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The South Sudan: Tuberculosis, Blake Schwarz 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The South Sudan: Tuberculosis, Blake Schwarz

Global Public Health

The South Sudan is a country that recently gained independence from the Sudan after a bloody twenty year civil war. They lost nearly two million lives during the war, and are now ravaged by Tuberculosis, or TB. After gaining their independence in 2011, the South Sudan has an average of 18,000 cases of TB at any time. This would consider TB in the South Sudan an endemic, as it always has a base level of TB cases that does not vary. There is medication for TB that is available to the citizens on the South Sudan, but the prescription ...


United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

United Arab Emirates: Mers-Cov, Sarmad Nawaz Khan

Global Public Health

United Arab Emirates is a federal absolute monarchy in Western Asia at the South East end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the East and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The current population of the UAE is 9,457,851. It is a federation of hereditary absolute monarchies, governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of seven Emirs. The external and internal challenges faced by United Arab Emirates are some security and political issues and in the field ...


Chile: Air Pollution, Kara Eder 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Chile: Air Pollution, Kara Eder

Global Public Health

Chile faces a constant issue of air pollution, reaping respiratory health problems for citizens in urban areas. While the many cases over the past century have increased officials to take action on the issue, the growing infrastructure and economy of the country makes it difficult to regulate harmful emissions. Wood-burning heaters within urban residential areas also contribute to the unhealthy smog. Ingestion of these forms of matter in the air causes respiratory symptoms such as bronchitis and cardiovascular disease. Bans on such heaters and taxes on vehicle emissions were placed in order to prevent the severity of pollutants in the ...


Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor

Global Public Health

Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean, south of Samoa. The public health brief project is on chronic diseases in Tonga. The total population of Tonga was 107,122 in 2010. The Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga is the established religion in Tonga. Tongan’s make up the majority of the population but there are other ethnicities such as Euromericans and Europeans too. The major challenges faced by Tonga are decaying infrastructure, low economy, and political corruption. The widespread of non-communicable diseases such as cancer is a major health issue in Tonga. 74% of all adults in Tonga ...


Prevalence Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) In China In 1990 And 2010., Kit Yee Chan, Xue Li, Wanjing Chen, Peige Song, Nuen Wing Katy Wong, Adrienne N Poon, Weiyan Jian, Ireneous N Soyiri, Simon Cousens, Davies Adeloye, Aziz Sheikh, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Global Health Epidemiology Research Group (GHERG). 2017 George Washington University

Prevalence Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) In China In 1990 And 2010., Kit Yee Chan, Xue Li, Wanjing Chen, Peige Song, Nuen Wing Katy Wong, Adrienne N Poon, Weiyan Jian, Ireneous N Soyiri, Simon Cousens, Davies Adeloye, Aziz Sheikh, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Global Health Epidemiology Research Group (Gherg).

Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is set to become the third most frequent cause of death and also the third largest cause of global morbidity by 2020. In China, where the population is aging rapidly, COPD has become one of the leading causes of disability and a large economic burden. An epidemiological assessment of the COPD in China is required, with a focus on the number of cases living with disease, main determinants of the disease and time trends.

Methods: We systematically searched large Chinese bibliographic databases and English databases to identify spirometry-based epidemiological studies of the prevalence of ...


Improving Vaccination Rates In Adults With Type Ii Diabetes In A Family Practice Setting: An Evidence-Based Quality Improvement Project, Ronda Gottlieb 2017 University of the Incarnate Word

Improving Vaccination Rates In Adults With Type Ii Diabetes In A Family Practice Setting: An Evidence-Based Quality Improvement Project, Ronda Gottlieb

Doctor of Nursing Practice

The purpose of this evidenced-based quality improvement project is to implement processes to facilitate providers’ adherence to the American Diabetes Association (2017), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist (2015), and American College of Endocrinology (2015) immunization guidelines for adults with type II diabetes. Presently, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States contributing to serious complications throughout the body as a result of poor glucose control. Adults with diabetes are at increased susceptibility to infectious disease because of hyperglycemia, poor glucose control, and decreased immunity. A protocol was created using The Four Pillars Transformation Program ™ to align ...


I’M Going To Tell You A Little About Myself: Illness Centrality, Self-Image And Identity In Cystic Fibrosis, Susan Horky LCSW, Laura Sherman LICSW, Julie K. Polvinen BA, Medhavi Saxena MD, Michael Rich MD 2017 University of Florida

I’M Going To Tell You A Little About Myself: Illness Centrality, Self-Image And Identity In Cystic Fibrosis, Susan Horky Lcsw, Laura Sherman Licsw, Julie K. Polvinen Ba, Medhavi Saxena Md, Michael Rich Md

Patient Experience Journal

This study assessed the illness centrality of adolescents with CF and the specific ways that CF may affect adolescents’ identities, through the qualitative analysis of video narratives. Adolescents with CF were loaned video cameras and asked to “show us your life outside the hospital” and to “teach your healthcare team about your CF.” Four major themes were identified related to illness centrality: CF is Central, CF is Compartmentalized, CF is Integrated into Self Image, CF is Denied. Integration and compartmentalization often co-existed. Four themes emerged related to the role of CF in self-image and identity: (1) Valence (positive or negative ...


Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Ventilation encompasses both active and passive processes. Air is initially drawn into the lungs due to a negative intrathoracic pressure created using the respiratory muscles, most importantly the diaphragm. In contrast, expiration is the passive relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane. The ability to oxygenate without ventilation has been termed apneic diffusion oxygenation or apneic oxygenation. We believe it is crucial to keep alveoli open in order for adequate oxygenation to occur. This can be achieved with the aid of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated this concept in patients who ...


The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza A Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers 2017 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza A Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Combination Targeted Pulmonary Hypertension Therapy In The Resolution Of Dasatinib-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension., Arun Jose, Hind Rafei, Jalil Ahari 2017 George Washington University

Combination Targeted Pulmonary Hypertension Therapy In The Resolution Of Dasatinib-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension., Arun Jose, Hind Rafei, Jalil Ahari

Medicine Faculty Publications

Dasatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but known complication. The mainstay of treatment is cessation of Dasatinib, and while clinical improvement is rapid, complete hemodynamic resolution of pulmonary hypertension (PH) still remains exceedingly uncommon. We present a case of Dasatinib-induced PAH in a woman with chronic myeloid leukemia, who demonstrated rapid and complete clinical and hemodynamic resolution following treatment with combination pulmonary vasodilator therapy using an endothelin receptor antagonist and a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. This case suggests there may be an association between the use of ...


Bronchial Carcinoid Presenting As Multiple Lung Abscesses, Zeeshan Waheed, Muhammad Irfan, Saulat Fatimi, Ruqaiya Shahid 2017 Aga Khan University

Bronchial Carcinoid Presenting As Multiple Lung Abscesses, Zeeshan Waheed, Muhammad Irfan, Saulat Fatimi, Ruqaiya Shahid

Saulat Fatimi

Bronchial carcinoid tumours is a rare group of pulmonary malignant neoplasm that is derived from neuroendocrine system. Bronchial carcinoid usually present with hilar masses, atelactasis, bronchiectasis, or post-obstructive pneumonia. This case describes a very unusual presentation of bronchial carcinoid tumour with multiple lung abscesses involving the whole lung. This report is of an adult lady who presented with multiple lung abscesses involving her whole of the right lung. She was found to have an endo-bronchial lesion in her right main bronchus which eventually turned out to be carcinoid tumour. She responded to resection and antibiotic therapy.


Locked Nucleic Acid Gapmers And Conjugates Potently Silence Adam33, An Asthma-Associated Metalloprotease With Nuclear-Localized Mrna, Hannah M. Pendergraff, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandre J. Debacker, Michael P. Moazami, Vivek K. Sharma, Liisa Niitsoo, Yong Yu, Yen Nee Tan, Hans Michael Haitchi, Jonathan K. Watts 2017 University of Southampton

Locked Nucleic Acid Gapmers And Conjugates Potently Silence Adam33, An Asthma-Associated Metalloprotease With Nuclear-Localized Mrna, Hannah M. Pendergraff, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandre J. Debacker, Michael P. Moazami, Vivek K. Sharma, Liisa Niitsoo, Yong Yu, Yen Nee Tan, Hans Michael Haitchi, Jonathan K. Watts

Open Access Articles

Two mechanisms dominate the clinical pipeline for oligonucleotide-based gene silencing, namely, the antisense approach that recruits RNase H to cleave target RNA and the RNAi approach that recruits the RISC complex to cleave target RNA. Multiple chemical designs can be used to elicit each pathway. We compare the silencing of the asthma susceptibility gene ADAM33 in MRC-5 lung fibroblasts using four classes of gene silencing agents, two that use each mechanism: traditional duplex small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), single-stranded small interfering RNAs (ss-siRNAs), locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), and novel hexadecyloxypropyl conjugates of the ASOs. Of these designs ...


The Potential Role Of Cathelicidin Peptides For The Treatment Of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections, Brandon John Harrison Banaschewski 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Potential Role Of Cathelicidin Peptides For The Treatment Of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections, Brandon John Harrison Banaschewski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bacterial pneumonia, one of the leading causes of hospitalization and mortality worldwide, is caused by the colonization of invasive bacteria in the airways, leading to pulmonary inflammation and lung dysfunction. The development of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections has limited the effectiveness of current therapeutics and is particularly concerning in the setting of chronic bacterial infections, such as observed in cystic fibrosis and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial pneumonia is urgently needed.

The overall objective of this body of work was the development of a new therapeutic compound to treat multi-drug resistant ...


Ccl2 Responses To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Are Associated With Disease Severity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Jacqueline M. Cliff, Hazel M. Dockrell, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Irfan, Mussarat Ashraf, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Ccl2 Responses To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Are Associated With Disease Severity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Jacqueline M. Cliff, Hazel M. Dockrell, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Irfan, Mussarat Ashraf, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

Background Leucocyte activating chemokines such as CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 together with proinflammatory IFNγ, TNFα and downmodulatory IL10 play a central role in the restriction of M. tuberculosis infections, but is unclear whether these markers are indicative of tuberculosis disease severity. Methodology We investigated live M. tuberculosis- and M. bovis BCG- induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and healthy endemic controls (ECs, n = 36). TB patients comprised pulmonary (PTB, n = 34) and extrapulmonary groups, subdivided into those with less severe localized extrapulmonary TB (L-ETB, n = 16) or severe disseminated ETB (D-ETB, n = 16). Secretion of ...


Multiple Myeloma Baseline Immunoglobulin G Level And Pneumococcal Vaccination Antibody Response, Michael A. Thompson, Martin K. Oaks, Maharaj Singh, Karen M. Michel, Michael P. Mullane, Husam S. Tarawneh, Angi Kraut, Kayla J. Hamm 2017 Aurora Research Institute / Aurora Cancer Care, Aurora Health Care

Multiple Myeloma Baseline Immunoglobulin G Level And Pneumococcal Vaccination Antibody Response, Michael A. Thompson, Martin K. Oaks, Maharaj Singh, Karen M. Michel, Michael P. Mullane, Husam S. Tarawneh, Angi Kraut, Kayla J. Hamm

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in multiple myeloma (MM), a cancer of the immune system. Vaccination clinical efficacy endpoints have not been demonstrated, and there are limited data on surrogate markers of efficacy. This pilot study evaluated sequential immunologic markers after standard pneumococcal vaccination (PV) in patients with MM and non-MM controls. Vaccination was standard for PV (PCV13 or PPV23), with laboratory testing at baseline and at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after vaccination. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to pneumococcal antigens were detected by ELISA. Prevaccination total IgG levels and IgG subclass levels were also ...


Impact Of Larger Sputum Volume On Xpert(®) Mtb/Rif Assay Detection Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Smear-Negative Individuals With Suspected Tuberculosis., Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Cynthia Firnhaber, Michelle A Kendall, Xingye Wu, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Rodrigo Otavio da Silva Escada, Michel Fernandez, Evelyn Hogg, Ian Sanne, Pamela Johnson, David Alland, Gerald H Mazurek, Debra A Benator, Anne F Luetkemeyer 2017 George Washington University

Impact Of Larger Sputum Volume On Xpert(®) Mtb/Rif Assay Detection Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Smear-Negative Individuals With Suspected Tuberculosis., Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Cynthia Firnhaber, Michelle A Kendall, Xingye Wu, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Rodrigo Otavio Da Silva Escada, Michel Fernandez, Evelyn Hogg, Ian Sanne, Pamela Johnson, David Alland, Gerald H Mazurek, Debra A Benator, Anne F Luetkemeyer

Medicine Faculty Publications

As a strategy to improve the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based testing in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative samples, larger volumes of sputum (5–10 mL) were tested with Xpert® MTB/RIF from 176 individuals with smear-negative sputum undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. Despite larger volumes, this strategy had a suboptimal sensitivity of 50% (4/8)


The Role Of Heterogeneity In Asthma: A Structure-To-Function Perspective, Justin K. Lui, Kenneth R. Lutchen 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Heterogeneity In Asthma: A Structure-To-Function Perspective, Justin K. Lui, Kenneth R. Lutchen

Open Access Articles

A number of methods have evolved through the years in probing the dysfunction that impacts mechanics and ventilation in asthma. What has been consistently found is the notion of heterogeneity that is not only captured in the frequency dependence of lung mechanics measurements but also rendered on imaging as patchy diffuse areas of ventilation defects. The degree of heterogeneity has been linked to airway hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark feature of asthma. How these heterogeneous constriction patterns lead to functional impairment in asthma have only been recently explored using computational airway tree models. By synthesizing measurements of lung mechanics and advances in ...


Involvement Of P38-Betatrcp-Tristetraprolin-Tnfalpha Axis In Radiation Pneumonitis, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Shirish Shukla, Paramita Ray, Rohit Mehra, Mukesh K. Nyati, Theodore S. Lawrence, Dipankar Ray 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Involvement Of P38-Betatrcp-Tristetraprolin-Tnfalpha Axis In Radiation Pneumonitis, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Shirish Shukla, Paramita Ray, Rohit Mehra, Mukesh K. Nyati, Theodore S. Lawrence, Dipankar Ray

Open Access Articles

Early release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) during radiotherapy of thoracic cancers plays an important role in radiation pneumonitis, whose inhibition may provide lung radioprotection. We previously reported radiation inactivates Tristetraprolin (TTP), a negative regulator of TNF-alpha synthesis, which correlated with increased TNF-alpha release. However, the molecular events involved in radiation-induced TTP inactivation remain unclear. To determine if eliminating Ttp in mice resulted in a phenotypic response to radiation, Ttp-null mice lungs were exposed to a single dose of 15 Gy, and TNF-alpha release and lung inflammation were analyzed at different time points post-irradiation. Ttp-/- mice with elevated (9.5 ...


Evolution Of The Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Muscle Gene Therapy: Translation From Clinical Trial To Benchtop And Back Again, Alisha M. Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Jeff Chulay, Dave Knop, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evolution Of The Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Muscle Gene Therapy: Translation From Clinical Trial To Benchtop And Back Again, Alisha M. Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Jeff Chulay, Dave Knop, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Alpha-one antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disease affecting the lungs due to inadequate anti-protease activity in the pulmonary interstitium. On-going human trials use intra-muscular delivery of adeno-associated virus (rAAV1), allowing expressing myofibers to secrete normal (M)AAT protein. In the Phase IIa trial, patients in the highest dose cohort (6x1012vg/kg) were given 100 intra-muscular (IM) injections of undiluted vector, with serum AAT levels still substantially below target levels. Previous work has shown that delivering rAAV vector to the musculature via limb perfusion leads to widespread gene expression in myofibers. We hypothesize that widespread delivery would result in an ...


Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Rachael B. Gale 2017 Otterbein University

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Rachael B. Gale

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

This poster provides an introductory look at the assessment, pathophysiology, management and care of a patient with ARDS.


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