Sigirr Variants Identified In Nec Infants Exaggerate Toll-Like Receptor Mediated Inflammation, 2022 Children's Mercy Hospital
Sigirr Variants Identified In Nec Infants Exaggerate Toll-Like Receptor Mediated Inflammation, Jennie Godwin
Background: A key event underlying uncontrolled inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is pathologic activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR4 recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), from Gramnegative bacteria, and TLR2 peptidoglycans (PAM3Csyk4, PAM), from Gram-positive bacteria. TLR4 and TLR2 signaling events induce an inflammatory cascade through NF-kB, a cytokine inducing transcription factor. Single-immunoglobulin interleukin-1-related receptor (SIGIRR) is a major negative regulator of TLR-mediated NF-kB activation. Previous work from our lab suggests that loss of function in SIGIRR may predispose to NEC. Our lab has identified four variants in NEC patients predicted to alter function of SIGIRR. We hypothesized that identified SIGIRR variants will ...
Metastasis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Secondary To Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A Case Report, 2022 MountainView Medical Center
Metastasis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Secondary To Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A Case Report, George Trad, Nazanin Sheikhan, Andrew Nguyen, Jason Ma, Jordan Valenta, Homayon Iraninezhad
HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine
Metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP) is a condition that occurs when patients develop acute pancreatitis secondary to metastatic malignancy. Most pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas that are primary malignancies. On the other hand, metastatic pancreatic lesions are rare, especially from primary pulmonary malignancies. Acute pancreatitis caused by metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas is a very rare presentation. Herein, we present the case of a 63-year-old male with a history of small-cell lung carcinoma presenting to the hospital due to recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who was found to have metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. The patient was treated conservatively for his recurrent acute pancreatitis ...
Globularia Alypum L. Modulates Inflammatory Markers In The Human Colon And Shows A Potential Antioxidant Role In Myeloid Leukemic Cells, Carolina Ciacci
Translational Medicine @ UniSa
Globularia alypum (GA), a plant of the Globulariacea family, has long been used as a traditional cure for inflammatory and metabolic illnesses.In addition to various in vitro model studies, the current work focuses on GA'santioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in human colon biopsies.
Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry identified the phenol components in GA aqueous extract (GAAE).The antioxidant ability of GAAE was tested in vitro utilizing chemiluminescence and flow cytometry using fluorescent yeastsn conjunction with PLB-985-human myeloid leukemia cells. Experiments on human colon biopsies after a biopsy challenge with Escherichia coli-lipopolysaccharides aimed tosee if GAAE had an anti-inflammatory ...
Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown
Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications
There is mounting evidence that microbes residing in the human intestine contribute to diverse alcohol-associated liver diseases (ALD) including the most deadly form known as alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). However, mechanisms by which gut microbes synergize with excessive alcohol intake to promote liver injury are poorly understood. Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the levels of microbe and host choline co-metabolites in healthy controls and AH patients, finding elevated levels of the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) in AH. In subsequent studies, we ...
The Scaffold-Dependent Function Of Ripk1 In Dendritic Cells Promotes Injury-Induced Colitis, Kenta Moriwaki, Christa Park, Kazuha Koyama, Sakthi Balaji, Kohei Kita, Ryoko Yagi, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Manami Semba, Tatsuya Asuka, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yoshihiro Kamada, Eiji Miyoshi, Francis K. M. Chan
Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors
Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a cytosolic multidomain protein that controls cell life and death. While RIPK1 promotes cell death through its kinase activity, it also functions as a scaffold protein to promote cell survival by inhibiting FADD-caspase 8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis. This pro-survival function is highlighted by excess cell death and perinatal lethality in Ripk1(-/-) mice. Recently, loss of function mutation of RIPK1 was found in patients with immunodeficiency and inflammatory bowel diseases. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation restored not only immunodeficiency but also intestinal inflammatory pathology, indicating that RIPK1 in hematopoietic cells is critical to maintain ...
Severe Mixed Mitral Valve Disease Due To Massive Mitral Annular Calcification: A Case Report And Literature Review, Fateh Ali Tipoo Sultan, Sheema Saadia
Section of Cardiology
We present an unusual case of massive mitral annular calcification (MAC) leading to severe mixed mitral valve disease, viz severe mitral regurgitation and severe mitral stenosis. To our knowledge, severe mixed mitral valve disease secondary to MAC is extremely rare. The patient (a 65-year-old lady) presented with worsening shortness of breath and signs of congestive heart failure. Echocardiographic examination revealed massive mitral annular calcification. Despite the massive annular calcification, she had experienced neither embolism nor endocarditis in the past. Because of severe symptomatic mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis, surgery was advised; however, the patient declined it.
Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. Mccormick
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications
Shigella spp. are highly adapted pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in human and nonhuman primates. An unusual feature of Shigella pathogenesis is that this organism invades the colonic epithelia from the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier to reach the basolateral surface. We have shown previously that the secreted serine protease A (SepA), which belongs to the family of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, is responsible for the initial destabilization of the intestinal epithelial barrier that facilitates Shigella invasion. However, the mechanisms used by SepA to regulate this process remain unknown. To ...
Effect Of 3 Days Of Oral Azithromycin On Young Children With Acute Diarrhea In Low-Resource Settings: A Randomized Clinical Trial, 2021 International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Effect Of 3 Days Of Oral Azithromycin On Young Children With Acute Diarrhea In Low-Resource Settings: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Antibiotics For Children With Diarrhea (Abcd) Study Group, Tahmeed Ahmed, Farah Naz Qamar, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Shahida Qureshi, Sadia Shakoor, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Furqan Kabir, Jan Mohammed
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
Importance: World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines do not recommend routine antibiotic use for children with acute watery diarrhea. However, recent studies suggest that a significant proportion of such episodes have a bacterial cause and are associated with mortality and growth impairment, especially among children at high risk of diarrhea-associated mortality. Expanding antibiotic use among dehydrated or undernourished children may reduce diarrhea-associated mortality and improve growth.
Objective: To determine whether the addition of azithromycin to standard case management of acute nonbloody watery diarrhea for children aged 2 to 23 months who are dehydrated or undernourished could reduce mortality and improve linear ...
Impact Of Compensated Cirrhosis On Survival In Patients With Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure, 2021 University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, Thailand
Impact Of Compensated Cirrhosis On Survival In Patients With Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure, Kessarin Thanapirom, Tongluk Teerasarntipan, Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Ashok Choudhury, Manoj K. Sahu, Rakhi Maiwall, Viniyendra Pamecha, Richard Moreau, Saeed Hamid, Amna Subhan Butt
Section of Gastroenterology
Background and aims: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is considered a main prognostic event in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We analyzed the 28-day and 90-day mortality in ACLF patients with or without underlying cirrhosis enrolled in the ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database.
Methods: A total of 1,621 patients were prospectively enrolled and 637 (39.3%) of these patients had cirrhosis. Baseline characteristics, complications and mortality were compared between patients with and without cirrhosis.
Results: Alcohol consumption was more common in cirrhosis than non-cirrhosis (66.4% vs. 44.2%, p < 0.0001), while non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/cryptogenic CLD (10.9% vs 5.8%, p < 0.0001) and chronic HBV reactivation (18.8% vs 11.8%, p < 0.0001) were more common in non-cirrhosis. Only 0.8% of patients underwent liver transplantation. Overall, 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were 39.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had a greater chance of survival compared to those without cirrhosis both at 28-day (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36-0.63, p < 0.0001) and 90-day (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.72, p < 0.0001), respectively. In alcohol CLD, non-cirrhosis patients had a higher 28-day (49.9% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001) and 90-day (58.4% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) mortality rate than cirrhosis patients. ACLF patients with cirrhosis had longer mean survival than non-cirrhosis patients (25.5 vs. 18.8 days at 28-day and 65.2 vs. 41.2 days at 90-day). Exaggerated systemic inflammation might be the reason why non-cirrhosis patients had a poorer prognosis than those with cirrhosis after ACLF had occurred.
Conclusions: The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates of ACLF ...
Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, 2021 Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell
Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health
Supplementation with micronutrients, including vitamins, iron and zinc, is a key strategy to alleviate child malnutrition. However, association of gastrointestinal disorders with iron has led to ongoing debate over their administration. To better understand their impact on gut microbiota, we analyse the bacterial, protozoal, fungal and helminth communities of stool samples collected from a subset of 80 children at 12 and 24 months of age, previously enrolled into a large cluster randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in Pakistan (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00705445). We show that while bacterial diversity is reduced in supplemented children, vitamins and iron (as well as ...
