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Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard 2015 The University of San Francisco

Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 ushered in a new era of fiscal accountability for healthcare organizations. Healthcare organizations and providers are now jointly held responsible for the improved quality of patient care and sustained reductions in patient care events termed healthcare-acquired conditions. To ensure compliance with this newly enacted legislation, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began penalizing hospitals for targeted conditions leading to 30-day readmissions beginning in October 2012. Annually, CMS has focused attention on conditions that endanger patient health and welfare while secondarily attempting to reduce the excessive financial expenditures in care ...


Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. McComb 2015 Keck Graduate Institute

Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Infection and disease occur after spores gain entry into the body, germinate into vegetative bacteria, and produce toxin. Bacillus anthracis spores have been engineered as bioweapons and have been used repeatedly in warfare and terrorism to inflict casualties in military and civilian populations. Currently, only one vaccine has been approved for prevention of anthrax in the United States. This vaccine is an undefined product that is difficult to produce, requires a long vaccination schedule, and is reactogenic. Efforts to make an improved anthrax vaccine are being pursued. With ...


Discriminating Active Tuberculosis From Latent Tuberculosis Infection By Flow Cytometric Measurement Of Cd161-Expressing T Cells, Qianting Yang, Qian Xu, Qi Chen, Jin Li, Mingxia Zhang, Yi Cai, Haiying Liu, Yiping Zhou, Guofang Deng, Qunyi Deng, Boping Zhou, Hardy Kornfeld, Xinchun Chen 2015 Guangdong Medical College

Discriminating Active Tuberculosis From Latent Tuberculosis Infection By Flow Cytometric Measurement Of Cd161-Expressing T Cells, Qianting Yang, Qian Xu, Qi Chen, Jin Li, Mingxia Zhang, Yi Cai, Haiying Liu, Yiping Zhou, Guofang Deng, Qunyi Deng, Boping Zhou, Hardy Kornfeld, Xinchun Chen

Open Access Articles

Interferon-gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) significantly increases the possibility for early diagnosis of tuberculosis, but IGRAs alone cannot discriminate active TB from LTBI. Therefore, fast and reliable discrimination of active tuberculosis, especially bacteriology negative tuberculosis, from LTBI is a great necessity. Here we established an assay based on flow cytometric multiparameter assay assessing expression of CD161 along with CD3, CD4, and CD8, whereby a set of indices formulated by the percentages of CD3(+)CD161(+), CD3(+)CD4(+)CD161(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+)CD161(+) T cells multiplied with lymphocyte/monocyte ratio were established. Application of the CD3(+)CD8(+)CD161(+) index to compare a cohort ...


Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance"). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While ...


Development Of Oral Vaccines Against Lyme Disease, Rita Raquel dos Anjos de Carvalho e Melo 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Development Of Oral Vaccines Against Lyme Disease, Rita Raquel Dos Anjos De Carvalho E Melo

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Lyme Disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. If left untreated, it can lead to permanent damage to the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. In some cases, patients that receive the recommended antibiotic therapy develop a debilitating health condition associated with substantial health care costs. Despite current preventive measures, the incidence and the geographic distribution of Lyme Disease continues to increase. Recent estimates from CDC suggest that the true number of cases of Lyme Disease in the US is approximately 300,000 per year. Yet, there is currently no ...


Genetic Control Of Survival And Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Bp) Infection, Felicia D. Emery 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Genetic Control Of Survival And Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Bp) Infection, Felicia D. Emery

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is a saprophytic, gram-negative aerobe and the causative agent of the disease melioidosis. Melioidosis is an infectious disease that occurs in humans and animals and is prevalent in Southeast Asia, northern Australia and other tropical areas. Transmission occurs through direct contact with the organism via ingestion, inhalation, or through open wounds and skin abrasions. Clinical presentation is extremely variable and can range from acute septicemia with bacterial dissemination to distant sites, to an isolated pulmonary infection. Treatment of melioidosis can be problematic because it is often difficult to diagnose and Bp is resistant to a diverse group ...


A Descriptive Case Study Of Individuals With Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome Utilizing A Facebook Support Group, Lisa Aimee Thompson 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Descriptive Case Study Of Individuals With Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome Utilizing A Facebook Support Group, Lisa Aimee Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the experiences of people diagnosed with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome as they participate in an online peer-support group on Facebook. This is a descriptive case study of factors related to adjustment, treatment, emotional distress, access to services, and online peer support. Participants were interviewed and observed, and documents were collected to describe this phenomenon.


Reduction Of Campylobacter Jejuni On Chicken Wingettes By Treatment With Caprylic Acid, Chitosan Or Protective Cultures Of Lactobacillus Spp., Ann Nicole Woo-Ming 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reduction Of Campylobacter Jejuni On Chicken Wingettes By Treatment With Caprylic Acid, Chitosan Or Protective Cultures Of Lactobacillus Spp., Ann Nicole Woo-Ming

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is one of the main sources of protein in the United States and in 2014 Americans ate approximately 100 lbs per person. However, consumption of poultry products is strongly associated with foodborne illness from Campylobacter. In the first study, chitosan, caprylic acid and their combination were evaluated as a coating treatment for the reduction of Campylobacter jejuni on poultry products. For the initial screening trials, chitosan of three different molecular weights (15-50 kDa, 190-310 kDa and 400-600 kDa) was evaluated at three concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%) and separately, caprylic acid was tested at 0.5%, 1 ...


