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Two Cases Of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease With No Known Variants Identified In Genes Associated With Immunodeficiencies, Megan H. Tucker 2020 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Two Cases Of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease With No Known Variants Identified In Genes Associated With Immunodeficiencies, Megan H. Tucker

Research Days

No abstract provided.


“A Moral Imperative To Prevent Aids”: Race And Religion In Atlanta’S Aids Activism, 1981-1993, Madison Bailey 2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

“A Moral Imperative To Prevent Aids”: Race And Religion In Atlanta’S Aids Activism, 1981-1993, Madison Bailey

Honors Theses

The early years of the AIDS epidemic marked a tumultuous period of American history, calling into question the authority of doctors and the ability of scientists to cure disease. Already marginalized groups, such as gay men and intravenous drug users, appeared to be most vulnerable to a deadly virus with no cure or effective treatments. In the face of discrimination, activists rose up to provide necessary services for AIDS patients and advocate on their behalf. This activism uniquely characterized the early AIDS epidemic and permanently changed the field of biomedical research. The current historiography of AIDS activism tends to focus ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton 2020 HCA

The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Over the millennia, the human body and microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and parasites have coevolved together forming an intimate relationship. These microorganisms are found on the skin, in the mouth, genitourinary tract and most abundantly in the large intestine of the digestive tract. States of microbial dysbiosis contribute to chronic inflammation, which can lead to the pathogenesis and progression of numerous diseases. Micro- and macro-nutrients as well as dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet can help improve health outcomes.


Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston 2020 Liberty University

Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston

Senior Honors Theses

The use of vaccinations has drastically decreased mortality and morbidity rates related to infectious disease and has become an intrinsic part of modern health care. However, the fear of risks related to vaccines has been partially responsible for the decisions of many parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine specifically is one of the most controversial vaccines in current culture due to reports of new onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, infertility, and even death following its administration. This review synthesizes information regarding the relevance and safety of the HPV vaccine, as well ...


Epstein-Barr Virus Epitope-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction Combined With Convergent Recombination Drives Selection Of Diverse T Cell Receptor Alpha And Beta Repertoires, Anna Gil, Larisa Kamga, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Nuray Aslan, Fransenio G. Clark, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epstein-Barr Virus Epitope-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction Combined With Convergent Recombination Drives Selection Of Diverse T Cell Receptor Alpha And Beta Repertoires, Anna Gil, Larisa Kamga, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Nuray Aslan, Fransenio G. Clark, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin

Open Access Articles

Recognition modes of individual T cell receptors (TCRs) are well studied, but factors driving the selection of TCR repertoires from primary through persistent human virus infections are less well understood. Using deep sequencing, we demonstrate a high degree of diversity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific clonotypes in acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM). Only 9% of unique clonotypes detected in AIM persisted into convalescence; the majority (91%) of unique clonotypes detected in AIM were not detected in convalescence and were seeming replaced by equally diverse "de novo" clonotypes. The persistent clonotypes had a greater probability of being generated than nonpersistent clonotypes due ...


Post-Surgical Pyoderma Gangrenosum After Breast Surgery: A Case Series, Jahan Tajran, Daniella Anderson, Arif Chaudhry, Dennis Hammond 2020 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Post-Surgical Pyoderma Gangrenosum After Breast Surgery: A Case Series, Jahan Tajran, Daniella Anderson, Arif Chaudhry, Dennis Hammond

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory cutaneous disorder that is thought to be due to innate immune system dysfunction, specifically of neutrophils. PG has been well documented in patients with autoimmune disorders like Ulcerative Colitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. PG can also present in surgical patients, imitating a potential wound infection and necrotizing fasciitis. Although PG is a diagnosis of exclusion, prompt recognition is essential to attaining desired aesthetic outcomes, especially with breast involvement. We present a case series of four patients who developed PG following breast surgery. We analyze each patient’s medical history, symptoms, wound progression and ...


The Great Imitator Strikes Again: A Case Of A Lupus Flare-Up Presenting Like An Acute Abdomen, Emmanouil Kiriakopoulos, Vanessa Perez, Robyn Hoelle 2020 UCF/HCA - North Florida Regional Medical Center

The Great Imitator Strikes Again: A Case Of A Lupus Flare-Up Presenting Like An Acute Abdomen, Emmanouil Kiriakopoulos, Vanessa Perez, Robyn Hoelle

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease affecting all age groups and can manifest in various forms, often making the initial or successive presentations difficult to diagnose. Peritonitis secondary to lupus is a rare manifestation of this disease and the prevalence is said to be much lower in children. We present a case report of an adolescent male with a known history of lupus who presented to the emergency department with a clinical picture consistent with an acute surgical abdomen and underwent an appendectomy. Subsequent workup identified the culprit as a lupus-related peritonitis requiring corticosteroids for resolution.


