Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Nervous System Diseases Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

640 Full-Text Articles 1598 Authors 49980 Downloads 72 Institutions

All Articles in Nervous System Diseases

Faceted Search

640 full-text articles. Page 1 of 27.

We Have No Real Evidence Related To Anticoagulation Plus Aspirin For Stroke Prevention In Atrial Fibrillation, Yuxiang Wang 2017 wayne state university school of medicine

We Have No Real Evidence Related To Anticoagulation Plus Aspirin For Stroke Prevention In Atrial Fibrillation, Yuxiang Wang

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Flaker GC, Gruber M, Connolly SJ, et al. Risks and benefits of combining aspirin with anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: an exploratory analysis of stroke prevention using an oral thrombin inhibitor in atrial fibrillation (SPORTIF) trials. Am Heart J. 2006;152:967-973. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.06.024


High Levels Of Iron Supplementation Prevents Neural Tube Defects In The Fpn1(Ffe) Mouse Model., Bethany A Stokes, Julia A Sabatino, Irene E. Zohn 2016 George Washington University

High Levels Of Iron Supplementation Prevents Neural Tube Defects In The Fpn1(Ffe) Mouse Model., Bethany A Stokes, Julia A Sabatino, Irene E. Zohn

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Periconception maternal nutrition and folate in particular are important factors influencing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Many but not all NTDs are prevented by folic acid supplementation and there is a pressing need for additional strategies to prevent these birth defects. Other micronutrients such as iron are potential candidates, yet a clear role for iron deficiency in contributing to NTDs is lacking. Our previous studies with the flatiron (ffe) mouse model of Ferroportin1 (Fpn1) deficiency suggest that iron is required for neural tube closure and forebrain development raising the possibility that iron supplementation could prevent NTDs.

METHODS ...


Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey 2016 George Washington University

Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Oxytocin (OT) has become a focus in investigations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social deficits that characterize ASD may relate to reduced connectivity between brain sites on the mesolimbic reward pathway (nucleus accumbens; amygdala) that receive OT projections and contribute to social motivation, and cortical sites involved in social perception. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we show that OT administration in ASD increases activity in brain regions important for perceiving social-emotional information. Further, OT enhances connectivity between nodes of the brain's reward and socioemotional processing systems, and does so preferentially ...


The Effect Of Luteolin On Human Glioblastoma, David M. Anson, Samson Amos, Robert L. Paris, Denise S. Simpson 2016 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Luteolin On Human Glioblastoma, David M. Anson, Samson Amos, Robert L. Paris, Denise S. Simpson

Samson Amos, R.Ph., Ph.D.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is widely recognized as the most common and lethal of the malignant gliomas. Few effective therapeutic treatments are available as five-year survival rates of diagnosed individuals are less than five percent. Luteolin, a common flavonoid found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, has demonstrated significant promise in combating cancers of the breast, colon, liver, lung, and bone. In this study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on glioblastoma multiforme cell lines U-251, U-87, and U-1242. Cell viability was assessed using cell count with trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays. Results revealed that luteolin reduces GBM cell ...


An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl McComas 2016 St. Mary's Medical Center, Huntington, WV

An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl Mccomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Introduction:

We report an unusual case of E. coli meningitis in an elderly woman who presented to the emergency room with a chief complaint of intractable low back pain.

Case Description:

A 67 year old woman presented to the emergency room for a chief complaint of intractable low back pain. After admission, the patient developed delirium. Blood cultures were drawn. Patient underwent a lumbar puncture which revealed purulent cerebrospinal fluid. Results of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures revealed pan-sensitive E. coli.

Conclusion:

In the geriatric population, delayed presentation of meningitis can occur for various reasons. With the older ...


Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, Apurva Bhatt, Brit Moore, Talal Asif, Kristy E. Steigerwalt, Rebecca R. Pauly 2016 University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine

Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, Apurva Bhatt, Brit Moore, Talal Asif, Kristy E. Steigerwalt, Rebecca R. Pauly

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a life threatening condition affecting patients with spinal cord lesions T6 level and above. A 51 year old male with a history of paraplegia due to a C6 spinal cord injury (30 years prior) presented with recurrent debilitating episodic diaphoresis, hypertension, low body temperature, and bradycardia. Previous hospitalizations presumed sepsis from UTI to be the etiology, however on further evaluation his symptoms were consistent with undiagnosed AD. This article describes a unique case presentation and reviews AD in depth, including the etiology, pathophysiology and management.


