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Pneumococcal Vaccine Guidance 2022, Bona Shin, Michael Do, Elaina Lioudis 2022 Pharmacy Department, Reading Hospital-Tower Health, West Reading, PA

Pneumococcal Vaccine Guidance 2022, Bona Shin, Michael Do, Elaina Lioudis

Transformative Medicine (T-Med)

PCV15 and PCV20 received FDA approval in 2021. This article provides an overview of all pneumococcal vaccines - PPSV23, PCV13, PCV15, and PCV20 and their place in therapy. It provides a summary of pneumococcal disease burden in the U.S., vaccine spectrum of activity, indications, adult/pediatric dosing schedules, efficacy, and common adverse drug reactions.


Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal 2022 East Tennessee State University

Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection initiates major metabolic and cell- survival complications. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is the current approach to suppress active HIV replication to a level of undetected viral load, but it is not a curative approach. Newer and sophisticated gene editing technologies could indeed be a potent antiviral therapy to achieve a clinical sterilization/cure of HIV infection. Chronic HIV patients, even under a successful ART regimen, exhibit a low-grade inflammation, immune senescence, premature aging, telomeric DNA attrition, T cell apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. In this dissertation, we investigated CD4 T cell homeostasis, degree of T cell apoptosis, an …


Immunoglobulin G N-Glycan, Inflammation And Type 2 Diabetes In East Asian And European Populations: A Mendelian Randomization Study, Biyan Wang, Di Liu, Manshu Song, Wei Wang, Bo Guo, Youxin Wang 2022 Edith Cowan University

Immunoglobulin G N-Glycan, Inflammation And Type 2 Diabetes In East Asian And European Populations: A Mendelian Randomization Study, Biyan Wang, Di Liu, Manshu Song, Wei Wang, Bo Guo, Youxin Wang

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycans have been shown to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its risk factors. However, whether these associations reflect causal effects remain unclear. Furthermore, the associations of IgG N-glycans and inflammation are not fully understood. Methods: We examined the causal associations of IgG N-glycans with inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and T2D using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis in East Asian and European populations. Genetic variants from IgG N-glycan quantitative trait loci (QTL) data were used as instrumental variables. Two-sample MR was conducted for IgG N-glycans with inflammation (75,391 and …


Mixture Models For Interval Censored Outcomes, Yibai Zhao 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mixture Models For Interval Censored Outcomes, Yibai Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Silent events such as the first detectable HIV infection, the onset of Type 2 diabetes and prostate cancer progression are often ascertained by diagnostic tests and/or self-reports that are scheduled periodically. In such applications, we only observe the time to the event of interest to lie between the times of last negative and the first positive tests, resulting in interval-censored observations. In addition, in some medical studies, a substantial proportion of participants may experience the events before the study, so-called prevalent cases, or participants may never experience the event, that is regarded as non-susceptible cases (or indolent cancer or long-term …


Management Of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus In Pregnancy, Oana Denisa Balalau, Mihai George Loghin, Delia Maria Bogheanu, Nicolae Bacalbasa, Anca Daniela Stanescu, Daniela Gabriela Bălan, Ioana Păunică, Octavian Gabriel Olaru 2022 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Management Of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus In Pregnancy, Oana Denisa Balalau, Mihai George Loghin, Delia Maria Bogheanu, Nicolae Bacalbasa, Anca Daniela Stanescu, Daniela Gabriela Bălan, Ioana Păunică, Octavian Gabriel Olaru

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Systemic lupus erythematosus is one of the most common autoimmune disorders affecting young women. Pregnant women with lupus are generally at higher risk for certain pregnancy complications than women without comorbidities. Even so, a pregnancy with lupus can be carried to term in optimal conditions if it is properly managed by a doctor. Monitoring is generally recommended six months after the onset of lupus symptoms, and ideally there should be no active lupus symptoms prior to conception. General screening tests should include the anti-phospholipid, anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies. Women who are positive for these antibodies have an increased risk of …


Exploratory Analysis Of Outpatient Visits For Us Adults Diagnosed With Lupus Erythematosus: Findings From The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 2006–2016, Salena Marie Preciado, Khaled A. Elsaid, Souhiela Fawaz, Lawrence Brown, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Marc Fleming, Yun Wang 2022 Chapman University

