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Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon 2017 Medical University of Vienna

Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon

Economics Faculty Publications

Background:

Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including ...


Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas 2017 George Washington University

Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infectious diseases cause more than 20% of cancers in the developing world [1]. About a dozen pathogens including Epstein-Barr virus and human T cell lymphocytotropic virus 1 are among the well-known examples. In addition, infection with several trematodes, which are eukaryotes, can cause malignancy. The International Agency for Research on Cancer categorizes infection with the fish-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium as Group 1 biological carcinogens [2]. In addition to parasitism directly damaging development, health, and prosperity of infected populations, infection with these helminths leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (bile duct cancer) and squamous ...


Point-Of-Care Testing For Toxoplasma Gondii Igg/Igm Using Toxoplasma Ict Igg-Igm Test With Sera From The United States And Implications For Developing Countries, Ian J. Begeman, Joseph Lykins, Ying Zhou, Bo Shiun Lai, Pauline Levinge, Kamal El Bissati, Kenneth Boyer, Shawn Withers, Fatima Clouser, A. Gwendolyn Noble, Peter Rabiah, Charles N. Swisher, Peter T. Heydemann, Depina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Jose G. Montoya, Yvonne Maldonado, Raymund Ramirez, Cindy Press, Eileen Stillwaggon, François Peyron, Rima McLeod 2017 University of Chicago

Point-Of-Care Testing For Toxoplasma Gondii Igg/Igm Using Toxoplasma Ict Igg-Igm Test With Sera From The United States And Implications For Developing Countries, Ian J. Begeman, Joseph Lykins, Ying Zhou, Bo Shiun Lai, Pauline Levinge, Kamal El Bissati, Kenneth Boyer, Shawn Withers, Fatima Clouser, A. Gwendolyn Noble, Peter Rabiah, Charles N. Swisher, Peter T. Heydemann, Depina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Jose G. Montoya, Yvonne Maldonado, Raymund Ramirez, Cindy Press, Eileen Stillwaggon, François Peyron, Rima Mcleod

Economics Faculty Publications

Background

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a serious but preventable and treatable disease. Gestational screening facilitates early detection and treatment of primary acquisition. Thus, fetal infection can be promptly diagnosed and treated and outcomes can be improved.

Methods

We tested 180 sera with the Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM point-of-care (POC) test. Sera were from 116 chronically infected persons (48 serotype II; 14 serotype I-III; 25 serotype I-IIIa; 28 serotype Atypical, haplogroup 12; 1 not typed). These represent strains of parasites infecting mothers of congenitally infected children in the U.S. 51 seronegative samples and 13 samples from recently infected persons known to be ...


Surveillance For Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Resistant Malaria Parasites In The Lake And Southern Zones, Tanzania, Using Pooling And Next-Generation Sequencing, Jeremiah M. Ngondi, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Julie Gutman 2017 RTI International

Surveillance For Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Resistant Malaria Parasites In The Lake And Southern Zones, Tanzania, Using Pooling And Next-Generation Sequencing, Jeremiah M. Ngondi, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Julie Gutman

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) remains a major public health challenge in areas of high malaria transmission. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended to prevent the adverse consequences of MiP. The effectiveness of SP for IPTp may be reduced in areas where the dhps581 mutation (a key marker of high level SP resistance) is found; this mutation was previously reported to be common in the Tanga Region of northern Tanzania, but there are limited data from other areas. The frequency of molecular markers of SP resistance was investigated in malaria parasites from febrile patients at ...


Subsets Of Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Risk Of Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini-Associated Advanced Periductal Fibrosis And Cholangiocarcinoma., Arpa Surapaitoon, Sutas Suttiprapa, Eimorn Mairiang, Narong Khuntikeo, Chawalit Pairojkul, Jeffrey Bethony, Paul J Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2017 George Washington University

Subsets Of Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Risk Of Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini-Associated Advanced Periductal Fibrosis And Cholangiocarcinoma., Arpa Surapaitoon, Sutas Suttiprapa, Eimorn Mairiang, Narong Khuntikeo, Chawalit Pairojkul, Jeffrey Bethony, Paul J Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Opisthorchis viverrini infection induces chronic inflammation, and a minor proportion of infected individuals develop advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Inflammatory cytokines and/or their gene polymorphisms may link to these biliary pathologies. We therefore investigated associations among cytokine gene polymorphisms and cytokine production in 510 Thai cases infected with O. viverrini who presented with APF+ or APF−, as established by abdominal ultrasonography as well as in patients diagnosed with CCA. Levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined in culture supernatants after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with O. viverrini excretory-secretory (ES) products. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β ...


Essential Multimeric Enzymes In Kinetoplastid Parasites: A Host Of Potentially Druggable Protein-Protein Interactions, Leah M. Wachsmuth, Meredith G. Johnson, Jason Gavenonis 2017 Dickinson College

Essential Multimeric Enzymes In Kinetoplastid Parasites: A Host Of Potentially Druggable Protein-Protein Interactions, Leah M. Wachsmuth, Meredith G. Johnson, Jason Gavenonis

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Parasitic diseases caused by kinetoplastid parasites of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania are an urgent public health crisis in the developing world. These closely related species possess a number of multimeric enzymes in highly conserved pathways involved in vital functions, such as redox homeostasis and nucleotide synthesis. Computational alanine scanning of these protein-protein interfaces has revealed a host of potentially ligandable sites on several established and emerging anti-parasitic drug targets. Analysis of interfaces with multiple clustered hotspots has suggested several potentially inhibitable protein-protein interactions that may have been overlooked by previous large-scale analyses focusing solely on secondary structure. These protein-protein ...


Cytokine Changes In Colonic Mucosa Associated With Blastocystis Spp. Subtypes 1 And 3 In Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Usman, Aisha Sultana, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri 2017 Aga Khan University

Cytokine Changes In Colonic Mucosa Associated With Blastocystis Spp. Subtypes 1 And 3 In Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Usman, Aisha Sultana, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri

Zubair Ahmad

We determined cytokines (e.g. interleukin-8, 10, 12 and TNF-α) expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in rectal mucosa in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) with Blastocystis spp. Eighty patients with D-IBS and Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'cases' and 80 with D-IBS without Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'control'. Cases were subdivided into D-IBS and Blastocystis sp. defined type 1 (subtype-specific primer SB83) and type 3 (SB227). Stool microscopy and culture were performed. Rectal biopsies were obtained for histology and cytokines by real-time PCR for mRNA expression of cytokines. PBMCs IL-8 was similar in different ...


Characterization Of Severe Malaria In Liberian Children 5 Years Old And Younger, Patricia A. McQuilkin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Characterization Of Severe Malaria In Liberian Children 5 Years Old And Younger, Patricia A. Mcquilkin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Malaria continues to be a challenging problem in the developing world, and the burden of this life threatening disease continues to be borne by young children living in Sub Saharan Africa. One of the biggest challenges to the prevention and control of this problem lies in accurately diagnosing malaria, and distinguishing it from the many other febrile illnesses which present in children in this age group.

Liberia is a West African country with a high burden of malaria. Very little is known about the presentation of severe malaria in children aged 5 years old and younger in Liberia. We undertook ...


Control Policies And Sensitivity Analysis In A Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Model: A Case Study In Cusco Region, Peru., Rocio M. Caja-Rivera, Ignacio Barradas 2017 CIMAT

Control Policies And Sensitivity Analysis In A Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Model: A Case Study In Cusco Region, Peru., Rocio M. Caja-Rivera, Ignacio Barradas

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Collaborating To Cure The Most Common Parasites On The Planet, Yan Hu, Jason Noon, Ambily Abraham, Hanchen Li, Florentina Rus, Deysy Pinto, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collaborating To Cure The Most Common Parasites On The Planet, Yan Hu, Jason Noon, Ambily Abraham, Hanchen Li, Florentina Rus, Deysy Pinto, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), most notably, hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, are nematodes that infect more than 1.5 billion of the poorest people and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of de-worming drugs (anthelmintic) is commonly used in mass drug administrations. New anthelmintics are urgently needed to overcome emerging resistance and to produce higher cure rates. Crystal (Cry) proteins, in particular Cry5B, made by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are promising new candidates. Cry5B has excellent anthelmintic properties against many free-living and parasitic nematodes, including in vivo efficacy against multiple STH infections in rodents (Heligomasmidoes polygyrus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum) and ...


Whole Genome Analysis Of A Schistosomiasis-Transmitting Freshwater Snail., Coen M Adema, LaDeana W Hillier, Catherine S Jones, Eric S Loker, Matty Knight, Patrick Minx, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Whole Genome Analysis Of A Schistosomiasis-Transmitting Freshwater Snail., Coen M Adema, Ladeana W Hillier, Catherine S Jones, Eric S Loker, Matty Knight, Patrick Minx, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a lophotrochozoan protostome, and provide timely and important information on snail biology. We describe aspects of phero-perception, stress responses, immune function and regulation of gene expression that support the persistence of B. glabrata in the field and may define this species as a suitable snail host for S. mansoni. We identify several potential targets ...


