 25-30 kg/m(2); 13% obesity class I, BMI 30-35 kg/m(2); 3.4% obesity class II, BMI 35-40 kg/m(2); and 1.6% obesity class III, BMI > 40 kg/m(2). Time on treatment in the different BMI categories was compared for all TNFi combined and for the infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept separately, using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses. Cox regression analyses were ...


Prevalence Of Sjogren's Syndrome Associated With Rheumatoid Arthritis In The Usa: An Observational Study From The Corrona Registry, Leslie R. Harrold, Ying Shan, Sabrina Rebello, Neil Kramer, Sean E. Connolly, Evo Alemao, Sheila Kelly, Joel M. Kremer, Elliot D. Rosenstein 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Prevalence Of Sjogren's Syndrome Associated With Rheumatoid Arthritis In The Usa: An Observational Study From The Corrona Registry, Leslie R. Harrold, Ying Shan, Sabrina Rebello, Neil Kramer, Sean E. Connolly, Evo Alemao, Sheila Kelly, Joel M. Kremer, Elliot D. Rosenstein

Open Access Articles

The objectives of this analysis were to assess the prevalence of Sjogren's syndrome (SS) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare baseline characteristics of patients with RA with and without SS. Adult patients with RA from a large observational US registry (Corrona RA), with > /= 1 visit for assessment of SS status between 22 April 2010 and 28 February 2018, were considered. Patients with RA with versus without SS were compared. SS status was determined from a yes/no variable and reported at enrollment into the Corrona RA registry and follow-up visits. Outcomes were unadjusted prevalence of SS in ...


Platelets Fuel The Inflammasome Activation Of Innate Immune Cells, Verena Rolfes, Lucas Secchim Ribeiro, Eicke Latz, Moshe Arditi, Bernardo Simoes Franklin 2020 University of Bonn

Platelets Fuel The Inflammasome Activation Of Innate Immune Cells, Verena Rolfes, Lucas Secchim Ribeiro, Eicke Latz, Moshe Arditi, Bernardo Simoes Franklin

Open Access Articles

The inflammasomes control the bioactivity of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin (IL)-1 family. The inflammasome assembled by NLRP3 has been predominantly studied in homogeneous cell populations in vitro, neglecting the influence of cellular interactions that occur in vivo. Here, we show that platelets boost the inflammasome capacity of human macrophages and neutrophils and are critical for IL-1 production by monocytes. Platelets license NLRP3 transcription, thereby enhancing ASC oligomerization, caspase-1 activity, and IL-1beta secretion. Platelets influence IL-1beta production in vivo, and blood platelet counts correlate with plasmatic IL-1beta levels in malaria. Furthermore, we reveal an enriched platelet gene signature among ...


Two Cases Of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease With No Known Variants Identified In Genes Associated With Immunodeficiencies, Megan H. Tucker 2020 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Two Cases Of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease With No Known Variants Identified In Genes Associated With Immunodeficiencies, Megan H. Tucker

Research Days

No abstract provided.


What Are The Rhetorical Strategies And Consequences Of Food Labels Regarding Health, Lifestyle, And Ethics Of Consumers With Food-Related Diseases And Allergies?, Delaney Borchers 2020 Bowling Green State University

What Are The Rhetorical Strategies And Consequences Of Food Labels Regarding Health, Lifestyle, And Ethics Of Consumers With Food-Related Diseases And Allergies?, Delaney Borchers

Master of Arts in Media and Communication Plan II Graduate Projects

In this study, it is investigated on how health, lifestyle and ethical factors of a consumer with a gluten-related disease and allergy influence their understanding and awareness of gluten-free food labels. This study was implemented through an online survey on a Facebook support group with a total of 195 respondents. The results show that consumers do have a strong awareness and understanding of the differences between certified gluten-free and non-certified gluten-free food labels. This indicates that having this strong awareness and understanding is influenced based upon a consumer’s health, lifestyle and ethical factors of following a gluten-free diet.


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


Filifactor Alocis: Resilience And Manipulation Against Neutrophil Effector Functions In A Dysbiotic Oral Environment., Max N. Rogers 2020 University of Louisville

Filifactor Alocis: Resilience And Manipulation Against Neutrophil Effector Functions In A Dysbiotic Oral Environment., Max N. Rogers

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory infectious disease that affects around 50% of the adult population in the USA. Neutrophils, which are the primary immune cells recruited to restore health at sites of infection, are profuse in the gingival space during oral infections. In a community-wide effort, pathogenic oral bacteria hijack neutrophil effector functions to evade killing, resulting in an uncontrollable inflammatory loop that leads into inflammation-mediated tissue injury. One of these harmful emerging oral pathogens, Filifactor alocis, has been shown to evade neutrophil killing and contribute to disease progression. The purpose of this study is to gain a better ...