Community-Based Hiv Treatment Service Delivery Model For Female Sex Workers In Tanzania: Evaluation Findings, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Louis Apicella, Jeremiah Kidola, Caterina Casalini, Gasper Mbita, Neema Makyao, Todd Koppenhaver, Erick Mlanga 2020 Population Council

Community-Based Hiv Treatment Service Delivery Model For Female Sex Workers In Tanzania: Evaluation Findings, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Louis Apicella, Jeremiah Kidola, Caterina Casalini, Gasper Mbita, Neema Makyao, Todd Koppenhaver, Erick Mlanga

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Program of the Government of Tanzania, National Institute of Medical Research, and Jhpiego’s Sauti Program, conducted an implementation science study to investigate the delivery of community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in Tanzania. Studies from sub-Saharan Africa have shown improved HIV treatment outcomes, such as uptake of HIV services, retention in care, and increased dignity and quality of life, by using community-based delivery of HIV services. As detailed in this Project SOAR final report, the study assessed the effectiveness of the community-based ART delivery intervention in ...


Evidence To Support Hiv Prevention For Adolescent Girls And Young Women (Agyw) And Their Male Partners: Results From Malawi Dreams Studies With Agyw, Male Partners Of Agyw, Men Living With Hiv, And Program Implementing Partners, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Victor Mwapasa, Effie Chipeta, Wanangwa Chimwaza, Nrupa Jani, Tracy McClair, Lyson Tenthani, Sanyukta Mathur 2020 Population Council

Evidence To Support Hiv Prevention For Adolescent Girls And Young Women (Agyw) And Their Male Partners: Results From Malawi Dreams Studies With Agyw, Male Partners Of Agyw, Men Living With Hiv, And Program Implementing Partners, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Victor Mwapasa, Effie Chipeta, Wanangwa Chimwaza, Nrupa Jani, Tracy Mcclair, Lyson Tenthani, Sanyukta Mathur

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR, led by the Population Council, in partnership with the Center of Reproductive Health at the University of Malawi College of Medicine, conducted a research portfolio to generate evidence to reduce HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and their male partners. The objectives of this implementation research were to generate evidence for describing HIV-related risk factors among AGYW; assess the extent to which the overall DREAMS project contributed toward the goal of reducing HIV risk among AGYW; and understand the characteristics of male partners and how to link them to HIV services, as well as retain ...


Strengthening Capacity For Assessment Of Hiv-Related Data Needs Among Key Populations To Inform Evidence-Based Responses, Amrita Rao, Nikita Viswasam, Stefan Baral 2020 Population Council

Strengthening Capacity For Assessment Of Hiv-Related Data Needs Among Key Populations To Inform Evidence-Based Responses, Amrita Rao, Nikita Viswasam, Stefan Baral

HIV and AIDS

Defining the HIV prevention and treatment needs of key populations who have disproportionate HIV acquisition and transmission risks has been particularly difficult in the context of generalized HIV epidemics where less attention has historically been placed on the HIV prevention and treatment needs of these groups. There is a gap in our understanding of the specific needs of—and ultimately the investment case for the added value of supporting—disproportionately burdened key populations in these settings. In response to this gap, Johns Hopkins University under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Project SOAR implemented a project in ...


Proteomic And Transcriptional Profiles Of Human Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cells Following Enteroviral Challenge, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Agata Jurczyk, Basanthi Satish, Sambra D. Redick, Natasha Qaisar, Melanie I. Trombly, Pranitha Vangala, Riccardo Racicot, Rita Bortell, David M. Harlan, Dale L. Greiner, Michael A. Brehm, Jerry L. Nadler, Jennifer P. Wang 2020 Eastern Virginia Medical School

Proteomic And Transcriptional Profiles Of Human Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cells Following Enteroviral Challenge, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Agata Jurczyk, Basanthi Satish, Sambra D. Redick, Natasha Qaisar, Melanie I. Trombly, Pranitha Vangala, Riccardo Racicot, Rita Bortell, David M. Harlan, Dale L. Greiner, Michael A. Brehm, Jerry L. Nadler, Jennifer P. Wang

Open Access Articles

Enteroviral infections are implicated in islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Significant beta-cell stress and damage occur with viral infection, leading to cells that are dysfunctional and vulnerable to destruction. Human stem cell-derived beta (SC-beta) cells are insulin-producing cell clusters that closely resemble native beta cells. To better understand the events precipitated by enteroviral infection of beta cells, we investigated transcriptional and proteomic changes in SC-beta cells challenged with coxsackie B virus (CVB). We confirmed infection by demonstrating that viral protein colocalized with insulin-positive SC-beta cells by immunostaining. Transcriptome analysis showed a decrease in insulin gene expression following ...