The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa 2016 Nova Southeastern University

The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa

Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research

This program is a 10-week internship designed for undergraduates interested in the scientific field to engage in current research. Students have the option of requesting to work under three mentors, one of which they will be paired. Students will work in the lab with the principal investigator and other members of the lab. Along with working in the lab, students in the program will also attend bi-weekly talks/lectures from researchers, grad students, and professionals at TSRI as well as participating in two presentations and a final poster or oral presentation.


A New Sv2a Ligand For Epilepsy, Michael A. Rogawski 2016 University of California - Davis

A New Sv2a Ligand For Epilepsy, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Since the 1970s, racetams have been in use as cognitive enhancers. Levetiracetam was discovered to have antiseizure activity in animal models and was then found to bind to SV2A in synaptic and endocrine vesicles. Brivaracetam, an analog of levetiracetam, was identified in a medicinal chemistry campaign with the objective of discovering analogs with higher affinity at racetam-binding sites and greater antiseizure potency.


Kcnq2 Encephalopathy, John Millichap, Kristen Park, Tammy N. Tsuchida, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Lionel Carmant, On Behalf of the RIKEE Consortium 2016 George Washington University

Kcnq2 Encephalopathy, John Millichap, Kristen Park, Tammy N. Tsuchida, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Lionel Carmant, On Behalf Of The Rikee Consortium

Neurology Faculty Publications

Objective: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype–phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype–phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients.

Results: The mean seizure onset age was 1.8 ± 1.6 (SD) days. Of the 20 EEGs obtained within a week of birth, 11 showed burst suppression. When new seizure types appeared in infancy (15 patients), the most common were epileptic spasms (n = 8). At last ...


Histopathological Characterization Of The Dystrophic Phenotype And Development Of Therapeutic Candidates For A Gene Therapy Pre-Clinical Study In Dysferlin Deficient Mice, Leticia Fridman 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Histopathological Characterization Of The Dystrophic Phenotype And Development Of Therapeutic Candidates For A Gene Therapy Pre-Clinical Study In Dysferlin Deficient Mice, Leticia Fridman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Dysferlin deficient muscular dystrophy is a devastating disease that leads to loss of mobility and quality of life in patients. Dysferlin is a 230 kD protein primarily expressed in skeletal muscle that functions in membrane resealing. Dysferlin loss of function leads to a decrease in the membrane resealing response after injury in skeletal muscle, which is thought to cause degeneration of the musculature over time. Dysferlin cDNA is 7.4 kb and exceeds AAV packaging capacity of ~ 5kb. This thesis focuses on the generation of mini dysferlin mutants that can be packaged in AAV for downstream testing of therapeutic efficacy ...


The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică 2016 Valparaiso University, Department of Psychology

The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

As a 5-α reductase inhibitor, Finasteride has proven effective in ameliorating two conditions documented to be androgen dependent, namely male androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therapeutic results are maintained as long as the drug is administered, with treatment cessation generally leading to the return of symptomatology for each condition. In addition, during the therapeutic phase, several adverse effects have been reported, some of which persist long or indefinitely after treatment cessation, known as “post-finasteride syndrome.”

Herein we present and discuss the most common finasteride side effects, along with a psycho-neuroendocrine rationale that could explain the persistence of many adverse ...


Prion-Like Domains As Epigenetic Regulators, Scaffolds For Subcellular Organization, And Drivers Of Neurodegenerative Disease, Zachary M. March, Oliver D. King, James Shorter 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Prion-Like Domains As Epigenetic Regulators, Scaffolds For Subcellular Organization, And Drivers Of Neurodegenerative Disease, Zachary M. March, Oliver D. King, James Shorter

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications and Presentations

Key challenges faced by all cells include how to spatiotemporally organize complex biochemistry and how to respond to environmental fluctuations. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harnesses alternative protein folding mediated by yeast prion domains (PrDs) for rapid evolution of new traits in response to environmental stress. Increasingly, it is appreciated that low complexity domains similar in amino acid composition to yeast PrDs (prion-like domains; PrLDs) found in metazoa have a prominent role in subcellular cytoplasmic organization, especially in relation to RNA homeostasis. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the role of prions in enabling rapid ...


