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Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser 2018 George Washington University

The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis-a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Studies of schistosome genomes have improved our understanding of the molecular biology of flatworms, but most of them have focused largely on protein-coding genes. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been explored in selected schistosome species and are suggested to play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in modulating flatworm-host interactions. However, genome-wide small RNA data are currently lacking for key schistosomes including Schistosoma haematobium-the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis of humans.

METHODOLOGY: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other ...


Permission To Publish Agreement, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Permission To Publish Agreement, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

Blank Permission to Publish agreement form for authors of the Concepts in Animal Parasitology textbook/open educational resource.


Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International Public License (Cc By-Nc 4.0), Creative Commons 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International Public License (Cc By-Nc 4.0), Creative Commons

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

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Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...


Information For Authors [Slides]: Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Information For Authors [Slides]: Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

Broadcast via Zoom live online, the following are the slides from an information session held for authors and reviewers of the Concepts in Animal Parasitology (working title: Animal Parasitology Concepts) textbook. The work will be written collaboratively and published in 2019 as an open educational resource under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license.


Template For Authors For Part Two (Endoparasites) And Part Three (Ectoparasites), Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Template For Authors For Part Two (Endoparasites) And Part Three (Ectoparasites), Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

Support material for authors of the open educational resource, Concepts in Animal Parasitology, Part 2 (Endoparasites) and Part 3 (Ectoparasites).


Instructions For Authors, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Instructions For Authors, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

Instructions for authors for the Concepts in Animal Parasitology free, online textbook.


References Style Guide, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

References Style Guide, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

References style guide for authors of the Concepts in Animal Parasitology free, online textbook.


Manuscript Preparation Guidelines, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Paul Royster, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Manuscript Preparation Guidelines, Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Paul Royster, Sue Ann Gardner, Scott Lyell Gardner

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

Zea Books manuscript preparation guidelines for authors of the Concept in Animal Parasitology free, online textbook.


Down-Regulation Of Microrna-203-3p Initiates Type 2 Pathology During Schistosome Infection Via Elevation Of Interleukin-33, Xing He, Jun Xie, Yange Wang, Xiaobin Fan, Qin Su, Yue Sun, Nanhang Lei, Dongmei Zhang, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan 2018 Second Military Medical University

Down-Regulation Of Microrna-203-3p Initiates Type 2 Pathology During Schistosome Infection Via Elevation Of Interleukin-33, Xing He, Jun Xie, Yange Wang, Xiaobin Fan, Qin Su, Yue Sun, Nanhang Lei, Dongmei Zhang, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan

Open Access Articles

The type 2 immune response is the central mechanism of disease progression in schistosomiasis, but the signals that induce it after infection remain elusive. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is a hallmark of human diseases including schistosomiasis, and targeting the deregulated miRNA can mitigate disease outcomes. Here, we demonstrate that efficient and sustained elevation of miR-203-3p in liver tissues, using the highly hepatotropic recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8), protects mice against lethal schistosome infection by alleviating hepatic fibrosis. We show that miR-203-3p targets interleukin-33 (IL-33), an inducer of type 2 immunity, in hepatic stellate cells to regulate the expansion and ...


New Vaccine Formulations Containing A Modified Version Of The Amastigote 2 Antigen And The Non-Virulent Trypanosoma Cruzi Cl-14 Strain Are Highly Antigenic And Protective Against Leishmania Infantum Challenge, Ana Paula M. M. Almeida, Leopoldo F.M. Machado, Daniel Doro, Frederico C. Nascimento, Leonardo Damasceno, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Ana Paula Fernandes, Caroline Junqueira 2018 Federal University of Minas Gerais

New Vaccine Formulations Containing A Modified Version Of The Amastigote 2 Antigen And The Non-Virulent Trypanosoma Cruzi Cl-14 Strain Are Highly Antigenic And Protective Against Leishmania Infantum Challenge, Ana Paula M. M. Almeida, Leopoldo F.M. Machado, Daniel Doro, Frederico C. Nascimento, Leonardo Damasceno, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Ana Paula Fernandes, Caroline Junqueira

Open Access Articles

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major public health issue reported as the second illness in mortality among all tropical diseases. Clinical trials have shown that protection against VL is associated with robust T cell responses, especially those producing IFN-gamma. The Leishmania amastigote 2 (A2) protein has been repeatedly described as immunogenic and protective against VL in different animal models; it is recognized by human T cells, and it is also commercially available in a vaccine formulation containing saponin against canine VL. Moving toward a more appropriate formulation for human vaccination, here, we tested a new optimized version of the recombinant ...


A Rare Case Of Enhancing Anterior Interhemispheric Racemose Neurocysticercosis With Foci Of Calcification And Direct Parenchymal Extension, Anupama Chandrappa, Rajesh Raman, Suchetha Satish 2018 JSS Medical College Hospital, JSS University, Mysore

A Rare Case Of Enhancing Anterior Interhemispheric Racemose Neurocysticercosis With Foci Of Calcification And Direct Parenchymal Extension, Anupama Chandrappa, Rajesh Raman, Suchetha Satish

Journal of Global Radiology

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) refers to the central nervous system (CNS) infestation of the larvae of pork tapeworm Taenia solium. It is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Africa. It most commonly presents as intraparenchymal subcentimetric ring enhancing lesions of variable ages (or size and duration) with surrounding vasogenic edema. The lesions calcify with time. Rarely, NCC can occur in extraparenchymal locations, within the subarachnoid space and ventricles. At these locations it is usually seen as a proliferative lobulated cystic mass without a scolex which is termed racemose neurocysticercosis. Racemose cysticerci do not show calcification, scolex, or enhancement.

We report ...


Drug Repurposing For Schistosomiasis: Combinations Of Drugs Or Biomolecules., Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale 2018 George Washington University

Drug Repurposing For Schistosomiasis: Combinations Of Drugs Or Biomolecules., Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia Da Costa, Nuno Vale

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Control of schistosomiasis currently relies on a single drug, praziquantel, and despite its efficacy against the all schistosome species that parasitize humans, it displays some problematic drawbacks and alone is ineffective in counteracting adverse pathologies associated with infection. Moreover, due to the development of the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains, the search for additional or alternative antischistosomal drugs have become a public health priority. The current drug discovery for schistosomiasis has been slow and uninspiring. By contrast, repurposing of existing approved drugs may offer a safe, rapid and cost-effective alternative. Combined treatment with ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2018 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Michael J. Kimber

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Preservation Techniques For The Optimal Molecular Detection Of Hookworm Dna In A Human Fecal Specimen, Marina Papaiakovou, Nils Pilotte, Ben Baumer, Jessica Grant, Kristjana Asbjornsdottir, Fabian Schaer, Yan Hu, Raffi V. Aroian, Judd Walson, Steven A. Williams 2018 Smith College

A Comparative Analysis Of Preservation Techniques For The Optimal Molecular Detection Of Hookworm Dna In A Human Fecal Specimen, Marina Papaiakovou, Nils Pilotte, Ben Baumer, Jessica Grant, Kristjana Asbjornsdottir, Fabian Schaer, Yan Hu, Raffi V. Aroian, Judd Walson, Steven A. Williams

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Proper collection and storage of fecal samples is necessary to guarantee the subsequent reliability of DNA-based soil-transmitted helminth diagnostic procedures. Previous research has examined various methods to preserve fecal samples for subsequent microscopic analysis or for subsequent determination of overall DNA yields obtained following DNA extraction. However, only limited research has focused on the preservation of soil-transmitted helminth DNA in stool samples stored at ambient temperature or maintained in a cold chain for extended periods of time.

METHODOLOGY: Quantitative real-time PCR was used in this study as a measure of the effectiveness of seven commercially available products to preserve ...


Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults. These drugs act rapidly to inhibit C. elegans feeding within minutes of exposure. Sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine also decrease motility of adult Trichuris muris whipworms, prevent hatching ...


New Gorilla Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent Immune Responses And Protection In A Mouse Malaria Model, Keith Limbach, Ann M. Moormann, Joseph T. Bruder 2018 Naval Medical Research Center

New Gorilla Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent Immune Responses And Protection In A Mouse Malaria Model, Keith Limbach, Ann M. Moormann, Joseph T. Bruder

Ann M. Moormann

BACKGROUND: A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors.

RESULTS: The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and ...


Guinea : Malaria, Madeleine Jacobson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Guinea : Malaria, Madeleine Jacobson

Global Public Health

This brief analyzes malaria in Guinea and its impacts on individuals and the society. It consists of a geographic and demographic presentation of Guinea which includes information about its location, climate, natural resources, ethnic groups, politics and social internal and external challenges where human trafficking, lack of healthcare and refugees are discussed. The brief analyzes malaria´s transmission, diagnosis, preventions and a suggestion for an intervention.

Malaria is a vector-borne disease, which means that living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans, spread malaria. 70 percent of all malaria deaths occur in age years ...


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