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The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers 2017 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rhodes College

The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Community Acquired Pneumonia, Allison Foering 2017 Liberty University

Community Acquired Pneumonia, Allison Foering

The Kabod

Community acquired pneumonia is discussed, including the pathophysiology, treatment, patient education, and nursing practice points.


Pulmonary Microrna Profiles Identify Involvement Of Creb1 And Sec14l3 In Bronchial Epithelial Changes In Allergic Asthma., Sabine Bartel, Nikola Schulz, Francesca Alessandrini, Andrea C Schamberger, Philipp Pagel, Fabian J Theis, Katrin Milger, Elfriede Noessner, Stephen M Stick, Anthony Kicic, Oliver Eickelberg, Robert J Freishtat, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann 2017 George Washington University

Pulmonary Microrna Profiles Identify Involvement Of Creb1 And Sec14l3 In Bronchial Epithelial Changes In Allergic Asthma., Sabine Bartel, Nikola Schulz, Francesca Alessandrini, Andrea C Schamberger, Philipp Pagel, Fabian J Theis, Katrin Milger, Elfriede Noessner, Stephen M Stick, Anthony Kicic, Oliver Eickelberg, Robert J Freishtat, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann

Medicine Faculty Publications

Asthma is highly prevalent, but current therapies cannot influence the chronic course of the disease. It is thus important to understand underlying early molecular events. In this study, we aimed to use microRNAs (miRNAs) - which are critical regulators of signaling cascades - to identify so far uncharacterized asthma pathogenesis pathways. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs was assessed in whole lungs from mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI). In silico predicted target genes were confirmed in reporter assays and in house-dust-mite (HDM) induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. We identified and validated ...


Cigarette Smoke Impairs A2a Adenosine Receptor Mediated Wound Repair Through Up-Regulation Of Duox-1 Expression., Zhi Tian, Hui Zhang, Jendayi Dixon, Nicole Traphagen, Todd A. Wyatt, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Samantha Simet, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Diane S Allen-Gipson 2017 University of South Florida

Cigarette Smoke Impairs A2a Adenosine Receptor Mediated Wound Repair Through Up-Regulation Of Duox-1 Expression., Zhi Tian, Hui Zhang, Jendayi Dixon, Nicole Traphagen, Todd A. Wyatt, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Samantha Simet, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Diane S Allen-Gipson

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and intrinsic factors such as the NADPH oxidases produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ensuing inflammatory tissue injury. We previously demonstrated that CS-generated ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), impaired adenosine stimulated wound repair. We hypothesized that CS exposure modulates expression of Dual oxidase 1 (Duox-1), a NADPH oxidases known to generate H2O2. To test this hypothesis, we used human bronchial epithelial cell line Nuli-1 and C57BL/6 mice. Cells were treated with 5% CS extract (CSE) for various periods of time, and mice were exposed to whole body CS for six weeks. Both CSE ...


Effect Of Low-Level Co2 On Innate Inflammatory Protein Response To Organic Dust From Swine Confinement Barns., David Schneberger, Jane M. DeVasure, Kristina L. Bailey, Debra J. Romberger, Todd A. Wyatt 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effect Of Low-Level Co2 On Innate Inflammatory Protein Response To Organic Dust From Swine Confinement Barns., David Schneberger, Jane M. Devasure, Kristina L. Bailey, Debra J. Romberger, Todd A. Wyatt

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

BACKGROUND: Organic hog barn dust (HDE) exposure induces lung inflammation and long-term decreases in lung function in agricultural workers. While concentrations of common gasses in confined animal facilities are well characterized, few studies have been done addressing if exposure to elevated barn gasses impacts the lung immune response to organic dusts. Given the well documented effects of hypercapnia at much higher levels we hypothesized that CO2 at 8 h exposure limit levels (5000 ppm) could alter innate immune responses to HDE.

METHODS: Using a mouse model, C57BL/6 mice were nasally instilled with defined barn dust extracts and then housed ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


School Based Pediatric Asthma Surveillance In Massachusetts, Frances Medaglia, Vannalyn Abille 2017 Massachusetts Department of Public Health

School Based Pediatric Asthma Surveillance In Massachusetts, Frances Medaglia, Vannalyn Abille

Community Engagement and Research Symposia

Asthma remains one of the most common chronic diseases among children in the United States today. Surveillance is limited to national and state estimates which can vary over time and by population (CDC/NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2012). It is estimated that anywhere from 14% to 50% of children with asthma remain undiagnosed. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Bureau of Environmental Health (MDPH/BEH) has been conducting a successful and comprehensive statewide school-based asthma surveillance program since 2002. Partnering with school nurses throughout the state, we request aggregate information via a one-page survey. The survey is distributed ...


