Geographic Differences In Obesity Prevalence And Its Risk Factors Among Asian Americans: Findings From The 2013–2014 California Health Interview Survey, Shaoqing Gong, Kesheng Wang, Ying Li, Arsham Alamian
ETSU Faculty Works
Geography disparities exist in obesity and obesity related conditions. This study aimed to examine the geographic differences in obesity prevalence and its risk factors among Asian Americans in California. Data (n = 4,000) from the 2013–2014 California Health Interview Survey were used. Obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2) was defined according to the World Health Organization Asian body mass index cut points in Asian groups. Results suggest that 66.5% of Asians lived in urban areas. Among Asian adults, obesity prevalence was highest in Filipinos (33.8%) and lowest in Koreans (12.8%). Compared to rural Vietnamese, obesity prevalence was ...
Exploring H.Pylori Seropositivity As A Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes, 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Exploring H.Pylori Seropositivity As A Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes, Virginia Chaidez, Yumou Qiu
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
Background: In the US, the percentage of adults with diagnosed diabetes are higher in members of racial and ethnic minority groups compared to non-Latino Whites. Understanding why such disparities exist has been less forthcoming.
Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 cross-sectional data.
Results: H.pylori seropositivity was highest in Mexican Americans (43.7%), lowest in non-Hispanic Whites (18.1%). Diabetes was highest in non-Hispanic Blacks (5.9%); lowest in non-Hispanic whites (4.3%). H.pylori seropositivity was associated with greater likelihood of having type 2 diabetes (1.927, 95% CI ...
Data From: Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is An Independent Predictor Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Us Children, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Data From: Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is An Independent Predictor Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Us Children, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Philip Kum-Nji
Pediatric Research Data
Importance: The role of tobacco-smoke exposure on serum vitamin D concentration in US pediatric population is not known. We hypothesized that tobacco smoke exposure would increase the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in US children.
Methods: Representative national data were accessed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 databank on 2,263 subjects of ages 3 to 17 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their age: children, if <10 years; and youth if 10 to 17 years. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect of serum cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure on vitamin D status after controlling for key sociodemographic confounders. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL, insufficiency as 25(OH)D of 20-29.9 ng/mL, and sufficiency as 25(OH)D of ≥30 ng/mL. Tobacco smoke exposure status was defined by serum cotinine concentration as follows: unexposed and non-smoking (<0.05 ng/mL) and exposed (passive and active smokers combined) (≥0.05ng/mL). Specifically, passive and active smoking were defined as cotinine of 0.05-10 ng/mL, and ≥10ng/mL respectively.
Results: The prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure was 42.0% (95%CI, 36.7%-47.5%); while the prevalence of active smoking among teenagers ...10>
Fracture Liaison Services Improve Outcomes Of Patients With Osteoporosis-Related Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis, 2018 National Cheng Kung University
Fracture Liaison Services Improve Outcomes Of Patients With Osteoporosis-Related Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis, Chih-Hsing Wu, Shih-Te Tu, Yin-Fan Chang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Jui-Teng Chien, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Sonal Singh, Manikanta Dasari, Jung-Fu Chen, Keh-Sung Tsai
Open Access Articles
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the outcomes of patients with osteoporosis-related fractures managed through fracture liaison services (FLS) programs.
METHODS: Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched (January 2000-February 2017 inclusive) using the keywords 'osteoporosis', 'fractures', 'liaison', and 'service' to identify randomised controlled trials and observational studies of patients aged > /=50years with osteoporosis-related fractures in hospital, clinic, community, or home-based settings who were managed using FLS. Risk of bias was assessed at outcome level. Meta-analysis followed a random-effects and fixed-effects model. Outcomes of interest were incidence of bone mineral density (BMD) testing, treatment initiation, adherence, re-fractures ...
Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender
Student Theses 2015-Present
This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...
Children With Type 1 Diabetes Who Experienced A Honeymoon Phase Had Significantly Lower Ldl Cholesterol 5 Years After Diagnosis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Children With Type 1 Diabetes Who Experienced A Honeymoon Phase Had Significantly Lower Ldl Cholesterol 5 Years After Diagnosis, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Bo Zhang, Sanaa S. Ayyoub, Stephanie Choi, Tony R. Villalobos-Ortiz, Laura C. Alonso, Bruce A. Barton
Pediatric Publications and Presentations
IMPORTANCE: Landmark studies showed that partial clinical remission in new-onset type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced prevalence of long-term complications, but early clinical indicators of this favorable outcome are poorly characterized.
