Optimal Control Of Vaccination Rate In An Epidemiological Model Of Clostridium Difficile Transmission, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Optimal Control Of Vaccination Rate In An Epidemiological Model Of Clostridium Difficile Transmission, Brittany Stephenson
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Gist) Of The Treitz’S Angle– A Very Rare Cause Of High Bowel Obstruction, 2016 Titu Maiorescu University of Bucharest, Faculty of Medicine
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Gist) Of The Treitz’S Angle– A Very Rare Cause Of High Bowel Obstruction, Mădălina Elena Tobă, Dan Florin Ungureanu, Lota Corina Georgescu, Traian Pătraşcu
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are somewhat rare gastrointestinal tumors - approximately 1% to 3% incidence, but they are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are usually found in the stomach or small intestine but can occur anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract, even in extremely uncommon locations like duodeno-jejunal flexure. Only 3% – 5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum and tumors occurring in the angle of Treitz are even rarer, most published studies being case reports. These tumors have a size ranging from small lesions to large masses and can cause digestive bleeding or high bowel obstruction ...
Helicobacter Pylori: Types Of Diseases, Diagnosis, Treatment And Causes Of Therapeutic Failure, 2016 Craiova University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Surgery
Helicobacter Pylori: Types Of Diseases, Diagnosis, Treatment And Causes Of Therapeutic Failure, Cosmin Vasile Obleaga, Cristin Constantin Vere, Ionica Daniel Valcea, Mihai Calin Ciorbagiu, Emil Moraru, Cecil Sorin Mirea
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Acute upper gastrointestinal lesions have a multifactorial etiology but, regardless of the cause, they are related to mucosal barrier destruction. Since Helicobacter pylori induces a superficial chronic gastritis with the infiltration of neutrophils in the mucosa, it was speculated that Helicobacter pylori infection could also cause bleeding lesions. The diagnosis, the proper treatment and the revaluation of its effectiveness actually represent the prophylaxis of some diseases such as peptic ulcer, gastric lymphoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and gastric cancer. These diseases and their severe complications are life-threatening for the patient. Periodic renewal of the treatment and knowing the real ...
There Is A Trend Favoring Vancomycin Vs. Metronidazole In Treating Severe C. Difficile Infection, 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine
There Is A Trend Favoring Vancomycin Vs. Metronidazole In Treating Severe C. Difficile Infection, Dean D. Fouchia
Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates
A critical appraisal and clinical application of Johnson S, Louie TJ, Gerding DN, et al. Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(3):345-354. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu313
Trefoil Factor 2 (Tff2) Deficiency In Murine Digestive Tract Influences The Immune System, 2016 University of Tübingen
Trefoil Factor 2 (Tff2) Deficiency In Murine Digestive Tract Influences The Immune System, M. Baus- Loncar, J. Schmid, El-Nasir Lalani, I. Rosewell, R. A. Goodlad, H. G.W. Stamp, N. Blin, T. Kayademir
El Nasir Lalani
Background & Aims:
The gastrointestinal trefoil factor family (TFF1, TFF2, TFF3) peptides are considered to play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosa. The physiological role of TFF2 in the protection of the GI tract was investigated in TFF2 deficiency.
TFF2-/- mice were generated and differential expression of various genes was assessed by using a mouse expression microarray, quantitative real time PCR, Northern blots or immunohistochemistry.
On an mRNA level we found 128 differentially expressed genes. We observed modulation of a number of crucial genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity in the TFF2-/- mice. Expression ...
Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo
Alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops with advanced alcoholic liver disease and liver fibrosis. Using adult mice, we evaluate the effect of alcoholic steatohepatitis on early hepatobiliary carcinoma after initiation by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Here we show that alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice have higher ALT and liver-to-body weight ratio compared to pair-fed DEN-injected mice. Alcohol feeding results in steatohepatitis indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes. MRI and liver histology of alcohol+DEN mice shows hepatobiliary cysts, early hepatic neoplasia and increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Proliferation makers (BrdU, cyclin D1, p53) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and nanog) are significantly up-regulated ...
Epigenetic Modulation In Braf Mutated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston
Epigenetic Modulation In Braf Mutated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, Van Morris
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Introduction: BRAF V600E mutations are associated with poor clinical outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Unlike other tumors with the same mutation, BRAF inhibitors are ineffective as monotherapy. CRC tumors with BRAF V600E mutations are associated with global hypermethylation, which may turn off tumor suppressor gene expression. We studied demethylation in BRAF V600E mCRC to restore sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors.
Methods: Tumor databanks were investigated for genes differentially expressed according to BRAF mutation status to identify genes which may be particularly susceptible to epigenetic influence. Mouse xenograft models of BRAFV600E mCRC were treated with vemurafenib or azacitidine, alone ...
Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...
Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, 2016 James Madison University
Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards
Physician Assistant Capstones
Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...
Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine
Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson
Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates
A critical appraisal and clinical application of Lee WM, Hynan LS, Rossaro L, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(3):856-864. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.06.006
Redefining Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Systematic Review, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Redefining Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Naomi Shin, Young H. Kim, Hao Xu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing-Qiao Zhang, Jean Paul Colon Pons, Ducksoo Kim, Yi Xu, Fei-Yun Wu, Samuel Han, Byung-Boong Lee, Lin-Sun Li
Radiology Publications and Presentations
AIM: To re-examine whether hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) (classical Budd-Chiari syndrome) and hepatic vena cava-Budd Chiari syndrome (HVC-BCS) are the same disorder.
