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229 full-text articles. Page 1 of 9.

Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman 2018 George Washington University

Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Carbamyl phosphate (CP) is well-known as an essential intermediate of pyrimidine and arginine/urea biosynthesis. Chemically, CP can be easily synthesized from dihydrogen phosphate and cyanate. Enzymatically, CP can be synthesized using three different classes of enzymes: (1) ATP-grasp fold protein based carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS); (2) Amino-acid kinase fold carbamate kinase (CK)-like CPS (anabolic CK or aCK); and (3) Catabolic transcarbamylase. The first class of CPS can be further divided into three different types of CPS as CPS I, CPS II, and CPS III depending on the usage of ammonium or glutamine as its nitrogen source, and whether


Modeling Hcv Interactions With P53: Implications For Carcinogenesis, Harsh Jain 2018 Florida State University

Modeling Hcv Interactions With P53: Implications For Carcinogenesis, Harsh Jain

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong 2018 Oklahoma State University - Main Campus

Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


In Vitro Aortic Arch Flow Model For Vector Flow Imaging Testing, Jackson Mosley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

In Vitro Aortic Arch Flow Model For Vector Flow Imaging Testing, Jackson Mosley

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pediatric stenosis is the narrowing of the aorta at the aortic valve, above the aortic valve, or below the aortic valve. Typically, this disease’s severity is diagnosed by conventional Doppler ultrasound methods, or echocardiography. Conventional Doppler can sometimes overestimate the pressure gradient over the area of stenosis, diagnosing some cases of PAS to be more severe than they actually are. This causes earlier intervention than is desired in children. A new US modality, Vector Flow Imaging (VFI), is an angle-independent US imaging method that can potentially more accurately quantify peak blood flow velocities and pressure gradients across stenotic sections ...


Modeling Culex Tarsalis Habitat Suitability In The Great Plains Of Montana, Teal Bullick 2018 Carroll College

Modeling Culex Tarsalis Habitat Suitability In The Great Plains Of Montana, Teal Bullick

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

As the leading cause of arbovirus encephalitis in the United States, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a public health risk in the state of Montana where infection rates in mosquitoes can be as high as 15%. Spatial modeling can serve as a tool for predicting outbreaks and directing prevention measures. Models for the entire state of Montana currently exist that predict WNV risk and habitat suitability of the predominant vector species Culex tarsalis. After collecting additional mosquito vector samples in the summer of 2017, I used niche modeling techniques with historic and new presence-only data to build a Cx. tarsalis ...


Skeletal, Cardiac, And Respiratory Muscle Function And Histopathology In The P448lneo- Mouse Model Of Fkrp-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy., Qing Yu, Melissa Morales, Ning Li, Alexander G Fritz, Ren Ruobing, Anthony Blaeser, Ershia Francois, Qi-Long Lu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Christopher F Spurney 2018 George Washington University

Skeletal, Cardiac, And Respiratory Muscle Function And Histopathology In The P448lneo- Mouse Model Of Fkrp-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy., Qing Yu, Melissa Morales, Ning Li, Alexander G Fritz, Ren Ruobing, Anthony Blaeser, Ershia Francois, Qi-Long Lu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Christopher F Spurney

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) mutations are the most common cause of dystroglycanopathies known to cause both limb girdle and congenital muscular dystrophy. The P448Lneo- mouse model has a knock-in mutation in the FKRP gene and develops skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle disease.

METHODS: We studied the natural history of the P448Lneo- mouse model over 9 months and the effects of twice weekly treadmill running. Forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (Columbus Instruments) and overall activity (Omnitech Electronics) assessed skeletal muscle function. Echocardiography was performed using VisualSonics Vevo 770 (FujiFilm VisualSonics). Plethysmography was performed using whole body system (ADInstruments). Histological evaluations included ...


Melatonin Attenuates Oxidative Stress And Modulates Inflammatory Response After Experimental Burn Trauma, Minka Hristova, Ganka Bekyarova, Milena Atanasova, Maria Tzaneva 2018 Medical University of Varna, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology

Melatonin Attenuates Oxidative Stress And Modulates Inflammatory Response After Experimental Burn Trauma, Minka Hristova, Ganka Bekyarova, Milena Atanasova, Maria Tzaneva

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. Thermal injury activates an inflammatory response. Melatonin possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the present work was to study melatonin effects on the inflammatory response under conditions of oxidative stress during the early stage of thermal injury.