Dynamic Equilibrium Between Closed And Partially Closed States Of The Bacterial Enzyme I Unveiled By Solution Nmr And X-Ray Scattering, Vincenzo Venditti, Charles D. Schwieters, Alexander Grishaev, G. Marius Clore 2015 Iowa State University

Dynamic Equilibrium Between Closed And Partially Closed States Of The Bacterial Enzyme I Unveiled By Solution Nmr And X-Ray Scattering, Vincenzo Venditti, Charles D. Schwieters, Alexander Grishaev, G. Marius Clore

Vincenzo Venditti

The bacterial phosphotransferase system couples phosphoryl transfer to sugar transport across the cell membrane. The first protein in the pathway, Enzyme I (EI), undergoes two large rigid body domain reorientations between an autophosphorylation-competent closed state and an open state that allows subsequent phosphoryl transfer to its downstream protein partner. Simultaneous use of solution X-ray scattering and NMR dipolar coupling data to guide simulated annealing refinement reveals the existence of a dynamic equilibrium between closed and partially closed conformations in a complex of a mutant of EI with phosphoenolpyruvate. The partially closed conformation represents an intermediate in the open-to-closed transition.


The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica subtype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of many non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica strains responsible for over one million cases of salmonellosis in the United States each year. These Salmonella strains are also a leading cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis induces gastrointestinal distress that is characterized histopathologically by an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the non-specific effects of which lead to tissue damage and contribute to diarrhea.

Prior studies from our lab have demonstrated that the type III secreted bacterial effector SipA is a key regulator of PMN influx during S. Typhimurium infection and that its ...


C. Elegans Swan-1 Binds To Egl-9 And Regulates Hif-1- Mediated Resistance To The Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pao1, Zhiyong Shao, Yi Zhang, Qi Ye, Jenifer N. Saldhana, Jo Anne Powell-Coffman 2015 Iowa State University

C. Elegans Swan-1 Binds To Egl-9 And Regulates Hif-1- Mediated Resistance To The Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pao1, Zhiyong Shao, Yi Zhang, Qi Ye, Jenifer N. Saldhana, Jo Anne Powell-Coffman

Jo Anne Powell-Coffman

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nearly ubiquitous human pathogen, and infections can be lethal to patients with impaired respiratory and immune systems. Prior studies have established that strong loss-of-function mutations in the egl-9 gene protect the nematode C. elegans from P. aeruginosa PAO1 fast killing. EGL-9 inhibits the HIF-1 transcription factor via two pathways. First, EGL-9 is the enzyme that targets HIF-1 for oxygen-dependent degradation via the VHL-1 E3 ligase. Second, EGL-9 inhibits HIF-1-mediated gene expression through a VHL-1-independent mechanism. Here, we show that a loss-offunction mutation in hif-1 suppresses P. aeruginosa PAO1 resistance in egl-9 mutants. Importantly, we find stabilization ...


How Social Determinants Of Health, Health-Seeking Behaviors, And Treatment Adherence Influence And Interact With Endemic Levels Of Pulmonary Tb And Mdr-Tb In Urban Rajasthan, Michelle Kagei 2015 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

How Social Determinants Of Health, Health-Seeking Behaviors, And Treatment Adherence Influence And Interact With Endemic Levels Of Pulmonary Tb And Mdr-Tb In Urban Rajasthan, Michelle Kagei

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Tuberculosis, the worlds most deadly infectious disease, remains as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in modern-day India. The country has the highest burden of both tuberculosis as well as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, a more recently emerging menace. This study focuses on the social determinants of health pertaining to tuberculosis, identifying and discussing “at-risk” groups in the population of urban Rajasthan. Jaipur was chosen as the field study location because of the city’s extensive levels of healthcare institutions and facilities. In order to identify common patient demographics as well as issues regarding treatment adherence, medical records and ...


Determination Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibody Prevalence In Midwest Market Swine, James D. McKean, J. Beary, S. Brockus, Annette M. O'Connor, E. Zhou 2015 Iowa State University

Determination Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibody Prevalence In Midwest Market Swine, James D. Mckean, J. Beary, S. Brockus, Annette M. O'Connor, E. Zhou

Annette O'Connor

Pork has been identified as one of the food source(s) for human exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. This project was designed to determine the current prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the Midwestern USA market swine population. Test samples were selected, using random numbers generated from the Excel database, from approximately 2,500 daily meat juice samples submitted for Aujeszky’s Disease from eight Iowa abattoirs. Producer identification and lot size were recorded for each lot. Two hundred fifty samples were selected for 12 consecutive weeks – total of 15,014 samples. The presence of antibodies was determined using ELISA test ...