Ultrasonographic Evaluation Of Patients With Abnormal Liver Function Tests In The Emergency Department, 2021 Saint Vincent Hospital
Ultrasonographic Evaluation Of Patients With Abnormal Liver Function Tests In The Emergency Department, Baran Umut Vardar, Carolyn S. Dupuis, Alan J. Goldstein, Zeynep Vardar, Young H. Kim
Ultrasonography is often the initial modality used to evaluate patients found to have abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in the emergency department. While an assessment for biliary ductal dilatation and obstruction remains one of the main questions to answer, radiologists should also be aware of the ultrasonographic appearance of other conditions that can cause abnormal LFTs. This may be crucial for the management and disposition of patients in the emergency department. This article reviews the ultrasonographic features of diseases that may cause abnormal LFTs.
Alpha-Gal Allergy: A New Threat To Appalachia, 2021 Marshall University
Alpha-Gal Allergy: A New Threat To Appalachia, Adam M. Franks Md, Makala Murphy Bs, Madison Griffis Md, Rebekah Franks Ba, Cwr, Colin M. Franks, Gary Petty Md
Marshall Journal of Medicine
Alpha-gal allergy, or mammalian meat allergy, is described as the development of IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-a-1,3-galactose following a bite from the tick species Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick) or Dermacentor variabillis (Wood tick). Dermatologic or gastrointestinal symptoms are usually delayed by four to six hours after exposure, making the diagnosis difficult. Due to the use of mammalian proteins in many common medications, surgical equipment and prosthesis, unexpected reactions can occur. In the United States, this pathology is predominately seen in the southeast, but has been associated with other tick species on every continent except Antarctica. As ...
Health And Economic Benefits Of Achieving Hepatitis C Virus Elimination In Pakistan: A Modelling Study And Economic Analysis, 2021 University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Health And Economic Benefits Of Achieving Hepatitis C Virus Elimination In Pakistan: A Modelling Study And Economic Analysis, Aaron G. Lim, Nick Scott, Josephine G. Walker, Saeed Hamid, Margaret Hellard, Peter Vickerman
Section of Gastroenterology
Background: Modelling suggests that achieving the WHO incidence target for hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination in Pakistan could cost US$3.87 billion over 2018 to 2030. However, the economic benefits from integrating services or improving productivity were not included.
Methods and findings: We adapt a HCV transmission model for Pakistan to estimate the impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of achieving HCV elimination (reducing annual HCV incidence by 80% by 2030) with stand-alone service delivery, or partially integrating one-third of initial HCV testing into existing healthcare services. We estimate the net economic benefits by comparing the required investment in screening, treatment ...
Role Of Gut Microbiome In Covid-19: An Insight Into Pathogenesis And Therapeutic Potential, 2021 Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
Role Of Gut Microbiome In Covid-19: An Insight Into Pathogenesis And Therapeutic Potential, Ikram Hussain, Gabriel Liu Yuan Cher, Muhammad Abbas Abid, Muhammad Bilal Abid
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in an unprecedented global crisis. Although primarily a respiratory illness, dysregulated immune responses may lead to multi-organ dysfunction. Prior data showed that the resident microbial communities of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts act as modulators of local and systemic inflammatory activity (the gut-lung axis). Evolving evidence now signals an alteration in the gut microbiome, brought upon either by cytokines from the infected respiratory tract or from direct infection of the gut, or both. Dysbiosis leads to a "leaky gut". The intestinal permeability then allows access to ...
Klebsiella Pneumoniae Cryptogenic Liver Abscess And Endophthalmitis – A Case Report And Review Of Literature, 2021 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Klebsiella Pneumoniae Cryptogenic Liver Abscess And Endophthalmitis – A Case Report And Review Of Literature, Mihai Leonard Grecescu, Monica Grecescu, Andreea Smarandache Maria, Cristian Mihai Branescu, Anca Anghelache, Anca Silvia Dumitriu, Stana Paunica, Andreea Cristina Costea
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as the predominant pathogenic agent of liver abscess in Asia, and the incidence is increasing worldwide. Hypervirulent strains are associated with septic metastatic dissemination in the eyes, lungs, and central nervous system, causing severe morbidity. We present the case of a 54year old man, with no previous comorbidities, admitted in emergency for the blind red painful eye. Further investigation documented septic endophthalmitis with transscleral extension and orbital cellulitis. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography evidenced a hepatic abscess as the locus of the primary infection. Intravenous antibiotherapy with cefuroxime, followed by meropenem and vancomycin were efficient for managing the ...
A Rare Complication In A Covid-19 Positive Patient With Sigmoid Colon Cancer-Hemoperitoneum Due To Gallbladder Necrosis Following Micro-Thrombosis, 2021 SIBIU COUNTY CLINICAL EMERGENCY HOSPITAL, DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY, SIBIU, ROMANIA
A Rare Complication In A Covid-19 Positive Patient With Sigmoid Colon Cancer-Hemoperitoneum Due To Gallbladder Necrosis Following Micro-Thrombosis, Mihai Faur, Andrei Moisin, Calin Mohor, Dan Sabau
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Covid-19, also known as acute respiratory syndrome 2019-nCoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 2, and Wuhan pneumonia, is a viral respiratory disease caused by a SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The most serious complications of Covid-19 are due to the development of micro-thrombosis in various organs and systems as a result of the high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 and 6) which initiate the activation of coagulation and the generation of thrombin. Several studies demonstrated the poor outcome of Covid-19-infected patients who underwent surgery, suggesting that surgery may accelerate and exacerbate Covid-19 progression. We report the case ...
Quality Of Life And Special Issues In Women With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, CLINICAL EMERGENCY HOSPITAL OF BUCHAREST, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA
Quality Of Life And Special Issues In Women With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Gabriel Constantinescu, Gina Gheorghe, Ecaterina Rinja, Oana Plotogea, Vasile Sandru, Andreea Butuc, Camelia Cristina Diaconu, Anca Macovei Oprescu, Bogdan Popa, Madalina Ilie
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Introduction. The impact of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on the quality of life (QoL) of patients is significant and it has important social and professional consequences. Materials and methods. We aimed to describe the patients’ perspective regarding the impact of IBD on their overall QoL and to evaluate the differences between men and women. An observational cross-sectional study, that included 180 patients with IBD in clinical remission, was conducted. All the patients completed a number of 3 questionnaires in order to evaluate the general aspects of their QoL. A separate questionnaire was created regarding gender-specific issues in women with IBD ...
The Management Of Tubo-Ovarian Abscesses Associated With Appendicitis, 2021 OVIDIUS UNIVERSITY CONSTANTA, FACULTY OF GENERAL MEDICINE, CONSTANTA, ROMANIA
The Management Of Tubo-Ovarian Abscesses Associated With Appendicitis, Lucian Serbanescu, Diana Badiu, Stere Popescu, Dimitrie Busu, Andreea Cristina Costea
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
A relatively uncommon medical complication, the tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) can result from ascending pelvic infection in the female genital tract. The paper aims at exploring the characteristics of patients with TOA and at comparing the outcomes of the surgical management with postoperative recovery. A retrospective analysis of 25 cases diagnosed with bilateral, right or left TOA at “St. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Clinical County Hospital Constanta, Romania between January 2019 and December 2020 was performed. The patients’ clinical characteristics, age, environment of origin, socio-economic background, educational level, the means of contraception used, surgical procedures, and postoperative recovery were analyzed. Out of ...
Esophageal Atresia Associating Gastrointestinal Malformations: A Study Of Clinical Approach, 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, FACULTY OF GENERAL MEDICINE, DEPARTMENT 11, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA
Esophageal Atresia Associating Gastrointestinal Malformations: A Study Of Clinical Approach, Dan Alexandru Iozsa, Andreea Cristina Costea, Nicolae Sebastian Ionescu
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Digestive tract malformations requiring surgical repair in association with esophageal atresia are rare occurrences. Because of this uncommon presentation of esophageal atresia, its evaluation and management are often difficult, requiring extensive workup and multiple surgical procedures. We present our experience with esophageal atresia associating gastrointestinal congenital anomalies in the last 10 years. Clinical and surgical perspectives were pointed willing to make relevant observations in matters of diagnosis and treatment strategy in these patients. Therefore, 7 cases resembling this pattern were identified – duodenal atresia and anorectal malformation being the most common coexistent malformations. All the cases exhibited technical and procedural staging ...
The Impact Of Patient-Dependent Risk Factors On Morbidity And Mortality Following Gastric Surgery For Malignancies, 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, EMERGENCY CLINICAL HOSPITAL OF BUCHAREST, DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SURGERY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA
The Impact Of Patient-Dependent Risk Factors On Morbidity And Mortality Following Gastric Surgery For Malignancies, Bogdan Dumitriu, Sebastian Valcea, Gabriel Andrei, Mircea Beuran
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Gastric cancer remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The treatment for gastric cancer is multimodal, in which gastrectomy remains the only curative approach. However, gastric resection is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates, depending on several factors. These factors can be attributed to the patient as comorbidities or effects of the disease upon him and, on the other hand, there are risk factors independent of the patient, such as aspects of the tumor (type, staging, location), experience of the surgical and anesthetic team, logistics of the hospital, yield of adjuvant therapies etc. We recognize the fact that ...