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Respiratory Tract Diseases Commons

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A Household Model Of German Cockroach Infestations And Their Effect On Symptoms Of Atopic Asthma, Karen Funderburk 2018 Illinois State University

A Household Model Of German Cockroach Infestations And Their Effect On Symptoms Of Atopic Asthma, Karen Funderburk

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Association Of Qsofa, Sofa, And Sirs With Mortality In Emergency Department Pneumonia, Ian D. Mecham, Nathan C. Dean, Emily L. Wilson, Al R. Jephson, Michael J. Lanpsa 2018 University of Utah

The Association Of Qsofa, Sofa, And Sirs With Mortality In Emergency Department Pneumonia, Ian D. Mecham, Nathan C. Dean, Emily L. Wilson, Al R. Jephson, Michael J. Lanpsa

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Objective: To determine the association between 30-day mortality with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and quick SOFA (qSOFA) in emergency department patients with pneumonia. Secondary outcomes included the association of sepsis scores with hospital admission and direct ICU admission.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a pneumonia population conducted in the emergency department of 3 tertiary care medical centers and 4 community hospitals. Adult immunocompetent patients diagnosed with pneumonia were included from 3 twelve-month periods spanning December 2009 to October 2015. We generated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for each ...


There Is No Mortality Benefit To Using Quinolones Instead Of Azithromycin For Legionella Pneumonia, David B. Witcher 2018 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is No Mortality Benefit To Using Quinolones Instead Of Azithromycin For Legionella Pneumonia, David B. Witcher

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Gershengorn HB, Keene A, Dzierba AL, Wunsch H. The association of antibiotic treatment regimen and hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;60(11):e66-e79. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ157


Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), develops gradually, and tends to be noticed by farmers only after there has been a significant loss of lung function. People with symptoms of COPD often present for health care in later stages of disease, because they accept cough or breathlessness as “normal”.

Measurement of lung health for those at risk of developing COPD provides an opportunity for early detection of lung disease, and deter the progression toward irreversible damage to the lungs. COPD is, however, under-diagnosed.

The importance of bringing primary care providers and farmers together, and acknowledging the high-risk nature of occupational exposures ...


Patterns Of Bronchial Challenge Testing In Canada, Rémi Thériault, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Patterns Of Bronchial Challenge Testing In Canada, Rémi Thériault, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Bronchial challenge testing (BCT) measures airway hyperresponsiveness; asthma guidelines recommend using BCT when symptoms manifest despite normal spirometry. Improper application of these guidelines commonly results in the misdiagnosis of asthma. Yet, statistics concerning BCT remain largely obscure. The current paper addresses this gap and explores how various health variables may elucidate adherence to asthma guidelines and patterns of BCT across Canadian provinces.

Methods: Using the Access to Information Act, medical financial claims for BCT (or equivalent procedures) were requested from each of the Canadian provinces and territories. Based on the available information (from provinces only), correlations between frequency of ...


Editorial: Controversies In The Local Management Of Lung Cancer, John M. Varlotto, Giulia Veronesi 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Editorial: Controversies In The Local Management Of Lung Cancer, John M. Varlotto, Giulia Veronesi

Open Access Articles

At the time we agreed to edit this special edition of Frontiers in early 2017, the immunotherapy revolution was already established in the second-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and even to a select group of patients (those whose tumor cells expressed PD-L1 of ≥50%) in the first-line treatment of metastatic disease. We felt that the summarization and understanding of the strengths and benefits of our local modalities were needed prior to the possible integration of immunotherapy into the treatment paradigms of Stages I–III NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).


Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Efficacy Of A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate In A Maternal Immunization Model, Jorge C. G. Blanco, Lioubov M. Pletneva, Lori McGinnes Cullen, Raymonde O. Otoa, Mira C. Patel, Lurds R. Fernando, Marina S. Boukhvalova, Trudy G. Morrison 2018 Sigmovir Biosystems Inc.

Efficacy Of A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate In A Maternal Immunization Model, Jorge C. G. Blanco, Lioubov M. Pletneva, Lori Mcginnes Cullen, Raymonde O. Otoa, Mira C. Patel, Lurds R. Fernando, Marina S. Boukhvalova, Trudy G. Morrison

Open Access Articles

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Maternal immunization is an option to increase maternal antibody levels and protect infants from infection. Here we assess the efficacy of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates containing stabilized pre-fusion (pre-F) or post-fusion (post-F) conformations of the RSV F protein and the attachment RSV G protein in a maternal immunization model using cotton rats. VLP vaccines containing RSV F and G proteins strongly boost pre-existing RSV immunity in dams preventing their perinatal drop in immunity. Boosting is stronger for the pre-F VLP than for the post-F VLP or ...


Fatal Case Of Ttp In Patient With Underlying Pulmonary Aspergillosis, Shimool A. Rabbani DO, Ankit Shah DO, Joan Wiley DO, Jay Kirkham DO 2018 Rowan University SOM

Fatal Case Of Ttp In Patient With Underlying Pulmonary Aspergillosis, Shimool A. Rabbani Do, Ankit Shah Do, Joan Wiley Do, Jay Kirkham Do

Stratford Campus Research Day

A 70-year- old Caucasian male with history of renal transplant on tacrolimus presented with 5-days of fevers, productive cough, and confusion. Patient was initially diagnosed with pneumonia, presumed bacterial, but soon noted to have worsening neurologic status, renal failure, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He further developed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA); TMA along with the other clinical findings led to diagnosis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). Despite aggressive treatment of TTP with plasmapheresis, patient expired on day five of his hospitalization. Fungal cultures from a bronchoscope performed on day three of hospitalization that resulted postmortem grew many aspergillus flavus and ...


Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. DeNicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers 2018 Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. Denicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of beta cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine beta cells did not affect beta cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD ...


Systematic Literature Review Of Indoor School Exposure To Pm2.5 In Children, Brittany Wagner, Ami Zota 2018 George Washington University

Systematic Literature Review Of Indoor School Exposure To Pm2.5 In Children, Brittany Wagner, Ami Zota

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that puts a strain on lung function and breathing. It is the leading cause of school absenteeism and hospitalization for American children. Genetics play a major role in allergy related disease development such as asthma, but environmental exposures are proving to be a potential contributor to childhood asthma. Despite the sufficient data regarding air pollution, there is a huge knowledge gap regarding indoor air quality and its relationship with health outcomes such as asthma. Many of the studies available only look at outdoor air pollution levels, while children spend the majority of their time ...


Total Hip Arthroplasty: Copd And Its Effect On Postoperative Complications, Camille Boustani, Shane A. Sobrio, Alex Gu, Chapman Wei, Andrew Holmes 2018 George Washington University

Total Hip Arthroplasty: Copd And Its Effect On Postoperative Complications, Camille Boustani, Shane A. Sobrio, Alex Gu, Chapman Wei, Andrew Holmes

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Introduction

The demand for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) has rapidly risen and continues to due to high success rates of this procedure and the growing aging population. Particularly in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), studies have indicated an increased risk of various postoperative complications across several surgery types. Despite the prevalence of COPD, very little has been investigated regarding postsurgical complications in patients with COPD following a THA. The aim of the current study is to utilize the NSQIP database and determine differences in short-term postoperative complications after undergoing THA, comparing patients with and without COPD.

Methods

In total, 74 ...


Population-Based Differences In The Outcome And Presentation Of Lung Cancer Patients Based Upon Racial, Histologic, And Economic Factors In All Lung Patients And Those With Metastatic Disease, John M. Varlotto, Richard Voland, Kerrie McKie, John C. Flickinger, Malcolm M. DeCamp, Debra Maddox, Paul Rava, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Geoffrey Graeber, Negar Rassaei, Paulo Oliveira, Suhail Ali, Chandra Belani, Jonathan Glanzman, Heather A. Wakelee, Manali Patel, Jennifer Baima, Jianying Zhang, William Walsh 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Population-Based Differences In The Outcome And Presentation Of Lung Cancer Patients Based Upon Racial, Histologic, And Economic Factors In All Lung Patients And Those With Metastatic Disease, John M. Varlotto, Richard Voland, Kerrie Mckie, John C. Flickinger, Malcolm M. Decamp, Debra Maddox, Paul Rava, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Geoffrey Graeber, Negar Rassaei, Paulo Oliveira, Suhail Ali, Chandra Belani, Jonathan Glanzman, Heather A. Wakelee, Manali Patel, Jennifer Baima, Jianying Zhang, William Walsh

Open Access Articles

To investigate the interrelation between economic, marital, and known histopathologic/therapeutic prognostic factors in presentation and survival of patients with lung cancer in nine different ethnic groups. A retrospective review of the SEER database was conducted through the years 2007-2012. Population differences were assessed via chi-square testing. Multivariable analyses (MVA) were used to detect overall survival (OS) differences in the total population (TP, N = 153,027) and for those patients presenting with Stage IV (N = 70,968). Compared to Whites, Blacks were more likely to present with younger age, male sex, lower income, no insurance, single/widowed partnership, less squamous ...


Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain

Open Access Articles

Although much is known about the mechanisms by which pathogen recognition drives the initiation of T cell responses, including those to respiratory viruses, the role of pathogen recognition in fate decisions of T cells once they have become effectors remains poorly defined. Here, we review our recent studies that suggest that the generation of CD4 T cell memory is determined by recognition of virus at an effector "checkpoint." We propose this is also true of more highly differentiated tissue-restricted effector cells, including cytotoxic "ThCTL" in the site of infection and TFH in secondary lymphoid organs. We point out that ThCTL ...


Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen 2018 Shenzhen University

Indicators For Prediction Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Positivity Detected With Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in clinic, especially for sputum negative pulmonary TB. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has higher sensitivity than sputum for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, bronchoscopy is invasive and costly, and not suitable for all patients. In order to make TB patients get more benefit from BALF for diagnosis, we explore which indicator might be used to optimize the choice of bronchoscopy.

METHODS: A total of 1539 sputum-smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects who underwent bronchoscopy were recruited for evaluation. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Mtb detection in sputum and BALF ...


Editing Out Five Serpina1 Paralogs To Create A Mouse Model Of Genetic Emphysema, Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R. Flotte, Michael H. Brodsky, Andrew M. Hoffman, Mai K. Elmallah, Christian Mueller 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Editing Out Five Serpina1 Paralogs To Create A Mouse Model Of Genetic Emphysema, Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R. Flotte, Michael H. Brodsky, Andrew M. Hoffman, Mai K. Elmallah, Christian Mueller

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 10% of the worldwide population, and the leading genetic cause is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Due to the complexity of the murine locus, which includes up to six Serpina1 paralogs, no genetic animal model of the disease has been successfully generated until now. Here we create a quintuple Serpina1a-e knockout using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The phenotype recapitulates the human disease phenotype, i.e., absence of hepatic and circulating AAT translates functionally to a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase. With age, Serpina1 null mice develop emphysema spontaneously, which can be induced in younger mice ...


Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Articles

A past history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognised, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. Importantly, specific host and pathogen factors causing lung impairment remain unclear. Host immune responses probably play a dominant role in lung damage, as excessive inflammation and elevated expression of lung matrix-degrading proteases are common during TB. Variability in host genes that modulate these immune responses may determine the severity of lung impairment, but this hypothesis remains largely untested. In this review, we provide an overview of ...


Impaired Type I Interferon Regulation In The Blood Transcriptome Of Recurrent Asthma Exacerbations., Jose L Gomez, Maria P Diaz, Gustavo Nino, Clemente J Britto 2018 George Washington University

Impaired Type I Interferon Regulation In The Blood Transcriptome Of Recurrent Asthma Exacerbations., Jose L Gomez, Maria P Diaz, Gustavo Nino, Clemente J Britto

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity in asthma. Respiratory infections are often involved in asthma exacerbations in both children and adults. Some individuals with asthma have increased susceptibility to viral infections and as a result increased rates of asthma exacerbations. We sought to identify a transcriptomic signature in the blood associated with asthma exacerbations triggered by respiratory infections (AETRI) and determine its association with increased risk for asthma exacerbations.

METHODS: We conducted a two-step study using publicly available, previously generated transcriptomic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from asthmatics to identify novel markers of increased risk ...


Novel Candidate Genes Important For Asthma And Hypertension Comorbidity Revealed From Associative Gene Networks, Olga V. Saik, Pavel S. Demenkov, Timofey V. Ivanisenko, Elena Yu. Bragina, Maxim B. Freidin, Irina A. Goncharova, Victor E. Dosenko, Olga I. Zolotareva, Ralf Hofestaedt, Inna N. Lavrik, Evgeny I. Rogaev, Vladimir A. Ivanisenko 2018 Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Novel Candidate Genes Important For Asthma And Hypertension Comorbidity Revealed From Associative Gene Networks, Olga V. Saik, Pavel S. Demenkov, Timofey V. Ivanisenko, Elena Yu. Bragina, Maxim B. Freidin, Irina A. Goncharova, Victor E. Dosenko, Olga I. Zolotareva, Ralf Hofestaedt, Inna N. Lavrik, Evgeny I. Rogaev, Vladimir A. Ivanisenko

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and bronchial asthma are a major issue for people's health. As of 2014, approximately one billion adults, or ~ 22% of the world population, have had hypertension. As of 2011, 235-330 million people globally have been affected by asthma and approximately 250,000-345,000 people have died each year from the disease. The development of the effective treatment therapies against these diseases is complicated by their comorbidity features. This is often a major problem in diagnosis and their treatment. Hence, in this study the bioinformatical methodology for the analysis of the comorbidity of these two diseases have been ...


Similarity Of Chest X-Ray And Thermal Imaging Of Focal Pneumonia: A Randomised Proof Of Concept Study At A Large Urban Teaching Hospital, Linda T. Wang, Robert H. Cleveland, William Binder, Robert G. Zwerdling, Caterina Stamoulis, Thomas Ptak, Mindy Sherman, Kenan Haver, Pallavi Sagar, Patricia Hibberd 2018 Massachusetts General Hospital

Similarity Of Chest X-Ray And Thermal Imaging Of Focal Pneumonia: A Randomised Proof Of Concept Study At A Large Urban Teaching Hospital, Linda T. Wang, Robert H. Cleveland, William Binder, Robert G. Zwerdling, Caterina Stamoulis, Thomas Ptak, Mindy Sherman, Kenan Haver, Pallavi Sagar, Patricia Hibberd

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of thermal imaging (TI) in the setting of focal consolidative pneumonia with chest X-ray (CXR) as the gold standard.

SETTING: A large, 973-bed teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.

PARTICIPANTS: 47 patients enrolled, 15 in a training set, 32 in a test set. Age range 10 months to 82 years (median=50 years).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects received CXR with subsequent TI within 4 hours of each other. CXR and TI were assessed in blinded random order. Presence of focal opacity (pneumonia) on CXR, the outcome parameter, was recorded. For TI, presence of area(s ...


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