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Piriformis Syndrome With A Variant Presentation, Roberto Chuapoco, Ryan E. Linford 2024 Touro University Nevada

Piriformis Syndrome With A Variant Presentation, Roberto Chuapoco, Ryan E. Linford

Annual Research Symposium

Piriformis syndrome has long been a diagnostic quandary due to its tendency to present as other nerve-related conditions. Piriformis syndrome is commonly caused by entrapment of the sciatic nerve as it travels through the greater sciatic foramen due to hypertrophy of the piriformis muscle. However, its constellation of symptoms, including radiating pain down the thigh, can easily be mistaken for lumbosacral radiculopathy. This case report aims to address the misdiagnosis of piriformis syndrome which has prolonged pain for many patients and increased the cost of medical care. It demonstrates a 76-year-old female with a confounding presentation of piriformis syndrome: buttock …


Can Mirna Be The Missing Link Between Parkinson’S Disease And Pesticides?, fatma gobba 2024 American University in Cairo

Can Mirna Be The Missing Link Between Parkinson’S Disease And Pesticides?, Fatma Gobba

Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative condition that leads to significant morbidity and a decline in the quality of life. It develops as a consequence of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nevertheless, the development of PD is influenced by environmental factors, and the intricate nature of these relationships is further complicated by a multitude of factors, including the genetic backgrounds that are specific to populations and variations in environmental exposures, such as pesticides. Pesticides, consisting of a diverse family of chemicals commonly used in both agricultural and household settings to protect crops against …


Impairment Of The Glial Phagolysosomal System Drives Prion-Like Propagation Of Huntington’S Disease, Graham Davis 2024 Rowan University

Impairment Of The Glial Phagolysosomal System Drives Prion-Like Propagation Of Huntington’S Disease, Graham Davis

Theses and Dissertations

The ability of glia to tightly regulate neuronal health and homeostasis in the CNS is conserved across species. Yet, despite the ability to degrade protein aggregates, glia are vulnerable to the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid aggregates during neurodegenerative disease progress, and even exacerbate their spread. A developing narrative highlights glia as a double-edged sword in neurodegenerative diseases: initially capable of dynamically responding to amyloid aggregate-ladened dying neurons but also capable of inducing chronic inflammation and creating seeding-competent amyloid oligomers. Thus, uncovering the mechanisms that allow glia to control aggregate deposition while preventing the neurotoxic effects and seed generation is vital …


Encephaloceles: A Comprehensive Exploration Of Research, Causes, Prevention, And Innovative Approaches To Diagnosis And Treatment, Amanda N. Bautista 2024 Nova Southeastern University

Encephaloceles: A Comprehensive Exploration Of Research, Causes, Prevention, And Innovative Approaches To Diagnosis And Treatment, Amanda N. Bautista

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

Encephaloceles, a rare medical condition derived from Greek words meaning "brain hernia," involve the protrusion of brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, or membranes through a defect in the skull. These anomalies often present at birth and can occur in various locations on the skull. Recent research has shed light on the possible causes of encephaloceles, including genetic factors such as the Sonic Hedgehog pathway and inadequate folic acid intake during pregnancy. Folic acid is essential for proper neural tube closure during fetal development, making it a key preventive measure.

Emerging treatments for encephaloceles show promise, with a focus on mesenchymal stem …


Harmonious Healing: A Review Of Music Therapy, A Humanities-Based Approach To Alzheimer’S Disease Treatment, Rohan K. Desai 2024 University of Kentucky

Harmonious Healing: A Review Of Music Therapy, A Humanities-Based Approach To Alzheimer’S Disease Treatment, Rohan K. Desai

Kentucky Undergraduate Journal for the Health Humanities

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease often characterized by memory loss, confusion, and overall cognitive decline. The aging global population has, in recent years, highlighted the fundamental lack of pharmacological treatments for individuals facing an AD diagnosis. In response, a growing body of research has shifted focus to non-pharmacological humanities-based interventions. One such intervention has been music therapy (MT). Music-focused measures have shown great promise as a method of slowing cognitive decline, but mixed results in the literature warrant the need for further investigation. Often, socioeconomic barriers can limit an individual’s access to drug-related treatments, but the affordable …


High-Grade Avm. Educational Vignette And Clinical Cases, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Daniela Coelho, Juan Alberto Paz Archila, Talita Helena Martins Sarti, Feres Chaddad-Neto 2024 Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo

High-Grade Avm. Educational Vignette And Clinical Cases, Marcos Devanir Silva Da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Daniela Coelho, Juan Alberto Paz Archila, Talita Helena Martins Sarti, Feres Chaddad-Neto

Archives of Neurosurgery

The arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a vascular malformation characterized by fistulas between arteries and veins forming a nidus, without interposition of capillary vessels and of which early draining vein is identified at the digital angiography. Potential reports of its existence date from the second century AD. Spetzler and Martin (S-M) proposed a classification considering three features and Lawton then added new predictors. A maximum of 10 score can be achieved by applying the modified S-M grade system. This classification guides decision-making and the possible choice of the multimodal treatment (surgery, radiosurgery and embolization). We discuss historical, pathological, clinical and therapeutic …


Oxidative Stress And Ion Channels In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Razan Orfali, Adnan Z. Alwatban, Rawan S. Orfali, Liz Lau, Noble Chea, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang 2024 King Fahad Medical City

Oxidative Stress And Ion Channels In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Razan Orfali, Adnan Z. Alwatban, Rawan S. Orfali, Liz Lau, Noble Chea, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Numerous neurodegenerative diseases result from altered ion channel function and mutations. The intracellular redox status can significantly alter the gating characteristics of ion channels. Abundant neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress have been documented, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, spinocerebellar ataxia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species compounds trigger posttranslational alterations that target specific sites within the subunits responsible for channel assembly. These alterations include the adjustment of cysteine residues through redox reactions induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitration, and S-nitrosylation assisted by nitric oxide of tyrosine residues through peroxynitrite. Several ion channels have been directly …


Ephrinb2 Knockdown In Cervical Spinal Cord Preserves Diaphragm Innervation In A Mutant Sod1 Mouse Model Of Als, Mark W. Urban, Brittany A. Charsar, Nicolette M. Heinsinger, Shashirekha S. Markandaiah, Lindsay Sprimont, Wei Zhou, Eric V. Brown, Nathan T. Henderson, Samantha J. Thomas, Biswarup Ghosh, Rachel E. Cain, Davide Trotti, Piera Pasinelli, Megan C. Wright, Matthew B. Dalva, Angelo C. Lepore 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Ephrinb2 Knockdown In Cervical Spinal Cord Preserves Diaphragm Innervation In A Mutant Sod1 Mouse Model Of Als, Mark W. Urban, Brittany A. Charsar, Nicolette M. Heinsinger, Shashirekha S. Markandaiah, Lindsay Sprimont, Wei Zhou, Eric V. Brown, Nathan T. Henderson, Samantha J. Thomas, Biswarup Ghosh, Rachel E. Cain, Davide Trotti, Piera Pasinelli, Megan C. Wright, Matthew B. Dalva, Angelo C. Lepore

Farber Institute for Neuroscience Staff Papers and Presentations

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron loss. Importantly, non-neuronal cell types such as astrocytes also play significant roles in disease pathogenesis. However, mechanisms of astrocyte contribution to ALS remain incompletely understood. Astrocyte involvement suggests that transcellular signaling may play a role in disease. We examined contribution of transmembrane signaling molecule ephrinB2 to ALS pathogenesis, in particular its role in driving motor neuron damage by spinal cord astrocytes. In symptomatic SOD1G93A mice (a well-established ALS model), ephrinB2 expression was dramatically increased in ventral horn astrocytes. Reducing ephrinB2 in the cervical spinal cord ventral horn via …


Barriers To Care For Children With Cerebral Palsy In The Rural State Of Maine: A Mixed-Methods Study, Rayne L. Whitten, Anya K. Cutler, Alexa K. Craig 2024 Tufts University School of Medicine, Maine Track

Barriers To Care For Children With Cerebral Palsy In The Rural State Of Maine: A Mixed-Methods Study, Rayne L. Whitten, Anya K. Cutler, Alexa K. Craig

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: Guidelines on orthopedic hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy have been published to minimize the effects of cerebral palsy and maximize quality of life. Researchers aimed to identify barriers to cerebral palsy care and to assess adherence to national hip-surveillance guidelines among a small subset of children with cerebral palsy who live in a rural state.

Methods: Parents of children with cerebral palsy were interviewed, and thematic analyses were performed on the recorded transcripts. Patient-specific data about imaging and demographics were manually extracted from the electronic health record to perform a mixed-methods analysis.

Results: Twenty-one parents were interviewed, …


Analyses Of Patients Who Self-Administered Diazepam Nasal Spray For Acute Treatment Of Seizure Clusters, Sunita Misra, Michael R Sperling, Vikram Rao, Jurriaan Peters, Patricia Penovich, James Wheless, R. Edward Hogan, Charles Davis, Enrique Carrazana, Adrian Rabinowicz 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Analyses Of Patients Who Self-Administered Diazepam Nasal Spray For Acute Treatment Of Seizure Clusters, Sunita Misra, Michael R Sperling, Vikram Rao, Jurriaan Peters, Patricia Penovich, James Wheless, R. Edward Hogan, Charles Davis, Enrique Carrazana, Adrian Rabinowicz

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

For acute treatment of seizure clusters in patients with epilepsy, intranasal administration of acute seizure therapies has been shown to provide accessibility and ease of use to care partners as well as the potential for self-administration by patients. Diazepam nasal spray (Valtoco®) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) in patients with epilepsy aged ≥6 years. Self-administration consistent with the prescribing information is feasible and was reported by a subgroup of patients (n = 27 of 163) in a long-term phase …


Digital Clock Drawing As An Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility Biomarker: Associations With Genetic Risk Score And Apoe In Older Adults, L I Thompson, M Cummings, S Emrani, David J. Libon, A Ang, C Karjadi, R Au, C Liu 2024 Brown University

Digital Clock Drawing As An Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility Biomarker: Associations With Genetic Risk Score And Apoe In Older Adults, L I Thompson, M Cummings, S Emrani, David J. Libon, A Ang, C Karjadi, R Au, C Liu

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in older adults, but most people are not diagnosed until significant neuronal loss has likely occurred along with a decline in cognition. Non-invasive and cost-effective digital biomarkers for AD have the potential to improve early detection.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the validity of DCTclockTM (a digitized clock drawing task) as an AD susceptibility biomarker.

DESIGN: We used two primary independent variables, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele carrier status and polygenic risk score (PRS). We examined APOE and PRS associations with DCTclockTM composite scores as dependent measures.

SETTING: We used existing data …


Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang 2024 MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taiwan

Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mutations in fused in sarcoma (fust-1) are linked to ALS. However, how these ALS causative mutations alter physiological processes and lead to the onset of ALS remains largely unknown. By obtaining humanized fust-1 ALS mutations via CRISPR-CAS9, we generated a C. elegans ALS model. Homozygous fust-1 ALS mutant and fust-1 deletion animals are viable in C. elegans. This allows us to better characterize the molecular mechanisms of fust-1-dependent responses. We found FUST-1 plays a role in regulating superoxide dismutase, glutamate signaling, and oxidative stress. FUST-1 suppresses SOD-1 and VGLUT/EAT-4 in the nervous system. FUST-1 also regulates synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor …


Tiny But Mighty, An Exploration Of Microbes And Plants As Sources Of Small Novel Bioactive Compounds Against Invasive Mycoses., Hannah Mai Peacock, James Anthony O'Connor 2023 Munster Technological University

Tiny But Mighty, An Exploration Of Microbes And Plants As Sources Of Small Novel Bioactive Compounds Against Invasive Mycoses., Hannah Mai Peacock, James Anthony O'Connor

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Despite the high mortality rate involved with invasive cerebral mycoses, there is a relative lack of research available around antifungals capable of crossing the blood brain barrier.

In this study the metabolites of four plants (Crocus vernus, Miniature Narcissus (daffodil), Osmanthus delavayi and Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion)) and two bacteria (Lacticaseibacillus paracasei and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were extracted and assayed for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thin layer chromatography and bioautography were then employed to assess the activity of the constituent components of sources showing antifungal activity.

Metabolites of S.epidermidis, and extracts …


Differential Diagnostic Considerations In A Patient With New Onset Apathy: A Case Study On Frontal Lobe Glioblastoma Multiforme, Joy Zarandy, Sarah Yoon, Sharnikha Saravanan, Sanjana Das, Sarah Thomas 2023 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Differential Diagnostic Considerations In A Patient With New Onset Apathy: A Case Study On Frontal Lobe Glioblastoma Multiforme, Joy Zarandy, Sarah Yoon, Sharnikha Saravanan, Sanjana Das, Sarah Thomas

The Journal of Integrated Primary Care

This case study involves a 50 year-old previously healthy female presenting with a two-week history of clinically significant apathy. The patient and her family assume her symptoms are due to a potential underlying psychiatric condition; however, neurologic and systemic disorders should also be considered when evaluating a patient with sudden personality change. After a thorough history and physical exam, further evaluation with neuroimaging is performed due to suspicion of neurological etiology. A sizable ring-enhancing lesion in the frontal lobe is noted on MRI, and a diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is confirmed with biopsy. GBM, or grade 4 astrocytoma, is …


Multi-Site Identification And Generalization Of Clusters Of Walking Behaviors In Individuals With Chronic Stroke And Neurotypical Controls, Natalia Sánchez, Nicolas Schweighofer, Sara J. Mulroy, Ryan T. Roemmich, Trisha M. Keshar, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo, Beth E. Fisher, James M. Finley, Carolee J. Winstein 2023 Chapman University

Multi-Site Identification And Generalization Of Clusters Of Walking Behaviors In Individuals With Chronic Stroke And Neurotypical Controls, Natalia Sánchez, Nicolas Schweighofer, Sara J. Mulroy, Ryan T. Roemmich, Trisha M. Keshar, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo, Beth E. Fisher, James M. Finley, Carolee J. Winstein

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Walking patterns in stroke survivors are highly heterogeneous, which poses a challenge in systematizing treatment prescriptions for walking rehabilitation interventions.

Objectives

We used bilateral spatiotemporal and force data during walking to create a multi-site research sample to: (1) identify clusters of walking behaviors in people post-stroke and neurotypical controls and (2) determine the generalizability of these walking clusters across different research sites. We hypothesized that participants post-stroke will have different walking impairments resulting in different clusters of walking behaviors, which are also different from control participants.

Methods

We gathered data from 81 post-stroke participants across 4 research sites and …


Using Digital Assessment Technology To Detect Neuropsychological Problems In Primary Care Settings, David J Libon, Emily Frances Matusz, Stephanie Cosentino, Catherine C Price, Rod Swenson, Meagan Vermeulen, Terrie Beth Ginsberg, Adaora Obiageli Okoli-Umeweni, Leonard Powell, Robert Nagele, Sean Tobyne, Joyce Rios Gomes-Osman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone 2023 Rowan University

Using Digital Assessment Technology To Detect Neuropsychological Problems In Primary Care Settings, David J Libon, Emily Frances Matusz, Stephanie Cosentino, Catherine C Price, Rod Swenson, Meagan Vermeulen, Terrie Beth Ginsberg, Adaora Obiageli Okoli-Umeweni, Leonard Powell, Robert Nagele, Sean Tobyne, Joyce Rios Gomes-Osman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

INTRODUCTION: Screening for neurocognitive impairment and psychological distress in ambulatory primary and specialty care medical settings is an increasing necessity. The Core Cognitive Evaluation™ (CCE) is administered/scored using an iPad, requires approximately 8 min, assesses 3- word free recall and clock drawing to command and copy, asks questions about lifestyle and health, and queries for psychological distress. This information is linked with patients' self- reported concerns about memory and their cardiovascular risks.

METHODS: A total of 199 ambulatory patients were screened with the CCE as part of their routine medical care. The CCE provides several summary indices, and scores on …


Erythrocyte–Brain Endothelial Interactions Induce Microglial Responses And Cerebral Microhemorrhages In Vivo, Hai Zhang, Rachita K. Sumbria, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, David H. Cribbs, Todd C. Holmes, Mark J. Fisher, Xiangmin Xu 2023 University of California, Irvine

Erythrocyte–Brain Endothelial Interactions Induce Microglial Responses And Cerebral Microhemorrhages In Vivo, Hai Zhang, Rachita K. Sumbria, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, David H. Cribbs, Todd C. Holmes, Mark J. Fisher, Xiangmin Xu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Cerebral microhemorrhages (CMH) are associated with stroke, cognitive decline, and normal aging. Our previous study shows that the interaction between oxidatively stressed red blood cells (RBC) and cerebral endothelium may underlie CMH development. However, the real-time examination of altered RBC–brain endothelial interactions in vivo, and their relationship with clearance of stalled RBC, microglial responses, and CMH development, has not been reported.

Methods

RBC were oxidatively stressed using tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), fluorescently labeled and injected into adult Tie2-GFP mice. In vivo two-photon imaging and ex vivo confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the temporal profile of RBC–brain endothelial interactions associated with …


Falling Into Action, Kent Hoffman 2023 n/a

Falling Into Action, Kent Hoffman

The Goose

Kent Hoffman explores human movement, his own mobility, and how it influences the way he moves on land. This personal essay, told through the lens of disability and accessibility, outlines his experience of living with Becker muscular dystrophy. Hoffman's approach to walking and mobility is heavily influenced by a fear of falling. As his mobility is changing, he's adapting and seeking out new ways to move on land. Different modes of mobility determine the way we experience personal movement, but accessibility determines who is welcome in spaces in the first place. Accessibility in the form of providing equal access is …


From Covid-19 To Long Covid; The Forms Of The Neurological Manifestations, Sana Ahuja, Sufian Zaheer 2023 Department of Pathology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

From Covid-19 To Long Covid; The Forms Of The Neurological Manifestations, Sana Ahuja, Sufian Zaheer

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Ever since the SARS-CoV-2 infection was declared a global pandemic in 2020, numerous multisystemic manifestations have been discovered. The COVID-19 is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological symptoms like fatigue, headache, brain fog, stroke, smell and taste disorders, encephalopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. The neurological manifestations are more prevalent in the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and WHO defined Ongoing Symptomatic COVID as 4-12 weeks post infection and post COVID-19 syndrome as persistence of symptoms beyond 12 weeks. So far there are limited data available regarding the pathophysiology of neurological symptoms …


Ciprofloxacin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Case Report, Alexander Refaeian, Eric L. Vest, Michael Schmidt, Jorge D. Guerra, Mohd N. Refaei, Michael Refaeian, Ryan A. Floresca, Manouchehr Refaeian 2023 Texas Christian University Burnett School of Medicine, Fort Worth, TX

Ciprofloxacin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Case Report, Alexander Refaeian, Eric L. Vest, Michael Schmidt, Jorge D. Guerra, Mohd N. Refaei, Michael Refaeian, Ryan A. Floresca, Manouchehr Refaeian

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction

Fluoroquinolones, a class of antibiotics, are commonly employed in the treatment of a wide array of bacterial infections. Recognized for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of pathogens, fluoroquinolones have played a pivotal role in managing conditions like urinary tract infections and respiratory diseases. Nevertheless, their usage is not without contention due to their association with a variety of adverse effects, including tendon rupture and the less frequently reported issue of peripheral neuropathy.

Case Presentation

We present the case of a 42-year-old male who developed peripheral neuropathy several days after completing a 10-day course of ciprofloxacin for gastroenteritis. The …


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