A Systematic Review: Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Drugs Of Abuse, 2023 Roseman University of Health Sciences
A Systematic Review: Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Drugs Of Abuse, Amani Sastry
Annual Research Symposium
No abstract provided.
First Bovine Vaccine To Prevent Human Schistosomiasis - A Cluster Randomised Phase 3 Clinical Trial, 2023 Old Dominion University
First Bovine Vaccine To Prevent Human Schistosomiasis - A Cluster Randomised Phase 3 Clinical Trial, Allen G. Ross, Donald A. Harn, Delia Chy, Marianette Inobaya, Jerric R. Guevarra, Lisa Shollenberger, Yuesheng Li, Donald P. Mcmanus, Darren J. Gray, Gail M. Williams
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosoma japonicum is zoonotic in China, the Philippines, and Indonesia, with bovines acting as major reservoirs of human infection. The primary objective of the trial was to examine the impact of a combination of human mass chemotherapy, snail control through mollusciciding, and SjCTPI bovine vaccination on the rate of human infection.
A 5-year phase IIIa cluster randomized control trial was conducted among 18 schistosomiasis-endemic villages comprising 18,221 residents in Northern Samar, The Philippines.
Overall, bovine vaccination resulted in a statistically significant decrease …
Newer Surveillance Data Extends Our Understanding Of The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) In The United States, 2023 University of Florida
Newer Surveillance Data Extends Our Understanding Of The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) In The United States, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly D. Gaff, Robyn M. Nadolny, Sadie J. Ryan
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Background: Understanding the geographic distribution of Rickettsia montanensis infections in Dermacentor variabilis is important for tick-borne disease management in the United States, as both a tick-borne agent of interest and a potential confounder in surveillance of other rickettsial diseases. Two previous studies modeled niche suitability for D. variabilis with and without R. montanensis, from 2002-2012, indicating that the D. variabilis niche overestimates the infected niche. This study updates these, adding data since 2012.
Methods: Newer surveillance and testing data were used to update Species Distribution Models (SDMs) of D. variabilis, and R. montanensis infected D. variabilis, in …
Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, 2022 Technological University of the Shannon
Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty
SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal
Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses …
A Reactivation Of Ocular Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy, 2022 Department of Veterans Affairs
A Reactivation Of Ocular Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy, Brett Garee Od, Ms, Sarah Dieter Od, Pete Liette Od
Optometric Clinical Practice
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite estimated to affect over 500 million people worldwide. The feline is the definitive host for the parasite and infection may be acquired or congenital via maternal transmission. Humans may acquire the infection by ingestion of raw or undercooked meats and vegetables, contaminated water, or exposure to infected cat feces. The infection is often benign, self-limiting, and asymptomatic for humans, but potentially life threatening to infants or the immunocompromised patient.
Case Report: A 22 year-old Caucasian female, pregnant at 12 weeks gestation, presented to the optometry service with acute symptoms of hazy vision …
Comparing Antigenaemia - And Microfilaraemia As Criteria For Stopping Decisions In Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes In Africa, 2022 Erasmus University of Rotterdam
Comparing Antigenaemia - And Microfilaraemia As Criteria For Stopping Decisions In Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes In Africa, Wilma A. Stolk, Luc E. Coffeng, Fatorma K. Bolay, Obiora A. Eneanya, Peter U. Fischer, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Benjamin G. Koudou, Aboulaye Meite, Edwin Michael, Joaquin M. Prada, Rocio M. Caja Rivera, Swarnali Sharma, Panayiota Touloupou, Gary J. Weil, Sake J. De Vlas
Data and Supporting Files
Data collected from participants at four separate timepoints in Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia identified by a unique participant ID. There are four timepoints collected from each country: Baseline, Follow-up Year 1, Follow-Up Year 2, and Follow-up Year 3. Each dataset includes the participant ID, gender, age, the microfilarae (MF) count collected through blood smear, and circulating filarial antigen (CFA) result from a strip test.
Human Cryptosporidiosis: A Review And Staining Method, 2022 University of Maine - Main
Human Cryptosporidiosis: A Review And Staining Method, Amatullah Ahmad
Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly emerging as the most significant cause of infectious diarrhea in humans and livestock. In humans, studies show that Cryptosporidiosis disease is more prevalent in the immunocompromised and young ones. However, outbreaks from contaminated water sources have caused disease in healthy adults, too. Two main species of the protozoan causative agent,Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are responsible for most human infections. Cattle, pets, mice, and other livestock can transmit theCryptosporidiumparvumvariantsto humans through fecal transmission. Other species of Cryptosporidium can infect domestic animals, but their host range is narrow; therefore, they are not of significant concern to human health. …
Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, 2022 University of South Alabama
Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis
Theses and Dissertations
The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the …
Control Of Scabies In A Boarding School Using 5% Permethrin Applied On Lesion Only, 2022 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia
Control Of Scabies In A Boarding School Using 5% Permethrin Applied On Lesion Only, Saleha Sungkar, Sri Wahdini, Aria Kekalih, Risa Rilanda, Hansen Angkasa, Sandra Widaty
ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement
Scabies is one of the most neglected tropical skin diseases in Indonesia. It is usually found in overcrowded communities with poor hygiene. The gold standard for scabies treatment is the whole-body topical application of 5% permethrin cream. However, the treatment causes inconvenience and stickiness for a prolonged period. The modification of topical treatment by applying only to the lesion yielded results similar with whole-body topical application. We consider using this mode of treatment to control the disease in a boarding school. The study was conducted from June to August 2019. All students were examined by dermatologists, and individuals who were …
Total Prevention: A History Of Schistosomiasis In Japan, 2022 Chapman University
Total Prevention: A History Of Schistosomiasis In Japan, Alexander Bay
History Faculty Articles and Research
In Japan, schistosomiasis was endemic in Yamanashi Prefecture and a few other hotspot areas where the Miya’iri snail lived. The parasite’s lifecycle relied on the intermediary Miya’iri snail as well as the human host. Parasite eggs passed into the agrarian environment through untreated night soil used as fertiliser or through the culture of open defecation in rural Japan. Manmade rice fields and irrigation ditches, night soil covered paddies and highly refined growing seasons put people in flooded rice paddies to intensively work the land in the spring and summer. The disease was equally dependent on human intervention in the natural …
Malaria: Existence Perpetuated By A Counterfeit Drug Industry, 2022 University of Missouri, St. Louis
Malaria: Existence Perpetuated By A Counterfeit Drug Industry, Nicholas Black
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that has plagued society for thousands of years. Malaria is often overlooked from the perspective of wealthier industrialized countries due to prevention efforts largely eliminating malaria from these locations. However, overlooking malaria’s continued global relevance is misinformed to the fact that nearly half the global population lives in regions at risk of malarial transmission. According to the CDC and WHO, such a high number of people at risk has subsequently led to an estimated 241 million cases and over 627 thousand deaths in 2020 alone. The purpose for the present research is to examine the …
Transmission Risk Of Malaria Via Gas Flares In Africa, 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Transmission Risk Of Malaria Via Gas Flares In Africa, Elle Blake
Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses
Gas flaring occurs at oil drilling sites around the world. It is a method to get rid of the extra gas, as well as to release pressure in emergency situations. The pollutants that are contributed to the air through routine gas flaring can be extremely harmful. Chemicals such as sulfur dioxide and methane are burned into the air we breathe (Baker Hughes, 2019). Not only does this have a direct impact on our health, but also on greenhouse gas emissions. The effects on greenhouse gas emissions impact diseases such as Malaria by increasing the temperature of our planet. The purpose …
Disrupting Monoallelic Expression Of Variant Surface Glycoprotein In Trypanosoma Brucei By A Non-Lethal Mutation In Class I Transcription Factor A, 2022 University of Connecticut
Disrupting Monoallelic Expression Of Variant Surface Glycoprotein In Trypanosoma Brucei By A Non-Lethal Mutation In Class I Transcription Factor A, Sarah Platt
Honors Scholar Theses
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a lethal disease caused by protozoan hemoflagellates of the genus Trypanosoma. Humans are vulnerable to two subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. At the crux of HAT lethality lie two uncommon genetic expression phenomena: monoallelic expression and antigenic variation. Combined, these mechanisms effectively shield trypanosomes from host immune systems, prolonging infections. Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) are the key outer membrane proteins involved in antigenic variation. By continuously changing the composition of cell surface antigens, trypanosomes can survive bouts of immunological detection and eventually traverse the blood-brain barrier. There are over two …
Preclinical Characterization And Target Validation Of The Antimalarial Pantothenamide Mmv693183., 2022 Radboud University Medical Center
Preclinical Characterization And Target Validation Of The Antimalarial Pantothenamide Mmv693183., Laura E. De Vries, Patrick A M Jansen, Catalina Barcelo, Justin Munro, Julie M J Verhoef, Charisse Flerida A Pasaje, Kelly Rubiano, Josefine Striepen, Nada Abla, Luuk Berning, Judith M Bolscher, Claudia Demarta-Gatsi, Rob W M Henderson, Tonnie Huijs, Karin M J Koolen, Patrick K Tumwebaze, Tomas Yeo, Anna C C Aguiar, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Alisje Churchyard, Jake Baum, Benigno Crespo Fernández, Aline Fuchs, Francisco-Javier Gamo, Rafael V C Guido, María Belén Jiménez-Diaz, Dhelio B Pereira, Rosemary Rochford, Camille Roesch, Laura M Sanz, Graham Trevitt, Benoit Witkowski, Sergio Wittlin, Roland A. Cooper, Philip J. Rosenthal, Robert W Sauerwein, Joost Schalkwijk, Pedro H H Hermkens, Roger V Bonnert, Brice Campo, David A Fidock, Manuel Llinás, Jacquin C Niles, Taco W A Kooij, Koen J Dechering
Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship
Drug resistance and a dire lack of transmission-blocking antimalarials hamper malaria elimination. Here, we present the pantothenamide MMV693183 as a first-in-class acetyl-CoA synthetase (AcAS) inhibitor to enter preclinical development. Our studies demonstrate attractive drug-like properties and in vivo efficacy in a humanized mouse model of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The compound shows single digit nanomolar in vitro activity against P. falciparum and P. vivax clinical isolates, and potently blocks P. falciparum transmission to Anopheles mosquitoes. Genetic and biochemical studies identify AcAS as the target of the MMV693183-derived antimetabolite, CoA-MMV693183. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling predict that a single 30 mg oral dose is sufficient …
“Pandemias Políticas: The Effects Of Political And Social Instability On Infectious Disease Epidemiology In Latin America"”, 2022 University of South Carolina - Columbia
“Pandemias Políticas: The Effects Of Political And Social Instability On Infectious Disease Epidemiology In Latin America"”, Sarah H. Noonan
This paper seeks to analyze the relationship between political and social unrest and conflict and infectious disease epidemiology in Latin America. An analysis of published literature regarding epidemiological, biomedical, political, and historical content was conducted to highlight potential connections between infectious disease epidemics and sociopolitical conflict in the region. Specific analyses of Smallpox, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Chagas disease, Cholera, Dengue, and COVID-19 were conducted, in an effort to uncover potential causations and context of epidemics of these conditions. Results of this analysis depict a necessity for further research into public health and disease control mechanisms during times of conflict and …
Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, 2022 Projecto de Saúde de Bandim, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Background: Plasmodium falciparum strains that are resistant to standard-dose chloroquine can be treated by higher chloroquine concentrations maintained for a longer time in vivo.
Objectives: To determine the relative importance of chloroquine concentrations versus exposure time for elimination of chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum in vitro.
Methods: Chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and -resistant (FCR3) strains were exposed in vitro to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 times their respective 90% inhibitory chloroquine concentrations for 3, 5, 7 or 14 days and then followed until recrudescence, or not, by 42 days after the end of exposure.
Results: Exposure to chloroquine appeared to …
Discovery And Preclinical Pharmacology Of Ine963, A Potent And Fast-Acting Blood-Stage Antimalarial With A High Barrier To Resistance And Potential For Single-Dose Cures In Uncomplicated Malaria., 2022 Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research
Discovery And Preclinical Pharmacology Of Ine963, A Potent And Fast-Acting Blood-Stage Antimalarial With A High Barrier To Resistance And Potential For Single-Dose Cures In Uncomplicated Malaria., Benjamin R Taft, Fumiaki Yokokawa, Tom Kirrane, Anne-Catherine Mata, Richard Huang, Nicole Blaquiere, Grace Waldron, Bin Zou, Oliver Simon, Subramanyam Vankadara, Wai Ling Chan, Mei Ding, Sandra Sim, Judith Straimer, Armand Guiguemde, Suresh B Lakshminarayana, Jay Prakash Jain, Christophe Bodenreider, Christopher Thompson, Christian Lanshoeft, Wei Shu, Eric Fang, Jafri Qumber, Katherine Chan, Luying Pei, Yen-Liang Chen, Hanna Schulz, Jessie Lim, Siti Nurdiana Abas, Xiaoman Ang, Yugang Liu, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Francisco Javier Gamo, Benigno Crespo-Fernandez, Philip J Rosenthal, Roland A. Cooper, Patrick Tumwebaze, Anna Caroline Campos Aguiar, Brice Campo, Simon Campbell, Jürgen Wagner, Thierry T Diagana, Christopher Sarko
Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship
A series of 5-aryl-2-amino-imidazothiadiazole (ITD) derivatives were identified by a phenotype-based high-throughput screening using a blood stage Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) growth inhibition assay. A lead optimization program focused on improving antiplasmodium potency, selectivity against human kinases, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties and extended pharmacological profiles culminated in the identification of INE963 (1), which demonstrates potent cellular activity against Pf 3D7 (EC50 = 0.006 μM) and achieves "artemisinin-like" kill kinetics in vitro with a parasite clearance time of <24 h. A single dose of 30 mg/kg is fully curative in the Pf-humanized severe combined immunodeficient mouse model. INE963 (1) also exhibits a high barrier to resistance in drug selection studies and a long half-life (T1/2) across species. These properties suggest the significant potential for INE963 (1) to provide a curative therapy for uncomplicated malaria with short dosing regimens. For these reasons, INE963 (1) was progressed through GLP toxicology studies and is now undergoing Ph1 clinical trials.
Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, 2022 Yale University
Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello
Biology Faculty Scholarship
Hundreds of millions of people in poor countries continue to suffer from disease caused by bloodfeeding hookworms. While mice and rats are not reliably permissive hosts for any human hookworm species, adult Golden Syrian hamsters are fully permissive for the human and animal pathogen Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Similar to humans, hamsters may be infected with A. ceylanicum third-stage larvae orally or percutaneously. Oral infection typically leads to consistent worm yields in hamsters but may not accurately reflect the clinical and immunological manifestations of human infection resulting from skin penetration.
In this study we compared host responses …
Rationalization Of The Laboratory Diagnosis For Good Management Of Malaria: Lessons From Transitional Methods, 2022 CHU Bon Samaritain de Walia
Rationalization Of The Laboratory Diagnosis For Good Management Of Malaria: Lessons From Transitional Methods, Neguemadji N. Ngaba, Imteyaz A. Khan, Namrata Hange, Maria Kezia Lourdes Ligsay Pormento, Manoj Kumar Reddy Somagutta, Ajay Kumar, Youssouf Abdelkerim, Alarangue Djindimadje, Samia Jahan
Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Publications
Introduction. Malaria is an endemic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In clinical practice, the main concern is the overdiagnosis of malaria leading to inappropriate drug prescription without laboratory confirmation. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate clinical examination reliability compared with translational laboratory methods of malaria diagnosis. Methods. The study was conducted in Goundi Hospital among hospitalized patients over a seven-month period. Patients were interviewed, and malaria tests done included the Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Results. Among 1,874 participants, 674 (35.96%) patients had positive Giemsa-stained …
Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, 2022 Old Dominion University
Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick that transmits several microbes to humans, including rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In nature, these ticks encounter several abiotic factors including changes in temperature, humidity, and light. Many organisms use endogenously generated circadian pathways to encounter abiotic factors. In this study, we provide evidence for the first time to show that A. phagocytophilum modulates the arthropod circadian gene for its transmission to the vertebrate host. We noted a circadian oscillation in the expression of arthropod clock, bmal1, period and timeless genes when ticks or tick cells were exposed to alternate 12 h …