Exploratory Analysis Of Outpatient Visits For Us Adults Diagnosed With Lupus Erythematosus: Findings From The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 2006–2016, Salena Marie Preciado, Khaled A. Elsaid, Souhiela Fawaz, Lawrence Brown, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Marc Fleming, Yun Wang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The study aims to assess office-based visit trends for lupus patients and evaluate their medication burden, chronic conditions, and comorbidities. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), a survey sample weighted to represent national estimates of outpatient visits. Adult patients diagnosed with lupus were included. Medications and comorbidities that were frequently recorded were identified and categorized. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to characterize visits by sex, age, race/ethnicity, insurance type, region, and reason for visit. Comorbidities were identified using diagnosis codes documented at each encounter. There were 27,029,228 visits for lupus patients …


Omicron Spike Function And Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Comprehensive Panel Of Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Amin Addetia, Ha V Dang, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Kaitlin R. Sprouse, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq Ansari, Najeeha Talat Iqbal 2022 University of Washington, Seattle

Omicron Spike Function And Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Comprehensive Panel Of Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Amin Addetia, Ha V Dang, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Kaitlin R. Sprouse, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq Ansari, Najeeha Talat Iqbal

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern comprises several sublineages, with BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 having replaced the previously dominant BA.1 and with BA.4 and BA.5 increasing in prevalence worldwide. We show that the large number of Omicron sublineage spike mutations leads to enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding, reduced fusogenicity, and severe dampening of plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines relative to the ancestral virus. Administration of a homologous or heterologous booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and …


Assessing Cognitive Health Outcomes In Anca-Associated Vasculitis Patients, Ruo Yan Chen 2022 Western University

Assessing Cognitive Health Outcomes In Anca-Associated Vasculitis Patients, Ruo Yan Chen

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a rare and life-threatening autoimmune disease with severe complications. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is thought to be rare, however, the prevalence of neuropsychiatric complications have been reported in 30-60% of AAV cases. Studies looking at the cognitive health outcomes of AAV patients with CNS involvement have noted cognitive impairment as a significant contributor to reduced quality of life with unique challenges in care and treatment. The data collected from this primary output could be combined with global assessments of cognitive function as well as the application of advanced imaging tools to study …


Covad Survey 2 Long-Term Outcomes: Unmet Need And Protocol, Zoha Zahid Fazal, Parikshit Sen, Mrudula Joshi, Naveen Ravichandran, James B. Lilleker, Vishwesh Agarwal, Sinan Kardes, Minchul Kim, Jessica Day, Ashima Makol 2022 Aga Khan University

Covad Survey 2 Long-Term Outcomes: Unmet Need And Protocol, Zoha Zahid Fazal, Parikshit Sen, Mrudula Joshi, Naveen Ravichandran, James B. Lilleker, Vishwesh Agarwal, Sinan Kardes, Minchul Kim, Jessica Day, Ashima Makol

Medical College Documents

Vaccine hesitancy is considered a major barrier to achieving herd immunity against COVID-19. While multiple alternative and synergistic approaches including heterologous vaccination, booster doses, and antiviral drugs have been developed, equitable vaccine uptake remains the foremost strategy to manage pandemic. Although none of the currently approved vaccines are live-attenuated, several reports of disease flares, waning protection, and acute-onset syndromes have emerged as short-term adverse events after vaccination. Hence, scientific literature falls short when discussing potential long-term effects in vulnerable cohorts. The COVAD-2 survey follows on from the baseline COVAD-1 survey with the aim to collect patient-reported data on the long-term …


Nanotherapeutics And Hiv: Four Decades Of Infection Canvass The Quest For Drug Development Using Nanomedical Technologies, Bhupender S. Chhikara, Nirpendra Singh, Poonam, Parveen Bazard, Rajender S. Varma, Keykavous Parang 2022 University of Delhi

Nanotherapeutics And Hiv: Four Decades Of Infection Canvass The Quest For Drug Development Using Nanomedical Technologies, Bhupender S. Chhikara, Nirpendra Singh, Poonam, Parveen Bazard, Rajender S. Varma, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have seen four decades of human struggle to cure or eradicate HIV infection since the first clinical detection of HIV infection. Various developed drugs such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, microbicides, and others have known restrictions, such as side effects and resistance development when used alone, and hidden reservoir of the virus, which have opened the gates for the involvement of nanomedicine associated systems, particularly for latent sites of HIV infection. The nanotechnological vehicles, such as liposomes, dendrimers, metal nanoparticles, polymeric nanocapsules/particles, surfactants, and targeted vehicles have become part …


Effect Of Nicotine On Immune Suppression And Prostate Cancer Pathogenesis, Sirin Saranyutanon 2022 University of South Alabama

Effect Of Nicotine On Immune Suppression And Prostate Cancer Pathogenesis, Sirin Saranyutanon

