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Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases Commons

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An Evaluation Of African American Fathers’ Perceptions And Influences On Child Food Choices And Physical Activity Behaviors, Valerie Annette Richardson 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

An Evaluation Of African American Fathers’ Perceptions And Influences On Child Food Choices And Physical Activity Behaviors, Valerie Annette Richardson

Dissertations

Child obesity is affecting children’s health nationwide. Rates are highest among African Americans (AA) in the South. Research has explored parents’ influence on child eating and activity, but most has reported on mothers’ influences. The purpose of this research was to investigate perceptions about AA fathers’ influences on their children’s eating and physical activity. Using a structured focus group questionnaire based on the parent layer constructs of Birch and Ventura’s Ecological Model for Child Overweight (2009), four focus groups were conducted with 28 AA fathers with children 6- to 11-years-old in a rural and an urban church ...


Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease which results from a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Patients with Pompe disease develop intra-lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, CNS and smooth muscle.

Pulmonary dysfunction is a hallmark of Pompe disease and has classically been attributed to muscle weakness and CNS neuropathology. However, the potential role of respiratory smooth muscles in the respiratory pathology is unknown. Therefore we postulated that GAA deficiency results in airway smooth muscle glycogen accumulation that leads to airway smooth muscle dysfunction.

Using the Pompe mouse model ...


Electronic Communication Systems: Energizing The Patient With Diabetes To Engage In Their Own Health Care, Michael J. Thompson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Electronic Communication Systems: Energizing The Patient With Diabetes To Engage In Their Own Health Care, Michael J. Thompson

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Interdiscipllinary Mobile Health and Sensing Research," Dr. Thompson discusses his work in mobile diabetes monitoring.


The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells that is not due to alcohol consumption. Steatosis results when more than 5-10% of the liver’s weight consists of fat. People who are overweight, or who have diabetes or high cholesterol are more likely to develop NAFLD. Over time, NAFLD can advance to cause cirrhosis, and eventually, liver cancer or failure.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, BDEs) are brominated flame- retardants, and are found in many plastics and household products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and computers. BDEs are released into the environment ...


Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan 2016 Marshall University

Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan

Nader G. Abraham

Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels.We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis ...


Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan 2016 Marshall University

Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan

Komal Sodhi

Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels.We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis ...


Educación Del Paciente Para El Auto Cuidado De La Diabetes En El Centro De Salud De Primaria Atención: Villa Verde En Partido De Pilar, Buenos Aires, Ethan Leigner 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Educación Del Paciente Para El Auto Cuidado De La Diabetes En El Centro De Salud De Primaria Atención: Villa Verde En Partido De Pilar, Buenos Aires, Ethan Leigner

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vivir con diabetes cambia toda la vida de una persona. Sin el conocimiento de su autocuidado, el paciente tiene poca oportunidad de seguir viviendo la vida que desean. Sin educación adecuada, los diabéticos probablemente desarrollarán complicaciones que pueden conducir a problemas de salud muy graves y costosos. La prevalencia de diabetes ha ido en aumento en Argentina, y una estrategia efectiva para educar a los pacientes en el autocuidado es más necesaria ahora que nunca. Con un proceso eficiente de orientar a los pacientes a través del autocuidado, Argentina puede manejar mejor a largo plazo el efecto de diabetes y ...


Should Primary Care Physicians Address Sleep To Improve Weight Loss In Obese Patients? A Clin-Iq, Kjersti E. Knox 2016 Aurora Health Care

Should Primary Care Physicians Address Sleep To Improve Weight Loss In Obese Patients? A Clin-Iq, Kjersti E. Knox

Kjersti Knox, MD

Obesity is a commonly encountered problem in the primary care setting. Simultaneously, sleep is seen to hold an increasingly important role in many components of health and wellness. A review of the literature was performed to determine if improving sleep positively impacts weight loss in obese adults. The evidence reviewed suggests that improving patients’ sleep may initially improve patient weight loss; however, current studies do not show a sustained statistically significant impact. Until higher powered and higher quality studies are completed, there are no clear evidence-based guidelines for primary care physicians to follow regarding sleep and obesity.


A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo

Barry G. Saver

BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care.

METHODS: We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group ...


A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo

Barry G. Saver

BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care.

METHODS: We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group ...


