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Respiratory Tract Diseases Commons

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Successful Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation In The Management Of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome And Cardiopulmonary Collapse Secondary To Amniotic Fluid Embolism, Sumon Roy, Nishit A. Biniwale, Venkata S. Pendela, Patricia Oates, Katrina Wojciechowski, Scott C. Feitell 2019 Rochester General Hospital

Successful Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation In The Management Of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome And Cardiopulmonary Collapse Secondary To Amniotic Fluid Embolism, Sumon Roy, Nishit A. Biniwale, Venkata S. Pendela, Patricia Oates, Katrina Wojciechowski, Scott C. Feitell

The VAD Journal

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the most devastating complications of pregnancy that typically manifests as acute cardiopulmonary collapse during delivery or in the postpartum period. The potential role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a management technique in severe cases of AFE remains largely unknown given the limited literature available. In this report, we present the first case, to our knowledge, of successful implementation of ECMO as a life-saving measure in a case of hemorrhagic shock due to postpartum bleeding complicated by severe AFE leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ultimately requiring tracheostomy. Hemodynamic decompensation is often ...


Treating Latent Tuberculosis Infection In Newly Arriving Refugees: An Advanced Practice Nurse Initiative At The University Of Louisville Global Health Center, Linda Goss, Dawn Balcom, Karen Mutsch, Ruth Carrico, Rahel Bosson 2019 University of Louisville

Treating Latent Tuberculosis Infection In Newly Arriving Refugees: An Advanced Practice Nurse Initiative At The University Of Louisville Global Health Center, Linda Goss, Dawn Balcom, Karen Mutsch, Ruth Carrico, Rahel Bosson

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Background: A review of newly arriving refugees referred to the local health department for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment during 2013-2015 revealed a treatment gap of 73%, supporting the need to identify new approaches to treat vulnerable populations and mirrored results in the literature.

Objectives: 1) Describe an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) led alternative approach to LTBI treatment in the refugee population; and 2) evaluate the impact of a 12-week regimen for LTBI on treatment acceptance, adherence and completion.

Methods: During the initial health screening visit, treatment options were provided for those identified with LTBI consisting of either a ...


Mlk Book Read 2019 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries 2019 College of the Holy Cross

Mlk Book Read 2019 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the MLK Winter Book Read, based on the best-seller “Brother, I'm Dying" by Edwidge Danticat.


Gene Co-Expression Networks Analysis Reveal Novel Molecular Endotypes In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Jen-hwa Chu, Wenlan Zang 2019 Yale University

Gene Co-Expression Networks Analysis Reveal Novel Molecular Endotypes In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Jen-Hwa Chu, Wenlan Zang

Yale Day of Data

Rationale:Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that predisposes to early onset pulmonary emphysema and airways obstruction. The exact mechanism through which AATD leads to lung disease is incompletely understood.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of AAT genotype and augmentation therapy on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome, while examining the link between gene expression profiles, and clinical features of AATD.

Methods: We performed RNA-Seq on RNA extracted from BAL and PBMC on samples obtained from 89 AATD patients enrolled in the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study. Differential gene ...


Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan 2019 Yale University School of Medicine

Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan

Yale Day of Data

Whole transcriptome wide gene expression profiles in the sputum and circulation from 100 asthma patients were measured using the Affymetrix HuGene 1.0ST arrays. Unsupervised clustering analysis based on pathways from KEGG were used to identify TEA clusters of patients from the sputum gene expression profiles. The identified TEA clusters have significantly different pre-bronchodilator FEV1, bronchodilator responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide levels, history of hospitalization for asthma and history of intubation. Evaluation of TEA clusters in children from Asthma BRIDGE cohort confirmed the identified differences in intubation and hospitalization. Furthermore, evaluation of the TH2 gene signatures suggested a much lower prevalence ...


Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp 2019 Yale School of Medicine

Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp

Yale Day of Data

This poster illustrates the differences between the IPF disease-specific variety of lung macrophages and the two varieties of macrophages known to reside in the normal human lung.