A Variant Pfcrt Isoform Can Contribute To Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To The First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine, Satish K. Dhingra, Devasha Redhi, Jill M. Combrinck, Tomas Yeo, John Okombo, Philipp P. Henrich, Ann N. Cowell, Purva Gupta, Matthew L. Stegman, Jonathan M. Hoke, Roland A. Cooper, Elizabeth Winzeler, Sachel Mok, Timothy J. Egan, David A. Fidock 2017 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center

A Variant Pfcrt Isoform Can Contribute To Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To The First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine, Satish K. Dhingra, Devasha Redhi, Jill M. Combrinck, Tomas Yeo, John Okombo, Philipp P. Henrich, Ann N. Cowell, Purva Gupta, Matthew L. Stegman, Jonathan M. Hoke, Roland A. Cooper, Elizabeth Winzeler, Sachel Mok, Timothy J. Egan, David A. Fidock

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Current efforts to reduce the global burden of malaria are threatened by the rapid spread throughout Asia of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisininbased combination therapies, which includes increasing rates of clinical failure with dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine (PPQ) in Cambodia. Using zinc finger nucleasebased gene editing, we report that addition of the C101F mutation to the chloroquine (CQ) resistance-conferring PfCRT Dd2 isoform common to Asia can confer PPQ resistance to cultured parasites. Resistance was demonstrated as significantly higher PPQ concentrations causing 90% inhibition of parasite growth (IC90) or 50% parasite killing (50% lethal dose [LD50]). This mutation also reversed Dd2-mediated CQ ...


Safety And Immunogenicity Of The Na-Gst-1 Hookworm Vaccine In Brazilian And American Adults., David J Diemert, Janaína Freire, Vanderson Valente, Carlos Geraldo Fraga, Frederico Talles, Shannon Grahek, Doreen Campbell, Amar Jariwala, Maria Victoria Periago, Martin Enk, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Robert Hamilton, Jill Brelsford, Anna Yakovleva, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Peter Hotez, Jeffrey Bethony 2017 George Washington University

Safety And Immunogenicity Of The Na-Gst-1 Hookworm Vaccine In Brazilian And American Adults., David J Diemert, Janaína Freire, Vanderson Valente, Carlos Geraldo Fraga, Frederico Talles, Shannon Grahek, Doreen Campbell, Amar Jariwala, Maria Victoria Periago, Martin Enk, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Robert Hamilton, Jill Brelsford, Anna Yakovleva, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Peter Hotez, Jeffrey Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Necator americanus Glutathione-S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) plays a role in the digestion of host hemoglobin by adult N. americanus hookworms. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-GST-1 is associated with significant protection from challenge infection. Recombinant Na-GST-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Alhydrogel) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. Two Phase 1 trials were conducted in 142 healthy adult volunteers in the United States and Brazil, first in hookworm-naïve individuals and then in residents of a N. americanus endemic area in Brazil. Volunteers received one of three doses of recombinant Na-GST-1 (10 ...


A Variant Pfcrt Isoform Can Contribute To Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To The First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine, Satish K. Dhingra, Devasha Redhi, Jill M. Combrinck, Tomas Yeo, John Okombo, Philipp P. Henrich, Annie N. Cowell, Purva Gupta, Matthew L. Stegman, Jonathan M. Hoke, Roland A. Cooper, Elizabeth Winzeler, Sachel Mok, Timothy J. Egan, David A. Fidock 2017 Old Dominion University

A Variant Pfcrt Isoform Can Contribute To Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To The First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine, Satish K. Dhingra, Devasha Redhi, Jill M. Combrinck, Tomas Yeo, John Okombo, Philipp P. Henrich, Annie N. Cowell, Purva Gupta, Matthew L. Stegman, Jonathan M. Hoke, Roland A. Cooper, Elizabeth Winzeler, Sachel Mok, Timothy J. Egan, David A. Fidock

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Current efforts to reduce the global burden of malaria are threatened by the rapid spread throughout Asia of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies, which includes increasing rates of clinical failure with dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine (PPQ) in Cambodia. Using zinc finger nuclease-based gene editing, we report that addition of the C101F mutation to the chloroquine (CQ) resistance-conferring PfCRT Dd2 isoform common to Asia can confer PPQ resistance to cultured parasites. Resistance was demonstrated as significantly higher PPQ concentrations causing 90% inhibition of parasite growth (IC90) or 50% parasite killing (50% lethal dose [LD50]). This mutation also reversed ...


Ticked Off: An Analysis Of The Inadequate Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Virginia P. Yoder 2017 Liberty University

Ticked Off: An Analysis Of The Inadequate Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lyme Disease, Virginia P. Yoder

Senior Honors Theses

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and has a high prevalence among people in the northeast. Lyme disease can be a debilitating illness if not diagnosed early, and can lead to long-term health problems for many patients. This thesis serves as a review of scientific literature on Lyme disease, with the prevalence, symptomology, the bacterial mechanism of infection, the diagnostic process, transmission, and treatment therapies. Further research and development could lead to better primary care for those suffering with Lyme disease.