Theses and Dissertations

Tobacco or cigarette smoking is the leading cause of several diseases, including cancer, in the United States and worldwide. Epidemiological data provide strong evidence for an association of nicotine with prostate cancer risk and recurrence, but experimental data is largely lacking. Nicotine is an addictive ingredient of tobacco products and other alternatives, however, its role in prostate tumor biology has not been explored. Further, while a role of smoking in immunosuppression has been demonstrated, the effect of nicotine on immune function is largely unknown. We hypothesized that nicotine suppresses immune function by promoting alternative polarization of macrophages and promotes prostate …


Acquired Hemophilia A: A Possibly Fatal Complication Of Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Hasan Fareed Siddiqui, Taymmia Ejaz, Aisha Fareed Siddiqui, Fahd Niaz Shaikh 2022 Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan

Acquired Hemophilia A: A Possibly Fatal Complication Of Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Hasan Fareed Siddiqui, Taymmia Ejaz, Aisha Fareed Siddiqui, Fahd Niaz Shaikh

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Enhancing Physician Perspectives Of Skilled Occupational Therapy Services For Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Valerie S. Trinidad 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Enhancing Physician Perspectives Of Skilled Occupational Therapy Services For Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Valerie S. Trinidad

Department of Occupational Therapy Entry-Level Capstone Projects

This Capstone Project, with a focus in research, sought to identify a relationship between self-reported functional performance and participation restriction as described by satisfaction with one’s execution or participation in a described occupation. A correlational study design was employed under the mentorship of Dr. Thomas Decker, EdD, OTD, OTR/L who oversaw all IRB processes, documentation, study development and deployment, as well as co-authored and provided mentorship for creation of a publishable manuscript of this project. The established Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the newer Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP) were the two outcome measures of focus for surveying …


Myasthenia Gravis, Rebecca Wheeler 2022 Otterbein University

Myasthenia Gravis, Rebecca Wheeler

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Myasthenia gravis (MG), a neuromuscular and autoimmune disorder, is not completely understood by clinicians and scientists. The primary cause is thought to be anti-Acetylcholine receptor antibodies that attack the neuromuscular junction, causing destruction of post-synaptic junctional folds and blockade of the receptor. This causes frequent weakness and fatigability of voluntary muscles, making activities of daily living difficult for those living with MG. Although it is not an incredibly prevalent disease, the incidence is increasing in the United States due to better testing and diagnosis. Treatments are available, including cholinesterase inhibitors that raise the concentration of Acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction …


The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Patients With Chronic Liver Disease: Results From The Global Liver Registry, Zobair M. Younossi, Yusuf Yilmaz, Mohamed El-Kassas, Ajay Duseja, Saeed Hamid, Gamal Esmat, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Wah Kheong Chan, Ashwani K. Singal, Brian Lam 2022 Inova Fairfax Medical Campus, Falls Church, Virginia

The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Patients With Chronic Liver Disease: Results From The Global Liver Registry, Zobair M. Younossi, Yusuf Yilmaz, Mohamed El-Kassas, Ajay Duseja, Saeed Hamid, Gamal Esmat, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Wah Kheong Chan, Ashwani K. Singal, Brian Lam

Department of Medicine

Patients with preexisting chronic liver disease (CLD) may experience a substantial burden from both coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection and pandemic-related life disruption. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with CLD. Patients enrolled in our Global Liver Registry were invited to complete a COVID-19 survey. As of June 2021, 2500 patients (mean age ± SD, 49 ± 13 years; 53% men) from seven countries completed the survey. Of all survey completers, 9.3% had COVID-19. Of these patients, 19% were hospitalized, 13% needed oxygen support, but none required mechanical ventilation. Of all patients including those not infected with …


Impact Of Biosecurity Measures, Social Pressure And Bullying On Attitudes, Perceptions, And Job Satisfaction Levels Among Healthcare Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho-Leon, Geovanny Efraín Alvarado-Villa, Derly Madeleiny Andrade-Molina, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Cadena, Arjola Agolli, Zeynep Yukselen, Miguel Felix, Juan Carlos Gallardo Bastidas 2022 Aga Khan University

Impact Of Biosecurity Measures, Social Pressure And Bullying On Attitudes, Perceptions, And Job Satisfaction Levels Among Healthcare Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho-Leon, Geovanny Efraín Alvarado-Villa, Derly Madeleiny Andrade-Molina, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Cadena, Arjola Agolli, Zeynep Yukselen, Miguel Felix, Juan Carlos Gallardo Bastidas

