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Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel 2017 Northern Michigan University

Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel

All NMU Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of human bacterial infections; however, humans can also be asymptomatically colonized with S. aureus. Asymptomatic carriers can potentially spread S. aureus infection to others. These infections can range from mild to severe. The pathology of a S. aureus infection is often dependent on which toxins are expressed and the virulence factors with which they are associated. One goal of this study was to isolate S. aureus from healthy, consenting adult volunteers who submitted nasal swabs for culture and qRT-PCR analysis to determine which strains are present in the community. This knowledge could potentially ...


Aspergillus Fumigatus Trehalose-Regulatory Subunit Homolog Moonlights To Mediate Cell Wall Homeostasis Through Modulation Of Chitin Synthase Activity, Arsa Thammahong, Alayna K. Caffrey-Card, Sourabh Dhingra, Joshua J. Obar, Robert Cramer 2017 Dartmouth College

Aspergillus Fumigatus Trehalose-Regulatory Subunit Homolog Moonlights To Mediate Cell Wall Homeostasis Through Modulation Of Chitin Synthase Activity, Arsa Thammahong, Alayna K. Caffrey-Card, Sourabh Dhingra, Joshua J. Obar, Robert Cramer

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Here we characterize genes, called tslAand tslB, which encode proteins that contain domains similar to those corresponding to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase but lack critical catalytic residues for phosphatase activity. Loss of tslA reduces trehalose content in both conidia and mycelia, impairs cell wall integrity ...


Ticked Off: An Analysis Of The Inadequate Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Virginia P. Yoder 2017 Liberty University

Ticked Off: An Analysis Of The Inadequate Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Virginia P. Yoder

Senior Honors Theses

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and has a high prevalence among people in the northeast. Lyme disease can be a debilitating illness if not diagnosed early, and can lead to long-term health problems for many patients. This thesis serves as a review of scientific literature on Lyme disease, with the prevalence, symptomology, the bacterial mechanism of infection, the diagnostic process, transmission, and treatment therapies. Further research and development could lead to better primary care for those suffering with Lyme disease.


Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; Center for Urban Population Health

Fungal Infections From Human And Animal Contact, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.


Filamentous Fungal Carbon Catabolite Repression Supports Metabolic Plasticity And Stress Responses Essential For Disease Progression, Sarah R. Beattie, Kenneth Mark, Arsa Thammahong, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sourabh Dhingra, Alayna Caffrey-Carr, Chao Cheng 2017 Dartmouth College

Filamentous Fungal Carbon Catabolite Repression Supports Metabolic Plasticity And Stress Responses Essential For Disease Progression, Sarah R. Beattie, Kenneth Mark, Arsa Thammahong, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sourabh Dhingra, Alayna Caffrey-Carr, Chao Cheng

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for a disproportionate number of invasive mycosis cases relative to other common filamentous fungi. While many fungal factors critical for infection establishment are known, genes essential for disease persistence and progression are ill defined. We propose that fungal factors that promote navigation of the rapidly changing nutrient and structural landscape characteristic of disease progression represent untapped clinically relevant therapeutic targets. To this end, we find that A. fumigatus requires a carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediated genetic network to support in vivo fungal fitness and disease progression. While CCR as mediated by the transcriptional repressor CreA is ...


Fungus Amungus -- A Common Disease State That Is Commonly Missed: A Survey Based Study, Ramsin Yadgar, Adam Friedman, Neal Bhatia 2017 George Washington University

Fungus Amungus -- A Common Disease State That Is Commonly Missed: A Survey Based Study, Ramsin Yadgar, Adam Friedman, Neal Bhatia

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: Dermatophyte infections involving the skin, hair, or nails affect an estimated 25% of the world's population, and accounted for 51 million outpatient visits over a ten-year period (1995-2004) in the United States alone. Dermatomycosis is routinely managed by dermatologists, though given the diversity of clinical presentations, is sometimes misdiagnosed, which can result in inappropriate therapy, worsening of symptoms, and even result in additional skin and soft tissue infections.

Methods: An interactive survey of board-certified dermatologists was conducted at the 2016 Orlando Dermatology Aesthetic & Clinical Conference, during a seminar on superficial mycotic infections. The structure of the survey entailed ...


Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated With Anaplasmosis, T Johnson, M Brown, M Rabbat, Jihad Slim 2017 New York Medical College

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated With Anaplasmosis, T Johnson, M Brown, M Rabbat, Jihad Slim

NYMC Faculty Publications

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by unregulated macrophage and T-lymphocyte activation resulting in cytokine overproduction and subsequent histiocytic phagocytosis. Variant infections, particularly viruses have been postulated as the inciting factor for this potentially fatal disease. Herein, we will report a case of HLH associated with anaplasmosis.


Complex Multimodality Central Airway Management Of Aspergillus Pseudomembranous Tracheobronchitis, S Dhillon, M Saoud, Kassem Harris 2017 New York Medical College

Complex Multimodality Central Airway Management Of Aspergillus Pseudomembranous Tracheobronchitis, S Dhillon, M Saoud, Kassem Harris

NYMC Faculty Publications

A 69-year-old woman developed central airway obstruction due to invasive Aspergillus infection resulting in pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis (PTB). Several challenges were encountered in the airway management of this patient including her having relatively smaller airways which were more prone to obstruction by pseudomembranes and made airway interventions difficult. The patient had clinical deterioration in spite of antifungal therapy and bronchoscopic debridement. The multimodality airway techniques included the use of smaller biliary balloons for dilatation, using a hybrid stent to slowly dilate and maintain patency of right main stem and finally the insertion of right secondary carina peripheral Y stent, which resulted ...


Chagas, Enfermedad Olvidada: Una Perspectiva Histórica De La Prevención Y Control Del Chagas En La Provincia De Salta, Argentina (1909 – 2017) \ Chagas, A Forgotten Disease: A Historical Perspective On The Prevention And Control Of Chagas In Salta Province, Argentina (1909 – 2017), Tara Shea 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Chagas, Enfermedad Olvidada: Una Perspectiva Histórica De La Prevención Y Control Del Chagas En La Provincia De Salta, Argentina (1909 – 2017) \ Chagas, A Forgotten Disease: A Historical Perspective On The Prevention And Control Of Chagas In Salta Province, Argentina (1909 – 2017), Tara Shea

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

El Chagas es una enfermedad vectorial más conocida en zonas rurales de América Latina y en Argentina es endémica en la región noroeste del país (MSAL, 2017). Designada una enfermedad tropical desatendida (Neglected Tropical Disease, NTD) por la OMS, la crónica del Chagas desde su “hallazgo casual” en 1909 siempre se trató de abandono (INP, 2017; MSF, 2012; OMS, 2017; Reyes López, 2009; Stamboulian, 2015; Zabala, 2009). En toda la Argentina se identifican 1.600.000 casos y 7.300.000 personas expuestas al Chagas, dando el país una de las tasas chagásicas más altas del mundo (Bär, 2015; MSAL ...


Abordajes De Nuevos Tratamientos Para La Enfermedad De Chagas Y Su Potencial Aplicación En Pacientes Desde Las Perspectivas De Los Profesionales En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Approaches To New Treatments For Chagas Disease And Their Potential Application In Patients From The Perspectives Of Professionals In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chelsea Hipwell 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Abordajes De Nuevos Tratamientos Para La Enfermedad De Chagas Y Su Potencial Aplicación En Pacientes Desde Las Perspectivas De Los Profesionales En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Approaches To New Treatments For Chagas Disease And Their Potential Application In Patients From The Perspectives Of Professionals In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chelsea Hipwell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Más de cien años después del descubrimiento de la enfermedad de Chagas, esta enfermedad desatendida sigue afectando más de 6 millones de personas en Latinoamérica, de las cuales 1.5 millones son de Argentina. Al día de hoy, solo existen dos medicamentos para tratar esta enfermedad. El presente proyecto se basa sobre un estudio exploratorio de los desafíos de tratar la enfermedad de Chagas en sus distintas fases y los abordajes actuales para nuevos tratamientos.

Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron los siguientes: en primer lugar, estudiar el contexto socio-económico en que existe esta enfermedad y las implicaciones de este ...


Diagnostic Challenges And Treatment Difficulties In A Patient With Excoriated Acne Conglobata, Simona R. Georgescu, Maria I. Sârbu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Dermatology

Diagnostic Challenges And Treatment Difficulties In A Patient With Excoriated Acne Conglobata, Simona R. Georgescu, Maria I. Sârbu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Acne conglobata is a rare and severe form of acne vulgaris, characterized by the presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and sometimes hematic or meliceric crusts. Acne excoriée is a form of self-inflicted skin condition in which the patient picks on imaginary or real acne lesions.

We report the case of a 16 year old Caucasian female patient from the urban area who addressed our dermatology department for erythematous, edematous plaques covered by pustules and crusts, located on the face. The anamnesis revealed that during the last weeks she had had a depressive mood after ending a relationship with her ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Enhanced Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Extrapulmonary Dissemination In Mice By An Arabinomannan-Protein Conjugate Vaccine, R Prados-Rosales, L Carreno, T Cheng, C Blanc, B Weinrick, A Malek, T Lowary, A Baena, M Joe, Y Bai, R Kalscheuer, A Batista-Gonzalez, N Saavedra, L Sampedro, J Tomas, J Anguita, S Hung, A Tripathi, J Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, W Jacobs Jr., J Chan, S Porcelli, J Achkar, A Casadevall 2017 New York Medical College

Enhanced Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Extrapulmonary Dissemination In Mice By An Arabinomannan-Protein Conjugate Vaccine, R Prados-Rosales, L Carreno, T Cheng, C Blanc, B Weinrick, A Malek, T Lowary, A Baena, M Joe, Y Bai, R Kalscheuer, A Batista-Gonzalez, N Saavedra, L Sampedro, J Tomas, J Anguita, S Hung, A Tripathi, J Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, W Jacobs Jr., J Chan, S Porcelli, J Achkar, A Casadevall

NYMC Faculty Publications

Currently there are a dozen or so of new vaccine candidates in clinical trials for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) and each formulation attempts to elicit protection by enhancement of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In contrast, most approved vaccines against other bacterial pathogens are believed to mediate protection by eliciting antibody responses. However, it has been difficult to apply this formula to TB because of the difficulty in reliably eliciting protective antibodies. Here, we developed capsular polysaccharide conjugates by linking mycobacterial capsular arabinomannan (AM) to either Mtb Ag85b or B. anthracis protective antigen (PA). Further, we studied their immunogenicity by ELISA and ...