Expanding Access To Malaria Diagnosis Through Retail Shops In Western Kenya: What Do Shop Workers Think?, Andria Rusk, Catherine Goodman, Violet Naanyu, Beatrice Koech, Andrew Obala, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara 2017 Duke Global Health Institute

Expanding Access To Malaria Diagnosis Through Retail Shops In Western Kenya: What Do Shop Workers Think?, Andria Rusk, Catherine Goodman, Violet Naanyu, Beatrice Koech, Andrew Obala, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara

Andria E. Rusk

Background. The common symptoms of malaria reduce the specificity of clinical diagnosis. Presumptive treatment is conventional but can lead to overdiagnosis of malaria, delay of appropriate treatment, overprescription of antimalarials, and drug resistance. Routine use of diagnostic tests can address many of these concerns. Though treatment is often procured from retailers, there is low availability of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (MRDTs), a simple, inexpensive, and accurate diagnostic solution. We know little about the challenges to expanding access to diagnostics through these outlets. Methods. To understand the perceptions of the benefits and challenges to selling rapid diagnostic tests for malaria ...


Spatial Distribution And Cluster Analysis Of Retail Drug Shop Characteristics And Antimalarial Behaviors As Reported By Private Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Informing Future Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick 2017 Duke Global Health Institute

Spatial Distribution And Cluster Analysis Of Retail Drug Shop Characteristics And Antimalarial Behaviors As Reported By Private Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Informing Future Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick

Andria E. Rusk

Background

Efforts to improve malaria case management in sub-Saharan Africa have shifted focus to private antimalarial retailers to increase access to appropriate treatment. Demands to decrease intervention cost while increasing efficacy requires interventions tailored to geographic regions with demonstrated need. Cluster analysis presents an opportunity to meet this demand, but has not been applied to the retail sector or antimalarial retailer behaviors. This research conducted cluster analysis on medicine retailer behaviors in Kenya, to improve malaria case management and inform future interventions.

Methods

Ninety-seven surveys were collected from medicine retailers working in the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Survey ...


Does Anti-Malarial Drug Knowledge Predict Anti-Malarial Dispensing Practice In Drug Outlets? A Survey Of Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya., Andria Rusk, Nathan Smith, Diana Menya, Andrew Obala, Chrispinus Simiyu, Barasa Khwa-Otsyula, Wendy O'Meara 2017 Duke Global Health Institute

Does Anti-Malarial Drug Knowledge Predict Anti-Malarial Dispensing Practice In Drug Outlets? A Survey Of Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya., Andria Rusk, Nathan Smith, Diana Menya, Andrew Obala, Chrispinus Simiyu, Barasa Khwa-Otsyula, Wendy O'Meara

Andria E. Rusk

Background

Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial.

Methods

To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of ...


Development Of An Interleukin-4-Inducing Principle From Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs (Ipse)-Specific Pcr Assay As A Quantitative Predictor Of Schistosomiasis-Associated Morbidity, Dannah Farah, Evaristis Mbanefo, Michael H. Hsieh 2017 George Washington University

Development Of An Interleukin-4-Inducing Principle From Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs (Ipse)-Specific Pcr Assay As A Quantitative Predictor Of Schistosomiasis-Associated Morbidity, Dannah Farah, Evaristis Mbanefo, Michael H. Hsieh

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting between 200-500 million people worldwide. The two species causing most human cases of schistosomiasis are Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. The gold standard for diagnosis is parasitological detection of parasite eggs in stool using the Kato-Katz method. Counting eggs shed in stool is labor-intensive and inaccurate. Interleukin-4- inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE) is the most abundant secreted protein from schistosome eggs. We hypothesized that the mRNA transcripts of the IPSE protein may be found in the liver tissue and stool of experimentally infected animals, and that these transcripts can be specifically ...


Involvement Of A Putative Intercellular Signal-Recognizing G Protein-Coupled Receptor In The Engulfment Of Salmonella By The Protozoan Tetrahymena, P. N. Agbedanu, M. T. Brewer, T. A. Day, M. J. Kimber, K. L. Anderson, S. K. Rasmussen, M. A. Rasmussen, S. A. Carlson 2017 Iowa State University

Involvement Of A Putative Intercellular Signal-Recognizing G Protein-Coupled Receptor In The Engulfment Of Salmonella By The Protozoan Tetrahymena, P. N. Agbedanu, M. T. Brewer, T. A. Day, M. J. Kimber, K. L. Anderson, S. K. Rasmussen, M. A. Rasmussen, S. A. Carlson

Matthew T. Brewer

In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoanTetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena) engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates byTetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and ...


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