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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms Commons

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Psychosocial, Psychiatric And Work-Related Risk Factors Associated With Suicide In Ireland: Optimised Methodological Approach Of A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study, E. Arensman, Celine Larkin 2019 University College Cork

Psychosocial, Psychiatric And Work-Related Risk Factors Associated With Suicide In Ireland: Optimised Methodological Approach Of A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study, E. Arensman, Celine Larkin

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Suicide has profound effects on families and communities, but is a statistically rare event. Psychological autopsies using a case-control design allow researchers to examine risk factors for suicide, using a variety of sources to detail the psychological and social characteristics of decedents and to compare them to controls. The Suicide Support and Information System Case Control study (SSIS-ACE) aimed to compare psychosocial, psychiatric and work-related risk factors across three groups of subjects: suicide decedents, patients presenting to hospital with a high-risk self-harm episode, and general practice controls.

METHODS: The study design includes two inter-related studies; one main case-control study ...


Memory Cd4 T Cell-Derived Il-2 Synergizes With Viral Infection To Exacerbate Lung Inflammation, K. Kai McKinstry, Fahmida Alam, Valeria Flores-Malavet, Mate Z. Nagy, Stewart Sell, Andrea M. Cooper, Susan L. Swain, Tara M. Strutt 2019 University of Central Florida

Memory Cd4 T Cell-Derived Il-2 Synergizes With Viral Infection To Exacerbate Lung Inflammation, K. Kai Mckinstry, Fahmida Alam, Valeria Flores-Malavet, Mate Z. Nagy, Stewart Sell, Andrea M. Cooper, Susan L. Swain, Tara M. Strutt

Open Access Articles

Defining the most penetrating correlates of protective memory T cells is key for designing improved vaccines and T cell therapies. Here, we evaluate how interleukin (IL-2) production by memory CD4 T cells, a widely held indicator of their protective potential, impacts immune responses against murine influenza A virus (IAV). Unexpectedly, we show that IL-2-deficient memory CD4 T cells are more effective on a per cell basis at combating IAV than wild-type memory cells that produce IL-2. Improved outcomes orchestrated by IL-2-deficient cells include reduced weight loss and improved respiratory function that correlate with reduced levels of a broad array of ...


Micro-Rnas Are Related To Epicardial Adipose Tissue In Participants With Atrial Fibrillation: Data From The Mirhythm Study, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Jordan Majka, Saket Sanghai, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Zachary J. Milstone, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, David D. McManus 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Micro-Rnas Are Related To Epicardial Adipose Tissue In Participants With Atrial Fibrillation: Data From The Mirhythm Study, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Jordan Majka, Saket Sanghai, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Zachary J. Milstone, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, David D. Mcmanus

Open Access Articles

Introduction: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been linked to incidence and recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying mechanisms that mediate this association remain unclear. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the regulation of gene expression in cardiovascular diseases, including AF. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that circulating miRNAs relate to burden of EAT.

Methods: We examined the plasma miRNA profiles of 91 participants from the miRhythm study, an ongoing study examining associations between miRNA and AF. We quantified plasma expression of 86 unique miRNAs commonly expressed in cardiomyocytes using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). From ...


Overview On Percutaneous Therapies Of Disc Diseases, Salvatore Masala, Fabio Salimei, Adriano Lacche, Stefano Marcia, Francesco Massari 2019 University of Rome

Overview On Percutaneous Therapies Of Disc Diseases, Salvatore Masala, Fabio Salimei, Adriano Lacche, Stefano Marcia, Francesco Massari

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Low back pain is an extremely common pathology affecting a great share of the population, in particular, young adults. Many structures can be responsible for pain such as intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerve roots, and sacroiliac joints. This review paper focuses on disc pathology and the percutaneous procedures available to date for its treatment. For each option, we will assess the indications, technical aspects, advantages, and complications, as well as outcomes reported in the literature and new emerging trends in the field.


Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the late stage of hepatic fibrosis and is characterized by portal hypertension that can clinically lead to decompensation in the form of ascites, esophageal/gastric varices or encephalopathy. The most common sequelae associated with liver cirrhosis are neurologic and neuropsychiatric impairments labeled as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Well established triggers for HE include infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, constipation, and medications. Alterations to the gut microbiome is one of the leading ammonia producers in the body, and therefore may make patients more susceptible to HE.

AIM: To investigate the relationship between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and ...


Reducing Sugary Drink Intake Through Youth Empowerment: Results From A Pilot-Site Randomized Study, Monica L. Wang, Marisa Otis, Milagros C. Rosal, Christina F. Griecci, Stephenie C. Lemon 2019 Boston University

Reducing Sugary Drink Intake Through Youth Empowerment: Results From A Pilot-Site Randomized Study, Monica L. Wang, Marisa Otis, Milagros C. Rosal, Christina F. Griecci, Stephenie C. Lemon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Efficacious strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among youth are needed. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based youth empowerment intervention to reduce SSB consumption and obesity risk among a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of youth.

METHODS: The H2GO! intervention was pilot-tested in an afterschool setting (Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC)) in Massachusetts, USA. One site was randomized to receive the intervention; the other site received standard programming. Youth ages 9-12 years and their parents/caregivers were eligible to participate. A total of N = 110 parent-child pairs (N = 55 parent-child pairs per site ...


A Permethrin Metabolite Is Associated With Adaptive Immune Responses In Gulf War Illness, Utsav Joshi, Lawrence J. Stern, Laila Abdullah 2019 The Open University

A Permethrin Metabolite Is Associated With Adaptive Immune Responses In Gulf War Illness, Utsav Joshi, Lawrence J. Stern, Laila Abdullah

Open Access Articles

Gulf War Illness (GWI), affecting 30% of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War (GW), is a multi-symptom illness with features similar to those of patients with autoimmune diseases. The objective of the current work is to determine if exposure to GW-related pesticides, such as permethrin (PER), activates peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) adaptive immune responses. In the current study, we focused on a PER metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), as this is a common metabolite previously shown to form adducts with endogenous proteins. We observed the presence of 3-PBA and 3-PBA modified lysine of protein peptides in the brain, blood ...


A Receptor Of The Immunoglobulin Superfamily Regulates Adaptive Thermogenesis, Carmen Hurtado Del Pozo, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jason K. Kim, Ann Marie. Schmidt 2019 New York University

A Receptor Of The Immunoglobulin Superfamily Regulates Adaptive Thermogenesis, Carmen Hurtado Del Pozo, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jason K. Kim, Ann Marie. Schmidt

Open Access Articles

Exquisite regulation of energy homeostasis protects from nutrient deprivation but causes metabolic dysfunction upon nutrient excess. In human and murine adipose tissue, the accumulation of ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) accompanies obesity, implicating this receptor in energy metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that mice bearing global- or adipocyte-specific deletion of Ager, the gene encoding RAGE, display superior metabolic recovery after fasting, a cold challenge, or high-fat feeding. The RAGE-dependent mechanisms were traced to suppression of protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of its key targets, hormone-sensitive lipase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, upon beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation-processes ...


Persistent Inflammation During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment With Diabetes Comorbidity, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Thabata Alves, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Michael S. Rocha, Kim West, Mohan Natarajan, Vijay Viswanathan, Subash Babu, Bruno B. Andrade, Hardy Kornfeld 2019 National Institutes of Health

Persistent Inflammation During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment With Diabetes Comorbidity, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Thabata Alves, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Michael S. Rocha, Kim West, Mohan Natarajan, Vijay Viswanathan, Subash Babu, Bruno B. Andrade, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Articles

Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and adverse treatment outcomes. Systemic hyper-inflammation is characteristic in people with TB and concurrent DM (TBDM) at baseline, but the impact of TB treatment on this pattern has not been determined. We measured 17 plasma cytokines and growth factors in longitudinal cohorts of Indian and Brazilian pulmonary TB patients with or without DM. Principal component analysis revealed virtually complete separation of TBDM from TB individuals in both cohorts at baseline, with hyper-inflammation in TBDM that continued through treatment completion at six months. By one year after treatment completion, there was substantial ...


Sarcopenia In Lung Cancer: Could Chest Imaging Help?, Jennifer Baima, Elke Sarah Schipani, Wasih Kamran, John M. Varlotto, Lacey J. McIntosh, Karl Uy, Isabel Emmerick, Mathew J. Most 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sarcopenia In Lung Cancer: Could Chest Imaging Help?, Jennifer Baima, Elke Sarah Schipani, Wasih Kamran, John M. Varlotto, Lacey J. Mcintosh, Karl Uy, Isabel Emmerick, Mathew J. Most

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations

Introduction: Fifteen to seventy percent of cancer patients demonstrate sarcopenia.1-6,[i],[ii],[iii],[iv],[v],[vi],[vii],[viii],[ix],[x],[xi],[xii],[xiii] Analysis of iliopsoas cross-sectional area, a non-invasive surrogate measure for sarcopenia in patients with cancer has been associated with survival.[xiv],[xv],[xvi],[xvii] The pectoralis muscle may be a more accessible target for measuring sarcopenia in lung cancer patients,[xviii] but it is not known if it this correlates with iliopsoas cross-sectional area. Since measurements vary, it is most accurate to use internal controls. We attempted to examine the cross-sectional area of the two muscles ...


Mtorc2/Akt Activation In Adipocytes Is Required For Adipose Tissue Inflammation In Tuberculosis, Nuria Martinez, Catherine Y. Cheng, Natkunam Ketheesan, Aidan Cullen, Yuefeng Tang, Josephine Lum, Kim West, Michael Poidinger, David A. Guertin, Amit Singhal, Hardy Kornfeld 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mtorc2/Akt Activation In Adipocytes Is Required For Adipose Tissue Inflammation In Tuberculosis, Nuria Martinez, Catherine Y. Cheng, Natkunam Ketheesan, Aidan Cullen, Yuefeng Tang, Josephine Lum, Kim West, Michael Poidinger, David A. Guertin, Amit Singhal, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis has co-evolved with the human host, adapting to exploit the immune system for persistence and transmission. While immunity to tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied in the lung and lymphoid system, little is known about the participation of adipose tissues and non-immune cells in the host-pathogen interaction during this systemic disease.

METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were aerosol infected with M. tuberculosis Erdman and presence of the bacteria and the fitness of the white and brown adipose tissues, liver and skeletal muscle were studied compared to uninfected mice.

FINDINGS: M. tuberculosis infection in mice stimulated immune cell infiltration ...


Improvement In Mental Health Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: The Role Of Pain And Function, Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen, Thomas Perneger, Patricia D. Franklin, Christophe Barea, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Anne Lubbeke 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Improvement In Mental Health Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: The Role Of Pain And Function, Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen, Thomas Perneger, Patricia D. Franklin, Christophe Barea, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Anne Lubbeke

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Mental health has been shown to improve after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Little is known about the role of pain and function in this context. We assessed whether change in mental health was associated with improvement in pain and function 1 year post-surgery.

METHODS: This prospective study included patients enrolled in a THA registry from 2010 to 2014. We examined the mental component score (MCS) before and 1 year post-surgery, and 1-year change, in association with Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC) pain and function scores. All scores were normalized, ranging from 0 to 100 (larger score indicating better outcome ...


Gene Expression Signature Of Atypical Breast Hyperplasia And Regulation By Sfrp1, Kelly J. Gregory, Giovanna M. Crisi, Brooke A. Bentley, Grace Makari-Judson, Holly S. Mason, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Karl J. Simin, Jacob P. S. Johnson, Ashraf Khan, Sallie S. Schneider, D. Joseph Jerry 2019 Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute

Gene Expression Signature Of Atypical Breast Hyperplasia And Regulation By Sfrp1, Kelly J. Gregory, Giovanna M. Crisi, Brooke A. Bentley, Grace Makari-Judson, Holly S. Mason, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Karl J. Simin, Jacob P. S. Johnson, Ashraf Khan, Sallie S. Schneider, D. Joseph Jerry

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Atypical breast hyperplasias (AH) have a 10-year risk of progression to invasive cancer estimated at 4-7%, with the overall risk of developing breast cancer increased by ~ 4-fold. AH lesions are estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERalpha+) and represent risk indicators and/or precursor lesions to low grade ERalpha+ tumors. Therefore, molecular profiles of AH lesions offer insights into the earliest changes in the breast epithelium, rendering it susceptible to oncogenic transformation.

METHODS: In this study, women were selected who were diagnosed with ductal or lobular AH, but no breast cancer prior to or within the 2-year follow-up. Paired AH and ...


Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the late stage of hepatic fibrosis and is characterized by portal hypertension that can clinically lead to decompensation in the form of ascites, esophageal/gastric varices or encephalopathy. The most common sequelae associated with liver cirrhosis are neurologic and neuropsychiatric impairments labeled as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Well established triggers for HE include infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, constipation, and medications. Alterations to the gut microbiome is one of the leading ammonia producers in the body, and therefore may make patients more susceptible to HE.

AIM: To investigate the relationship between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and ...


The Influence Of Different Fat Sources On Steatohepatitis And Fibrosis Development In The Western Diet Mouse Model Of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (Nash), Hannah K. Drescher, Ralf Weiskirchen, Annabelle Fulop, Carsten Hopf, Estibaliz Gonzalez de San Roman, Pitter F. Huesgen, Alain de Bruin, Laura Bongiovanni, Anette Christ, Rene Tolba, Christian Trautwein, Daniela C. Kroy 2019 University Hospital RWTH Aachen

The Influence Of Different Fat Sources On Steatohepatitis And Fibrosis Development In The Western Diet Mouse Model Of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (Nash), Hannah K. Drescher, Ralf Weiskirchen, Annabelle Fulop, Carsten Hopf, Estibaliz Gonzalez De San Roman, Pitter F. Huesgen, Alain De Bruin, Laura Bongiovanni, Anette Christ, Rene Tolba, Christian Trautwein, Daniela C. Kroy

Open Access Articles

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the leading cause of chronic liver injury and the third most common reason for liver transplantations in Western countries. It is unclear so far how different fat sources in Western diets (WD) influence the development of NASH. Our study investigates the impact of non-trans fat (NTF) and corn oil (Corn) as fat source in a WD mouse model of steatohepatitis on disease development and progression. C57BL/6J wildtype (WT) mice were fed "standard" WD (WD-Std), WD-NTF or WD-Corn for 24 weeks. WT animals treated with WD-NTF exhibit distinct features of the metabolic syndrome compared to WD-Std ...


Design And Methods Of The Healthy Kids And Families Study: A Parent-Focused Community Health Worker-Delivered Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention, Amy Borg, Christina F. Haughton, Mullen Sawyer, Stephenie C. Lemon, Kevin J. Kane, Lori Pbert, Wenjun Li, Milagros C. Rosal 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods Of The Healthy Kids And Families Study: A Parent-Focused Community Health Worker-Delivered Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention, Amy Borg, Christina F. Haughton, Mullen Sawyer, Stephenie C. Lemon, Kevin J. Kane, Lori Pbert, Wenjun Li, Milagros C. Rosal

Open Access Articles

Background: One third of U.S. children and two thirds of adults are overweight or obese. Interventions to prevent obesity and thus avert threats to public health are needed. This paper describes the design and methods of the Healthy Kids and Families study, which tested the effect of a parent-focused community health worker (CHW)-delivered lifestyle intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

Methods: Participants were English or Spanish-speaking parent-child dyads (n = 247) from nine elementary schools (grades K-6) located in racial/ethnically diverse low-income communities in Worcester, Massachusetts. Using a quasi-experimental design with the school as the level of allocation, the ...