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The extent and nature of social pressure and bullying towards healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 remains unclear. The following study identifies the effect of social pressure and bullying directed towards HCWs when using biosecurity measures during the COVID-19 pandemic; further, the impact on perceptions, attitudes and job satisfaction level is also explored.
Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional survey-based study among 684 Ecuadorian HCWs. The survey consisted of 38 questions related to the frequency, attitudes, and perceptions of biosecurity measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the validity of the questionnaire. Associations between variables …


Multiplex Pcr Assay To Detect High Risk Lineages Of Salmonella Typhi And Paratyphi A, Fahad Khokhar, Derek Pickard, Zoe Dyson, Junaid Iqbal, Agila Pragasam, Jobin Jacob John, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Farah Qamar, Gordon Dougan, Hilary MacQueen 2022 University of Cambridge, Cambridge

Multiplex Pcr Assay To Detect High Risk Lineages Of Salmonella Typhi And Paratyphi A, Fahad Khokhar, Derek Pickard, Zoe Dyson, Junaid Iqbal, Agila Pragasam, Jobin Jacob John, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Farah Qamar, Gordon Dougan, Hilary Macqueen

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Enteric fever infections remain a significant public health issue, with up to 20 million infections per year. Increasing rates of antibiotic resistant strains have rendered many first-line antibiotics potentially ineffective. Genotype 4.3.1 (H58) is the main circulating lineage of S. Typhi in many South Asian countries and is associated with high levels of antibiotic resistance. The emergence and spread of extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid strains has increased the need for a rapid molecular test to identify and track these high-risk lineages for surveillance and vaccine prioritisation. Current methods require samples to be cultured for several days, followed by DNA …


Estimating The Pre- And Post-Diagnosis Costs Of Tuberculosis For Adults In Pakistan: Household Economic Impact And Costs Mitigating Strategies, Shama Razzaq, Aysha Zahidie, Zafar Fatmi 2022 National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad,

Estimating The Pre- And Post-Diagnosis Costs Of Tuberculosis For Adults In Pakistan: Household Economic Impact And Costs Mitigating Strategies, Shama Razzaq, Aysha Zahidie, Zafar Fatmi

Community Health Sciences

Background: Despite free tuberculosis (TB) care in Pakistan, patients still have to bear high costs, which push them into poverty. This study estimated the pre- and post-diagnosis costs households bear for TB care, and investigated coping mechanisms among adults ≥ 18 years in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising of 516 TB patients identified with completion of at least one month intensive treatment from four public sector health facilities from two institutes in Karachi, Pakistan. A standardized questionnaire to estimate patient's costs was administered. The study outcomes were direct medical and non-medical costs, and indirect costs. The …


Diagnostic Accuracy Of Various Immunochromatographic Tests For Ns1 Antigen And Igm Antibodies Detection In Acute Dengue Virus Infection, Mughees Haider, Saira Yousaf, Asifa Zaib, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda 2022 University of Sargodha, Sargodha

Diagnostic Accuracy Of Various Immunochromatographic Tests For Ns1 Antigen And Igm Antibodies Detection In Acute Dengue Virus Infection, Mughees Haider, Saira Yousaf, Asifa Zaib, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were evaluated, in this paper, for their utility as a reliable test, using resource-constrained studies. In most studies, NS1 antigen and immunoglobulin M (IgM)-based immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) were considered for acute phase detection. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of NS1, IgM, and NS1/IgM-based ICTs to detect acute dengue virus (DENV) infection in dengue-endemic regions.
Methods: Studies were electronically identified using the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus. Keywords including dengue, rapid diagnostic test, immunochromatography, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnosis were applied across databases. In total, 15 studies were …


In-Silico Analysis Of Interacting Pathways Through Kim-1 Protein Interaction In Diabetic Nephropathy, Fatima Abid, Z Rubab, Syeda Sadia Fatima, A Qureshi, Arfa Azhar, A Jafri 2022 Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi

In-Silico Analysis Of Interacting Pathways Through Kim-1 Protein Interaction In Diabetic Nephropathy, Fatima Abid, Z Rubab, Syeda Sadia Fatima, A Qureshi, Arfa Azhar, A Jafri

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Human Kidney Injury Molecule-1, also known as HAVCR-1 (Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1), belongs to the cell-surface protein of immunoglobulin superfamily involved in the phagocytosis by acting as scavenger receptor epithelial cells. The study focused on pinpointing the mechanisms and genes that interact with KIM-1.
Methods: This in-silico study was done from March 2019 to December 2019. The Enrichment and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network carefully choose proteins. In addition, the diagramed gene data sets were accomplished using FunRich version 3.1.3. It was done to unveil the proteins that may affect the regulation of HAVCR1 or may be regulated …


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