Neonatal-Derived Il-17 Producing Dermal Gammadelta T Cells Are Required To Prevent Spontaneous Atopic Dermatitis, Nicholas A. Spidale, Nidhi Malhotra, Michela Frascoli, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Bing Miu, Coral Freeman, Brian D. Stadinski, Eric Huseby, Joonso Kang 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neonatal-Derived Il-17 Producing Dermal Gammadelta T Cells Are Required To Prevent Spontaneous Atopic Dermatitis, Nicholas A. Spidale, Nidhi Malhotra, Michela Frascoli, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Bing Miu, Coral Freeman, Brian D. Stadinski, Eric Huseby, Joonso Kang

Open Access Articles

Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a T cell-mediated chronic skin disease and is associated with altered skin barrier integrity. Infants with mutations in genes involved in tissue barrier fitness are predisposed towards inflammatory diseases, but most do not develop or sustain the diseases, suggesting that there exist regulatory immune mechanisms to prevent aberrant inflammation. The absence of one single murine dermal cell type, the innate neonatal-derived IL-17 producing gammadelta T (Tgammadelta17) cells, from birth resulted in spontaneous, highly penetrant AD with many of the major hallmarks of human AD. In Tgammadelta17 cell-deficient mice, basal keratinocyte transcriptome was altered months in advance ...


The Interplay Of The Oral-Gut Microbiome With Chronic Inflammation In Rheumatoid Arthritis And Crohn's Disease, Anuradha Rampersaud 2020 Nova Southeastern University

The Interplay Of The Oral-Gut Microbiome With Chronic Inflammation In Rheumatoid Arthritis And Crohn's Disease, Anuradha Rampersaud

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

Abstract

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Crohn’s Disease (CD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases that share developmental and treatment similarities. RA’s symptoms include swelling, stiffness, and pain in synovial joints, corresponding with bone and cartilage destruction. CD’s symptoms include abdominal pain, bowel obstruction, bloating, diarrhea, and fever. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the links between these two diseases and propose future treatment and prevention targets. Current treatment for RA and CD aims to suppress inflammation by targeting its mediators. However, this review noted that there should be greater focus on resolving inflammation. Both diseases ...


Trajectories Of Health-Related Quality Of Life And Hba1c Values Of Children And Adolescents With Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Over 6 Months: A Longitudinal Observational Study, Kathrin I. Fischer, Felix H. Fischer, Dana Barthel, Christiane Otto, Ute Thyen, Marcus Klein, Otto Walter, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Matthias S. F. Rose, Sandra Nolte 2020 Free University of Berlin

Trajectories Of Health-Related Quality Of Life And Hba1c Values Of Children And Adolescents With Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Over 6 Months: A Longitudinal Observational Study, Kathrin I. Fischer, Felix H. Fischer, Dana Barthel, Christiane Otto, Ute Thyen, Marcus Klein, Otto Walter, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Matthias S. F. Rose, Sandra Nolte

Open Access Articles

Introduction: To achieve optimized blood glucose concentrations (assessed by HbA1c) and high health-related quality of life (HRQL), children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) must follow strict disease management strategies. This study aims to investigate HRQL of children and adolescents with T1DM and its association with HbA1c values over the course of 6 months.

Methods: Patients aged 7-17 years (n = 203) with T1DM provided HRQL data on a monthly basis. HRQL was measured using the Kids-CAT, a computer-adaptive test (CAT) comprising five generic HRQL domains. HbA1c concentrations were assessed at baseline, at 3 and 6 months. We explored ...


Identification Of The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Surface Glycoprotein Targets Of Human Kshv-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses, Yasaman Mortazavi 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Identification Of The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Surface Glycoprotein Targets Of Human Kshv-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses, Yasaman Mortazavi

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and is also associated with two B cell malignancies, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. The distribution of KSHV varies globally with high prevalence in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where seroprevalence can be as high as 80%. It is estimated that nearly 44,000 new cases of KS emerge annually globally, with the highest incidents occurring in Africa, where KSHV is endemic. Currently, there is no prophylactic vaccine against KSHV, and efforts to develop prophylactic ...