Mmp-9 And Mmp-2 Contribute To Neuronal Cell Death In Ipsc Models Of Frontotemporal Dementia With Mapt Mutations, Md Helal Uddin Biswas, Sandra Almeida, Rodrigo Lopez-Gonzalez, Wenjie Mao, Zhijun Zhang, Anna M. Karydas, Michael D. Geschwind, Jacek Biernat, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Kensuke Futai, Bruce L. Miller, Fen-Biao Gao 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mmp-9 And Mmp-2 Contribute To Neuronal Cell Death In Ipsc Models Of Frontotemporal Dementia With Mapt Mutations, Md Helal Uddin Biswas, Sandra Almeida, Rodrigo Lopez-Gonzalez, Wenjie Mao, Zhijun Zhang, Anna M. Karydas, Michael D. Geschwind, Jacek Biernat, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Kensuke Futai, Bruce L. Miller, Fen-Biao Gao

Open Access Articles

How mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) remains poorly understood. We generated and characterized multiple induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from patients with MAPT IVS10+16 and tau-A152T mutations and a control subject. In cortical neurons differentiated from these and other published iPSC lines, we found that MAPT mutations do not affect neuronal differentiation but increase the 4R/3R tau ratio. Patient neurons had significantly higher levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and were more sensitive to stress-induced cell death. Inhibitors of MMP-9/MMP-2 protected patient neurons from stress-induced cell death and recombinant MMP-9 ...


Human Ipsc-Derived Neuronal Model Of Tau-A152t Frontotemporal Dementia Reveals Tau-Mediated Mechanisms Of Neuronal Vulnerability, M. Catarina Silva, Sandra Almeida, Md Helal Uddin Biswas, Zhijun Zhang, Fen-Biao Gao, Stephen J. Haggarty 2016 Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

Human Ipsc-Derived Neuronal Model Of Tau-A152t Frontotemporal Dementia Reveals Tau-Mediated Mechanisms Of Neuronal Vulnerability, M. Catarina Silva, Sandra Almeida, Md Helal Uddin Biswas, Zhijun Zhang, Fen-Biao Gao, Stephen J. Haggarty

Open Access Articles

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and other tauopathies characterized by focal brain neurodegeneration and pathological accumulation of proteins are commonly associated with tau mutations. However, the mechanism of neuronal loss is not fully understood. To identify molecular events associated with tauopathy, we studied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons from individuals carrying the tau-A152T variant. We highlight the potential of in-depth phenotyping of human neuronal cell models for pre-clinical studies and identification of modulators of endogenous tau toxicity. Through a panel of biochemical and cellular assays, A152T neurons showed accumulation, redistribution, and decreased solubility of tau. Upregulation of tau was coupled ...


B Cells Populating The Multiple Sclerosis Brain Mature In The Draining Cervical Lymph Nodes, J. N. Stern, G. Yaari, J. A. Vander Heiden, G. Church, W. F. Donahue, R. Q. Hintzen, A. J. Huttner, J. D. Laman, R. M. Nagra, K. C. O’Connor 2016 Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine

B Cells Populating The Multiple Sclerosis Brain Mature In The Draining Cervical Lymph Nodes, J. N. Stern, G. Yaari, J. A. Vander Heiden, G. Church, W. F. Donahue, R. Q. Hintzen, A. J. Huttner, J. D. Laman, R. M. Nagra, K. C. O’Connor

Joel Stern

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by autoimmune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration. The CNS of patients with MS harbors expanded clones of antigen-experienced B cells that reside in distinct compartments including the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and parenchyma. It is not understood whether this immune infiltrate initiates its development in the CNS or in peripheral tissues. B cells in the CSF can exchange with those in peripheral blood, implying that CNS B cells may have access to lymphoid tissue that may be the specific compartment(s) in which CNS-resident B cells encounter antigen ...