AIM: To determine if there were any differences in lipid parameters, especially LDL-cholesterol, between remitters and non-remitters 4 to 5 years after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes after controlling for hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and pubertal status.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A longitudinal retrospective cohort study of 123 subjects of mean age 11.9 +/- 2.9 years, [male 11.7 +/- 2.9 years, (n = 55); female 12 ...
The Relationship Between Adult Caregiver Health Literacy And Child Body Mass Index Outcomes In A Childhood Obesity Intervention Program, 2018 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The Relationship Between Adult Caregiver Health Literacy And Child Body Mass Index Outcomes In A Childhood Obesity Intervention Program, Natalie Renee Cross
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane
Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses
Obesity prevalence in the United States continues to increase and is associated with health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Among many contributing factors to obesity, fructose may be one of the major reasons as it disrupts the antioxidant system thereby resulting in an accumulation of reactive oxidative species and leading to obese conditions. The enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate from the TCA Cycle, hence might be implicated with not only energy metabolism but also cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, the hypothesis was that IDH2 deficiency in mice would exacerbate hepatic lipid ...
The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., 2018 University of Louisville
The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are detectable in serum of 100% of adults in US, and has been associated with fatty liver disease in epidemiological studies. PCBs are classified as either dioxin-like (DL) or non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB based on their ability to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We used exposures that reflect human bioaccumulation patterns, which resembles Aroclor 1260 with a low level of the DL-PCB, PCB 126. Our aim was to determine if this exposure will activate the human and mouse AhR and examine if receptor activation influences these steatotic responses due to PCB exposures. DL-PCBs exposure-induced AhR activation in ...
Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, 2018 Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. Denicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers
Open Access Articles
Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of beta cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine beta cells did not affect beta cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD ...
Bexarotene-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case Report, 2018 Western New England University
Bexarotene-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case Report, Chris Maminakis, Arin C. Whitman, Nahida Islam
Open Access Articles
We present a case of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma started on bexarotene 300 mg/m(2) due to progressing disease. The patient experienced good clinical response, but unfortunately, she developed rapid and profound hypertriglyceridemia. Although hypertriglyceridemia occurs in high incidence with bexarotene therapy, management recommendations are scarce. Due to the rise in triglycerides, atorvastatin 10 mg daily was initiated in combination with fenofibrate 120 mg daily. Triglycerides continued to increase, so the patient was instructed to take atorvastatin 40 mg, fenofibrate 120 mg, and to hold bexarotene for 2 weeks. After the 2-week break, bexarotene was restarted at ...
Characteristics Of Correctly Identified Pediatric Obesity And Overweight Status And Management In An Academic General Pediatric Clinic, 2018 George Washington University
Characteristics Of Correctly Identified Pediatric Obesity And Overweight Status And Management In An Academic General Pediatric Clinic, Ana Morais, Joseph Kelly, James E. Bost, Susma Vaidya
GW Research Days 2016 - Present
Objective: The goals of this study were to identify and characterize the rates of documentation and guideline-based management of overweight and obese children within an academic pediatric clinic.
Population/Methods: Overweight, obese, and severely obese children were identified from 7,422 well child visits in 2016 within a primary care clinic that cares for a primarily urban, minority (80% African American), and Medicaid (85%) population until the age of 12. During this 1-year study, there were 79 pediatric residents, 19 attending pediatricians, and 5 nurse practitioners who treated patients. Through a retrospective electronic medical record review, diagnosis and treatment including ...
Pediatric Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus: Examining The Upward Trend, 2018 Liberty University
Pediatric Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus: Examining The Upward Trend, Allison Foering
Senior Honors Theses
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in pediatric onset of type II diabetes. This paper will examine elements contributing to this trend. Type II diabetes will be discussed, including related pathophysiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and complications, with differentiation between adult and pediatric onset. Possible prevention and treatment methods appropriate for pediatric patients will also be discussed, along with possible outcomes in pediatric patients that could result from this disease. Overall, this paper will provide insight on the causes of this growing trend, and ways to improve the risks imposed on pediatric patients.