Plasmid Diversity And Phylogenetic Consistency In The Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia Burgdorferi, Sherwood R. Casjens, Eddie B. Gilcrease, Marija Vujadinovic, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Benjamin J. Luft, Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu 2017 University of Utah

Plasmid Diversity And Phylogenetic Consistency In The Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia Burgdorferi, Sherwood R. Casjens, Eddie B. Gilcrease, Marija Vujadinovic, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Benjamin J. Luft, Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu

Publications and Research

Background: Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi.

Results: We have sequenced the genomes of 14 B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates that carry a total of 236 plasmids. These individual isolates carry between seven and 23 plasmids. Their chromosomes, the cp26 and cp32 circular plasmids, as well as the lp54 linear plasmid, are quite evolutionarily stable; however, the remaining plasmids have undergone numerous non-homologous and often duplicative recombination ...


Two Cases Of Lyme Arthritis In Winter In New England: A Case Series, Jennifer Baima, Lauren Woo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Two Cases Of Lyme Arthritis In Winter In New England: A Case Series, Jennifer Baima, Lauren Woo

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations

Case Diagnosis: Lyme Arthritis

Case Description: Patient 1 is a 26 year old male who presented in March with severe right knee pain and swelling for two weeks. He had a similar episode a month prior, but it resolved. The second episode progressed with pain from knee to foot and numbness on top of the foot. He had no known history of tick bites, travel, or trauma, but endorsed contact with a dog. On physical exam, he had a right knee effusion with limited ROM, diffuse joint line tenderness, positive McMurray’s, and pain with ligamentous testing. Synovial fluid of ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


Fluoride Varnish Application In The Pediatric Population, Ellen Gnaedinger 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Fluoride Varnish Application In The Pediatric Population, Ellen Gnaedinger

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Purpose: The United States (U.S.) has a persistent problem of dental caries in primary teeth with a greater prevalence of dental caries found in minority and poor children. The majority of children in the U.S. experience dental caries in their primary teeth by age eight. This problem could be addressed by primary care providers applying fluoride varnish (FV) to children's teeth starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. The causes of dental caries in children’s primary teeth are multifactorial and therefore require multiple interventions. Around the world providers are utilizing FV as an effective and ...


Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability Of Contact Lens-Associated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms But Induces Expression Of The Virulence-Associated Type Iii Secretion System, Yvonne T. Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S. Zhu, David J. Evans, Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig 2017 Touro University California

Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability Of Contact Lens-Associated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms But Induces Expression Of The Virulence-Associated Type Iii Secretion System, Yvonne T. Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S. Zhu, David J. Evans, Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

Purpose

The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens(CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression.

Methods

P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h. Biofilms were imaged using confocal microscopy. Bacterial culturability was quantified by viable counts, and T3SS gene expression measured by RT-qPCR ...


Determining The Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol, And Glycerol On Both Thermal Stability And Catalytic Activity Of Rv0045c, An Enzyme From M. Tuberculosis, Katelyn Baumer 2017 Butler University

Determining The Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol, And Glycerol On Both Thermal Stability And Catalytic Activity Of Rv0045c, An Enzyme From M. Tuberculosis, Katelyn Baumer

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious respiratory disease contracted through the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Serine hydrolases are abundant in M. tuberculosis and serve as a model for studying the inhibition of TB. Rv0045c is an example of such with little known regarding its biological function. Rv0045c was exposed to methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or glycerol and the effects of varying concentration of these alcohols on the catalytic efficiency and thermal stability of the enzyme was determined. The thermal stability of Rv0045c was found to decrease with concentration of methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol. The opposite was true of the thermal stability ...


Characterizing The Role Of Cpsa In Mycobacterial Pathogenesis, Amir Hassan 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterizing The Role Of Cpsa In Mycobacterial Pathogenesis, Amir Hassan

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one-third of the world’s population and causes an estimated 2 million deaths per year, more than any other single bacterial pathogen. The inadequacies of existing tuberculosis therapies demand the discovery of novel agents to treat M. tuberculosis infection, which requires mechanistic insight into the pathways involved in mycobacterial pathogenesis. We identified an unanticipated role of the M. tuberculosis protein CpsA in preventing phago-lysosome fusion by host macrophages, resulting in enhanced intracellular survival of bacteria within the host. Strains of M. tuberculosis lacking cpsA are severely attenuated in both macrophage and mouse models, thus establishing CpsA as ...


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