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Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. AL-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-ulrahman Al-Tomah 2020 University of Basra,College of Science

Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Entamoeba spp. in particular E.histolytica is the main reason of human amoebiasis. The molecular mechanism of its pathogenicity is poorly understood, therefore the aim this study is to investigate these mechanism on both molecular and ultrastructure levels. Tight junction (TJ) genes Claudin-1 (Cldn1) and Occludin (Ocln) were investigated by real time PCR and the pathological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the result showed that the gene expression levels of TJ genes were significantly high in rats infected with E. histolytica E. dispar and E. moshkovskii after 28, 14, 7 days in compare with ...


A Case Study On Toxoplasmosis: Ocular Disease, Caleb A. Vass DO, Elliot Freed 2020 HCA Healthcare

A Case Study On Toxoplasmosis: Ocular Disease, Caleb A. Vass Do, Elliot Freed

Capital Division Virtual Research Day 2020

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Primary infection by this organism is usually asymptomatic. Some immunocompetent patients infected with this parasite can present as an acute systemic infection but symptoms can also present as ocular disease. In these instances, the ocular disease may be the only symptom, and can be from either an acute infection or a reactivation of the disease.


298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton 2020 SUNY Geneseo

298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton

GREAT Day

Schistosomiasis is a leading parasitic infection that debilitates many individuals in sub Saharan Africa. Because this parasitic infection involves a snail as an intermediate host, we use a native prawn species as a natural predator to decrease the population of this snail community. This study focuses on Tomefa, a primarily fishing peri-urban community located oi the outskirts of Accra, the capital city of Ghana. A survey was also given to the local community measuring economic characteristics. In the laboratory, Macrobrachium spp prawn exhibit preference of Bulinus snails over Biomphalaria snails while non-parasitic snails were consumed in higher proportion to parasitized ...


Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron 2020 University of New Mexico

Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron

Biology ETDs

Host-parasite systems exist across complex and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes, and may occur across taxonomically and ecologically disparate host species. Under these conditions, mechanisms underlying microevolutionary processes (i.e. gene flow, genetic drift) are not always clear, and may be mediated by numerous co-occurring factors specific to individual hosts. Host traits such as host immunology, demographics, phylogeny and ecology may act in concert to shape host-parasite relationships, and ultimately evolutionary processes. The research described herein used phylogeographic, phylogenomic, and population genetic methods to further understanding of how host traits impact the evolutionary ecology of trematode systems, using avian schistosomes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae ...


Malaria Risk On Ancient Roman Roads: A Study And Application To Assessing Travel Decisions In Asia Minor By The Apostle Paul, Daniel C. Browning Jr 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Malaria Risk On Ancient Roman Roads: A Study And Application To Assessing Travel Decisions In Asia Minor By The Apostle Paul, Daniel C. Browning Jr

Master's Theses

This study models malaria risks for travelers on ancient Roman roads with the goal of providing a tool for historical assessment of travel accounts from antiquity. The project includes: identification of malaria risk factors and associated spatial datasets, malaria risk model construction, verification and validation against available pre-eradication data, overlay of ancient Roman road data, and an initial case-study application to the journeys of the Apostle Paul, as narrated in the New Testament book, Acts of the Apostles (Acts). The project is intentionally cross-disciplinary in bringing the technical capabilities of GIS to the task of evaluating nuanced textual sources for ...


Severe Malaria Due To Plasmodium Falciparum, Hamid Hussaini, Rage Geringer MD, Gregory Hicks MD, Oliwier Dziadkowiec 2020 HCA Healthcare

Severe Malaria Due To Plasmodium Falciparum, Hamid Hussaini, Rage Geringer Md, Gregory Hicks Md, Oliwier Dziadkowiec

Internal Medicine

No abstract provided.


Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada 2020 Claremont Colleges

Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada

CMC Senior Theses

This study aims to provide insight on how availability of antimalarial drugs can help alleviate the economic burden of malaria. Much of the existing literature that looks into the effects of antimalarial drug availability focuses on the associated health benefits, but fails to draw a link to the economic benefits that may also be incurred. Using data from the 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey, this study performs a series of multiple regressions to observe how increased availability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), a front-line antimalarial drug in most African countries, affects likelihood of work absenteeism ...


Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson

Honors Theses and Capstones

Overall, approximately 95 percent of reported cases of vector-borne disease were associated with ticks, making these the most medically important group of arthropods in the United States.1 Despite the prevalence of tick-borne infections, the process for the diagnosis of this condition is not well studied. This study aims to analyze data from a pool of 100 patients who underwent testing for tick-borne disease in the same institution in Dover, New Hampshire during the most recent peak tick season of 2019. Information utilized in this study included: patient age, sex, location of testing (inpatient versus outpatient), diagnostic testing methods used ...


A Young Man In A Rural Breast Clinic, Linda Ratanaprasatporn, Aline Umwizerwa, Vedaste Hategekimana, Vestine Rugema, Sughra Raza 2019 Brigham & Women’s Hospital

A Young Man In A Rural Breast Clinic, Linda Ratanaprasatporn, Aline Umwizerwa, Vedaste Hategekimana, Vestine Rugema, Sughra Raza

Journal of Global Radiology

This article reports a case from Rwanda of muscular cysticercosis presenting as a painful “breast” lump in a young male patient. Sonographic evaluation revealed a hypoechoic mass deep to the breast tissue likely within the pectoralis muscle, rather than the breast. Subsequent excisional biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of cysticercosis.


Establishing Computational Approaches Towards Identifying Malarial Allosteric Modulators: A Case Study Of Plasmodium Falciparum Hsp70s, Arnold Amusengeri, Lindy Astl, Kevin Lobb, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Özlem Tastan Bishop 2019 Rhodes University

Establishing Computational Approaches Towards Identifying Malarial Allosteric Modulators: A Case Study Of Plasmodium Falciparum Hsp70s, Arnold Amusengeri, Lindy Astl, Kevin Lobb, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Özlem Tastan Bishop

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Combating malaria is almost a never-ending battle, as Plasmodium parasites develop resistance to the drugs used against them, as observed recently in artemisinin-based combination therapies. The main concern now is if the resistant parasite strains spread from Southeast Asia to Africa, the continent hosting most malaria cases. To prevent catastrophic results, we need to find non-conventional approaches. Allosteric drug targeting sites and modulators might be a new hope for malarial treatments. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are potential malarial drug targets and have complex allosteric control mechanisms. Yet, studies on designing allosteric modulators against them are limited. Here, we identified allosteric ...


Presentation And Treatment Outcomes Of Liberian Children Age 5 Years And Under Diagnosed With Severe Malaria, Benetta Collins-Andrews, Patricia A. McQuilkin, Kanagasabai Udhayashankar, Eric Adu, Ann M. Moormann 2019 JFK Medical Center, Monrovia, Liberia

Presentation And Treatment Outcomes Of Liberian Children Age 5 Years And Under Diagnosed With Severe Malaria, Benetta Collins-Andrews, Patricia A. Mcquilkin, Kanagasabai Udhayashankar, Eric Adu, Ann M. Moormann

Pediatric Publications

Malaria is endemic in Liberia with a prevalence rate of up to 60% in some regions, and it has been a major cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Prior to the recent Ebola epidemic, we undertook a prospective, hospital-based pilot study at the National Referral Hospital in Monrovia, to characterize the presentation, accuracy of diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of children presenting for treatment of malaria. From June 2013 to May 2014, we recruited children 5 years and under who presented to the JFK Medical Center with suspected malaria. We collected both clinical and laboratory data on ...


Bridging The Gap On Schistosomiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining The Knowledge Gap And Common Attitudes And Practices Regarding S. Mansoni Infections Among Varying Education Levels In Luanda K’Otieno, Western Kenya, Kathy Zhang 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Bridging The Gap On Schistosomiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining The Knowledge Gap And Common Attitudes And Practices Regarding S. Mansoni Infections Among Varying Education Levels In Luanda K’Otieno, Western Kenya, Kathy Zhang

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background: Schistosomiasis is considered one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most effective strategy for schistosomiasis control is through preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ). In order to successfully control morbidity rates, the WHO recommends mass treatment targeting high risk groups, such as school-age children and adults considered to be at risk.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the effects of the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) on knowledge of schistosomiasis and subsequent prevalence rates and intensity. A total of 43 residents in Luanda K’Otieno were interviewed, and 34 ...


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In A Traveler: A Case Report, Sarah Al-Obaydi MD, Nemer Dabage MD, James DeMaio MD 2019 HCA Healthcare

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In A Traveler: A Case Report, Sarah Al-Obaydi Md, Nemer Dabage Md, James Demaio Md

Internal Medicine

Leishmaniasis, a vector-borne infection transmitted by sandflies, is endemic throughout the Mediterranean basin and the tropics. We present a case diagnosed in Florida after overseas travel.


Plasmodium Vivax Chloroquine Resistance Links To Pvcrt Transcription In A Genetic Cross, Juliana M. Sa, Derrick K. DeConti, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Thomas E. Wellems 2019 National Institutes of Health

Plasmodium Vivax Chloroquine Resistance Links To Pvcrt Transcription In A Genetic Cross, Juliana M. Sa, Derrick K. Deconti, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Thomas E. Wellems

Open Access Articles

Mainstay treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria has long relied on chloroquine (CQ) against blood-stage parasites plus primaquine against dormant liver-stage forms (hypnozoites), however drug resistance confronts this regimen and threatens malaria control programs. Understanding the basis of P. vivax chloroquine resistance (CQR) will inform drug discovery and malaria control. Here we investigate the genetics of P. vivax CQR by a cross of parasites differing in drug response. Gametocytogenesis, mosquito infection, and progeny production are performed with mixed parasite populations in nonhuman primates, as methods for P. vivax cloning and in vitro cultivation remain unavailable. Linkage mapping of progeny surviving > 15 ...


Inhibitors Of Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Reveal That Multiple Lipid Signaling Pathways Influence Malaria Parasite Survival In Anopheles Gambiae, Hyeogsun Kwon, Ryan C. Smith 2019 Iowa State University

Inhibitors Of Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Reveal That Multiple Lipid Signaling Pathways Influence Malaria Parasite Survival In Anopheles Gambiae, Hyeogsun Kwon, Ryan C. Smith

Entomology Publications

Eicosanoids are bioactive signaling lipids derived from the oxidation of fatty acids that act as important regulators of immune homeostasis and inflammation. As a result, effective anti-inflammatory drugs have been widely used to reduce pain and inflammation which target key eicosanoid biosynthesis enzymes. Conserved from vertebrates to insects, the use of these eicosanoid pathway inhibitors offer opportunities to evaluate the roles of eicosanoids in less-characterized insect systems. In this study, we examine the potential roles of eicosanoids on malaria parasite survival in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Using Plasmodium oocyst numbers to evaluate parasite infection, general or specific inhibitors of eicosanoid ...


Drug Screening For Discovery Of Broad-Spectrum Agents For Soil-Transmitted Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Sergey N. Savinov, Raffi V. Aroian 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drug Screening For Discovery Of Broad-Spectrum Agents For Soil-Transmitted Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Sergey N. Savinov, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Articles

Soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs), namely hookworms, whipworms, and ascarids, are extremely common parasites, infecting 1-2 billion of the poorest people worldwide. Two benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, are currently used in STN mass drug administration, with many instances of low/reduced activity reported. New drugs against STNs are urgently needed. We tested various models for STN drug screening with the aim of identifying the most effective tactics for the discovery of potent, safe and broad-spectrum agents. We screened a 1280-compound library of approved drugs to completion against late larval/adult stages and egg/larval stages of both the human hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ...


Cxcr3 Chemokine Receptor Guides Trypanosoma Cruzi-Specific T-Cells Triggered By Dna/Adenovirus Asp2 Vaccine To Heart Tissue After Challenge, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro Cariste, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Sang Won Han, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos Carvalho 2019 Federal University of São Paulo

Cxcr3 Chemokine Receptor Guides Trypanosoma Cruzi-Specific T-Cells Triggered By Dna/Adenovirus Asp2 Vaccine To Heart Tissue After Challenge, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro Cariste, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Sang Won Han, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos Carvalho

Open Access Articles

CD8+ T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling infections by intracellular pathogens. Chemokines and their receptors are crucial for the migration of CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which are the main IFNgamma producers and cytotoxic effectors cells. Although the participation of chemokine ligands and receptors has been largely explored in viral infection, much less is known in infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. After T. cruzi infection, CXCR3 chemokine receptor is highly expressed on the surface of CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Here, we hypothesized that CXCR3 is a key molecule for migration of parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells towards infected tissues, where ...


Transmissible Dermatological Diseases Affecting Syrian Refugees In Lebanon, Nisrine Kawa, Edith Hanna, Abdul Rahman Bizri 2019 American University of Beirut

Transmissible Dermatological Diseases Affecting Syrian Refugees In Lebanon, Nisrine Kawa, Edith Hanna, Abdul Rahman Bizri

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

The Syrian war led many to seek shelter in Lebanon, creating a major refugee crisis. Displaced populations in crowded unequipped settlements are vulnerable to infectious diseases. The burden and incidence of various transmissible skin conditions affecting Syrian refugees in Lebanon and their impact on the Lebanese public health system were evaluated. Literature regarding these conditions among Syrian refugees in host countries, and epidemiological data from the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health Surveillance Unit and primary health-care network were reviewed. Lebanon has witnessed skin disorder outbreaks associated with the Refugee crisis, mainly leishmaniasis, scabies and lice infestations with little data about ...


Identification Of Small Molecule Enzyme Inhibitors As Broad-Spectrum Anthelmintics, Rahul Tyagi, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Scott A. Wildman, Jon Helander, Christina A. Bulman, Judy Sakanari, Bruce A. Rosa, Paul J. Brindley, James W. Janetka, Raffi V. Aroian, Makedonka Mitreva 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Identification Of Small Molecule Enzyme Inhibitors As Broad-Spectrum Anthelmintics, Rahul Tyagi, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Scott A. Wildman, Jon Helander, Christina A. Bulman, Judy Sakanari, Bruce A. Rosa, Paul J. Brindley, James W. Janetka, Raffi V. Aroian, Makedonka Mitreva

Open Access Articles

Targeting chokepoint enzymes in metabolic pathways has led to new drugs for cancers, autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. This is also a cornerstone approach for discovery and development of anthelmintics against nematode and flatworm parasites. Here, we performed omics-driven knowledge-based identification of chokepoint enzymes as anthelmintic targets. We prioritized 10 of 186 phylogenetically conserved chokepoint enzymes and undertook a target class repurposing approach to test and identify new small molecules with broad spectrum anthelmintic activity. First, we identified and tested 94 commercially available compounds using an in vitro phenotypic assay, and discovered 11 hits that inhibited nematode motility. Based on ...


Review Of Chagas Disease And Treatment Obstacles To Eradication, Emily Sherman 2019 Liberty University

Review Of Chagas Disease And Treatment Obstacles To Eradication, Emily Sherman

Senior Honors Theses

The World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control reports Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, as a major neglected tropical disease prevalent in 21 endemic Latin American countries. The agent of the disease is a single-celled protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and common modes of transmission include infected feces of a triatomine bug, crossing the placental barrier, and blood products. The two phases of infection are acute and chronic, and the three most affected body systems are cardiovascular, digestive, and nervous. Although research has led to several advances in the knowledge of CD, there are gaps in treatment and epidemiological ...


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