Dietary Habits And Lifestyle In School-Aged Children From Bucharest, Romania, 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disease
Dietary Habits And Lifestyle In School-Aged Children From Bucharest, Romania, Anca Pantea Stoian, Liliana F. Andronache, Razvan Hainarosie, Dan N. Paduraru, Cristinel D. Badiu, Andreea Arsene, Claudia Mehedintu, Georgiana Ditu, Silviu M. Pituru, Cristina Orlov, Mihaela Oros, Cornelia Nitipir
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life.
Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits.
Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9) than girls (67.46±9.91) (p=0.004). Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences ...
Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Rescue Mtdna Disease In C. Elegans, 2018 The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Rescue Mtdna Disease In C. Elegans, Suraiya Haroon, Annie Li, Jaye L. Weinert, Clark Fritsch, Nolan G. Ericson, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd, Bart P. Braeckman, Cole M. Haynes, Jason H. Bielas, Tali Gidalevitz, Marc Vermulst
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
Genetic instability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) plays an important role in human aging and disease. Thus far, it has proven difficult to develop successful treatment strategies for diseases that are caused by mtDNA instability. To address this issue, we developed a model of mtDNA disease in the nematode C. elegans, an animal model that can rapidly be screened for genes and biological pathways that reduce mitochondrial pathology. These worms recapitulate all the major hallmarks of mtDNA disease in humans, including increased mtDNA instability, loss of respiration, reduced neuromuscular function, and a shortened lifespan. We found that these phenotypes could ...
Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon
UMass Worcester PRC Presentations
Background: Among adolescents, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added dietary sugar and constitute 10-15% of their total caloric intake. A range of factors influence adolescent dietary behaviors and food choices. This study aimed to explore adolescents' attitudes and knowledge about SSBs, how they receive messages about SSBs, and motivations for SSB consumption.
Methods: We conducted 5 focus groups with youth aged 12-14 years that attend one of the eight Youth Connect programs in Worcester, MA in 2016-2017. Groups were sex-specific because of changes during adolescence and experiences with body image and health behaviors between the groups. A ...
Alpha Cell Function And Gene Expression Are Compromised In Type 1 Diabetes, 2018 Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Alpha Cell Function And Gene Expression Are Compromised In Type 1 Diabetes, Marcela Brissova, David Blodgett, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Alvin C. Powers
Open Access Articles
Many patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have residual beta cells producing small amounts of C-peptide long after disease onset but develop an inadequate glucagon response to hypoglycemia following T1D diagnosis. The features of these residual beta cells and alpha cells in the islet endocrine compartment are largely unknown, due to the difficulty of comprehensive investigation. By studying the T1D pancreas and isolated islets, we show that remnant beta cells appeared to maintain several aspects of regulated insulin secretion. However, the function of T1D alpha cells was markedly reduced, and these cells had alterations in transcription factors constituting alpha and ...
The Adipokine C1q Tnf Related Protein 3 (Ctrp3) Is Elevated In The Breast Milk Of Obese Mothers, 2018 East Tennessee State University
The Adipokine C1q Tnf Related Protein 3 (Ctrp3) Is Elevated In The Breast Milk Of Obese Mothers, Megan R. Kwon, Eileen M. Cress, W. Andrew Clark, Arsham Alamian, Yongke Lu, Jonathan M. Peterson
ETSU Faculty Works
Background C1q TNF related protein 3 (CTRP3) is a relatively novel hormonal factor primarily derived from adipose tissue and has anti-diabetic properties. To determine if CTRP3 could play a role in early childhood development, the purpose of this study was to establish the presence of CTRP3 in breast milk (BM) and to determine whether CTRP3 levels were correlated with pregravid obesity status of the mother. Methods Breast milk was collected from breast-feeding mothers who had a pregravid body mass index (BMI) classification of normal weight (BMI 18–25 kg/m2, n = 23) or obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2, n = 14 ...
Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Smoothened receptor (SMO) is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SMO gene. A systemic mutation in its binding pocket helps predict the sensitivity of mutant proteins to different drugs. Known as a GPCR-like receptor, it is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway; a pathway involved in body patterning and the regulation of adult stem cells. An uncontrolled or inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog pathway drives tumor progression in cancers and a number of birth defects. To achieve these goals, the molecular modeling software MOE was used to build small molecules and drug molecules like Vismodegib and ...