Super Learner Analysis Of Real-Time Electronically Monitored Adherence To Antiretroviral Therapy Under Constrained Optimization And Comparison To Non-Differentiated Care Approaches For Persons Living With Hiv In Rural Uganda, Alejandra E. Benitez, Nicholas Musinguzi, David Bangsberg, Mwebesa B. Bwana, Conrad Muzoora, Peter Hunt, Jeffrey N. Martin, Jessica E. Haberer, Maya L. Petersen 2020 University of California Berkeley

Super Learner Analysis Of Real-Time Electronically Monitored Adherence To Antiretroviral Therapy Under Constrained Optimization And Comparison To Non-Differentiated Care Approaches For Persons Living With Hiv In Rural Uganda, Alejandra E. Benitez, Nicholas Musinguzi, David Bangsberg, Mwebesa B. Bwana, Conrad Muzoora, Peter Hunt, Jeffrey N. Martin, Jessica E. Haberer, Maya L. Petersen

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Introduction

Real‐time electronic adherence monitoring (EAM) systems could inform on‐going risk assessment for HIV viraemia and be used to personalize viral load testing schedules. We evaluated the potential of real‐time EAM (transferred via cellular signal) and standard EAM (downloaded via USB cable) in rural Uganda to inform individually differentiated viral load testing strategies by applying machine learning approaches.

Methods

We evaluated an observational cohort of persons living with HIV and treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) who were monitored longitudinally with standard EAM from 2005 to 2011 and real‐time EAM from 2011 to 2015. Super learner, an ...


Boron Trifluoride Etherate Promoted Microwave Assisted Synthesis Of Antimalarial Acridones, Papireddy Kancharla, Rozalia A. Dodean, Yuexin Li, Jane X. Kelly 2020 Portland State University

Boron Trifluoride Etherate Promoted Microwave Assisted Synthesis Of Antimalarial Acridones, Papireddy Kancharla, Rozalia A. Dodean, Yuexin Li, Jane X. Kelly

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

A microwave-assisted, rapid and efficient method using boron trifluoride etherate (BF3.Et2O) for the synthesis of acridones, via an intramolecular acylation of N-phenylanthranilic acid derivatives, has been developed. The reaction proceeds under solvent-free conditions, tolerates a wide range of functional groups, and provides rapid access to a range of acridones in good to excellent yields. Several of the synthesized acridones exhibited potent antimalarial activities against CQ sensitive and multi-drug resistant (MDR) parasites.


Hiv Care Continuum Characteristics Among People With Opioid Use Disorder And Hiv In Vietnam: Baseline Results From The Bravo Study, Caroline King, Le Minh Giang, Gavin Bart, Lynn Elizabeth Kunkel, P. Todd Korthuis 2020 Oregon Health and Science University

Hiv Care Continuum Characteristics Among People With Opioid Use Disorder And Hiv In Vietnam: Baseline Results From The Bravo Study, Caroline King, Le Minh Giang, Gavin Bart, Lynn Elizabeth Kunkel, P. Todd Korthuis

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background

Little is known about patient characteristics that contribute to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieving viral suppression among HIV people with opioid use disorder in Vietnam. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate associations between participant characteristics and the critical steps in the HIV care continuum of ART initiation and HIV viral suppression among people with opioid use disorder and HIV in Vietnam.

Methods

We assessed baseline participant characteristics, ART status, and HIV viral suppression (HIV RNA PCR < 200 copies/mL) enrolled in a clinical trial of HIV clinic-based buprenorphine versus referral for methadone among people with opioid use disorder in Vietnam. We developed logistic regression models to identify characteristics associated with ART status and HIV viral suppression.

Results

Among 283 study participants, 191 (67.5%) were prescribed ART at baseline, and 168 of those on ART ...


Oral Manifestations Of Renal Osteodystrophy In A Patient With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Chronic Renal Failure And Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Case Report, Inthivorn Riyachan, Ajiravudh Subarnbhesaj, Wilairat Sarideechaigul, Poramaporn Klanrit 2019 Department of Biomedical Science, Research Group of Chronic Inflammatory Oral Diseases and Systemic Diseases associated with Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, 40002 Khon Kaen Province, Thailand

Oral Manifestations Of Renal Osteodystrophy In A Patient With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Chronic Renal Failure And Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Case Report, Inthivorn Riyachan, Ajiravudh Subarnbhesaj, Wilairat Sarideechaigul, Poramaporn Klanrit

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the chronic autoimmune diseases that leads to multiple manifestations in several organ systems, including chronic renal failure (CRF). Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is one of the most common complications of CRF associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). A combination of CRF and HPT can result in broad-spectrum disorders in the metabolism of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, which can affect bone turnover, mineralization, and volume. Radiographic alterations of ROD are considered as one of the earliest signs of CRF. Objective: To describe the oral manifestations in both the maxilla and mandible of ...


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