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Full-Text Articles in Bacterial Infections and Mycoses

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno Apr 2019

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


Sepsis: Triage Triggers, Outcomes Quicker, Rylee Ainge, Mackenzie Flaws, Natalie Heim, Emily Herndon, Hayley Norris, Amy L. Scott Feb 2019

Sepsis: Triage Triggers, Outcomes Quicker, Rylee Ainge, Mackenzie Flaws, Natalie Heim, Emily Herndon, Hayley Norris, Amy L. Scott

Posters

No abstract provided.


Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi Feb 2019

Geographic Distribution Of Staphylococcus Spp. Infections And Antimicrobial Resistance Among Dogs From Gauteng Province Presented At A Veterinary Teaching Hospital In South Africa., Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

The objective of this study was to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections and resistance patterns of clinical isolates from dogs from Gauteng province in South Africa. Data from records of 1,497 dog clinical samples submitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between 2007 and 2012 were used in the study. Spatial empirical Bayesian smoothed risk maps were used to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and multidrug resistance (MDR). Moran’s I and spatial scan statistics were used to investigate spatial clusters at municipal and town spatial scales. Significant clusters of staphylococcal infections were identified at ...


Candida Albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked To The Cell Wall And Impairs Phagocytosis And Killing By Human Neutrophils, Samyr Kenno, Cornelia Speth, Gunter Rambach, Ulrike Binder, Sneha Chatterjee, Rita Caramalho, Hubertus Haas, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Neil A.R. Gow, Dorothea Orth-Holler, Reinhard Wurzner Jan 2019

Candida Albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked To The Cell Wall And Impairs Phagocytosis And Killing By Human Neutrophils, Samyr Kenno, Cornelia Speth, Gunter Rambach, Ulrike Binder, Sneha Chatterjee, Rita Caramalho, Hubertus Haas, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Neil A.R. Gow, Dorothea Orth-Holler, Reinhard Wurzner

Open Access Articles

Complement is a tightly controlled arm of the innate immune system, facilitating phagocytosis and killing of invading pathogens. Factor H (FH) is the main fluid-phase inhibitor of the alternative pathway. Many pathogens can hijack FH from the host and protect themselves from complement-dependent killing. Candida albicans is a clinically important opportunistic yeast, expressing different FH binding molecules on its cell surface, which allow complement evasion. One such FH binding molecule is the transmembrane protein "High affinity glucose transporter 1" (Hgt1p), involved in glucose metabolism. This study demonstrated that Hgt1p transcription and expression is induced and highest at the low, but ...


Evolution Of The Exclusively Human Pathogen Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Human-Specific Engagement Of Immunoregulatory Siglecs, Corinna S. Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P. Kellman, Jerry J. Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E. Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki Jan 2019

Evolution Of The Exclusively Human Pathogen Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Human-Specific Engagement Of Immunoregulatory Siglecs, Corinna S. Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P. Kellman, Jerry J. Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E. Lewis, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea exclusively in humans and uses multiple strategies to infect, including acquisition of host sialic acids that cap and mask lipooligosaccharide termini, while restricting complement activation. We hypothesized that gonococci selectively target human anti-inflammatory sialic acid-recognizing Siglec receptors on innate immune cells to blunt host responses and that pro-inflammatory Siglecs and SIGLEC pseudogene polymorphisms represent host evolutionary adaptations to counteract this interaction. N. gonorrhoeae can indeed engage multiple human but not chimpanzee CD33rSiglecs expressed on innate immune cells and in the genitourinary tract--including Siglec-11 (inhibitory) and Siglec-16 (activating), which we detected for the ...


Is Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain By Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography In Sepsis Cardiomyopathy Ready For Prime Time Use In The Icu, Venu Madhav Velagapudi, Rahul Pidikiti, Dennis A. Tighe Jan 2019

Is Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain By Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography In Sepsis Cardiomyopathy Ready For Prime Time Use In The Icu, Venu Madhav Velagapudi, Rahul Pidikiti, Dennis A. Tighe

Open Access Articles

Myocardial deformation imaging (strain imaging) is a technique to directly quantify the extent of myocardial contractility and overcomes several of the limitations of ejection fraction. The application of the most commonly used strain imaging method; speckle-tracking echocardiography to patients with sepsis cardiomyopathy heralds an exciting development to the field. However; the body of evidence and knowledge on the utility, feasibility and prognostic value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy is still evolving. We conducted a review of literature on utility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy. We discuss the role of left ventricular global ...


Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy Dec 2018

Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Nosocomial diseases are a serious concern and detriment to hospitals’ abilities to provide appropriate patient care. Bearing this in mind, an effort must be made to determine whether infection surveillance and control programs have reduced the rates of nosocomial infection at U.S. hospitals. The data that were studied were obtained as part of the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) and used to develop a model of what variables most contribute to a patient’s length of stay at the Cleveland Clinic (Quade et al, 1980).


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams Dec 2018

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles were excluded ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


Deviating From Idsa Treatment Guidelines For Non-Purulent Skin Infections Increases The Risk Of Treatment Failure In Emergency Department Patients, John P. Haran, E. Wilsterman, T. Zeoli, Melissa Goulding, Emily Mclendon, Melissa A. Clark Dec 2018

Deviating From Idsa Treatment Guidelines For Non-Purulent Skin Infections Increases The Risk Of Treatment Failure In Emergency Department Patients, John P. Haran, E. Wilsterman, T. Zeoli, Melissa Goulding, Emily Mclendon, Melissa A. Clark

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes guidelines regularly for the management of skin and soft tissue infections; however, the extent to which practice patterns follow these guidelines and if this can affect treatment failure rates is unknown. We observed the treatment failure rates from a multicentre retrospective ambulatory cohort of adult emergency department patients treated for a non-purulent skin infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of IDSA classification and whether adherence to IDSA guidelines reduced treatment failure. A total of 759 ambulatory patients were included in the cohort with 17.4% failing treatment. Among ...


Explantation Of Infected Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair, Emily Y. Fan, Dejah R. Judelson, Andres Schanzer Dec 2018

Explantation Of Infected Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair, Emily Y. Fan, Dejah R. Judelson, Andres Schanzer

Open Access Articles

Prosthetic graft infection is a rare and serious complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair associated with high mortality and posing unique challenges for treatment. The prosthetic graft infection is often identified late as patients present with mild nonspecific symptoms. We describe the successful medical management and surgical explantation of an infected thoracic endograft with an aorta-bronchial fistula, using an inline reconstruction with an antibiotic-soaked synthetic graft. In this report, we provide an example of a patient with an infected thoracic endograft and how inline reconstruction combined with appropriate medical management is an acceptable treatment strategy.


Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer Nov 2018

Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer

PURE Insights

Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...


Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel Nov 2018

Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that induces severe inflammation resulting in gastroenteritis. In the case of S. Typhimurium infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its primary virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response.

One such effector, SifA, is a bi-functional T3SS effector protein that plays an important role in Salmonella virulence. The N-terminal domain of SifA binds SifA-Kinesin-Interacting-Protein (SKIP), and via an interaction ...


Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou Nov 2018

Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou

Open Access Articles

Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin involved in the recognition of several pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Schistosoma mansonii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that triggers Th17 immune responses. Identifying pathogen ligands and understanding the molecular basis of their recognition is one of the current challenges. Purified M. tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was shown to induce signaling via Dectin-2, an activity that requires the (alpha1 --> 2)-linked mannosides forming the caps. Here, using isogenic M. tuberculosis mutant strains, we demonstrate that ManLAM is a bona fide and actually the sole ligand mediating bacilli recognition by Dectin-2, although M. tuberculosis produces a ...


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic And Linear Peptides Composed Of Hydrophobic And Positively-Charged Amino Acids As Antibacterial Agents, Neda Riahifard, Saghar Mozaffari, Taibah Aldakhil, Francisco Nunez, Qamar Alshammari, Saud Alshammari, Jason Yamaki, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari Oct 2018

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic And Linear Peptides Composed Of Hydrophobic And Positively-Charged Amino Acids As Antibacterial Agents, Neda Riahifard, Saghar Mozaffari, Taibah Aldakhil, Francisco Nunez, Qamar Alshammari, Saud Alshammari, Jason Yamaki, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) contain amphipathic structures and are derived from natural resources. AMPs have been found to be effective in treating the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and thus, are potential lead compounds against ARB. AMPs’ physicochemical properties, such as cationic nature, amphiphilicity, and their size, will provide the opportunity to interact with membrane bilayers leading to damage and death of microorganisms. Herein, AMP analogs of [R4W4] were designed and synthesized by changing the hydrophobicity and cationic nature of the lead compound with other amino acids to provide insights into a structure-activity relationship against selected model ...


First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham Oct 2018

First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham

Open Access Articles

Staphylococcus simulans is a coagulase-negative organism, mainly an animal pathogen. Reports of human infection have been infrequent, mainly in patients with repeated animal contact. We report the first case of pleural empyema in an elderly woman. S. simulans tends to cause more severe infection because of a biofilm layer which helps in adherence and colonization of smooth surfaces, especially prosthetic devices, shunts, and catheters. The challenging problem even after CoNS isolation and identification is the assessment of their clinical relevance. Major factors that inhibit the penetration of antibiotics is the large-sized effusions/empyema, thickness of pleura, and the nature of ...


Protection Induced By A Francisella Tularensis Subunit Vaccine Delivered By Glucan Particles, Adam O. Whelan, Helen C. Flick-Smith, Jane Homan, Zu T. Shen, Zoe Carpenter, Payam Khoshkenar, Ambily Abraham, Nicola J. Walker, Stuart M. Levitz, Gary R. Ostroff, Petra C. F. Oyston Oct 2018

Protection Induced By A Francisella Tularensis Subunit Vaccine Delivered By Glucan Particles, Adam O. Whelan, Helen C. Flick-Smith, Jane Homan, Zu T. Shen, Zoe Carpenter, Payam Khoshkenar, Ambily Abraham, Nicola J. Walker, Stuart M. Levitz, Gary R. Ostroff, Petra C. F. Oyston

Open Access Articles

Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen causing the disease tularemia, and an organism of concern to biodefence. There is no licensed vaccine available. Subunit approaches have failed to induce protection, which requires both humoral and cellular immune memory responses, and have been hampered by a lack of understanding as to which antigens are immunoprotective. We undertook a preliminary in silico analysis to identify candidate protein antigens. These antigens were then recombinantly expressed and encapsulated into glucan particles (GPs), purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of beta-1,3-glucans. Immunological profiling in the mouse was used to down-selection to seven lead ...


Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust Oct 2018

Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Phage-Based Assay For The Rapid, Quantitative, And Single Cfu Visualization Of E. Coli (Ecor #13) In Drinking Water, Troy C. Hinkely, S. Singh, Spencer Garing, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen Oct 2018

A Phage-Based Assay For The Rapid, Quantitative, And Single Cfu Visualization Of E. Coli (Ecor #13) In Drinking Water, Troy C. Hinkely, S. Singh, Spencer Garing, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Drinking water standards in the United States mandate a zero tolerance of generic E. coli in 100mL of water. The presence of E. coli in drinking water indicates that favorable environmental conditions exist that could have resulted in pathogen contamination. Therefore, the rapid and specifc enumeration of E. coli in contaminated drinking water is critical to mitigate signifcant risks to public health. To meet this challenge, we developed a bacteriophage-based membrane fltration assay that employs novel fusion reporter enzymes to fully quantify E. coli in less than half the time required for traditional enrichment assays. A luciferase and an alkaline ...


Mrsa In The United States, Sweden, And Syria, Derek J. Lillestolen Sep 2018

Mrsa In The United States, Sweden, And Syria, Derek J. Lillestolen

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an opportunistic pathogen that is resistant to many broad and narrow-spectrum antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of S. aureus. There has been much fanfare about MRSA, receiving nicknames like “superbug” because of its varying degrees of resistance to the most common broad and narrow-spectrum antibiotics such as penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin and amoxicillin (2). The reality, however, is that MRSA is still susceptible to certain antibiotics and can be treated effectively. This study displays the factors which help and hurt MRSA treatments. There is shown a strong link between the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and ...


Tolerating The Unwelcome Guest; How The Host Withstands Persistent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Andrew J. Olive, Christopher M. Sassetti Sep 2018

Tolerating The Unwelcome Guest; How The Host Withstands Persistent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Andrew J. Olive, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Our understanding of the host response to infections has historically focused on "resistance" mechanisms that directly control pathogen replication. However, both pathogen effectors and antimicrobial immune pathways have the capacity to damage host tissue, and the ability to tolerate these insults can also be critical for host survival. These "tolerance" mechanisms may be equally as important as resistance to prevent disease in the context of a persistent infection, such as tuberculosis, when resistance mechanisms are ineffective and the pathogen persists in the tissue for long periods. Host tolerance encompasses a wide range of strategies, many of which involve regulation of ...


Identification Of A Novel Anoikis Signalling Pathway Using The Fungal Virulence Factor Gliotoxin, Florian Haun, Simon Neumann, Lukas Peintner, Katrin Wieland, Juri Habicht, Carsten Schwan, Kristine Ostevold, Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Martin Biniossek, Matthias Kist, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Roger J. Davis, Ulrich Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Klaus Aktories, Christoph Borner Aug 2018

Identification Of A Novel Anoikis Signalling Pathway Using The Fungal Virulence Factor Gliotoxin, Florian Haun, Simon Neumann, Lukas Peintner, Katrin Wieland, Juri Habicht, Carsten Schwan, Kristine Ostevold, Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Martin Biniossek, Matthias Kist, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Roger J. Davis, Ulrich Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Klaus Aktories, Christoph Borner

Open Access Articles

Anoikis is a form of apoptosis induced by cell detachment. Integrin inactivation plays a major role in the process but the exact signalling pathway is ill-defined. Here we identify an anoikis pathway using gliotoxin (GT), a virulence factor of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, which causes invasive aspergillosis in humans. GT prevents integrin binding to RGD-containing extracellular matrix components by covalently modifying cysteines in the binding pocket. As a consequence, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is inhibited resulting in dephosphorylation of p190RhoGAP, allowing activation of RhoA. Sequential activation of ROCK, MKK4/MKK7 and JNK then triggers pro-apoptotic phosphorylation of Bim. Cells in ...


Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr. Aug 2018

Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr.

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam Aug 2018

The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease that affects the valves of the heart. Injection drug use is currently a leading risk factor among patients with endocarditis. We conducted a prospective study using data from hospital chart records among patients with endocarditis in London, Ontario, which has a relatively high prevalence of people who inject drugs to assess the severity of the issue and the major risk factors of mortality pertaining to this population. This study had a sample size of 353 and included a review of the incidence of admissions of endocarditis, as well as a survival analysis, using both ...


Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong Aug 2018

Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Antimicrobial lock solutions are important for prevention of microbial colonization and infection of long-term central venous catheters. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel antibiotic-free lock solution formed from gas plasma-activated disinfectant (PAD). Using a luminal biofilm model, viable cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in mature biofilms were reduced by 6 to 8 orders of magnitude with a PAD lock for 60 min. Subsequent 24-h incubation of PAD-treated samples resulted in no detectable regrowth of viable bacteria or fungi. As a comparison, the use of a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol lock solution for 60 ...


Identification And Characterization Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Infection, Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Maja Sedic, Ejemel Monir, Jessica R. Pondish, Danielle Wisheart, Zachary Schiller, William D. Thomas Jr., Eileen M. Barry, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Yan Wang Aug 2018

Identification And Characterization Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Infection, Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Maja Sedic, Ejemel Monir, Jessica R. Pondish, Danielle Wisheart, Zachary Schiller, William D. Thomas Jr., Eileen M. Barry, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Yan Wang

Open Access Articles

Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. ETEC infection of the host involves colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. CFA/I is one of the most common colonization factor antigens (CFAs). The CFA/I adhesin subunit, CfaE, is required for ETEC adhesion to host intestinal cells. Human antibodies against CfaE have potential to block colonization of ETEC and serve as an immunoprophylactic against ETEC-related diarrhea.

Methods. Mice transgenic for ...


Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen Jul 2018

Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Acute sinusitis has viral etiology in more than 90% of cases, but antibiotics are prescribed for more than 80% of adults in the United States. While applications of computer-assisted guidelines have been found effective in reducing inaccurate prescribing for acute respiratory infections, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the utilization of electronic best practice alerts (BPA) in improving treatment for acute sinusitis.

Methods: This observational cohort study examined prescribing behavior for sinusitis at a single Federally Qualified Health Center 1 year prior and during the first year of implementation of a BPA in the electronic health ...


Elevated Levels Of Matrix Metalloproteinases Reflect Severity And Extent Of Disease In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Are Predominantly Reversed Following Standard Anti-Tuberculosis Or Metformin Treatment, Nathella P. Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu Jul 2018

Elevated Levels Of Matrix Metalloproteinases Reflect Severity And Extent Of Disease In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Are Predominantly Reversed Following Standard Anti-Tuberculosis Or Metformin Treatment, Nathella P. Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be key mediators of tuberculosis (TB) pathology but their role in tuberculosis - diabetes comorbidity (TB-DM) is not well understood.

METHODS: To study the association of MMP levels with severity and extent of disease as well as bacterial burden in TB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 8, - 9, - 10, - 12 and - 13 in individuals with TB-DM and compared them to those with TB alone (TB) or healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Circulating levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 10 and - 12 were significantly higher in TB-DM compared to both TB ...


Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. Mccormick Jul 2018

Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a source of morbidity and mortality in both developed and underdeveloped nations of the world. Disease can manifest as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, depending on the localization of infection. Interestingly, there is a correlation in experimental murine infections between the development of bacteremia and influx of neutrophils into the pulmonary lumen. Reduction of this neutrophil influx has been shown to improve survivability during infection. In this study, we use in vitro biotinylation and neutrophil transmigration and in vivo murine infection to identify a system in which two epithelium-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters, MRP1 and MRP2, have inverse activities ...


Resistant Gonorrhoea: East Meets West, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su Jul 2018

Resistant Gonorrhoea: East Meets West, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

In 2016 and 2018, two treatment failures of ceftriaxone and azithromycin, used in combination, were reported in the UK in men who contracted gonococcal infections in Asia,1, 2 once again suggesting that antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is spreading. These treatment failures indicate the potentially waning efficacy and usefulness of this combination, which is currently recommended as the first-line therapy. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is paramount if resistance patterns of these and other antimicrobials are to be recognised in a timely manner that enables meaningful intervention and prevention of the spread of resistant organisms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (phenotyping) for ...