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389 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Optimal Control Of Vaccination Rate In An Epidemiological Model Of Clostridium Difficile Transmission, Brittany Stephenson 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Optimal Control Of Vaccination Rate In An Epidemiological Model Of Clostridium Difficile Transmission, Brittany Stephenson

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Gist) Of The Treitz’S Angle– A Very Rare Cause Of High Bowel Obstruction, Mădălina Elena Tobă, Dan Florin Ungureanu, Lota Corina Georgescu, Traian Pătraşcu 2016 Titu Maiorescu University of Bucharest, Faculty of Medicine

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Gist) Of The Treitz’S Angle– A Very Rare Cause Of High Bowel Obstruction, Mădălina Elena Tobă, Dan Florin Ungureanu, Lota Corina Georgescu, Traian Pătraşcu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are somewhat rare gastrointestinal tumors - approximately 1% to 3% incidence, but they are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are usually found in the stomach or small intestine but can occur anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract, even in extremely uncommon locations like duodeno-jejunal flexure. Only 3% – 5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum and tumors occurring in the angle of Treitz are even rarer, most published studies being case reports. These tumors have a size ranging from small lesions to large masses and can cause digestive bleeding or high bowel obstruction ...


Helicobacter Pylori: Types Of Diseases, Diagnosis, Treatment And Causes Of Therapeutic Failure, Cosmin Vasile Obleaga, Cristin Constantin Vere, Ionica Daniel Valcea, Mihai Calin Ciorbagiu, Emil Moraru, Cecil Sorin Mirea 2016 Craiova University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Surgery

Helicobacter Pylori: Types Of Diseases, Diagnosis, Treatment And Causes Of Therapeutic Failure, Cosmin Vasile Obleaga, Cristin Constantin Vere, Ionica Daniel Valcea, Mihai Calin Ciorbagiu, Emil Moraru, Cecil Sorin Mirea

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Acute upper gastrointestinal lesions have a multifactorial etiology but, regardless of the cause, they are related to mucosal barrier destruction. Since Helicobacter pylori induces a superficial chronic gastritis with the infiltration of neutrophils in the mucosa, it was speculated that Helicobacter pylori infection could also cause bleeding lesions. The diagnosis, the proper treatment and the revaluation of its effectiveness actually represent the prophylaxis of some diseases such as peptic ulcer, gastric lymphoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and gastric cancer. These diseases and their severe complications are life-threatening for the patient. Periodic renewal of the treatment and knowing the real ...


There Is A Trend Favoring Vancomycin Vs. Metronidazole In Treating Severe C. Difficile Infection, Dean D. Fouchia 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is A Trend Favoring Vancomycin Vs. Metronidazole In Treating Severe C. Difficile Infection, Dean D. Fouchia

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Johnson S, Louie TJ, Gerding DN, et al. Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(3):345-354. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu313


Trefoil Factor 2 (Tff2) Deficiency In Murine Digestive Tract Influences The Immune System, M. Baus- Loncar, J. Schmid, El-Nasir Lalani, I. Rosewell, R. A. Goodlad, H. G.W. Stamp, N. Blin, T. Kayademir 2016 University of Tübingen

Trefoil Factor 2 (Tff2) Deficiency In Murine Digestive Tract Influences The Immune System, M. Baus- Loncar, J. Schmid, El-Nasir Lalani, I. Rosewell, R. A. Goodlad, H. G.W. Stamp, N. Blin, T. Kayademir

El Nasir Lalani

Background & Aims:

The gastrointestinal trefoil factor family (TFF1, TFF2, TFF3) peptides are considered to play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosa. The physiological role of TFF2 in the protection of the GI tract was investigated in TFF2 deficiency.

Methods:

TFF2-/- mice were generated and differential expression of various genes was assessed by using a mouse expression microarray, quantitative real time PCR, Northern blots or immunohistochemistry.

Results:

On an mRNA level we found 128 differentially expressed genes. We observed modulation of a number of crucial genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity in the TFF2-/- mice. Expression ...


Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops with advanced alcoholic liver disease and liver fibrosis. Using adult mice, we evaluate the effect of alcoholic steatohepatitis on early hepatobiliary carcinoma after initiation by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Here we show that alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice have higher ALT and liver-to-body weight ratio compared to pair-fed DEN-injected mice. Alcohol feeding results in steatohepatitis indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes. MRI and liver histology of alcohol+DEN mice shows hepatobiliary cysts, early hepatic neoplasia and increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Proliferation makers (BrdU, cyclin D1, p53) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and nanog) are significantly up-regulated ...


Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards 2016 James Madison University

Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...


Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


Epigenetic Modulation In Braf Mutated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, Van Morris 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Epigenetic Modulation In Braf Mutated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, Van Morris

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Introduction: BRAF V600E mutations are associated with poor clinical outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Unlike other tumors with the same mutation, BRAF inhibitors are ineffective as monotherapy. CRC tumors with BRAF V600E mutations are associated with global hypermethylation, which may turn off tumor suppressor gene expression. We studied demethylation in BRAF V600E mCRC to restore sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors.

Methods: Tumor databanks were investigated for genes differentially expressed according to BRAF mutation status to identify genes which may be particularly susceptible to epigenetic influence. Mouse xenograft models of BRAFV600E mCRC were treated with vemurafenib or azacitidine, alone ...


Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Lee WM, Hynan LS, Rossaro L, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(3):856-864. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.06.006


Redefining Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Naomi Shin, Young H. Kim, Hao Xu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing-Qiao Zhang, Jean Paul Colon Pons, Ducksoo Kim, Yi Xu, Fei-Yun Wu, Samuel Han, Byung-Boong Lee, Lin-Sun Li 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Redefining Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Naomi Shin, Young H. Kim, Hao Xu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing-Qiao Zhang, Jean Paul Colon Pons, Ducksoo Kim, Yi Xu, Fei-Yun Wu, Samuel Han, Byung-Boong Lee, Lin-Sun Li

Radiology Publications and Presentations

AIM: To re-examine whether hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) (classical Budd-Chiari syndrome) and hepatic vena cava-Budd Chiari syndrome (HVC-BCS) are the same disorder.

METHODS: A systematic review of observational studies conducted in adult subjects with primary BCS, hepatic vein outflow tract obstruction, membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC), obliterative hepatocavopathy, or HVT during the period of January 2000 until February 2015 was conducted using the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus.

RESULTS: Of 1299 articles identified, 26 were included in this study. Classical BCS is more common in women with a pure hepatic vein obstruction (49 ...


Traveling With Stowaways: The Human Microbiome And Travel, Alisha N. Hughes 2016 University of Washington - Tacoma Campus

Traveling With Stowaways: The Human Microbiome And Travel, Alisha N. Hughes

Global Honors Theses

The human microbiome is a research field that is fairly new and thus, not yet fully understood. However, past research has revealed that the human host and the microorganisms interact with each other. To comprehend how influential the connection between host and its stowaways is, the following text will first offer general information on the human microbiome, before moving on to a pilot case study proposal. With the use of similar case studies, this proposal aims to investigate how the human microbiome changes when the host travels and analyzes the changes and their affects on the individual’s health. The ...


Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano 2016 Aurora Health Care

Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano

Aurora Internal Medicine Residents

Background: Early hospital readmissions are a direct burden on both our patients’ well-being and health care system as a whole. Acute pancreatitis is a top offender, with countless 30-day readmissions. Studies have showed a consistently higher than average 30-day readmission rates in acute pancreatitis, around 19%. This is significantly higher than the average all-cause readmission rate at Aurora Health Care hospitals. This quality improvement project aimed to reduce the rate of acute pancreatitis 30-day readmission rates at several Aurora hospitals through patient education and a readmission risk assessment tool. Purpose: To clarify some of the risk factors associated with acute ...


Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator And Arginine In A Rat Fulminant Colitis Model, Nathan P. Zwintscher, Puja M. Shah, Shashikumar K. Salgar, Christopher R. Newton, Justin A. Maykel, Ahmed Samy, Murad Jabir, Scott R. Steele 2016 Madigan Army Medical Center

Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator And Arginine In A Rat Fulminant Colitis Model, Nathan P. Zwintscher, Puja M. Shah, Shashikumar K. Salgar, Christopher R. Newton, Justin A. Maykel, Ahmed Samy, Murad Jabir, Scott R. Steele

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used to induce a murine fulminant colitis model. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to decrease the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the effect of its activator, HGFA, is not well characterized. Arginine reduces effects of oxidative stress but its effect on IBD is not well known. The primary aim is to determine whether HGF and HGFA, or arginine will decrease IBD symptoms such as pain and diarrhea in a DSS-induced fulminant colitis murine model.

METHODS: A severe colitis was induced in young, male Fischer 344 rats with 4% (w ...


The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice 2016 University of Louisville

The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death. These are staggering statistics for a disease that can essentially be cured if caught early and the pathology is favorable to therapeutic intervention. There is currently a drastic decrease in five year survival as the cancer stage increases from locally confined disease to metastatic disease. These statistics suggest that although some strides have been made with colon cancer screening and early intervention, there is still much room for improvement in both screening and treatment of CRC. One of the pathways that have ...


Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980- 2016 University of Louisville

Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Chronic alcohol consumption causes a pro-oxidant environment in the liver and increases hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acrolein is the most reactive and toxic aldehyde generated through lipid peroxidation. Acrolein forms protein adducts and triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which are recognized etiologic factors in ALD. Several studies have established the critical role of the gut-liver axis in ALD pathogenesis, wherein alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction contributes to liver injury. This study investigates, in vitro and in vivo, the ...


Adult Mouse Model Of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Promoted By Alcoholic Liver Disease, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adult Mouse Model Of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Promoted By Alcoholic Liver Disease, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

AIM: To establish a mouse model of alcohol-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops in livers with alcoholic liver disease (ALD).

METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male mice received multiple doses of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 7 wk of 4% Lieber-DeCarli diet. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver Cyp2e1 were assessed. Expression of F4/80, CD68 for macrophages and Ly6G, MPO, E-selectin for neutrophils was measured. Macrophage polarization was determined by IL-1beta/iNOS (M1) and Arg-1/IL-10/CD163/CD206 (M2) expression. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by oil-red-O and Sirius red staining respectively. HCC development ...


Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg 2016 Liberty University

Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg

Senior Honors Theses

The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...


Treatment And Prevention Of Human Rotavirus (Hrv) In Developing Countries: The Potential Of Avian Immunoglobulin Y, Christa Brown 2016 Liberty University

Treatment And Prevention Of Human Rotavirus (Hrv) In Developing Countries: The Potential Of Avian Immunoglobulin Y, Christa Brown

Senior Honors Theses

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood mortality, killing ~1400 children younger than five daily, primarily through severe diarrheal dehydration. Eighty-five percent of this mortality occurs in developing countries where rotavirus vaccines are not widely implemented and are only partially effective. In those countries, it has proven difficult to implement the recommended supportive therapies like oral rehydration therapy (ORT) on a wide scale due to lack of both medical infrastructure and private economic investment combined with cultural bias against ORT. IgY targeting human rotavirus (anti-HRV IgY) shows potential as a passive immunotherapy that reduces rotavirus-associated morbidity and mortality, augments ...


Microrna Cargo Of Extracellular Vesicles From Alcohol-Exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes To Differentiate Into M2 Macrophages, Banishree Saha, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Microrna Cargo Of Extracellular Vesicles From Alcohol-Exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes To Differentiate Into M2 Macrophages, Banishree Saha, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Membrane-coated extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by cells can serve as vehicles for delivery of biological materials and signals. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol-treated hepatocytes cross-talk with immune cells via exosomes containing microRNA (miRNAs). Here, we hypothesized that alcohol-exposed monocytes can communicate with naive monocytes via EVs. We observed increased numbers of EVs, mostly exosomes, secreted by primary human monocytes and THP-1 monocytic cells in the presence of alcohol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. EVs derived from alcohol-treated monocytes stimulated naive monocytes to polarize into M2 macrophages as indicated by increased surface expression of CD68 (macrophage marker), M2 markers (CD206 ...


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