Metastatic Biomarkers In Synovial Sarcoma, Rosalia de Necochea-Campion, Lee M. Zuckerman, Hamid R. Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi 2017 Loma Linda University

Metastatic Biomarkers In Synovial Sarcoma, Rosalia De Necochea-Campion, Lee M. Zuckerman, Hamid R. Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi

Library Articles and Research

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that typically occurs in the extremities near a joint. Metastatic disease is common and usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation typically used as adjuvant treatment. Although chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival, the prognosis is poor if metastatic disease occurs. The biology of sarcoma invasion and metastasis remain poorly understood. Chromosomal translocation with fusion of the SYT and SSX genes has been described and is currently used as a diagnostic marker, although the full impact of ...


Neutrophil Function In Elderly Patients Hospitalized With Community- Acquired Pneumonia, Jorge Perez San Juan, Lisandra Rodriguez Hernandez, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Martin Gnoni, Paula Peyrani, Madhavi J. Rane, Forest W. Arnold, Julio A. Ramirez, Silvia Uriarte, Jose Bordon 2017 University of Louisville

Neutrophil Function In Elderly Patients Hospitalized With Community- Acquired Pneumonia, Jorge Perez San Juan, Lisandra Rodriguez Hernandez, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Martin Gnoni, Paula Peyrani, Madhavi J. Rane, Forest W. Arnold, Julio A. Ramirez, Silvia Uriarte, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Advanced age is associated with immunosenescence as well as increased risk for poor outcomes during episodes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data on neutrophil function in hospitalized elderly patients with CAP is lacking. In this study we compared neutrophil function in elderly and non-elderly hospitalized patients with CAP.

Methods: Prospective study of healthy controls (HC) and patients hospitalized with CAP nonelderly (NE-CAP) and elderly (E-CAP). Blood samples were obtained on the day of hospitalization. The following neutrophil functional assays were performed: degranulation of secretory vesicles (CD35), degranulation of specific granules (CD66b), phagocytosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production ...


Using Cluster Analysis Of Cytokines To Identify Patterns Of Inflammation In Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Pilot Study, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, William A. Mattingly, Forest W. Arnold, Stephen P. Furmanek, Marcos I. Restrepo, James D. Chalmers, Paula Peyrani, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Stefano Aliberti, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Using Cluster Analysis Of Cytokines To Identify Patterns Of Inflammation In Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Pilot Study, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, William A. Mattingly, Forest W. Arnold, Stephen P. Furmanek, Marcos I. Restrepo, James D. Chalmers, Paula Peyrani, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Stefano Aliberti, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Purpose: Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are believed to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Therapies aiming to modulate the inflammatory response have been largely unsuccessful, perhaps reflecting that CAP is a heterogeneous disorder that cannot be modulated by a single anti-inflammatory approach. We hypothesize that the host inflammatory response to pneumonia may be characterized by distinct cytokine patterns, which can be harnessed for personalized therapies.

Methods: Here, we use hierarchical cluster analysis of cytokines to examine if patterns of inflammatory response in 13 hospitalized patients with CAP can be defined. This was a secondary data analysis ...


Aligning Asthma Education Across The Continuum Of Physician Education: Impact On Clinical Metrics, Lisa Sullivan Vedder, Deborah Simpson, Jacob L. Bidwell, John R. Brill, Theresa Frederick 2017 Department of Family Medicine, Aurora UW Medical Group

Aligning Asthma Education Across The Continuum Of Physician Education: Impact On Clinical Metrics, Lisa Sullivan Vedder, Deborah Simpson, Jacob L. Bidwell, John R. Brill, Theresa Frederick

Jacob Bidwell, MD

Background: All trainees entering family medicine residency training programs after June 1, 2012, must complete the same American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) requirements as practicing physicians. These shared requirements provide an opportunity to align physician education initiatives across the continuum focused around a clinical care topic to improve health care system metrics. Purpose: To assess the initial effectiveness of an ABFM Asthma Part IV approved MOC module, aligned to meet residency and medical student program accreditation requirements, on health care system metrics. Methods: An ABFM Asthma Part IV MOC module was implemented for family medicine ...


Empty Nose Syndrome—What Do We Know?, Ethan Frank, Christopher Church MD 2017 Loma Linda University, School of Medicine

Empty Nose Syndrome—What Do We Know?, Ethan Frank, Christopher Church Md

Loma Linda University Student Journal

Empty nose syndrome is a complication of nasal surgery wherein patients develop a persistent, debilitating sense of nasal obstruction and dyspnea despite clear nasal cavities. It is characterized by a discrepancy between prominent subjective symptoms and near total lack of objective findings, making it difficult to diagnose. The pathophysiology of empty nose syndrome is a complex mix of aerodynamic, physiologic, and neurological changes leading to altered airflow and diminished sensory function. Evolving treatment options consist of medical symptom control or surgical reconstruction.


Stem Cell Therapy For End Stage Copd: A Cautionary Tale Of Direct-To-Consumer Advertising, Blake J. Arthurs, Scott Yaekle 2017 Wayne State University

Stem Cell Therapy For End Stage Copd: A Cautionary Tale Of Direct-To-Consumer Advertising, Blake J. Arthurs, Scott Yaekle

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Weiss DJ, Casaburi R, Flannery R, LeRoux-Williams M, Tashkin DP. A placebo-controlled, randomized trial of mesenchymal stem cells in COPD. Chest. 2013;143(6):1590-1598. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-2094


Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes Over Time In Children With Asthma, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Lamia Alamri, Keith Crandall, Robert J. Freishtat 2017 George Washington University

Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes Over Time In Children With Asthma, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Lamia Alamri, Keith Crandall, Robert J. Freishtat

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation) of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years) and determine their stability over time.