Racial Differences In The Performance Of Existing Risk Prediction Models For Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardia Study, Mary Lacy, Gregory Wellenius, Mercedes Carnethon, Eric Loucks, April Carson, Xi Luo, Catarina Kiefe, Annie Gjelsvik, Erica Gunderson, Charles Eaton, Wen-Chih Wu 2016 Brown University

Racial Differences In The Performance Of Existing Risk Prediction Models For Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardia Study, Mary Lacy, Gregory Wellenius, Mercedes Carnethon, Eric Loucks, April Carson, Xi Luo, Catarina Kiefe, Annie Gjelsvik, Erica Gunderson, Charles Eaton, Wen-Chih Wu

Catarina I. Kiefe

OBJECTIVE: In 2010, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) added hemoglobin A1c (A1C) to the guidelines for diagnosing type 2 diabetes. However, existing models for predicting diabetes risk were developed prior to the widespread adoption of A1C. Thus, it remains unknown how well existing diabetes risk prediction models predict incident diabetes defined according to the ADA 2010 guidelines. Accordingly, we examined the performance of an existing diabetes prediction model applied to a cohort of African American (AA) and white adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development Study in Young Adults (CARDIA).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the performance of the ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Modulation Of Body Weight By Intestinal Flora In Orphan Nuclear Receptor Shp-/- Mice, Ryan Mifflin 2016 University of Akron

Modulation Of Body Weight By Intestinal Flora In Orphan Nuclear Receptor Shp-/- Mice, Ryan Mifflin

Honors Research Projects

The whole-body deletion of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in mice is associated with protection from diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis upon feeding of a western diet. This protection was reported to be mediated through decreases in hepatic gene expression for lipogenesis, as well as increases in gene expression for fatty acid oxidation. SHP has been known to regulate the expression of the CYP7A1 gene, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, thereby altering the bile acid pool. The effects of this altered bile acid profile on the gut microbiome are unknown, as some bacteria in the gut are responsible ...


Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan 2016 Marshall University

Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan

Internal Medicine

Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels.We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis ...


One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

ABSTRACT

It has been widely recognized that microRNAs are involved in nearly all cellular processes that have been investigated and contribute to a variety of diseases including cancer. Our prior studies demonstrated the depletion of one-carbon metabolism related B-vitamins, including folate, vitamin B2, B6 and B12, induced a genomic DNA hypomethylation and an elevation of the tumorigenic Wnt signaling in mouse colonic epithelium. The present study aimed to define whether microRNAs serve as mediators between these B-vitamins and the Wnt signaling, and thereby influence intestinal tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression profiles were measured using miRNA microarray and real-time PCR on colonic epithelial ...


Determinants Of Child Health In Rural South Africa, Carly Ratekin 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Determinants Of Child Health In Rural South Africa, Carly Ratekin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study examines the correlation between household characteristics—namely household head education, sex of household head, assets, livestock ownership, and field usage—and children's nutritional status, quantified by growth stunting, underweight status, and wasting, in rural South Africa. Children aged 1-5 years old in the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site of South Africa were sampled in 2010 and 2011. The proportion of children who were growth stunted was 16% in 2010 and 26% in 2011. In 2010 and 2011, 3% and 6% of the children sampled were underweight, respectively. The percent of children considered to have wasting syndrome ...


Bringing Diabetes Education To Your Home Via Your Smart Phones, Nazey Z. Gulec 2016 University of Vermont

Bringing Diabetes Education To Your Home Via Your Smart Phones, Nazey Z. Gulec

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Expression Of Astrocytic Markers In Retinal Ganglion Cell Projection Of Lcr/Hcr Rats, Isabella K. Bartholomew, Samuel Crish, James Holda, Jordan Renna, Gina Wilson 2016 The University of Akron

Assessing The Expression Of Astrocytic Markers In Retinal Ganglion Cell Projection Of Lcr/Hcr Rats, Isabella K. Bartholomew, Samuel Crish, James Holda, Jordan Renna, Gina Wilson

Honors Research Projects

Metabolic Syndrome is a human condition that presents with various metabolic issues such as abnormal distribution of body fat, high blood pressure, and a prothrombotic state, among other problems (Alberti,et al, 2005). This syndrome is a risk factor for visual disorders, such as glaucoma, and is often associated with increased levels of neuroinflammation. Currently, the animal model used to replicate this syndrome is The Low Capacity Runner and High Capacity Runner Rat Model. These rats have been bred based on their running capacities for 30+ generations to have drastic metabolic differences. We assessed key areas of the retinal ganglion ...


Rnai-Mediated Control Of Aflatoxins In Peanut: Method To Analyze Mycotoxin Production And Transgene Expression In The Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem, Renee S. Arias, Phat M. Dang, Victor S. Sobolev 2015 USDA/ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory

Rnai-Mediated Control Of Aflatoxins In Peanut: Method To Analyze Mycotoxin Production And Transgene Expression In The Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem, Renee S. Arias, Phat M. Dang, Victor S. Sobolev

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events ...


Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in various fruits and plants, such as berries, pomegranates, muscadine grapes, nuts and bark of oak tree. EA has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of EA on obesity. Herein, 1) the lipid-lowering role of EA was identified in primary human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells; 2) the molecular mechanisms by which EA attenuates adipogenesis by epigenetic modification were identified; 3) the effects of EA on high fat and high sucrose-mediated obesity was determined ...


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