METHODS: A systematic review of observational studies conducted in adult subjects with primary BCS, hepatic vein outflow tract obstruction, membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC), obliterative hepatocavopathy, or HVT during the period of January 2000 until February 2015 was conducted using the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus.
RESULTS: Of 1299 articles identified, 26 were included in this study. Classical BCS is more common in women with a pure hepatic vein obstruction (49 ...
Traveling With Stowaways: The Human Microbiome And Travel, 2016 University of Washington - Tacoma Campus
Traveling With Stowaways: The Human Microbiome And Travel, Alisha N. Hughes
Global Honors Theses
The human microbiome is a research field that is fairly new and thus, not yet fully understood. However, past research has revealed that the human host and the microorganisms interact with each other. To comprehend how influential the connection between host and its stowaways is, the following text will first offer general information on the human microbiome, before moving on to a pilot case study proposal. With the use of similar case studies, this proposal aims to investigate how the human microbiome changes when the host travels and analyzes the changes and their affects on the individual’s health. The ...
Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, 2016 Aurora Health Care
Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano
Aurora Internal Medicine Residents
Background: Early hospital readmissions are a direct burden on both our patients’ well-being and health care system as a whole. Acute pancreatitis is a top offender, with countless 30-day readmissions. Studies have showed a consistently higher than average 30-day readmission rates in acute pancreatitis, around 19%. This is significantly higher than the average all-cause readmission rate at Aurora Health Care hospitals. This quality improvement project aimed to reduce the rate of acute pancreatitis 30-day readmission rates at several Aurora hospitals through patient education and a readmission risk assessment tool. Purpose: To clarify some of the risk factors associated with acute ...
Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator And Arginine In A Rat Fulminant Colitis Model, 2016 Madigan Army Medical Center
Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator And Arginine In A Rat Fulminant Colitis Model, Nathan P. Zwintscher, Puja M. Shah, Shashikumar K. Salgar, Christopher R. Newton, Justin A. Maykel, Ahmed Samy, Murad Jabir, Scott R. Steele
Open Access Articles
INTRODUCTION: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used to induce a murine fulminant colitis model. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to decrease the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the effect of its activator, HGFA, is not well characterized. Arginine reduces effects of oxidative stress but its effect on IBD is not well known. The primary aim is to determine whether HGF and HGFA, or arginine will decrease IBD symptoms such as pain and diarrhea in a DSS-induced fulminant colitis murine model.
METHODS: A severe colitis was induced in young, male Fischer 344 rats with 4% (w ...
Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., 2016 University of Louisville
Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980-
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Chronic alcohol consumption causes a pro-oxidant environment in the liver and increases hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acrolein is the most reactive and toxic aldehyde generated through lipid peroxidation. Acrolein forms protein adducts and triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which are recognized etiologic factors in ALD. Several studies have established the critical role of the gut-liver axis in ALD pathogenesis, wherein alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction contributes to liver injury. This study investigates, in vitro and in vivo, the ...
The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., 2016 University of Louisville
The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death. These are staggering statistics for a disease that can essentially be cured if caught early and the pathology is favorable to therapeutic intervention. There is currently a drastic decrease in five year survival as the cancer stage increases from locally confined disease to metastatic disease. These statistics suggest that although some strides have been made with colon cancer screening and early intervention, there is still much room for improvement in both screening and treatment of CRC. One of the pathways that have ...
Adult Mouse Model Of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Promoted By Alcoholic Liver Disease, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Adult Mouse Model Of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Promoted By Alcoholic Liver Disease, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Gyongyi Szabo
Open Access Articles
AIM: To establish a mouse model of alcohol-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops in livers with alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male mice received multiple doses of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 7 wk of 4% Lieber-DeCarli diet. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver Cyp2e1 were assessed. Expression of F4/80, CD68 for macrophages and Ly6G, MPO, E-selectin for neutrophils was measured. Macrophage polarization was determined by IL-1beta/iNOS (M1) and Arg-1/IL-10/CD163/CD206 (M2) expression. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by oil-red-O and Sirius red staining respectively. HCC development ...
Inflammation Mediated By Jnk In Myeloid Cells Promotes The Development Of Hepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Inflammation Mediated By Jnk In Myeloid Cells Promotes The Development Of Hepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Myoung Souk Han, Tamera Barrett, Michael A. Brehm, Roger J. Davis
The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is required for the development of hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A role for JNK in liver parenchymal cells has been proposed, but more recent studies have implicated non-parenchymal liver cells as the relevant site of JNK signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that myeloid cells mediate this function of JNK. We show that mice with myeloid cell-specific JNK deficiency exhibit reduced hepatic inflammation and suppression of both hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. These data identify myeloid cells as a site of pro-inflammatory signaling by JNK that can promote liver pathology. Targeting myeloid cells with ...
Treatment And Prevention Of Human Rotavirus (Hrv) In Developing Countries: The Potential Of Avian Immunoglobulin Y, Christa Brown
Senior Honors Theses
Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood mortality, killing ~1400 children younger than five daily, primarily through severe diarrheal dehydration. Eighty-five percent of this mortality occurs in developing countries where rotavirus vaccines are not widely implemented and are only partially effective. In those countries, it has proven difficult to implement the recommended supportive therapies like oral rehydration therapy (ORT) on a wide scale due to lack of both medical infrastructure and private economic investment combined with cultural bias against ORT. IgY targeting human rotavirus (anti-HRV IgY) shows potential as a passive immunotherapy that reduces rotavirus-associated morbidity and mortality, augments ...
Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, 2016 Liberty University
Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg
Senior Honors Theses
The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...