Materials and methods. We used 24 white male rats of Wistar breed, randomly divided into three experimental groups. Group one was the control, group two was inflicted with burn trauma, and group three was inflicted with burn trauma, with melatonin application following the thermal injury. Melatonin was applied twice in doses of 10 g/kg b.m. immediately after the ...


Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Smoothened receptor (SMO) is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SMO gene. A systemic mutation in its binding pocket helps predict the sensitivity of mutant proteins to different drugs. Known as a GPCR-like receptor, it is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway; a pathway involved in body patterning and the regulation of adult stem cells. An uncontrolled or inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog pathway drives tumor progression in cancers and a number of birth defects. To achieve these goals, the molecular modeling software MOE was used to build small molecules and drug molecules like Vismodegib and ...


Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. VanOsdol 2018 Northern Michigan University

Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol

All NMU Master's Theses

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...


Rest Upregulates Gremlin To Modulate Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Vasculature, Shavali Shaik, Bridget Kennis, Shinji Maegawa, Keri Schadler, Yang Yanwen, Javad Nazarian, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Rest Upregulates Gremlin To Modulate Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Vasculature, Shavali Shaik, Bridget Kennis, Shinji Maegawa, Keri Schadler, Yang Yanwen, Javad Nazarian, +Several Additional Authors

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive glial tumor that occurs in children. The extremely poor median and 5-year survival in children afflicted with DIPG highlights the need for novel biology-driven therapeutics. Here, we have implicated the chromatin remodeler and regulator of brain development called RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST), in DIPG pathology. We show that REST protein is aberrantly elevated in at least 21% of DIPG tumors compared to normal controls. Its knockdown in DIPG cell lines diminished cell growth and decreased their tumorigenicity in mouse intracranial models. DIPGs are vascularized tumors and interestingly, REST loss in ...


Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., James A. Ratti 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., James A. Ratti

Theses and Dissertations

COPD is characterized by tissue inflammation and impaired remodeling that suggests fibroblast maintenance of structural homeostasis is dysregulated. Thus, we performed in vitro wound healing experiments on normal and diseased human lung fibroblasts and developed an ABM of fibroblasts closing a scratched monolayer using NetLogo to evaluate differences due to COPD or cigarette smoke condensate exposure. This ABM consists of a rule-set governing the healing response, accounting for cell migration, proliferation, death, activation and senescence rates; along with the effects of heterogeneous activation, phenotypic changes, serum deprivation and exposure to cigarette smoke condensate or bFGF. Simulations were performed to calibrate ...


Molecular And Functional Analysis Of Anchorage Independent, Treatment-Evasive Neuroblastoma Tumorspheres With Enhanced Malignant Properties: A Possible Explanation For Radio-Therapy Resistance, Tamara Abou-Antoun, Javad Nazarian, Anthony Ghanem, Stanislav Vukmanovic, Anthony D. Sandler 2018 George Washington University

Molecular And Functional Analysis Of Anchorage Independent, Treatment-Evasive Neuroblastoma Tumorspheres With Enhanced Malignant Properties: A Possible Explanation For Radio-Therapy Resistance, Tamara Abou-Antoun, Javad Nazarian, Anthony Ghanem, Stanislav Vukmanovic, Anthony D. Sandler

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic ...


Spatial Modelling And Wildlife Health Surveillance: A Case Study Of White Nose Syndrome In Ontario, Lauren Yee 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Spatial Modelling And Wildlife Health Surveillance: A Case Study Of White Nose Syndrome In Ontario, Lauren Yee

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Wildlife data is often limited by survey effort, small sample sizes, and spatial biases associated with collection and missing data. These factors can create unique challenges from a surveillance perspective when trying to extract spatial patterns of habitat suitability and disease distributions for conservation and management purposes. This thesis examined data quality from a wildlife health database in the context of spatial analysis of wildlife disease. Spatial analysis of the data to predict habitat suitability of bats and white nose syndrome afflicted bats was examined by using the MaxEnt modelling method. Methods to reduce spatial bias were examined and specific ...