Auditory Hallucinations And The Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings And Methodological Observations, Ben Alderson-Day, Kelly Diederen, Charles Fernyhough, Judith M. Ford, Guillermo Horga, Daniel S. Margulies, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Georg Northoff, James M. Shine, Jessica Turner, Vincent van de Ven, Remko van Lutterveld, Flavie Waters, Renaud Jardri 2016 Durham University

Auditory Hallucinations And The Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings And Methodological Observations, Ben Alderson-Day, Kelly Diederen, Charles Fernyhough, Judith M. Ford, Guillermo Horga, Daniel S. Margulies, Simon Mccarthy-Jones, Georg Northoff, James M. Shine, Jessica Turner, Vincent Van De Ven, Remko Van Lutterveld, Flavie Waters, Renaud Jardri

Open Access Articles

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals ...


Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are thought to be selectively impaired in consciously-mediated online automatic motor control, whereas the ability to perform subconscious online adjustments remains intact. This present study evaluates the hypothesis that the previously alleged deficits in online motor control in PD are not due to the consciousness of the correction, but rather are attributable to aspects of the prior experimental designs disproportionately penalizing patients for PD-related bradykinesia. Here, we implemented a modified traditional double-step paradigm to investigate consciously-mediated online motor control in PD, in a manner that would be unconfounded by disease-related bradykinesia. Further, we investigated ...


Dyslexia And Language Impairment Associated Genetic Markers Influence Cortical Thickness And White Matter In Typically Developing Children, John D. Eicher, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy, Jeffrey R. Gruen 2016 Yale University

Dyslexia And Language Impairment Associated Genetic Markers Influence Cortical Thickness And White Matter In Typically Developing Children, John D. Eicher, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy, Jeffrey R. Gruen

Jean A. Frazier

Dyslexia and language impairment (LI) are complex traits with substantial genetic components. We recently completed an association scan of the DYX2 locus, where we observed associations of markers in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ACOT13, and FAM65B with reading-, language-, and IQ-related traits. Additionally, the effects of reading-associated DYX3 markers were recently characterized using structural neuroimaging techniques. Here, we assessed the neuroimaging implications of associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers, using cortical volume, cortical thickness, and fractional anisotropy. To accomplish this, we examined eight DYX2 and three DYX3 markers in 332 subjects in the Pediatrics Imaging Neurocognition Genetics study. Imaging-genetic associations were examined by ...


Characterization And Personalization Of Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy For Upper Limb Tremor In Parkinson Disease And Essential Tremor Patients Using Multi-Sensor Kinematic Technology, Olivia Samotus 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization And Personalization Of Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy For Upper Limb Tremor In Parkinson Disease And Essential Tremor Patients Using Multi-Sensor Kinematic Technology, Olivia Samotus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tremor commonly affects the upper extremities in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD) patients where many experience functional disability and ultimately seek therapy. As ET and PD tremor features overlap and clinical assessment is challenging due to its highly complex nature, misdiagnosis is common resulting in unsuitable therapies and prognosis. Current treatment options for ET and PD tremor include pharmacotherapy, focal therapy with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections, and surgical interventions which provide modest relief of tremor. However, such therapies are commonly associated with significant adverse events and lack long-term efficacy and tolerability. Hence lack of standardized, objective ...


Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1(G93a) Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Florie Borel, Gwladys Gernoux, Brynn Cardozo, Jake P. Metterville, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Lina Song, Qin Su, Guang Ping Gao, Mai K. Elmallah, Robert H. Brown Jr., Christian Mueller 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1(G93a) Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Florie Borel, Gwladys Gernoux, Brynn Cardozo, Jake P. Metterville, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Lina Song, Qin Su, Guang Ping Gao, Mai K. Elmallah, Robert H. Brown Jr., Christian Mueller

Christian Mueller

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3-5 years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial ALS and 1-3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing the mutant SOD1(G93A) protein, silencing the SOD1 gene prolongs survival. One study reports a therapeutic effect of silencing the SOD1 gene in systemically treated adult ALS mice; this was achieved with a short hairpin RNA, a silencing molecule that has raised multiple safety concerns ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress