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Respiratory Tract Diseases Commons

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371 full-text articles. Page 1 of 16.

Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Fatal Case Of Ttp In Patient With Underlying Pulmonary Aspergillosis, Shimool A. Rabbani DO, Ankit Shah DO, Joan Wiley DO, Jay Kirkham DO 2018 Rowan University SOM

Fatal Case Of Ttp In Patient With Underlying Pulmonary Aspergillosis, Shimool A. Rabbani Do, Ankit Shah Do, Joan Wiley Do, Jay Kirkham Do

Stratford Campus Research Day

A 70-year- old Caucasian male with history of renal transplant on tacrolimus presented with 5-days of fevers, productive cough, and confusion. Patient was initially diagnosed with pneumonia, presumed bacterial, but soon noted to have worsening neurologic status, renal failure, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He further developed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA); TMA along with the other clinical findings led to diagnosis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). Despite aggressive treatment of TTP with plasmapheresis, patient expired on day five of his hospitalization. Fungal cultures from a bronchoscope performed on day three of hospitalization that resulted postmortem grew many aspergillus flavus and ...


Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. DeNicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers 2018 Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. Denicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of beta cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine beta cells did not affect beta cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD ...


Systematic Literature Review Of Indoor School Exposure To Pm2.5 In Children, Brittany Wagner, Ami Zota 2018 George Washington University

Systematic Literature Review Of Indoor School Exposure To Pm2.5 In Children, Brittany Wagner, Ami Zota

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that puts a strain on lung function and breathing. It is the leading cause of school absenteeism and hospitalization for American children. Genetics play a major role in allergy related disease development such as asthma, but environmental exposures are proving to be a potential contributor to childhood asthma. Despite the sufficient data regarding air pollution, there is a huge knowledge gap regarding indoor air quality and its relationship with health outcomes such as asthma. Many of the studies available only look at outdoor air pollution levels, while children spend the majority of their time ...


Total Hip Arthroplasty: Copd And Its Effect On Postoperative Complications, Camille Boustani, Shane A. Sobrio, Alex Gu, Chapman Wei, Andrew Holmes 2018 George Washington University

Total Hip Arthroplasty: Copd And Its Effect On Postoperative Complications, Camille Boustani, Shane A. Sobrio, Alex Gu, Chapman Wei, Andrew Holmes

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Introduction

The demand for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) has rapidly risen and continues to due to high success rates of this procedure and the growing aging population. Particularly in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), studies have indicated an increased risk of various postoperative complications across several surgery types. Despite the prevalence of COPD, very little has been investigated regarding postsurgical complications in patients with COPD following a THA. The aim of the current study is to utilize the NSQIP database and determine differences in short-term postoperative complications after undergoing THA, comparing patients with and without COPD.

Methods

In total, 74 ...


Population-Based Differences In The Outcome And Presentation Of Lung Cancer Patients Based Upon Racial, Histologic, And Economic Factors In All Lung Patients And Those With Metastatic Disease, John M. Varlotto, Richard Voland, Kerrie McKie, John C. Flickinger, Malcolm M. DeCamp, Debra Maddox, Paul Rava, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Geoffrey Graeber, Negar Rassaei, Paulo Oliveira, Suhail Ali, Chandra Belani, Jonathan Glanzman, Heather A. Wakelee, Manali Patel, Jennifer Baima, Jianying Zhang, William Walsh 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Population-Based Differences In The Outcome And Presentation Of Lung Cancer Patients Based Upon Racial, Histologic, And Economic Factors In All Lung Patients And Those With Metastatic Disease, John M. Varlotto, Richard Voland, Kerrie Mckie, John C. Flickinger, Malcolm M. Decamp, Debra Maddox, Paul Rava, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Geoffrey Graeber, Negar Rassaei, Paulo Oliveira, Suhail Ali, Chandra Belani, Jonathan Glanzman, Heather A. Wakelee, Manali Patel, Jennifer Baima, Jianying Zhang, William Walsh

Open Access Articles

To investigate the interrelation between economic, marital, and known histopathologic/therapeutic prognostic factors in presentation and survival of patients with lung cancer in nine different ethnic groups. A retrospective review of the SEER database was conducted through the years 2007-2012. Population differences were assessed via chi-square testing. Multivariable analyses (MVA) were used to detect overall survival (OS) differences in the total population (TP, N = 153,027) and for those patients presenting with Stage IV (N = 70,968). Compared to Whites, Blacks were more likely to present with younger age, male sex, lower income, no insurance, single/widowed partnership, less squamous ...


Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain

Open Access Articles

Although much is known about the mechanisms by which pathogen recognition drives the initiation of T cell responses, including those to respiratory viruses, the role of pathogen recognition in fate decisions of T cells once they have become effectors remains poorly defined. Here, we review our recent studies that suggest that the generation of CD4 T cell memory is determined by recognition of virus at an effector "checkpoint." We propose this is also true of more highly differentiated tissue-restricted effector cells, including cytotoxic "ThCTL" in the site of infection and TFH in secondary lymphoid organs. We point out that ThCTL ...


Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen 2018 Shenzhen University

Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in clinic, especially for sputum negative pulmonary TB. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has higher sensitivity than sputum for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, bronchoscopy is invasive and costly, and not suitable for all patients. In order to make TB patients get more benefit from BALF for diagnosis, we explore which indicator might be used to optimize the choice of bronchoscopy.

METHODS: A total of 1539 sputum-smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects who underwent bronchoscopy were recruited for evaluation. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Mtb detection in sputum and BALF ...


Editing Out Five Serpina1 Paralogs To Create A Mouse Model Of Genetic Emphysema, Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R. Flotte, Michael H. Brodsky, Andrew M. Hoffman, Mai K. Elmallah, Christian Mueller 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Editing Out Five Serpina1 Paralogs To Create A Mouse Model Of Genetic Emphysema, Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R. Flotte, Michael H. Brodsky, Andrew M. Hoffman, Mai K. Elmallah, Christian Mueller

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 10% of the worldwide population, and the leading genetic cause is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Due to the complexity of the murine locus, which includes up to six Serpina1 paralogs, no genetic animal model of the disease has been successfully generated until now. Here we create a quintuple Serpina1a-e knockout using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The phenotype recapitulates the human disease phenotype, i.e., absence of hepatic and circulating AAT translates functionally to a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase. With age, Serpina1 null mice develop emphysema spontaneously, which can be induced in younger mice ...


Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Articles

A past history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognised, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. Importantly, specific host and pathogen factors causing lung impairment remain unclear. Host immune responses probably play a dominant role in lung damage, as excessive inflammation and elevated expression of lung matrix-degrading proteases are common during TB. Variability in host genes that modulate these immune responses may determine the severity of lung impairment, but this hypothesis remains largely untested. In this review, we provide an overview of ...


Impaired Type I Interferon Regulation In The Blood Transcriptome Of Recurrent Asthma Exacerbations., Jose L Gomez, Maria P Diaz, Gustavo Nino, Clemente J Britto 2018 George Washington University

Impaired Type I Interferon Regulation In The Blood Transcriptome Of Recurrent Asthma Exacerbations., Jose L Gomez, Maria P Diaz, Gustavo Nino, Clemente J Britto

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity in asthma. Respiratory infections are often involved in asthma exacerbations in both children and adults. Some individuals with asthma have increased susceptibility to viral infections and as a result increased rates of asthma exacerbations. We sought to identify a transcriptomic signature in the blood associated with asthma exacerbations triggered by respiratory infections (AETRI) and determine its association with increased risk for asthma exacerbations.

METHODS: We conducted a two-step study using publicly available, previously generated transcriptomic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from asthmatics to identify novel markers of increased risk ...


Novel Candidate Genes Important For Asthma And Hypertension Comorbidity Revealed From Associative Gene Networks, Olga V. Saik, Pavel S. Demenkov, Timofey V. Ivanisenko, Elena Yu. Bragina, Maxim B. Freidin, Irina A. Goncharova, Victor E. Dosenko, Olga I. Zolotareva, Ralf Hofestaedt, Inna N. Lavrik, Evgeny I. Rogaev, Vladimir A. Ivanisenko 2018 Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Novel Candidate Genes Important For Asthma And Hypertension Comorbidity Revealed From Associative Gene Networks, Olga V. Saik, Pavel S. Demenkov, Timofey V. Ivanisenko, Elena Yu. Bragina, Maxim B. Freidin, Irina A. Goncharova, Victor E. Dosenko, Olga I. Zolotareva, Ralf Hofestaedt, Inna N. Lavrik, Evgeny I. Rogaev, Vladimir A. Ivanisenko

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and bronchial asthma are a major issue for people's health. As of 2014, approximately one billion adults, or ~ 22% of the world population, have had hypertension. As of 2011, 235-330 million people globally have been affected by asthma and approximately 250,000-345,000 people have died each year from the disease. The development of the effective treatment therapies against these diseases is complicated by their comorbidity features. This is often a major problem in diagnosis and their treatment. Hence, in this study the bioinformatical methodology for the analysis of the comorbidity of these two diseases have been ...


Similarity Of Chest X-Ray And Thermal Imaging Of Focal Pneumonia: A Randomised Proof Of Concept Study At A Large Urban Teaching Hospital, Linda T. Wang, Robert H. Cleveland, William Binder, Robert G. Zwerdling, Caterina Stamoulis, Thomas Ptak, Mindy Sherman, Kenan Haver, Pallavi Sagar, Patricia Hibberd 2018 Massachusetts General Hospital

Similarity Of Chest X-Ray And Thermal Imaging Of Focal Pneumonia: A Randomised Proof Of Concept Study At A Large Urban Teaching Hospital, Linda T. Wang, Robert H. Cleveland, William Binder, Robert G. Zwerdling, Caterina Stamoulis, Thomas Ptak, Mindy Sherman, Kenan Haver, Pallavi Sagar, Patricia Hibberd

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of thermal imaging (TI) in the setting of focal consolidative pneumonia with chest X-ray (CXR) as the gold standard.