Identifying The Role Of Janus Kinase 1 In Mammary Gland Development And Breast Cancer, Barbara Swenson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Identifying The Role Of Janus Kinase 1 In Mammary Gland Development And Breast Cancer, Barbara Swenson

Theses & Dissertations

The development of the postnatal mammary gland is tightly controlled by peptide hormones and cytokines. The signaling of these extracellular ligands through their corresponding receptors rely on Janus Kinases (JAKs) that activate downstream Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs). The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is crucial for processes such as growth, proliferation, and cell survival of the epithelial tissue, but also for the breakdown and remodeling of the mammary gland via IL-6 class inflammatory cytokines (e.g. LIF and OSM). JAK1 and JAK2, which are expressed in the mammary gland, are thought to have redundant functions. However, our previous ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Novel strategies to stimulate the expansion of β-cell mass in situ are warranted for diabetes therapy. Cell-replacement therapies for the treatment of diabetes have become a focal point in recent years. Endogenous regeneration of β-cell mass has been demonstrated using human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC). However, the secretory factors responsible for initiating endogenous regeneration remain unknown. Successful large-scale proteomic applications to address these questions have been limited in part by difficulties in correctly selecting the appropriate methodologies. Thus, the goal of this thesis was a combination of assessing different proteomic workflows to facilitate investigation into hMSC biology, applying these methods ...


24-Month Hiv-Free Survival Among Infants Born To Hiv-Positive Women Enrolled In Option B+ Program In Kigali, Rwanda: The Kabeho Study, Michelle Gill, Heather J. Hoffman, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Placidie Mugwaneza, Laura Guay, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

24-Month Hiv-Free Survival Among Infants Born To Hiv-Positive Women Enrolled In Option B+ Program In Kigali, Rwanda: The Kabeho Study, Michelle Gill, Heather J. Hoffman, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Placidie Mugwaneza, Laura Guay, +Several Additional Authors

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision to all pregnant HIV-positive women (“Option B+”) has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2013, but there remain limited data on the effects of Option B+ on long-term HIV-free survival in breastfeeding HIV-exposed infants. The Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) study enrolled HIV-positive women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 2 weeks postpartum in 14 heath facilities implementing Option B+ in Kigali, Rwanda. Mother–child pairs in the longitudinal observational cohort were followed until 24 months postpartum, with HIV diagnostic testing at 6 weeks, and 9 ...


Exploiting Fission Yeast Genetic Interaction Data To Identify Disease-Specific Drug Targets For Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Ashyad Rayhan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Exploiting Fission Yeast Genetic Interaction Data To Identify Disease-Specific Drug Targets For Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Ashyad Rayhan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited genetic disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. Their respective gene products regulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which serves as an activator of cellular proliferation, metabolism, and cell survival. Orthologs of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes exist in a wide range of organisms, including the commonly used and genetically tractable model eukaryote, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To better understand the functional roles of S. pombe tsc1 and tsc2, I exploited recent advances in genetic interaction biology to identify and characterize genes that modulate the phenotypic effects of tsc1 ...


Pattern Discovery In Brain Imaging Genetics Via Scca Modeling With A Generic Non-Convex Penalty, Lei Du, Kefei Liu, Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Shannon L. Risacher, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Andrew J. Saykin, Li Shen, Michael W. Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Zaven Khachaturian, Greg Sorensen, Maria Carrillo, Lew Kuller, Marc Raichle, Steven Paul, Peter Davies, Howard Fillit, Franz Hefti, David Holtzman, Charles D. Smith, Gregory Jicha, Peter A. Hardy, Partha Sinha, Elizabeth Oates, Gary Conrad 2017 Northwestern Polytechnical University, China

Pattern Discovery In Brain Imaging Genetics Via Scca Modeling With A Generic Non-Convex Penalty, Lei Du, Kefei Liu, Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Shannon L. Risacher, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Andrew J. Saykin, Li Shen, Michael W. Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Zaven Khachaturian, Greg Sorensen, Maria Carrillo, Lew Kuller, Marc Raichle, Steven Paul, Peter Davies, Howard Fillit, Franz Hefti, David Holtzman, Charles D. Smith, Gregory Jicha, Peter A. Hardy, Partha Sinha, Elizabeth Oates, Gary Conrad

Neurology Faculty Publications

Brain imaging genetics intends to uncover associations between genetic markers and neuroimaging quantitative traits. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) can discover bi-multivariate associations and select relevant features, and is becoming popular in imaging genetic studies. The L1-norm function is not only convex, but also singular at the origin, which is a necessary condition for sparsity. Thus most SCCA methods impose 1-norm onto the individual feature or the structure level of features to pursuit corresponding sparsity. However, the 1-norm penalty over-penalizes large coefficients and may incurs estimation bias. A number of non-convex penalties are proposed to reduce ...


The Dynamics Of An Epidemiological Model For Human Papillomavirus With Partial Vaccination In A Heterogeneous Population, Stefano Chiaradonna 2017 Illinois State University

The Dynamics Of An Epidemiological Model For Human Papillomavirus With Partial Vaccination In A Heterogeneous Population, Stefano Chiaradonna

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


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