Principles Of Radiation Oncology, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Principles Of Radiation Oncology, Richard S. Pieters, Linda Ding, Harry Bushe, Jesse N. Aronowitz
Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist
This chapter in Cancer Concepts: a Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist describes the principles of Radiation Oncology. Radiation Oncology utilizes ionizing radiation to treat cancer (and occasionally a few benign conditions). Radiotherapy or radiation therapy (RT) was initially developed in conjunction with diagnostic radiology, but has evolved into a separate specialty. Currently, more than fifty percent of cancer patients undergo RT at some point during the course of their cancer. Most receive treatment with curative intent (radical therapy); however, patients with incurable disease receive shorter, gentler courses of therapy to relieve cancer-induced symptoms.
Ipsilateral Lower Limb Weakness After Sarcoma Treatment: A Case Report, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Ipsilateral Lower Limb Weakness After Sarcoma Treatment: A Case Report, Jennifer Baima, Amanda Doodlesack, Jennifer Lafemina
Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations
Case Diagnosis: Our patient experienced worsening left foot neuropathy following chemotherapy and radiation treatment for sarcoma.
Case Description: A 24-year-old man underwent local resection of a 12cm x 8cm x 14.5cm rhabdomyosarcoma in the left vastus lateralis. Then, he was treated with vincristine for 40 weeks and radiation to the left lateral thigh with a maximum dose of 50.4 Gy. The sciatic nerve was outside the target area and received a lower dose. While undergoing chemotherapy, the patient experienced bilateral dysesthesias in his fingertips and feet. He had no history of neuropathy prior to treatment. After chemotherapy was ...
Metastatic Melanoma To The Bladder: Case Report And Review Of The Literature., 2017 George Washington University
Metastatic Melanoma To The Bladder: Case Report And Review Of The Literature., Rohit V. Patil, Solomon L Woldu, Elena Lucas, Andrew M Quinn, Franto Francis, Vitaly Margulis
Urology Faculty Publications
A 49-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the dermatology clinic for follow-up of malignant melanoma with a complaint of painless gross hematuria. Two years prior she was diagnosed with malignant melanoma from a skin lesion on her left flank treated with wide excision, negative axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy, and adjuvant radiotherapy. Subsequently, she had no evidence of disease until urologic evaluation of her hematuria revealed two lesions in her bladder and cytopathology demonstrated findings consistent with malignant melanoma. We review literature on melanoma metastatic to the bladder and discuss the potential role of metastasectomy and other treatment strategies in such ...
Group Medical Visits To Provide Gynecologic Care For Women Affected By Breast Cancer, 2017 University of California, San Francisco
Group Medical Visits To Provide Gynecologic Care For Women Affected By Breast Cancer, Sally R. Greenwald, Sarah Watson, Mindy Goldman, Tami S. Rowen
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Women with breast cancer have complex and unique gynecologic needs that are challenging to effectively and comprehensively meet in a traditional gynecology visit format. Group medical visits are an effective and well-received model of care in other disease settings and can provide comprehensive health education as an adjunct to one-on-one evaluation and treatment. There are limited data regarding the use of this type of health care delivery in providing gynecology-focused care to women affected by breast cancer.
A group medical visit model was created for gynecology providers to see new breast cancer patient consults. From May 2012 to ...
Vamorolone, A Dissociative Steroidal Compound, Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression In Glioma Cells And Increases Activity And Survival In A Murine Model Of Cortical Tumor., 2016 George Washington University
Vamorolone, A Dissociative Steroidal Compound, Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression In Glioma Cells And Increases Activity And Survival In A Murine Model Of Cortical Tumor., Elizabeth Wells, Madhuri Kambhampati, Jesse M Damsker, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Sridevi Yadavilli, Oren J Becher, Jamila Gittens, Mojca Stampar, Roger J. Packer, Javad Nazarian
Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications
Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, are routinely used as palliative care in neuro-oncology for their anti-inflammatory benefits, however many patients experience dose limiting side effects caused by glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-mediated transcription. The purpose of this study was to use a murine model to investigate a new steroid alternative, vamorolone, which promises to reduce side effects through dissociating GRE-mediated transcription and NF-κB -mediated anti-inflammatory actions. To compare vamorolone to dexamethasone in reducing pro-inflammatory signals in vitro, murine glioma cells were treated with dexamethasone, vamorolone or vehicle control. Changes in mRNA expression were assessed using the nanostring inflammatory platform. Furthermore, drug ...
Is Current Evidence That Avoidance Of Inhalation Agents And Opioids May Decrease Metastasis Strong Enough For Crnas To Show A Willingness To Change Practice?, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Is Current Evidence That Avoidance Of Inhalation Agents And Opioids May Decrease Metastasis Strong Enough For Crnas To Show A Willingness To Change Practice?, Michael Wesley Tillman
Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects
Metastasis following the surgical resection of primary site breast cancer is a medical issue, which plagues mastectomy patients. The intention of this project was to synthesize current literature in order to make a presentation and disseminate it to Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) in southern Mississippi and assess the providers' willingness to change practice. CRNAs took part in a Qualtrics survey after viewing a PowerPoint presentation of evidence regarding anesthesia and metastasis. The presentation illustrated the anesthetic techniques and pharmacological agents utilized, which either mitigate or potentiate a patient's risk for metastasis. The survey assessed for a willingness to ...
Establishing A Clinically Relevant Mouse Model Of Human Aml To Test Novel Transmethylation Inhibitors., 2016 University of Louisville
Establishing A Clinically Relevant Mouse Model Of Human Aml To Test Novel Transmethylation Inhibitors., Aditya Barve
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow (BM) that hinder normal hematopoiesis. Patient AML exhibits a dramatic heterogeneity in terms of cytogenetics, disease morphology, and associated prognoses and/or chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Thus it becomes clearly evident that the investigation of novel therapeutics for AML will require model systems that are capable of recapitulating this stark heterogeneity in a patient specific manner. Furthermore, it is now understood that the surrounding bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and supporting cells play a critical role in leukemic progression as ...
Determining The Incidence And Factors Of Cardiotoxicity In Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Anthracycline And/Or Trastuzumab-Containing Regimen At Aurora Health Care, 2016 Aurora Nursing Administration
Determining The Incidence And Factors Of Cardiotoxicity In Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Anthracycline And/Or Trastuzumab-Containing Regimen At Aurora Health Care, Stephanie Ghojallu, Matthew Rappelt, Han-Yang Chen, Ruth Perez, Lydia Garlie, Geoffrey Riddell, Yingying Gu, Jun Zhang, Rubina Qamar, Bijoy K. Khandheria, Arshad Jahangir, Yang Shi
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Background: Anthracycline and trastuzumab are common breast cancer treatments. While improving survival, they elevate risk of congestive heart failure. The incidence of cardiotoxicity (CTx) with these therapies varies in the literature from 10% to 59%, higher than those reported in clinical trials (4%–10%) that excluded patients with preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities. Studies have failed to establish consensus on the risk factors for CTx associated with these therapies.
Purpose: We aim to determine the incidence and risk factors of CTx in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline and/or trastuzumab at Aurora Health Care.
Methods: A retrospective review of patients with ...
Photothermal Therapy Improves The Efficacy Of A Mek Inhibitor In Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors., Elizabeth E. Sweeney, Rachel A. Burga, Chaoyang Li, Yuan Zhu, Rohan Fernandes
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive tumors with low survival rates and the leading cause of death in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients under 40 years old. Surgical resection is the standard of care for MPNSTs, but is often incomplete and can generate loss of function, necessitating the development of novel treatment methods for this patient population. Here, we describe a novel combination therapy comprising MEK inhibition and nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy (PTT) for MPNSTs. MEK inhibitors block activity driven by Ras, an oncogene constitutively activated in NF1-associated MPNSTs, while PTT serves as a minimally invasive method to ablate ...
The Effects Of Apigenin On Cell Proliferation And Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme, 2016 Cedarville University
The Effects Of Apigenin On Cell Proliferation And Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Trevor Stump, Brittany Santee, Lauren Williams, Chelsae Heinze, Rachel Kunze, Samson Amos, Denise S. Simpson
Samson Amos, R.Ph., Ph.D.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a WHO grade IV brain tumor. These tumors are highly proliferative, infiltrative, necrotic, angiogenic, and resistant to apoptosis. One major characteristic of GBM is the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which leads to cell growth and proliferation when activated. GBM is very difficult to treat due to its location, heterogeneity, and invasiveness; an effective treatment is therefore needed. The use of flavonoids, which are natural compounds found in many fruits and vegetables, has been studied in the treatment of many different tumor types. Apigenin is a specific flavonoid that has previously been shown to ...
Native And Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Mosaicism In Gastric Carcinoma In H. Pylori-Infected P27-Deficient Mice, 2016 Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Native And Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Mosaicism In Gastric Carcinoma In H. Pylori-Infected P27-Deficient Mice, Songhua Zhang, Woojin Kim, Tu T. Pham, Arlin B. Rogers, Jeanmarie Houghton, Steven F. Moss
Open Access Articles
OBJECTIVE: Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection promotes non-cardia gastric cancer. Some mouse models suggest that bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) contribute to Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We determined whether this increased susceptibility to Helicobacter-induced gastric carcinogenesis of p27-deficient mice is dependent upon their p27-null BMDC or their p27-null gastric epithelial cells.
DESIGN: Female mice (recipients) were irradiated and transplanted with BMDC from male donors. Wild type (WT) mice in group 1 (control) received BMDC from male GFP-transgenic mice. Female WT and p27 KO mice were engrafted with male p27KO mice BMDC (Group 2) or GFP-transgenic WT BMDC (Group 3). Recipients ...
A Proteogenomic Approach To Understanding Myc Function In Metastatic Medulloblastoma Tumors., 2016 George Washington University
A Proteogenomic Approach To Understanding Myc Function In Metastatic Medulloblastoma Tumors., Jerome A Staal, Yanxin Pei, Brian R. Rood
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children, and medulloblastoma is the most prevalent malignant childhood/pediatric brain tumor. Providing effective treatment for these cancers, with minimal damage to the still-developing brain, remains one of the greatest challenges faced by clinicians. Understanding the diverse events driving tumor formation, maintenance, progression, and recurrence is necessary for identifying novel targeted therapeutics and improving survival of patients with this disease. Genomic copy number alteration data, together with clinical studies, identifies c-MYC amplification as an important risk factor associated with the most aggressive forms of medulloblastoma with marked metastatic potential. Yet ...
Noncanonical Sqstm1/P62-Nrf2 Pathway Activation Mediates Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance In Multiple Myeloma Cells Via Redox, Metabolic And Translational Reprogramming., 2016 George Washington University
Noncanonical Sqstm1/P62-Nrf2 Pathway Activation Mediates Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance In Multiple Myeloma Cells Via Redox, Metabolic And Translational Reprogramming., Irene Riz, Teresa S Hawley, Jeffrey W Marsal, Robert G Hawley
Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, with drug resistance being a major cause of therapeutic failure. We established a carfilzomib-resistant derivative of the LP-1 MM cell line (LP-1/Cfz) and found that the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2; gene symbol NFE2L2) contributes to carfilzomib resistance. The mechanism of Nrf2 activation involved enhanced translation of Nrf2 as well as its positive regulator, the autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor gene EIF4E3 was among the Nrf2 target genes upregulated in LP-1/Cfz ...
Reducing Disparities By Way Of A Cancer Disparities Research Training Program, 2016 Morehouse School of Medicine and Walden University
Reducing Disparities By Way Of A Cancer Disparities Research Training Program, Lee S. Caplan, Tabia H. Akintobi, Tandeca K. Gordon, Tiffany Zellner, Selina A. Smith, Daniel S. Blumenthal
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
Background: For minority populations, there is a continuing disparity in the burden of death and illness from cancer. Research to address this disparity should be conducted by investigators who can best understand and address the needs of culturally diverse communities. However, minorities are under-represented in health-related research. The goal of this project was to develop and evaluate an approach to motivating and preparing master’s degree students for careers dedicated to cancer disparities research.
Method: A Cancer Disparities Research Training Program (CDRTP) was initiated in 2010. The program consists of coursework, practicum experiences, and research opportunities. Assessment of the curriculum ...
Sulfatase 2 Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis In Breast Cancer By Regulating Vegf-D., 2016 George Washington University
Sulfatase 2 Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis In Breast Cancer By Regulating Vegf-D., Chenfang Zhu, Xiaoliang Qi, Xin Zhou, Xin Nie, Yan Gu
Surgery Faculty Publications
In our previous studies, sulfatase 2 (Sulf2) was found to upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) expression in breast cancer. As VEGF-D plays an important role in lymphangiogenesis, we hypothesized that Sulf2 facilitates lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer by regulating VEGF-D. To evaluate the functions of Sulf2 on lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell mobility and tube-formation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were measured in vitro. Lymphangiogenesis in nude mouse ears and breast cancer xenografts were examined in vivo. Furthermore, the expression levels of related signaling pathway genes were screened and verified in LECs. We found that Sulf2 ...
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Gist) Of The Treitz’S Angle– A Very Rare Cause Of High Bowel Obstruction, 2016 Titu Maiorescu University of Bucharest, Faculty of Medicine
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Gist) Of The Treitz’S Angle– A Very Rare Cause Of High Bowel Obstruction, Mădălina Elena Tobă, Dan Florin Ungureanu, Lota Corina Georgescu, Traian Pătraşcu
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are somewhat rare gastrointestinal tumors - approximately 1% to 3% incidence, but they are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are usually found in the stomach or small intestine but can occur anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract, even in extremely uncommon locations like duodeno-jejunal flexure. Only 3% – 5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum and tumors occurring in the angle of Treitz are even rarer, most published studies being case reports. These tumors have a size ranging from small lesions to large masses and can cause digestive bleeding or high bowel obstruction ...
Presence Of A Prophage Determines Temperature-Dependent Capsule Production In Streptococcus Pyogenes., 2016 George Washington University
Presence Of A Prophage Determines Temperature-Dependent Capsule Production In Streptococcus Pyogenes., Leslie Brown, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kyu Hong Cho
Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications
A hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes. It acts as an anti-phagocytic agent and adhesin to keratinocytes. The expression of the capsule is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the two-component regulatory system CovRS, in which CovR acts as a transcriptional repressor. The covRS genes are frequently mutated in many invasive strains, and a subset of the invasive CovRS mutants does not produce a detectable level of the capsule at 37 °C, but produces a significant amount of the capsule at sub-body temperatures. Here, we report that a prophage has a ...
Treatment Of Cancer Pain, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Treatment Of Cancer Pain, Mark Dershwitz, Richard S. Pieters
Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist
Pain is one of the first concerns most cancer patients express when newly diagnosed or meeting a new physician. They are concerned about how much pain they presently have, how much pain they are likely to experience, and their physicians’ commitment to treating cancer pain. The reality is that many cancer patients will never experience pain during their course and for those that do, the great majority can be well-managed with the tools described in this chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist. It is incumbent on every physician to understand the mechanisms of cancer pain and the ...
Pd-L1 Expression In Ebv-Negative Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Clinicopathologic Features And Prognostic Implications, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Pd-L1 Expression In Ebv-Negative Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Clinicopathologic Features And Prognostic Implications, Wei Xing, Karen A. Dresser, Rui Zhang, Andrew M. Evens, Hongbo Yu, Bruce A. Woda, Benjamin J. Chen
Open Access Articles
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that regulates the cellular immune response and serves as a targetable immune checkpoint molecule. PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells and the immune microenvironment of several human malignancies, including a subset of aggressive lymphomas. We sought to investigate further the clinical and pathologic features of EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases that express PD-L1. Immunohistochemical staining using an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody was performed on DLBCL cases from 86 patients. These patients received standard chemotherapy treatment and were followed for up to 175 months. Overall, 14 cases (16%) were ...
Expression Of Kallikrein-Related Peptidases (Klks) In Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Expression Of Kallikrein-Related Peptidases (Klks) In Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, Zachary R. Kerr
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of salivary glands is a malignancy known for its slow growth pattern, but poor long-term survival despite aggressive treatment. This highlights the need for an improved approach to its management.
It has been suggested that kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), a group of 15 serine proteases, may serve as biomarkers for salivary gland tumors. KLKs are involved in numerous biological processes and have been linked to several cancers.
This study evaluated KLK gene expression in ACC and normal salivary gland tissue (NSGT). Total RNA was isolated from 40 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, which included 25 ACCs and 15 NSGTs ...