Discovering The Immune Cell Landscape In Ipf By Whole Lung Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jonas C. Schupp, Taylor Adams 2019 Yale University

Discovering The Immune Cell Landscape In Ipf By Whole Lung Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jonas C. Schupp, Taylor Adams

Yale Day of Data

Single cell transcriptomes of 27 IPF, 13 COPD and 14 control lungs were established. Cells were clustered into major cell types, then the immune cells consisting of 116,057 myeloid, 4,742 B-, and 19,165 T-& NK-cells were analyzed and subclustered. Subclustering revealed IPF-associated unique gene expression profiles subpopulations that were specific to the IPF lung. For example, we could identify an IPF-specific macrophage subpopulation which showed a pro-fibrotic profile characterized by SPP1, CHIT1, CCL18, SPARC, LGMN, CTSK, and MMP9 gene expression. Antagonistically, NK- and cytotoxic T-cells revealed a significantly increased expression of the protease inhibitors A2M and PZP ...


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams 2018 James Madison University

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles were excluded ...


Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy: Looking Back, Looking Forward, Ashley L. Cooney, Paul B. McCray, Patrick L. Sinn 2018 University of Iowa

Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy: Looking Back, Looking Forward, Ashley L. Cooney, Paul B. Mccray, Patrick L. Sinn

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that encodes a cAMP-regulated anion channel. Although CF is a multi-organ system disease, most people with CF die of progressive lung disease that begins early in childhood and is characterized by chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. Nearly 90% of people with CF have at least one copy of the ΔF508 mutation, but there are hundreds of CFTR mutations that result in a range of disease severities. A CFTR gene replacement approach would be efficacious regardless of the disease-causing mutation. After ...


Breathing New Life Into Interstitial Lung Disease In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Peter K. Gregersen, Ellen M. Gravallese 2018 Feinstein Institute for Medical Research

Breathing New Life Into Interstitial Lung Disease In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Peter K. Gregersen, Ellen M. Gravallese

Open Access Articles

Clinical heterogeneity is a hallmark of many autoimmune disorders, and clinical or subclinical pulmonary involvement is a common extraarticular feature of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotype. High-resolution computed tomography reveals evidence of pulmonary abnormalities in more than half of patients with RA, and clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD) will develop in approximately 10% of patients.It is currently difficult to identify these patients and to intervene early in the clinical course of their lung disease.


First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham 2018 Saint Vincent Hospital

First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham

Open Access Articles

Staphylococcus simulans is a coagulase-negative organism, mainly an animal pathogen. Reports of human infection have been infrequent, mainly in patients with repeated animal contact. We report the first case of pleural empyema in an elderly woman. S. simulans tends to cause more severe infection because of a biofilm layer which helps in adherence and colonization of smooth surfaces, especially prosthetic devices, shunts, and catheters. The challenging problem even after CoNS isolation and identification is the assessment of their clinical relevance. Major factors that inhibit the penetration of antibiotics is the large-sized effusions/empyema, thickness of pleura, and the nature of ...


A Household Model Of German Cockroach Infestations And Their Effect On Symptoms Of Atopic Asthma, Karen Funderburk 2018 Illinois State University

A Household Model Of German Cockroach Infestations And Their Effect On Symptoms Of Atopic Asthma, Karen Funderburk

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Association Of Qsofa, Sofa, And Sirs With Mortality In Emergency Department Pneumonia, Ian D. Mecham, Nathan C. Dean, Emily L. Wilson, Al R. Jephson, Michael J. Lanpsa 2018 University of Utah

The Association Of Qsofa, Sofa, And Sirs With Mortality In Emergency Department Pneumonia, Ian D. Mecham, Nathan C. Dean, Emily L. Wilson, Al R. Jephson, Michael J. Lanpsa

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Objective: To determine the association between 30-day mortality with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and quick SOFA (qSOFA) in emergency department patients with pneumonia. Secondary outcomes included the association of sepsis scores with hospital admission and direct ICU admission.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a pneumonia population conducted in the emergency department of 3 tertiary care medical centers and 4 community hospitals. Adult immunocompetent patients diagnosed with pneumonia were included from 3 twelve-month periods spanning December 2009 to October 2015. We generated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for each ...