SETTING: A large, 973-bed teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.

PARTICIPANTS: 47 patients enrolled, 15 in a training set, 32 in a test set. Age range 10 months to 82 years (median=50 years).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects received CXR with subsequent TI within 4 hours of each other. CXR and TI were assessed in blinded random order. Presence of focal opacity (pneumonia) on CXR, the outcome parameter, was recorded. For TI, presence of area(s ...


The South Sudan: Tuberculosis, Blake Schwarz 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The South Sudan: Tuberculosis, Blake Schwarz

Global Public Health

The South Sudan is a country that recently gained independence from the Sudan after a bloody twenty year civil war. They lost nearly two million lives during the war, and are now ravaged by Tuberculosis, or TB. After gaining their independence in 2011, the South Sudan has an average of 18,000 cases of TB at any time. This would consider TB in the South Sudan an endemic, as it always has a base level of TB cases that does not vary. There is medication for TB that is available to the citizens on the South Sudan, but the prescription ...


United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan

Global Public Health

United Arab Emirates is a federal absolute monarchy in Western Asia at the South East end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the East and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The current population of the UAE is 9,457,851. It is a federation of hereditary absolute monarchies, governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of seven Emirs. The external and internal challenges faced by United Arab Emirates are some security and political issues and in the field ...


Chile: Air Pollution, Kara Eder 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Chile: Air Pollution, Kara Eder

Global Public Health

Chile faces a constant issue of air pollution, reaping respiratory health problems for citizens in urban areas. While the many cases over the past century have increased officials to take action on the issue, the growing infrastructure and economy of the country makes it difficult to regulate harmful emissions. Wood-burning heaters within urban residential areas also contribute to the unhealthy smog. Ingestion of these forms of matter in the air causes respiratory symptoms such as bronchitis and cardiovascular disease. Bans on such heaters and taxes on vehicle emissions were placed in order to prevent the severity of pollutants in the ...


Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates In A Primary Care Clinic: A Quality Improvement Study, Cassandra Roshel 2018 University of Kentucky

Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates In A Primary Care Clinic: A Quality Improvement Study, Cassandra Roshel

DNP Projects

Abstract

Background

According to the most recent CDC statistics, the influenza virus kills between 12,000 and 56,000 people per year in the United States. Although influenza vaccination is recommended each year, only about half of all Americans are actually receiving the vaccine annually. The goal of this quality improvement project was to increase influenza vaccination rates at a large academic medical center in Kentucky. At baseline, there was no standardized screening protocol in place prior to this study.

Methods

This study implemented a pre-test post-test design to evaluate the impact of a process change intervention on vaccination status ...


The Role Of Ceramide In Neutrophil Elastase Induced Inflammation In The Lungs, Sophia Karandashova 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of Ceramide In Neutrophil Elastase Induced Inflammation In The Lungs, Sophia Karandashova

Theses and Dissertations

Alterations to sphingolipid metabolism are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation, but the impact of inflammatory mediators, such as neutrophil elastase (NE), on airway sphingolipid homeostasis remains unknown. NE is a protease associated CF lung disease progression, and can be found in up to micromolar concentrations in patient airways. While sphingolipids have been investigated in the context of CF, the focus has been on loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. Here, we present a novel observation: oropharyngeal aspiration of NE increases airway ceramides in mice. Using a previously characterized mouse model of NE-induced inflammation, we demonstrate that NE ...


Biological, Behavioral, And Psychosocial Attributes Of Individuals With Copd, Andrew A. Bugajski 2018 University of Kentucky

Biological, Behavioral, And Psychosocial Attributes Of Individuals With Copd, Andrew A. Bugajski

Theses and Dissertations--Nursing

The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the biological, behavioral, and psychosocial attributes of individuals diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Specific aims were to: 1) explore the predictive power of spirometry measures for event-free survival in patients with heart failure and suspected COPD, focusing on the differences in survival between those with and without airflow limitation; 2) examine the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in patients with concomitant COPD and heart failure; and 3) test the efficacy of a theory-based, multidimensional, self-care educational intervention using an eHealth platform on measures of ...


Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor

Global Public Health

Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean, south of Samoa. The public health brief project is on chronic diseases in Tonga. The total population of Tonga was 107,122 in 2010. The Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga is the established religion in Tonga. Tongan’s make up the majority of the population but there are other ethnicities such as Euromericans and Europeans too. The major challenges faced by Tonga are decaying infrastructure, low economy, and political corruption. The widespread of non-communicable diseases such as cancer is a major health issue in Tonga. 74% of all adults in Tonga ...


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