Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digestive System Diseases Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

374 Full-Text Articles 804 Authors 44186 Downloads 36 Institutions

All Articles in Digestive System Diseases

Faceted Search

374 full-text articles. Page 1 of 16.

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Salvage Therapy For Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Includes N-Acetylcysteine, David Robinson

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Lee WM, Hynan LS, Rossaro L, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(3):856-864. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.06.006


Redefining Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Naomi Shin, Young H. Kim, Hao Xu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing-Qiao Zhang, Jean Paul Colon Pons, Ducksoo Kim, Yi Xu, Fei-Yun Wu, Samuel Han, Byung-Boong Lee, Lin-Sun Li 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Redefining Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Naomi Shin, Young H. Kim, Hao Xu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing-Qiao Zhang, Jean Paul Colon Pons, Ducksoo Kim, Yi Xu, Fei-Yun Wu, Samuel Han, Byung-Boong Lee, Lin-Sun Li

Radiology Publications and Presentations

AIM: To re-examine whether hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) (classical Budd-Chiari syndrome) and hepatic vena cava-Budd Chiari syndrome (HVC-BCS) are the same disorder.

METHODS: A systematic review of observational studies conducted in adult subjects with primary BCS, hepatic vein outflow tract obstruction, membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC), obliterative hepatocavopathy, or HVT during the period of January 2000 until February 2015 was conducted using the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus.

RESULTS: Of 1299 articles identified, 26 were included in this study. Classical BCS is more common in women with a pure hepatic vein obstruction (49 ...


Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano 2016 Aurora Health Care

Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano

Aurora Internal Medicine Residents

Background: Early hospital readmissions are a direct burden on both our patients’ well-being and health care system as a whole. Acute pancreatitis is a top offender, with countless 30-day readmissions. Studies have showed a consistently higher than average 30-day readmission rates in acute pancreatitis, around 19%. This is significantly higher than the average all-cause readmission rate at Aurora Health Care hospitals. This quality improvement project aimed to reduce the rate of acute pancreatitis 30-day readmission rates at several Aurora hospitals through patient education and a readmission risk assessment tool. Purpose: To clarify some of the risk factors associated with acute ...


The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice 2016 University of Louisville

The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death. These are staggering statistics for a disease that can essentially be cured if caught early and the pathology is favorable to therapeutic intervention. There is currently a drastic decrease in five year survival as the cancer stage increases from locally confined disease to metastatic disease. These statistics suggest that although some strides have been made with colon cancer screening and early intervention, there is still much room for improvement in both screening and treatment of CRC. One of the pathways that have ...


Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980- 2016 University of Louisville

Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Chronic alcohol consumption causes a pro-oxidant environment in the liver and increases hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acrolein is the most reactive and toxic aldehyde generated through lipid peroxidation. Acrolein forms protein adducts and triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which are recognized etiologic factors in ALD. Several studies have established the critical role of the gut-liver axis in ALD pathogenesis, wherein alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction contributes to liver injury. This study investigates, in vitro and in vivo, the ...


Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg 2016 Liberty University

Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg

Senior Honors Theses

The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...


Microrna Cargo Of Extracellular Vesicles From Alcohol-Exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes To Differentiate Into M2 Macrophages, Banishree Saha, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Microrna Cargo Of Extracellular Vesicles From Alcohol-Exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes To Differentiate Into M2 Macrophages, Banishree Saha, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Membrane-coated extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by cells can serve as vehicles for delivery of biological materials and signals. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol-treated hepatocytes cross-talk with immune cells via exosomes containing microRNA (miRNAs). Here, we hypothesized that alcohol-exposed monocytes can communicate with naive monocytes via EVs. We observed increased numbers of EVs, mostly exosomes, secreted by primary human monocytes and THP-1 monocytic cells in the presence of alcohol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. EVs derived from alcohol-treated monocytes stimulated naive monocytes to polarize into M2 macrophages as indicated by increased surface expression of CD68 (macrophage marker), M2 markers (CD206 ...


Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

Alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops with advanced alcoholic liver disease and liver fibrosis. Using adult mice, we evaluate the effect of alcoholic steatohepatitis on early hepatobiliary carcinoma after initiation by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Here we show that alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice have higher ALT and liver-to-body weight ratio compared to pair-fed DEN-injected mice. Alcohol feeding results in steatohepatitis indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes. MRI and liver histology of alcohol+DEN mice shows hepatobiliary cysts, early hepatic neoplasia and increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Proliferation makers (BrdU, cyclin D1, p53) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and nanog) are significantly up-regulated ...


