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Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases Commons

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Piloting An Integrated, Interprofessional Programme For People Living With Type Ii Diabetes: Outcomes And Experiences, Daniel O'Brien, Susan M. McNaughton, Brenda Flood, Jane Morgan, Alexandra Bowmar 2016 Auckland University of Technology

Piloting An Integrated, Interprofessional Programme For People Living With Type Ii Diabetes: Outcomes And Experiences, Daniel O'Brien, Susan M. Mcnaughton, Brenda Flood, Jane Morgan, Alexandra Bowmar

Australian Journal of Clinical Education

This paper reports quantitative and descriptive qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study exploring and evaluating the outcomes and experiences of clients, staff and students piloting an integrated interprofessional programme for community members with type II diabetes. The one-day per week, eight-week programme included interprofessional appointments, group education sessions and case conferences led by students from exercise and nutrition, health promotion, nursing, occupational therapy, oral health, physiotherapy, podiatry and counselling psychology. Participants shared their experiences in individual interviews or focus groups. Client outcomes were evaluated using basic clinical indicators and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) that assesses client goal satisfaction ...


Process Evaluation Of A Patient-Centred, Patientdirected, Group-Based Education Program For The Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Odgers-Jewell, Elisabeth Isenring, Rae Thomas, Dianne P Reidlinger 2016 Bond University

Process Evaluation Of A Patient-Centred, Patientdirected, Group-Based Education Program For The Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Odgers-Jewell, Elisabeth Isenring, Rae Thomas, Dianne P Reidlinger

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Aim:

The present study developed and evaluated a patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods:

Two frameworks, the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions and the RE-AIM framework were followed. Data to develop the intervention were sourced from scoping of the literature and formative evaluation. Program evaluation comprised analysis of primary recruitment of participants through general practitioners, baseline and end-point measures of anthropometry, four validated questionnaires, contemporaneous facilitator notes and telephone interviews with participants.

Results:

A total of 16 participants enrolled in the intervention. Post-intervention results were obtained ...


Independent Effects Of Diet And Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease., Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman 2016 University of Queensland

Independent Effects Of Diet And Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease., Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

AIM:

To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

METHODS:

Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions. Severity of disease and steatosis was determined by liver histology; hepatic Fatox was estimated from plasma β-hydroxybutyrate ...


An Evaluation Of African American Fathers’ Perceptions And Influences On Child Food Choices And Physical Activity Behaviors, Valerie Annette Richardson 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

An Evaluation Of African American Fathers’ Perceptions And Influences On Child Food Choices And Physical Activity Behaviors, Valerie Annette Richardson

Dissertations

Child obesity is affecting children’s health nationwide. Rates are highest among African Americans (AA) in the South. Research has explored parents’ influence on child eating and activity, but most has reported on mothers’ influences. The purpose of this research was to investigate perceptions about AA fathers’ influences on their children’s eating and physical activity. Using a structured focus group questionnaire based on the parent layer constructs of Birch and Ventura’s Ecological Model for Child Overweight (2009), four focus groups were conducted with 28 AA fathers with children 6- to 11-years-old in a rural and an urban church ...


Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease which results from a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Patients with Pompe disease develop intra-lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, CNS and smooth muscle.

Pulmonary dysfunction is a hallmark of Pompe disease and has classically been attributed to muscle weakness and CNS neuropathology. However, the potential role of respiratory smooth muscles in the respiratory pathology is unknown. Therefore we postulated that GAA deficiency results in airway smooth muscle glycogen accumulation that leads to airway smooth muscle dysfunction.

Using the Pompe mouse model ...


Electronic Communication Systems: Energizing The Patient With Diabetes To Engage In Their Own Health Care, Michael J. Thompson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Electronic Communication Systems: Energizing The Patient With Diabetes To Engage In Their Own Health Care, Michael J. Thompson

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Interdiscipllinary Mobile Health and Sensing Research," Dr. Thompson discusses his work in mobile diabetes monitoring.


The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells that is not due to alcohol consumption. Steatosis results when more than 5-10% of the liver’s weight consists of fat. People who are overweight, or who have diabetes or high cholesterol are more likely to develop NAFLD. Over time, NAFLD can advance to cause cirrhosis, and eventually, liver cancer or failure.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, BDEs) are brominated flame- retardants, and are found in many plastics and household products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and computers. BDEs are released into the environment ...


Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan 2016 Marshall University

Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan

Nader G. Abraham

Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels.We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis ...


Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan 2016 Marshall University

Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated By Ho-1 Upregulation: Potential Role Of Antioxidant Therapy To Target Obesity, Komal Sodhi, Jordan Hilgefort, George Banks, Chelsea Gilliam, Sarah Stevens, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Morghan Getty, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro, Zeid J. Khitan

Komal Sodhi

Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels.We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis ...


Raptor/Mtorc1 Loss In Adipocytes Causes Progressive Lipodystrophy And Fatty Liver Disease, Peter L. Lee, Yuefeng Tang, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Raptor/Mtorc1 Loss In Adipocytes Causes Progressive Lipodystrophy And Fatty Liver Disease, Peter L. Lee, Yuefeng Tang, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Normal adipose tissue growth and function is critical to maintaining metabolic homeostasis and its excess (e.g. obesity) or absence (e.g. lipodystrophy) is associated with severe metabolic disease. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms maintaining healthy adipose tissue growth and function.

METHODS: Adipose tissue senses and responds to systemic changes in growth factor and nutrient availability; in cells mTORC1 regulates metabolism in response to growth factors and nutrients. Thus, mTORC1 is poised to be a critical intracellular regulator of adipocyte metabolism. Here, we investigate the role of mTORC1 in mature adipocytes by generating and ...


Educación Del Paciente Para El Auto Cuidado De La Diabetes En El Centro De Salud De Primaria Atención: Villa Verde En Partido De Pilar, Buenos Aires, Ethan Leigner 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Educación Del Paciente Para El Auto Cuidado De La Diabetes En El Centro De Salud De Primaria Atención: Villa Verde En Partido De Pilar, Buenos Aires, Ethan Leigner

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vivir con diabetes cambia toda la vida de una persona. Sin el conocimiento de su autocuidado, el paciente tiene poca oportunidad de seguir viviendo la vida que desean. Sin educación adecuada, los diabéticos probablemente desarrollarán complicaciones que pueden conducir a problemas de salud muy graves y costosos. La prevalencia de diabetes ha ido en aumento en Argentina, y una estrategia efectiva para educar a los pacientes en el autocuidado es más necesaria ahora que nunca. Con un proceso eficiente de orientar a los pacientes a través del autocuidado, Argentina puede manejar mejor a largo plazo el efecto de diabetes y ...


Should Primary Care Physicians Address Sleep To Improve Weight Loss In Obese Patients? A Clin-Iq, Kjersti E. Knox 2016 Aurora Health Care

Should Primary Care Physicians Address Sleep To Improve Weight Loss In Obese Patients? A Clin-Iq, Kjersti E. Knox

Kjersti Knox, MD

Obesity is a commonly encountered problem in the primary care setting. Simultaneously, sleep is seen to hold an increasingly important role in many components of health and wellness. A review of the literature was performed to determine if improving sleep positively impacts weight loss in obese adults. The evidence reviewed suggests that improving patients’ sleep may initially improve patient weight loss; however, current studies do not show a sustained statistically significant impact. Until higher powered and higher quality studies are completed, there are no clear evidence-based guidelines for primary care physicians to follow regarding sleep and obesity.


A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo

Barry G. Saver

BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care.

METHODS: We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group ...


A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Qualitative Study Of Vulnerable Patient Views Of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports, Daniel Longo, Benjamin Crabtree, Maria Pellerano, Jenna Howard, Barry Saver, Edward Hannan, Justin Lee, Michael Lundberg, Roy Sabo

Barry G. Saver

BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care.

METHODS: We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group ...