Methodology Of An Exercise Intervention Program Using Social Incentives And Gamification For Obese Children, Yue Fang, Yunsheng Ma, Dandan Mo, Shunxing Zhang, Mi Xiang, Zhiruo Zhang 2019 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Methodology Of An Exercise Intervention Program Using Social Incentives And Gamification For Obese Children, Yue Fang, Yunsheng Ma, Dandan Mo, Shunxing Zhang, Mi Xiang, Zhiruo Zhang

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Traditional exercise [supervised exercise (SE)] intervention has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to improve metabolic health. However, most exercise interventions were on a high-cost and small scale, moreover lacking of the long-term effect due to low engagement. On the other hand, it was noteworthy that gamification and social incentives were promising strategies to increase engagement and sustain exercise interventions effects; as well as mobile technologies such as WeChat also can provide an appropriate platform to deploy interventions on a broader, low-cost scale. Thus, we aim to develop a novel exercise intervention ('SandG exercise intervention ...


Gms-Classifier1 Does Not Predict Disability Progression In Multiple Sclerosis, Johannis A. van Rossum, Joep Killestein, Luisa M. Villar, Peter N. Riskind, Mark S. Freedman, Charlotte Teunissen 2019 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Gms-Classifier1 Does Not Predict Disability Progression In Multiple Sclerosis, Johannis A. Van Rossum, Joep Killestein, Luisa M. Villar, Peter N. Riskind, Mark S. Freedman, Charlotte Teunissen

Open Access Articles

Several clinical, immunological and radiological biomarkers have been shown to predict the disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS).One potential serum marker is the gMS-Classifier1, which is composed of IgM anti-Glc antibodies, namely anti-GAGA 2,3,4 and 6. Previous work demonstrated that the gMS-Classifier1 could not predict early conversion to clinically definite MS in a cohort of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, but predicted Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression. Significance, however, was dependent on covariates, and confirmation in an independent study was required. The aim of this study was to test if the gMS-Classifier1 could predict early disability ...


Early Pre-Radiographic Structural Pathology Precedes The Onset Of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis, Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Bing Lu, Lori Lyn Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. MacKay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Timothy E. McAlindon, Jeffrey B. Driban 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Early Pre-Radiographic Structural Pathology Precedes The Onset Of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis, Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Bing Lu, Lori Lyn Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. Mackay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Timothy E. Mcalindon, Jeffrey B. Driban

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA) is characterized by more pain, impaired physical function, and greater likelihood to receive a joint replacement compared to individuals who develop the typical gradual onset of disease. Prognostic tools are needed to determine which structural pathologies precede the development of AKOA compared to individuals without AKOA. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript was to determine which pre-radiographic structural features precede the development of AKOA.

METHODS: The sample comprised participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who had at least one radiographically normal knee at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade < 1). Participants were classified into 2 groups based on radiographic progression from baseline to 48 months: AKOA (KL grade change from < 1 to > 3) and No AKOA. The index visit was ...


Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo 2019 The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo

Open Access Articles

Somatic symptoms include a range of physical experiences, such as pain, muscle tension, body shaking, difficulty in breathing, heart palpitation, blushing, fatigue, and sweating. Somatic symptoms are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and some other psychiatric disorders. However, the etiology of somatic symptoms remains unclear. Somatic symptoms could be a response to emotional distress in patients with those psychiatric conditions. Increasing evidence supports the role of aberrant serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in somatic symptoms. The physiological alterations underlying diminished serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling may contribute to impaired signal transduction, reduced 5-HT, or NE release from ...


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