The Nondietary Determinants Of Vitamin D Status In Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Lauren Veit, Louise Maranda, Benjamin Nwosu 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Nondietary Determinants Of Vitamin D Status In Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Lauren Veit, Louise Maranda, Benjamin Nwosu

Benjamin U. Nwosu

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) and markers of vitamin D status in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 59 pediatric patients with IBD (age 16.4 ± 2.2 y) and 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.4 y), to investigate the association between 25(OH)D and albuminemia for protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and hepatic dysfunction; alanine transaminase (ALT) for hepatic inflammation; erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for intestinal inflammation; body mass index (BMI) for adiposity; seasons and skin pigmentation for insolation. Vitamin ...


Adiposity Is Associated With Early Reduction In Bone Mass In Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Nithya Setty-Shah, Louise Maranda, Benjamin Nwosu 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adiposity Is Associated With Early Reduction In Bone Mass In Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Nithya Setty-Shah, Louise Maranda, Benjamin Nwosu

Benjamin U. Nwosu

Background: The effect of adiposity on bone mass in the early phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and adolescents is unclear.

Aims: To determine the role of adiposity on bone mass in the first 3 years of diagnosis of IBD.

Hypothesis: Increased adiposity will be associated with increased bone mass in both the controls and IBD subjects.

Setting: University tertiary institution.

Methods: Height-adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) z-scores of 25 subjects, age 13.97 ± 2.70y, diagnosed with IBD for < 4 years were compared to 24 controls, age 13.65 ± 2.60y. Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but <95th percentile, and obesity as BMI ≥95thpercentile. Severity of IBD was determined by the ...


Chronic Pancreatitis, Pain, And Anxiety In An Alcohol And High Fat Mouse Model, Tiffanie Clinkinbeard 2016 University of Kentucky

Chronic Pancreatitis, Pain, And Anxiety In An Alcohol And High Fat Mouse Model, Tiffanie Clinkinbeard

Theses and Dissertations--Gerontology

Homeodynamic space (HDS) shrinks as vulnerability increases with aging and repeated damage to the cells. HDS is lost in alcoholic pancreatitis patients due to overconsumption of alcohol, smoking, and high fat diets. Etiologically relevant animal models for study of chronic pancreatitis (CP) are needed. In order to begin filling this gap a central purpose of this dissertation research was to examine relationships between the alcohol and high fat diet (AHF) and pancreatitis with attention to hypersensitivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The AHF diet induced pancreatitis described here etiologically mimics human risk factors of AHF consumption for advancement to alcoholic CP.

In ...


Gender Differences In Choice Of Procedure And Case Fatality Rate For Elderly Patients With Acute Cholecystitis: A Masters Thesis, Courtney E. Collins 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gender Differences In Choice Of Procedure And Case Fatality Rate For Elderly Patients With Acute Cholecystitis: A Masters Thesis, Courtney E. Collins

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background: Treatment decisions for elderly patients with gallbladder pathology are complex. Little is known about what factors go into treatment decisions in this population. We used Medicare data to examine gender-based differences in the use of cholecystectomy vs. cholecystostomy tube placement in elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.

Methods: We queried a 5% random sample of Medicare data (2009-2011) for patients >65 admitted for acute cholecystitis (by ICD-9 code) who subsequently underwent a cholecystectomy and/or cholecystostomy tube placement. Demographic information (age, race), clinical characteristics (Elixhauser index, presence of biliary pathology), and hospital outcomes (case fatality rate, length of stay, need ...


Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in women and men, causing almost 600,000 annual deaths worldwide. There is a clear need to understand how CRC forms and progresses in order to improve the strategies of CRC prevention and therapy. A major factor that drives the development of CRC is genetic mutations that lead to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In addition, the initiation and progression of CRC involve environmental and immunological factors. In particular, chronic inflammatory conditions are known as an important risk factor for CRC ...


Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano 2015 Aurora Health Care

Reducing Readmission Rates In Acute Pancreatitis Through Patient Education And Risk Assessment, Jordan T. Vulcano

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Early hospital readmissions are a direct burden on both our patients’ well-being and health care system as a whole. Acute pancreatitis is a top offender, with countless 30-day readmissions. Studies have showed a consistently higher than average 30-day readmission rates in acute pancreatitis, around 19%. This is significantly higher than the average all-cause readmission rate at Aurora Health Care hospitals. This quality improvement project aimed to reduce the rate of acute pancreatitis 30-day readmission rates at several Aurora hospitals through patient education and a readmission risk assessment tool.

Purpose: To clarify some of the risk factors associated with acute ...