The Sero-Prevalence Of Salmonella Spp. In Finishing Swine In Iowa, Annette M. O'Connor, James D. McKean, J. Beary, S. Brockus, E. Zhou 2015 Iowa State University

The Sero-Prevalence Of Salmonella Spp. In Finishing Swine In Iowa, Annette M. O'Connor, James D. Mckean, J. Beary, S. Brockus, E. Zhou

Annette O'Connor

This study represents the first attempt to classify Iowa production sites for Salmonella spp. sero-prevalence. The data suggest that the Iowa herds are similar in their distribution with respect to sero-prevalence of salmonella as Danish herds. Ignoring herd size, 91.2 of surveyed herds were negative or level 1, 8.2 % were level 2 herds, and 1.6 % level 3. These results are similar to previous Danish studies (Alban et al., 2002, Mousing et al., 1997). The current data suggests that larger herds tend to have a higher sero-prevalence than smaller units; however, formal analysis has yet to be conducted ...


Characterization Of The Atsr/Atst Global Regulatory Pathway In Burkholderia Ceocepacia, Maryam Khodai-Kalaki 2015 mkhodaik

Characterization Of The Atsr/Atst Global Regulatory Pathway In Burkholderia Ceocepacia, Maryam Khodai-Kalaki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Phosphorylation cascades governed by two-component signal transduction systems provide key signalling mechanisms in bacteria, simple eukaryotes and higher plants, allowing them to translate signals into adaptive responses. These regulatory pathways consist of a transmembrane sensor protein that responds to an environmental cue leading to autophosphorylation, followed by the transfer of the phosphate to a cytoplasmic response regulator. Here, I study AtsR, a membrane-bound hybrid sensor kinase of Burkholderia cenocepacia, that negatively regulates quorum sensing related virulence factors such as biofilm, type 6-secretion and protease secretion. B. cenocepacia is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen which causes severe, chronic respiratory infections in patients ...


Commentary On "Systemic Candidiasis And Cytomegalovirus Infection In The Setting Of Artificial Cardiac Device Deployment", Moises A. Huaman 2015 University of Kentucky

Commentary On "Systemic Candidiasis And Cytomegalovirus Infection In The Setting Of Artificial Cardiac Device Deployment", Moises A. Huaman

The VAD Journal

No abstract provided.


The Gonococcal Transcriptome During Infection Of The Lower Genital Tract In Women, Ryan McClure, Kathleen Nudel, Paola Massari, Brian Tjaden, Xiaohong Su, Peter A. Rice, Caroline A. Genco 2015 Boston University School of Medicine

The Gonococcal Transcriptome During Infection Of The Lower Genital Tract In Women, Ryan Mcclure, Kathleen Nudel, Paola Massari, Brian Tjaden, Xiaohong Su, Peter A. Rice, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women ...


Next-Generation Sequencing Of Culture Negative Bronchoalveolar Lavage Reveals The Presence Of Potentially Pathogenic Microorganisms, Ashley D. Smith B.S. 2015 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Next-Generation Sequencing Of Culture Negative Bronchoalveolar Lavage Reveals The Presence Of Potentially Pathogenic Microorganisms, Ashley D. Smith B.S.

Theses and Dissertations

Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are at increased risk for developing nosocomial pneumonia. Traditionally, the diagnosis of pneumonia has relied on the identification of an etiologic agent by the hospital pathology lab via quantitative culture. A problem arises when a patient experiences clinical signs and symptoms of pneumonia, but culturing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid reveals only normal “respiratory tract flora” or results in “no growth”. I hypothesize that culture-negative, presumptive positive BAL is infected with pathogenic bacteria that are not being cultivated on traditional culture media. To investigate this hypothesis, culture-independent techniques were chosen to examine culture-positive and culture-negative BAL ...


Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being unable to limit the infection. Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in ...


Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead To Distinct Platelet Responses In Mice And Humans, Lea M. Beaulieu, Lauren Clancy, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Emelia J. Benjamin, Carolyn D. Kramer, Ellen O. Weinberg, Xianbao He, Samrawit Mekasha, Eric O. Mick, Robin R. Ingalls, Caroline A. Genco, Jane E. Freedman 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead To Distinct Platelet Responses In Mice And Humans, Lea M. Beaulieu, Lauren Clancy, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Emelia J. Benjamin, Carolyn D. Kramer, Ellen O. Weinberg, Xianbao He, Samrawit Mekasha, Eric O. Mick, Robin R. Ingalls, Caroline A. Genco, Jane E. Freedman

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Diverse and multi-factorial processes contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. These processes affect cells involved in the development of this disease in varying ways, ultimately leading to atherothrombosis. The goal of our study was to compare the differential effects of specific stimuli - two bacterial infections and a Western diet - on platelet responses in ApoE-/- mice, specifically examining inflammatory function and gene expression. Results from murine studies were verified using platelets from participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 1819 participants).

METHODS: Blood and spleen samples were collected at weeks 1 and 9 from ApoE-/- mice infected with ...


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