Racial Differences In The Performance Of Existing Risk Prediction Models For Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardia Study, Mary Lacy, Gregory Wellenius, Mercedes Carnethon, Eric Loucks, April Carson, Xi Luo, Catarina Kiefe, Annie Gjelsvik, Erica Gunderson, Charles Eaton, Wen-Chih Wu 2016 Brown University

Racial Differences In The Performance Of Existing Risk Prediction Models For Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardia Study, Mary Lacy, Gregory Wellenius, Mercedes Carnethon, Eric Loucks, April Carson, Xi Luo, Catarina Kiefe, Annie Gjelsvik, Erica Gunderson, Charles Eaton, Wen-Chih Wu

Catarina I. Kiefe

OBJECTIVE: In 2010, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) added hemoglobin A1c (A1C) to the guidelines for diagnosing type 2 diabetes. However, existing models for predicting diabetes risk were developed prior to the widespread adoption of A1C. Thus, it remains unknown how well existing diabetes risk prediction models predict incident diabetes defined according to the ADA 2010 guidelines. Accordingly, we examined the performance of an existing diabetes prediction model applied to a cohort of African American (AA) and white adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development Study in Young Adults (CARDIA).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the performance of the ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Modulation Of Body Weight By Intestinal Flora In Orphan Nuclear Receptor Shp-/- Mice, Ryan Mifflin 2016 University of Akron

Modulation Of Body Weight By Intestinal Flora In Orphan Nuclear Receptor Shp-/- Mice, Ryan Mifflin

Honors Research Projects

The whole-body deletion of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in mice is associated with protection from diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis upon feeding of a western diet. This protection was reported to be mediated through decreases in hepatic gene expression for lipogenesis, as well as increases in gene expression for fatty acid oxidation. SHP has been known to regulate the expression of the CYP7A1 gene, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, thereby altering the bile acid pool. The effects of this altered bile acid profile on the gut microbiome are unknown, as some bacteria in the gut are responsible ...


Bringing Diabetes Education To Your Home Via Your Smart Phones, Nazey Z. Gulec 2016 University of Vermont

Bringing Diabetes Education To Your Home Via Your Smart Phones, Nazey Z. Gulec

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Expression Of Astrocytic Markers In Retinal Ganglion Cell Projection Of Lcr/Hcr Rats, Isabella K. Bartholomew, Samuel Crish, James Holda, Jordan Renna, Gina Wilson 2016 The University of Akron

Assessing The Expression Of Astrocytic Markers In Retinal Ganglion Cell Projection Of Lcr/Hcr Rats, Isabella K. Bartholomew, Samuel Crish, James Holda, Jordan Renna, Gina Wilson

Honors Research Projects

Metabolic Syndrome is a human condition that presents with various metabolic issues such as abnormal distribution of body fat, high blood pressure, and a prothrombotic state, among other problems (Alberti,et al, 2005). This syndrome is a risk factor for visual disorders, such as glaucoma, and is often associated with increased levels of neuroinflammation. Currently, the animal model used to replicate this syndrome is The Low Capacity Runner and High Capacity Runner Rat Model. These rats have been bred based on their running capacities for 30+ generations to have drastic metabolic differences. We assessed key areas of the retinal ganglion ...


Effects Of Nox-1 Inhibition On Real-Time Blood Nitric Oxide And Hydrogen Peroxide In Acute Hyperglycemia, Ashley Mawhinney 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Effects Of Nox-1 Inhibition On Real-Time Blood Nitric Oxide And Hydrogen Peroxide In Acute Hyperglycemia, Ashley Mawhinney

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Hyperglycemia has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in part by a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production and increased oxidative stress (e.g., increased superoxide (SO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Endothelial-derived NO can be significantly reduced by increased SO/H2O2 in part by the activation of NADPH oxidase during hyperglycemia. Of the 7 NADPH oxidase isoforms, NADPH oxidase isoform 1 (NOX1) is mainly expressed in the vasculature and may play a major role in hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress and vascular endothelial dysfunction. This hypothesis was tested by measuring blood NO and H2O2 levels ...


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