Methods

Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


A System For Estimating Drug Delivery From A Dry Powder Inhaler By Analysis Of Acoustic Recordings Of Time-Stamped Inhaler Events, Jansen N. Seheult 2016 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

A System For Estimating Drug Delivery From A Dry Powder Inhaler By Analysis Of Acoustic Recordings Of Time-Stamped Inhaler Events, Jansen N. Seheult

MD theses

Inhaled medications are the mainstay of therapy in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD because they allow delivery of the active ingredient directly to the site of action. Poor adherence to inhaled controller medications has been estimated to account for up to 60% of asthma-related hospitalizations and increased rates of 30- and 60- day hospital readmissions in patients with COPD. Numerous electronic monitoring devices have been developed over the last four decades to monitor temporal non-adherence; however, many of these devices do not monitor all or most aspects of inhaler technique. Currently used methods for monitoring ...


High Levels Of Anti-Tuberculin (Igg) Antibodies Correlate With The Blocking Of T-Cell Proliferation In Individuals With High Exposure To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, E. J. Feris, L. Encinales, C. Awad, J. N. Stern, I. Tabansky, L. Jimenez-Alvarez, G. Ramirez-Martinez, A. Cruz-Lagunas, K. Bobadilla, E. Marquez 2016 Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine

High Levels Of Anti-Tuberculin (Igg) Antibodies Correlate With The Blocking Of T-Cell Proliferation In Individuals With High Exposure To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, E. J. Feris, L. Encinales, C. Awad, J. N. Stern, I. Tabansky, L. Jimenez-Alvarez, G. Ramirez-Martinez, A. Cruz-Lagunas, K. Bobadilla, E. Marquez

Joel Stern

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of anti-tuberculin antibodies in the T-cell proliferation in response to tuberculin and Candida antigens in individuals with different levels of tuberculosis (TB) risk. METHODS: Sixteen high-risk TB individuals, 30 with an intermediate TB risk (group A), and 45 with a low TB risk (group B), as well as 49 control individuals, were studied. Tuberculin skin test (TST) results were analyzed and serum levels of antibodies (IgG and IgM) against purified protein derivative (PPD) were measured by ELISA. Tuberculin and Candida antigens were used to stimulate T-cell proliferation in the presence of human AB serum or ...


Airway Secretory Micrornaome Changes During Rhinovirus Infection In Early Childhood., M. Gutierrez, J. Gomez, Geovanny Perez, Krishna Pancham, Dinesh K. Pillai, M. Giri, S. Ferrante, Robert J. Freishtat, Mary C. Rose, Diego A. Preciado, Gustavo Nino 2016 George Washington University

Airway Secretory Micrornaome Changes During Rhinovirus Infection In Early Childhood., M. Gutierrez, J. Gomez, Geovanny Perez, Krishna Pancham, Dinesh K. Pillai, M. Giri, S. Ferrante, Robert J. Freishtat, Mary C. Rose, Diego A. Preciado, Gustavo Nino

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs) that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV) to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome) and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV) infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood.

METHODS:

Nasal airway secretions were obtained from ...


Respiratory Rate Variability In Sleeping Adults Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Guillermo Gutierrez, Jeffrey Williams, Ghadah Alrehaili, Anna McLean, Ramin Pirouz, Richard L. Amdur, Vivek Jain, Jalil Ahari, Amandeep Bawa, Shawn Kimbro 2016 George Washington University

Respiratory Rate Variability In Sleeping Adults Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Guillermo Gutierrez, Jeffrey Williams, Ghadah Alrehaili, Anna Mclean, Ramin Pirouz, Richard L. Amdur, Vivek Jain, Jalil Ahari, Amandeep Bawa, Shawn Kimbro

Surgery Faculty Publications

Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea‐hypopnea index <5, who underwent all‐night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 − H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid‐eye‐movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.


The Role Of Inflammatory Monocytes In Post-Influenza Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Pneumonia, Karl J. Fischer 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Inflammatory Monocytes In Post-Influenza Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Pneumonia, Karl J. Fischer

Theses & Dissertations

Secondary bacterial infections following influenza can lead to poor clinical outcomes and mortality. It is widely accepted that susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections is attributable to a suppressed innate antibacterial immunity. In contrast, a dysregulated host inflammatory response may also contribute to disease severity. Inflammation induced by viral infection alone significantly affects lung pathology, potentially exacerbating the destruction of the respiratory tract. Interestingly, the role of inflammatory mediators such as inflammatory monocytes have been extensively studied during influenza infection alone; however, their role during secondary bacterial infection are still not fully established. The objective of this study was to analyze ...


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