Obesity And Metabolic Phenotypes (Metabolically Healthy And Unhealthy Variants) Are Significantly Associated With Prevalence Of Elevated C-Reactive Protein And Hepatic Steatosis In A Large Healthy Brazilian Population, Sameer Shaharyar, Lara Roberson, Omar Jamal, Adnan Younus, Shozab Ali, Arthur Agatston, Khurram Nasir 2015 Baptist Health South Florida

Obesity And Metabolic Phenotypes (Metabolically Healthy And Unhealthy Variants) Are Significantly Associated With Prevalence Of Elevated C-Reactive Protein And Hepatic Steatosis In A Large Healthy Brazilian Population, Sameer Shaharyar, Lara Roberson, Omar Jamal, Adnan Younus, Shozab Ali, Arthur Agatston, Khurram Nasir

Khurram Nasir

BACKGROUND:Among the obese, the so-called metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is thought to confer a lower CVD risk as compared to obesity with typical associated metabolic changes. The present study aims to determine the relationship of different subtypes of obesity with inflammatory-cardiometabolic abnormalities.METHODS:We evaluated 5,519 healthy, Brazilian subjects (43 ± 10 years, 78% males), free of known cardiovascular disease. Those with (MRF) were considered metabolically healthy, and those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and/or waist circumference meeting NCEP criteria for metabolic syndrome as overweight/obese (OW). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to ...


A Small Molecule Inhibitor Of Itk And Rlk Impairs Th1 Differentiation And Prevents Colitis Disease Progression, Hyoung-Soo Cho, HyunMu Shin, Helena Haberstock-Debic, Yan Xing, Timothy D. Owens, Jens Oliver. Funk, Ronald J. Hill, J. Michael Bradshaw, Leslie J. Berg 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Small Molecule Inhibitor Of Itk And Rlk Impairs Th1 Differentiation And Prevents Colitis Disease Progression, Hyoung-Soo Cho, Hyunmu Shin, Helena Haberstock-Debic, Yan Xing, Timothy D. Owens, Jens Oliver. Funk, Ronald J. Hill, J. Michael Bradshaw, Leslie J. Berg

Open Access Articles

In T cells, the Tec kinases IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK) are activated by TCR stimulation and are required for optimal downstream signaling. Studies of CD4(+) T cells from Itk(-/-) and Itk(-/-)Rlk(-/-) mice have indicated differential roles of ITK and RLK in Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. However, these findings are confounded by the complex T cell developmental defects in these mice. In this study, we examine the consequences of ITK and RLK inhibition using a highly selective and potent small molecule covalent inhibitor PRN694. In vitro Th polarization experiments indicate ...


Molecular Targeting Of Protein Arginine Deiminases To Suppress Colitis And Prevent Colon Cancer, Erin E. Witalison, Xiangli Cui, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Lorne J. Hofseth 2015 South Carolina College of Pharmacy

Molecular Targeting Of Protein Arginine Deiminases To Suppress Colitis And Prevent Colon Cancer, Erin E. Witalison, Xiangli Cui, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Lorne J. Hofseth

Thompson Lab Publications

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease, in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers leading to abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. The extent of these symptoms depends on disease severity. The protein arginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes converts peptidyl-Arginine to peptidyl-Citrulline through citrullination. PADs are dysregulated, with abnormal citrullination in many diseases, including UC and colorectal cancer (CRC). We have developed the small molecule, pan-PAD inhibitor, Chlor-amidine (Cl-amidine), with multiple goals, including treating UC and preventing CRC. Building off our recent results showing that: 1) Cl-amidine suppresses colitis in vivo in a dextran ...


Variation In Microbiome Composition And Stability For A Vancomycin Treated Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patient With Ulcerative Colitis Compared With Controls, Alanna Dubrovsky 2015 California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo

Variation In Microbiome Composition And Stability For A Vancomycin Treated Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patient With Ulcerative Colitis Compared With Controls, Alanna Dubrovsky

Symposium

The bacterial composition of the human intestines contributes to much more than just digestion. In the inflammatory, autoimmune conditions primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the microbiome may be, in some cases, a factor. To gain a better understanding of the composition and stability of the microbiome in a patient treated with vancomycin for PSC, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis was performed on 13 controls and 1 patient, and 16s rRNA microbiome composition analysis was performed on 1 patient and 3 controls. Results showed similar levels of stability, with surprising differences in composition.


Factors Associated With Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Younger African American Men: A Systematic Review, Charles R. Rogers, Patricia Goodson, Margaret Foster 2015 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Factors Associated With Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Younger African American Men: A Systematic Review, Charles R. Rogers, Patricia Goodson, Margaret Foster

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer killer among African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African American men have incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher from CRC. Despite the benefits of early detection and the availability of effective screening, most adults over age 50 have not undergone testing, and disparities in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) persist. Owing to CRC’s high incidence and younger age at presentation among African American men, CRCS is warranted at age 45 rather than 50. However, the factors influencing young adult ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress