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Transmission Risk Of Malaria Via Gas Flares In Africa, Elle Blake 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Transmission Risk Of Malaria Via Gas Flares In Africa, Elle Blake

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gas flaring occurs at oil drilling sites around the world. It is a method to get rid of the extra gas, as well as to release pressure in emergency situations. The pollutants that are contributed to the air through routine gas flaring can be extremely harmful. Chemicals such as sulfur dioxide and methane are burned into the air we breathe (Baker Hughes, 2019). Not only does this have a direct impact on our health, but also on greenhouse gas emissions. The effects on greenhouse gas emissions impact diseases such as Malaria by increasing the temperature of our planet. The purpose ...


“Pandemias Políticas: The Effects Of Political And Social Instability On Infectious Disease Epidemiology In Latin America"”, Sarah H. Noonan 2022 University of South Carolina - Columbia

“Pandemias Políticas: The Effects Of Political And Social Instability On Infectious Disease Epidemiology In Latin America"”, Sarah H. Noonan

Senior Theses

This paper seeks to analyze the relationship between political and social unrest and conflict and infectious disease epidemiology in Latin America. An analysis of published literature regarding epidemiological, biomedical, political, and historical content was conducted to highlight potential connections between infectious disease epidemics and sociopolitical conflict in the region. Specific analyses of Smallpox, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Chagas disease, Cholera, Dengue, and COVID-19 were conducted, in an effort to uncover potential causations and context of epidemics of these conditions. Results of this analysis depict a necessity for further research into public health and disease control mechanisms during times of conflict and ...


Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo 2022 Projecto de Saúde de Bandim, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Plasmodium falciparum strains that are resistant to standard-dose chloroquine can be treated by higher chloroquine concentrations maintained for a longer time in vivo.
Objectives: To determine the relative importance of chloroquine concentrations versus exposure time for elimination of chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum in vitro.
Methods: Chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and -resistant (FCR3) strains were exposed in vitro to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 times their respective 90% inhibitory chloroquine concentrations for 3, 5, 7 or 14 days and then followed until recrudescence, or not, by 42 days after the end of exposure.
Results: Exposure to chloroquine appeared to ...


Severe Malaria, Mikey Bryant 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Severe Malaria, Mikey Bryant

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation is part of the PEER Liberia Pediatrics Lecture Series. It provides an overview for physicians on the diagnosis and treatment of severe malaria in children, including: severe Malaria is very common; there is a high risk of death if untreated; needs to be more clearly defined to avoid problems; doctors need to take an active role in managing this condition; ongoing monitoring after initial intervention very key.


Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello 2022 Yale University

Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Background

Hundreds of millions of people in poor countries continue to suffer from disease caused by bloodfeeding hookworms. While mice and rats are not reliably permissive hosts for any human hookworm species, adult Golden Syrian hamsters are fully permissive for the human and animal pathogen Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Similar to humans, hamsters may be infected with A. ceylanicum third-stage larvae orally or percutaneously. Oral infection typically leads to consistent worm yields in hamsters but may not accurately reflect the clinical and immunological manifestations of human infection resulting from skin penetration.

Methodology/Principal findings

In this study we compared host responses following ...


Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2022 Old Dominion University

Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick that transmits several microbes to humans, including rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In nature, these ticks encounter several abiotic factors including changes in temperature, humidity, and light. Many organisms use endogenously generated circadian pathways to encounter abiotic factors. In this study, we provide evidence for the first time to show that A. phagocytophilum modulates the arthropod circadian gene for its transmission to the vertebrate host. We noted a circadian oscillation in the expression of arthropod clock, bmal1, period and timeless genes when ticks or tick cells were exposed to alternate 12 h light: 12 ...


The Efficacy Of Insecticide-Treated Window Screens And Eaves Against Anopheles Mosquitoes: A Scoping Review, Beverly Anaele, Karan Varshney, Francis S O Ugwu, Rosemary Frasso 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

The Efficacy Of Insecticide-Treated Window Screens And Eaves Against Anopheles Mosquitoes: A Scoping Review, Beverly Anaele, Karan Varshney, Francis S O Ugwu, Rosemary Frasso

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

Background: Female mosquitoes serve as vectors for a host of illnesses, including malaria, spread by the Plasmodium parasite. Despite monumental strides to reduce this disease burden through tools such as bed nets, the rate of these gains is slowing. Ongoing disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may also negatively impact gains. The following scoping review was conducted to examine novel means of reversing this trend by exploring the efficacy of insecticide-treated window screens or eaves to reduce Anopheles mosquito bites, mosquito house entry, and density.

Methods: Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest databases on 10 July, 2020 for ...


Regulation Of Antigenic Variation By Trypanosoma Brucei Telomere Proteins Depends On Their Unique Dna Binding Activities, Bibo Li Ph.D., Yanxiang Zhao 2021 Cleveland State University

Regulation Of Antigenic Variation By Trypanosoma Brucei Telomere Proteins Depends On Their Unique Dna Binding Activities, Bibo Li Ph.D., Yanxiang Zhao

Biological, Geological, and Environmental Faculty Publications

Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen, Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG), to evade the host immune response. Such antigenic variation is a key pathogenesis mechanism that enables T. brucei to establish long-term infections. VSG is expressed exclusively from subtelomere loci in a strictly monoallelic manner, and DNA recombination is an important VSG switching pathway. The integrity of telomere and subtelomere structure, maintained by multiple telomere proteins, is essential for T. brucei viability and for regulating the monoallelic VSG expression and VSG switching. Here we will focus on T. brucei TRF and RAP1, two telomere ...


The Antimalarial Mmv688533 Provides Potential For Single-Dose Cures With A High Barrier To, James M. Murithi, Cécile Pascal, Jade Bath, Xavier Boulenc, Nina F. Gnädig, Charisse Flerida A. Pasaje, Kelly Rubiano, Tomas Yeo, Sachel Mok, Sylvie Klieber, Paul Desert, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Jutta Marfurt, Mélanie Rouillier, Mohammed H. Cherkaoui-Rbati, Nathalie Gobeau, Sergio Wittlin, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Ric N. Price, Grennady Wirjanata, Rintis Noviyanti, Patrick Tumwebaze, Roland A. Cooper, Philip J Rosenthal, Laura M Sanz, Francisco Javier Gamo, Jayan Joseph, Shivendra Singh, Sridevi Bashyam, Jean Michel Augereau, Elie Giraud, Tanguy Bozec, Thierry Vermat, Gilles Tuffal, Jean-Michel Guillon, Jérôme Menegotto, Laurent Sallé, Guillaume Louit, Marie-José Cabanis, Marie Françoise Nicolas, Michel Doubovetzky, Rita Merino, Nadir Bessila, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Delphine Baud, Lidiya Bebrevska, Fanny Escudié, Jacquin C Niles, Benjamin Blasco, Simon Campbell, Gilles Courtemanche, Laurent Fraisse, Alain Pellet, David A Fidock, Didier Leroy 2021 Columbia University Irving Medical Center

The Antimalarial Mmv688533 Provides Potential For Single-Dose Cures With A High Barrier To, James M. Murithi, Cécile Pascal, Jade Bath, Xavier Boulenc, Nina F. Gnädig, Charisse Flerida A. Pasaje, Kelly Rubiano, Tomas Yeo, Sachel Mok, Sylvie Klieber, Paul Desert, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Jutta Marfurt, Mélanie Rouillier, Mohammed H. Cherkaoui-Rbati, Nathalie Gobeau, Sergio Wittlin, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Ric N. Price, Grennady Wirjanata, Rintis Noviyanti, Patrick Tumwebaze, Roland A. Cooper, Philip J Rosenthal, Laura M Sanz, Francisco Javier Gamo, Jayan Joseph, Shivendra Singh, Sridevi Bashyam, Jean Michel Augereau, Elie Giraud, Tanguy Bozec, Thierry Vermat, Gilles Tuffal, Jean-Michel Guillon, Jérôme Menegotto, Laurent Sallé, Guillaume Louit, Marie-José Cabanis, Marie Françoise Nicolas, Michel Doubovetzky, Rita Merino, Nadir Bessila, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Delphine Baud, Lidiya Bebrevska, Fanny Escudié, Jacquin C Niles, Benjamin Blasco, Simon Campbell, Gilles Courtemanche, Laurent Fraisse, Alain Pellet, David A Fidock, Didier Leroy

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to first-line antimalarials creates an imperative to identify and develop potent preclinical candidates with distinct modes of action. Here, we report the identification of MMV688533, an acylguanidine that was developed following a whole-cell screen with compounds known to hit high-value targets in human cells. MMV688533 displays fast parasite clearance in vitro and is not cross-resistant with known antimalarials. In a P. falciparum NSG mouse model, MMV688533 displays a long-lasting pharmacokinetic profile and excellent safety. Selection studies reveal a low propensity for resistance, with modest loss of potency mediated by point mutations in ...


Keeping Balance Between Genetic Stability And Plasticity At The Telomere And Subtelomere Of Trypanosoma Brucei, Bibo Li Ph.D. 2021 Cleveland State University

Keeping Balance Between Genetic Stability And Plasticity At The Telomere And Subtelomere Of Trypanosoma Brucei, Bibo Li Ph.D.

Biological, Geological, and Environmental Faculty Publications

Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complexes at chromosome ends, are well-known for their essential roles in genome integrity and chromosome stability. Yet, telomeres and subtelomeres are frequently less stable than chromosome internal regions. Many subtelomeric genes are important for responding to environmental cues, and subtelomeric instability can facilitate organismal adaptation to extracellular changes, which is a common theme in a number of microbial pathogens. In this review, I will focus on the delicate and important balance between stability and plasticity at telomeres and subtelomeres of a kinetoplastid parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis and undergoes antigenic variation to evade the ...


Acute Psychosis With Recurrent Neurocysticercosis: A Case Presentation, Nasir F. Siddique, Kristy A. Fisher, Joshua Chang, Clara L. Alvarez Villalba 2021 Nova Southeastern University Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine

Acute Psychosis With Recurrent Neurocysticercosis: A Case Presentation, Nasir F. Siddique, Kristy A. Fisher, Joshua Chang, Clara L. Alvarez Villalba

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the Taenia solium cestode, presents clinically with a large and diverse spectrum of symptomatology, dependent upon lesion number, locale and ensuing inflammatory response. To this date, there are only two documented cases of psychosis presenting in patients with neurocysticercosis, both of which were published in India. This case presentation depicts the first documented case of Psychotic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition: Neurocysticercosis in the United States. The authors postulate that the atypical presentation of the neuropsychiatric instability with the aberrant recurrence of neurocysticercosis is predominantly attributable to ...


Balanced Impacts Of Fitness And Drug Pressure On The Evolution Of Pfmdr1 Polymorphisms In Plasmodium Falciparum., Marvin Duvalsaint, Melissa D. Conrad, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick K Tumwebaze, Jennifer Legac, Roland A. Cooper, Philip J Rosenthal 2021 University of California, San Francisco

Balanced Impacts Of Fitness And Drug Pressure On The Evolution Of Pfmdr1 Polymorphisms In Plasmodium Falciparum., Marvin Duvalsaint, Melissa D. Conrad, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick K Tumwebaze, Jennifer Legac, Roland A. Cooper, Philip J Rosenthal

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance may be limited by decreased fitness in resistant parasites. Important contributors to resistance are mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum putative drug transporter PfMDR1.

METHODS: Impacts on in vitro fitness of two common PfMDR1 polymorphisms, N86Y, which is associated with sensitivity to multiple drugs, and Y184F, which has no clear impact on drug sensitivity, were evaluated to study associations between resistance mediators and parasite fitness, measured as relative growth in competitive culture experiments. NF10 P. falciparum lines engineered to represent all PfMDR1 N86Y and Y184F haplotypes were co-cultured for 40 days, and the genetic make-up of the ...


A Novel Crispr-Based Malaria Diagnostic Capable Of Plasmodium Detection, Species Differentiation, And Drug-Resistance Genotyping, Clark H. Cunningham, Christopher M. Hennelly, Jessica T. Lin, Ratawan Ubalee, Ross M. Boyce, Edgar M. Mulogo, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Kyaw L. Thwai, Fernandine Phanzu, Albert Kalonji, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Jonathan J. Juliano, Jonathan B. Parr 2021 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

A Novel Crispr-Based Malaria Diagnostic Capable Of Plasmodium Detection, Species Differentiation, And Drug-Resistance Genotyping, Clark H. Cunningham, Christopher M. Hennelly, Jessica T. Lin, Ratawan Ubalee, Ross M. Boyce, Edgar M. Mulogo, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Kyaw L. Thwai, Fernandine Phanzu, Albert Kalonji, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Jonathan J. Juliano, Jonathan B. Parr

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

BACKGROUND: CRISPR-based diagnostics are a new class of highly sensitive and specific assays with multiple applications in infectious disease diagnosis. SHERLOCK, or Specific High-Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter UnLOCKing, is one such CRISPR-based diagnostic that combines recombinase polymerase pre-amplification, CRISPR-RNA base-pairing, and LwCas13a activity for nucleic acid detection.

METHODS: We developed SHERLOCK assays capable of detecting all Plasmodium species known to cause human malaria and species-specific detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum, the species responsible for the majority of malaria cases worldwide. We further tested these assays using a diverse panel of clinical samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo ...


Rapamycin Improves The Response Of Effector And Memory Cd8(+) T Cells Induced By Immunization With Asp2 Of Trypanosoma Cruzi, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Isau Henrique Noronha, Camila Pontes. Ferreira, Leonardo M. Cariste, Caroline B. Monteiro, Priscila Denapoli, Talita Vrechi, Gustavo J. S. Pereira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Mauricio M. Rodrigues, Karina R. Bortoluci, Jose Ronnie C. Vasconcelos 2021 Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)

Rapamycin Improves The Response Of Effector And Memory Cd8(+) T Cells Induced By Immunization With Asp2 Of Trypanosoma Cruzi, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Isau Henrique Noronha, Camila Pontes. Ferreira, Leonardo M. Cariste, Caroline B. Monteiro, Priscila Denapoli, Talita Vrechi, Gustavo J. S. Pereira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Mauricio M. Rodrigues, Karina R. Bortoluci, Jose Ronnie C. Vasconcelos

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Deficiency in memory formation and increased immunosenescence are pivotal features of Trypanosoma cruzi infection proposed to play a role in parasite persistence and disease development. The vaccination protocol that consists in a prime with plasmid DNA followed by the boost with a deficient recombinant human adenovirus type 5, both carrying the ASP2 gene of T. cruzi, is a powerful strategy to elicit effector memory CD8(+) T-cells against this parasite. In virus infections, the inhibition of mTOR, a kinase involved in several biological processes, improves the response of memory CD8(+) T-cells. Therefore, our aim was to assess the role of rapamycin ...


Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates 2021 Winona State University

Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates

Ramaley Research Celebration

Many different diving ducks in the Midwest are hosts to parasites like cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. These parasites often live in the ducks gastrointestinal tract and use the ducks chyme and intestinal tissues to thrive. For this research, local hunters volunteered to donate diving duck carcasses they harvested. Ducks donated were cut open on the ventral side from esophagus to cloaca. Major organs were separated into bottles containing 0.85% saline, shaken, settled, and then the supernatant removed multiple times to isolate any parasites residing within the duck’s organs and tissues. Any parasites found in dissected diving ducks organ ...


Defining Septicemia Incidence And Mortality In South Carolina Through Access To Health Care, Behavioral Health, And Low Socio-Economic Status, Raeann Vossberg 2021 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Defining Septicemia Incidence And Mortality In South Carolina Through Access To Health Care, Behavioral Health, And Low Socio-Economic Status, Raeann Vossberg

Senior Theses

This study aims to provide an in-depth view of septicemia mortality and incidence in the state of South Carolina through the lenses of socio-economic factors, access to healthcare, and behavioral health factors. This study was conducted using data from the South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office, utilizing their Hospitalization, Inpatient, Emergency Department, and Outpatient data both separately and combined depending on the data point, along with additional data sources for support (see works cited). We hypothesize that the higher rates of septicemia mortality and incidence in the southeastern United States, as well as in South Carolina in particular, could ...


Synthesis Of 1-(4-Ethoxy-3-Methoxybenzyl)-1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-Ium Bromide And Its Evaluation As Antiplasmodium Through Heme Polymerization Inhibitory Activity (Hpia) Assay, Dhina Fitriastuti, Viny Alfiyah, Mustofa Mustofa, Jumina Jumina, Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan 2021 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta 55584, Indonesia

Synthesis Of 1-(4-Ethoxy-3-Methoxybenzyl)-1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-Ium Bromide And Its Evaluation As Antiplasmodium Through Heme Polymerization Inhibitory Activity (Hpia) Assay, Dhina Fitriastuti, Viny Alfiyah, Mustofa Mustofa, Jumina Jumina, Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan

Makara Journal of Science

This study describes the development of N-benzyl-1,10-phenantrolinium salt as an antiplasmodium agent. The salt, that is, 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium bromide, was prepared using vanillin as the starting material in four simple synthetic steps. First, the alkylation of vanillin using diethyl sulfate produced 4-ethoxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde in 79% yield. Second, the reduction of the protected vanillin by NaBH4 through the grinding method allowed us to obtain 4-ethoxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 96% yield. Next, the bromination of the benzyl alcohol under solvent-free condition led to the formation of the corresponding benzyl bromide, which in turn underwent bimolecular nucleophilic substitution with 1 ...


An Inactivated Bacterium (Paraprobiotic) Expressing Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry5b As A Therapeutic For Ascaris And Parascaris Spp. Infections In Large Animals, Joseph F. Urban, Martin K. Nielsen, David Gazzola, Yue Xie, Ethiopia Beshah, Yan Hu, Hanchen Li, Florentina Rus, Kelly Flanagan, Austin Draper, Sridhar Vakalapudi, Robert W. Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2021 U.S. Department of Agriculture

An Inactivated Bacterium (Paraprobiotic) Expressing Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry5b As A Therapeutic For Ascaris And Parascaris Spp. Infections In Large Animals, Joseph F. Urban, Martin K. Nielsen, David Gazzola, Yue Xie, Ethiopia Beshah, Yan Hu, Hanchen Li, Florentina Rus, Kelly Flanagan, Austin Draper, Sridhar Vakalapudi, Robert W. Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Ascaris and Parascaris are important parasites in the family Ascarididae, large, ubiquitous intestinal-dwelling nematodes infecting all classes of vertebrates. Parasitic nematode drug resistance in veterinary medicine and drug recalcitrance in human medicine are increasing worldwide, with few if any new therapeutic classes on the horizon. Some of these parasites are zoonotic, e.g., Ascaris is passed from humans to pigs and vice versa. The development of new therapies against this family of parasites would have major implications for both human and livestock health. Here we tested the therapeutic ability of a paraprobiotic or dead probiotic that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis ...


An Inactivated Bacterium (Paraprobiotic) Expressing Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry5b As A Therapeutic For Ascaris And Parascaris Spp. Infections In Large Animals, Joseph F. Urban Jr, Martin K. Nielsen, David Gazzola, Yue Xie, Ethiopia Beshah, Yan Hu, Hanchen Li, Florentina Rus, Kelly Flanagan, Austin Draper, Sridhar Vakalapudi, Robert W. Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2021 U. S. Department of Agriculture

An Inactivated Bacterium (Paraprobiotic) Expressing Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry5b As A Therapeutic For Ascaris And Parascaris Spp. Infections In Large Animals, Joseph F. Urban Jr, Martin K. Nielsen, David Gazzola, Yue Xie, Ethiopia Beshah, Yan Hu, Hanchen Li, Florentina Rus, Kelly Flanagan, Austin Draper, Sridhar Vakalapudi, Robert W. Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Ascaris and Parascaris are important parasites in the family Ascarididae, large, ubiquitous intestinal-dwelling nematodes infecting all classes of vertebrates. Parasitic nematode drug resistance in veterinary medicine and drug recalcitrance in human medicine are increasing worldwide, with few if any new therapeutic classes on the horizon. Some of these parasites are zoonotic, e.g., Ascaris is passed from humans to pigs and vice versa. The development of new therapies against this family of parasites would have major implications for both human and livestock health. Here we tested the therapeutic ability of a paraprobiotic or dead probiotic that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis ...


Recombinant Paraprobiotics As A New Paradigm For Treating Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasites Of Humans, Hanchen Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Recombinant Paraprobiotics As A New Paradigm For Treating Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasites Of Humans, Hanchen Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of humans, e.g., hookworms, negatively impact childhood growth, cognition, nutrition, educational attainment, income, productivity, and pregnancy. Hundreds of millions of people are targeted with mass drug administration (MDA) of donated benzimidazole anthelmintics. However, benzimidazole efficacy against GINs is suboptimal, and reduced/low efficacy has been seen. Developing an anthelmintic for human MDA is daunting: it must be safe, effective, inexpensive, stable without a cold chain, and massively scalable. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein 5B (Cry5B) has anthelmintic properties that could fill this void. Here, we developed an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) containing B. thuringiensis Cry5B compatible with ...


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