Targeting Natural Killer Cells For Improved Immunity And Control Of The Adaptive Immune Response., Stephen Pierce, Eric S. Geanes, Todd Bradley 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Targeting Natural Killer Cells For Improved Immunity And Control Of The Adaptive Immune Response., Stephen Pierce, Eric S. Geanes, Todd Bradley

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for targeting and killing tumor, virus-infected and stressed cells as a member of the innate immune system. Recently, NK cells have also emerged as key regulators of adaptive immunity and have become a prominent therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy and infection control. NK cells display a diverse array of phenotypes and function. Determining how NK cells develop and are regulated is critical for understanding their role in both innate and adaptive immunity. In this review we discuss current research approaches into NK cell adaptive immunity and how these cells are being harnessed for improving ...


“A Moral Imperative To Prevent Aids”: Race And Religion In Atlanta’S Aids Activism, 1981-1993, Madison Bailey 2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

“A Moral Imperative To Prevent Aids”: Race And Religion In Atlanta’S Aids Activism, 1981-1993, Madison Bailey

Honors Theses

The early years of the AIDS epidemic marked a tumultuous period of American history, calling into question the authority of doctors and the ability of scientists to cure disease. Already marginalized groups, such as gay men and intravenous drug users, appeared to be most vulnerable to a deadly virus with no cure or effective treatments. In the face of discrimination, activists rose up to provide necessary services for AIDS patients and advocate on their behalf. This activism uniquely characterized the early AIDS epidemic and permanently changed the field of biomedical research. The current historiography of AIDS activism tends to focus ...


The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton 2020 HCA

The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Over the millennia, the human body and microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and parasites have coevolved together forming an intimate relationship. These microorganisms are found on the skin, in the mouth, genitourinary tract and most abundantly in the large intestine of the digestive tract. States of microbial dysbiosis contribute to chronic inflammation, which can lead to the pathogenesis and progression of numerous diseases. Micro- and macro-nutrients as well as dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet can help improve health outcomes.


Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston 2020 Liberty University

Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston

Senior Honors Theses

The use of vaccinations has drastically decreased mortality and morbidity rates related to infectious disease and has become an intrinsic part of modern health care. However, the fear of risks related to vaccines has been partially responsible for the decisions of many parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine specifically is one of the most controversial vaccines in current culture due to reports of new onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, infertility, and even death following its administration. This review synthesizes information regarding the relevance and safety of the HPV vaccine, as well ...


Epstein-Barr Virus Epitope-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction Combined With Convergent Recombination Drives Selection Of Diverse T Cell Receptor Alpha And Beta Repertoires, Anna Gil, Larisa Kamga, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Nuray Aslan, Fransenio G. Clark, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epstein-Barr Virus Epitope-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction Combined With Convergent Recombination Drives Selection Of Diverse T Cell Receptor Alpha And Beta Repertoires, Anna Gil, Larisa Kamga, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Nuray Aslan, Fransenio G. Clark, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin

Open Access Articles

Recognition modes of individual T cell receptors (TCRs) are well studied, but factors driving the selection of TCR repertoires from primary through persistent human virus infections are less well understood. Using deep sequencing, we demonstrate a high degree of diversity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific clonotypes in acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM). Only 9% of unique clonotypes detected in AIM persisted into convalescence; the majority (91%) of unique clonotypes detected in AIM were not detected in convalescence and were seeming replaced by equally diverse "de novo" clonotypes. The persistent clonotypes had a greater probability of being generated than nonpersistent clonotypes due ...


Post-Surgical Pyoderma Gangrenosum After Breast Surgery: A Case Series, Jahan Tajran, Daniella Anderson, Arif Chaudhry, Dennis Hammond 2020 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Post-Surgical Pyoderma Gangrenosum After Breast Surgery: A Case Series, Jahan Tajran, Daniella Anderson, Arif Chaudhry, Dennis Hammond

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory cutaneous disorder that is thought to be due to innate immune system dysfunction, specifically of neutrophils. PG has been well documented in patients with autoimmune disorders like Ulcerative Colitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. PG can also present in surgical patients, imitating a potential wound infection and necrotizing fasciitis. Although PG is a diagnosis of exclusion, prompt recognition is essential to attaining desired aesthetic outcomes, especially with breast involvement. We present a case series of four patients who developed PG following breast surgery. We analyze each patient’s medical history, symptoms, wound progression and ...


The Great Imitator Strikes Again: A Case Of A Lupus Flare-Up Presenting Like An Acute Abdomen, Emmanouil Kiriakopoulos, Vanessa Perez, Robyn Hoelle 2020 UCF/HCA - North Florida Regional Medical Center

The Great Imitator Strikes Again: A Case Of A Lupus Flare-Up Presenting Like An Acute Abdomen, Emmanouil Kiriakopoulos, Vanessa Perez, Robyn Hoelle

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease affecting all age groups and can manifest in various forms, often making the initial or successive presentations difficult to diagnose. Peritonitis secondary to lupus is a rare manifestation of this disease and the prevalence is said to be much lower in children. We present a case report of an adolescent male with a known history of lupus who presented to the emergency department with a clinical picture consistent with an acute surgical abdomen and underwent an appendectomy. Subsequent workup identified the culprit as a lupus-related peritonitis requiring corticosteroids for resolution.


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