There Is No Mortality Benefit To Using Quinolones Instead Of Azithromycin For Legionella Pneumonia, David B. Witcher 2018 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is No Mortality Benefit To Using Quinolones Instead Of Azithromycin For Legionella Pneumonia, David B. Witcher

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Gershengorn HB, Keene A, Dzierba AL, Wunsch H. The association of antibiotic treatment regimen and hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;60(11):e66-e79. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ157


Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), develops gradually, and tends to be noticed by farmers only after there has been a significant loss of lung function. People with symptoms of COPD often present for health care in later stages of disease, because they accept cough or breathlessness as “normal”.

Measurement of lung health for those at risk of developing COPD provides an opportunity for early detection of lung disease, and deter the progression toward irreversible damage to the lungs. COPD is, however, under-diagnosed.

The importance of bringing primary care providers and farmers together, and acknowledging the high-risk nature of occupational exposures ...


Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies

Open Access Articles

Severe lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage can be life-threatening in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients if not treated early and aggressively. Neutrophil influx is the driver key of this pathology, but little is known regarding the molecular events regulating this recruitment. Here, we uncover a role for IL-16/mir-125a in this pathology and show not only that IL-16 is a target for miR-125a but that reduced miR-125a expression in SLE patients associates with lung involvement. Furthermore, in the pristane model of acute "SLE-like" lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage, we observed reduced pulmonary miR-125a and enhanced IL-16 expression. Neutrophil infiltration was ...


Perinatal Nicotine With Or Without Early Life Influenza Infection Leads To Lung Dysfunction With Age., Ryan Carroll McAllister 2018 University of Louisville

Perinatal Nicotine With Or Without Early Life Influenza Infection Leads To Lung Dysfunction With Age., Ryan Carroll Mcallister

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Obstructive Airway Diseases (OADs) affect millions of people worldwide, and are characterized by chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling in the lung. It has been proposed that the development of OAD is greatly influenced (and perhaps pre-determined) by early life events, such as maternal smoking or a viral infection. However, direct evidence of this is limited and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Our laboratory previously developed a murine model of perinatal nicotine exposure, and reported that nicotine leads to airway remodeling and decreased pulmonary function in the offspring. We discovered these effects were mediated through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR ...


Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. McCormick 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a source of morbidity and mortality in both developed and underdeveloped nations of the world. Disease can manifest as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, depending on the localization of infection. Interestingly, there is a correlation in experimental murine infections between the development of bacteremia and influx of neutrophils into the pulmonary lumen. Reduction of this neutrophil influx has been shown to improve survivability during infection. In this study, we use in vitro biotinylation and neutrophil transmigration and in vivo murine infection to identify a system in which two epithelium-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters, MRP1 and MRP2, have inverse activities ...


Patterns Of Bronchial Challenge Testing In Canada, Rémi Thériault, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Patterns Of Bronchial Challenge Testing In Canada, Rémi Thériault, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Bronchial challenge testing (BCT) measures airway hyperresponsiveness; asthma guidelines recommend using BCT when symptoms manifest despite normal spirometry. Improper application of these guidelines commonly results in the misdiagnosis of asthma. Yet, statistics concerning BCT remain largely obscure. The current paper addresses this gap and explores how various health variables may elucidate adherence to asthma guidelines and patterns of BCT across Canadian provinces.

Methods: Using the Access to Information Act, medical financial claims for BCT (or equivalent procedures) were requested from each of the Canadian provinces and territories. Based on the available information (from provinces only), correlations between frequency of ...


Editorial: Controversies In The Local Management Of Lung Cancer, John M. Varlotto, Giulia Veronesi 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Editorial: Controversies In The Local Management Of Lung Cancer, John M. Varlotto, Giulia Veronesi

Open Access Articles

At the time we agreed to edit this special edition of Frontiers in early 2017, the immunotherapy revolution was already established in the second-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and even to a select group of patients (those whose tumor cells expressed PD-L1 of ≥50%) in the first-line treatment of metastatic disease. We felt that the summarization and understanding of the strengths and benefits of our local modalities were needed prior to the possible integration of immunotherapy into the treatment paradigms of Stages I–III NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).


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