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Six-Year Experience Of Influenza Vaccination As A Condition Of Employment For A Large Regional Health Care System, John R. Brill, Mark Hermanoff, Angela Tonozzi, Mary Jo Capodice, Jennifer Farrar, Zarina Dawoodbhai 2017 Population Health, Aurora Health Care

Six-Year Experience Of Influenza Vaccination As A Condition Of Employment For A Large Regional Health Care System, John R. Brill, Mark Hermanoff, Angela Tonozzi, Mary Jo Capodice, Jennifer Farrar, Zarina Dawoodbhai

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Influenza remains a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Health care workers (HCW) can be both victims and vectors of influenza. Influenza vaccination of HCW is protective for both caregivers and patients, but voluntary programs generally fail to achieve rates recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Despite a complex, multifaceted influenza program initiated in 1996 that included significant education and promotion as well as free on-site vaccination, annual Aurora Health Care caregiver immunization rates remained in the mid-70s until adoption of a “condition of employment” strategy in 2011.

Purpose: Discuss the annual ...


The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza A Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers 2017 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza A Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer 2017 George Washington University

Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer

Global Health Faculty Publications

Large-scale epidemiologic studies have been invaluable for elaboration of the causal relationship between persistent detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of invasive cervical cancer. However, these studies provide limited data to adequately inform models of the individual-level natural history of HPV infection over the course of a lifetime, and particularly ignore the biological distinction between HPV-negative tests and lack of infection (i.e., the possibility of latent, undetectable HPV infection). Using data from more recent epidemiological studies, this review proposes an alternative model of the natural history of genital HPV across the life span. We argue ...


Landscape, Demographic, Entomological, And Climatic Associations With Human Disease Incidence Of West Nile Virus In The State Of Iowa, Usa, John P. DeGroote, Ramathan Sugumaran, Sarah M. Brend, Brad J. Tucker, Lyric Bartholomay 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Landscape, Demographic, Entomological, And Climatic Associations With Human Disease Incidence Of West Nile Virus In The State Of Iowa, Usa, John P. Degroote, Ramathan Sugumaran, Sarah M. Brend, Brad J. Tucker, Lyric Bartholomay

John DeGroote

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a threat to public and veterinary health in the Midwest United States in 2001 and continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality annually. To investigate biotic and abiotic factors associated with disease incidence, cases of reported human disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in the state of Iowa were aggregated by census block groups in Iowa for the years 2002–2006. Spatially explicit data on landscape, demographic, and climatic conditions were collated and analyzed by census block groups. Statistical tests of differences between means and distributions of landscape, demographic, and climatic variables ...


The Recognition Of Hpv Infection As A Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease In Men, Hayley Stettner 2017 Duquesne University

The Recognition Of Hpv Infection As A Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease In Men, Hayley Stettner

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Strains 16 and 18 are causes of cervical, anogenital, and oropharyngeal cancer. A study found a nearly 3-fold increase in incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events, i.e. stroke and myocardial infarction (MI), in HPV-infected women. HPV-16 and 18 contain protein E6 that binds to p53 tumor suppressor protein, which aids in regulating atherosclerosis, and causes p53 protein degeneration. Additional studies have linked absence of p53 protein to accumulation of atherosclerosis in the body, which is the leading cause of CV events. Presented is a case of a 55-year old ...


Optimizing Network Connectivity For Mobile Health Technologies In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mark J. Siedner, Alexander J. Lankowski, Derrick Musinga, Jonathan Jackson, Conrad Muzoora, Peter W. Hunt, Jeffrey N. Martin, David Bangsberg, Jessica E. Haberer 2017 Harvard Medical School

Optimizing Network Connectivity For Mobile Health Technologies In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mark J. Siedner, Alexander J. Lankowski, Derrick Musinga, Jonathan Jackson, Conrad Muzoora, Peter W. Hunt, Jeffrey N. Martin, David Bangsberg, Jessica E. Haberer

David Bangsberg

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies hold incredible promise to improve healthcare delivery in resourcelimited settings. Network reliability across large catchment areas can be a major challenge. We performed an analysis of network failure frequency as part of a study of real-time adherence monitoring in rural Uganda. We hypothesized that the addition of short messaging service (SMS+GPRS) to the standard cellular network modality (GPRS) would reduce network disruptions and improve transmission of data.

Methods: Participants were enrolled in a study of real-time adherence monitoring in southwest Uganda. In June 2011, we began using Wisepill devices that transmit data each time ...


Interventions To Reduce Neonatal Mortality From Neonatal Tetanus In Low And Middle Income Countries - A Systematic Review, Adeel Ahmed Khan, Aysha Zahidie, F. Rabbani 2017 Aga Khan University

Interventions To Reduce Neonatal Mortality From Neonatal Tetanus In Low And Middle Income Countries - A Systematic Review, Adeel Ahmed Khan, Aysha Zahidie, F. Rabbani

Fauziah Rabbani

Background In 1988, WHO estimated around 787,000 newborns deaths due to neonatal tetanus. Despite few success stories majority of the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are still struggling to reduce neonatal mortality due to neonatal tetanus. We conducted a systematic review to understand the interventions that have had a substantial effect on reducing neonatal mortality rate due to neonatal tetanus in LMICs and come up with feasible recommendations for decreasing neonatal tetanus in the Pakistani setting. Methods We systemically reviewed the published literature (Pubmed and Pubget databases) to identify appropriate interventions for reducing tetanus related neonatal mortality. A ...


Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud 2017 George Washington University

Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel De Mulder, Devi Sengupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection.

Results

We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant “15mer” HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity. We identified a total of eight potential HERV-K (HML-2) Gag immunogenic domains: two on ...


A Roundtable On Cross-Sector Collaboration And Resource Alignment For Health Equity: Meeting Summary, Onyemaechi Nweke 2017 US Department of Health and Human Services

A Roundtable On Cross-Sector Collaboration And Resource Alignment For Health Equity: Meeting Summary, Onyemaechi Nweke

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Cross-sector collaboration is a highly recommended strategy to eliminate health inequities nationally and globally. In the federal sector, it is evolving into an important approach for solving complex social problems, as evidenced by its steady proliferation the past few decades. Despite the increased adoption of cross-sector collaboration, it is still not a default strategy or preeminent option for managing complex social problems. In September 2015, the Federal Interagency Health Equity Team (FIHET) hosted a Roundtable event to discuss opportunities and strategies to foster widespread adoption of cross-sector collaboration and resource alignment. The Roundtable featured several expert panelists and participants from ...


An Assessment Of Funding And Other Capacity Needs For Health Equity Programming Within State-Level Chronic Disease Programs, Tiffany Pertillar, Ann Pobutsky, PhD, Gail Brandt, EdD, MPH, Marisa New, OTR, MPH, JamieLou Delavan, BA, Robyn Taylor, MBA, Amishi Shah, MPA, MA, Folasaya Adunola, DDS, MPH, Onyemaechi Nweke 2017 National Association of Chronic Disease Directors

An Assessment Of Funding And Other Capacity Needs For Health Equity Programming Within State-Level Chronic Disease Programs, Tiffany Pertillar, Ann Pobutsky, Phd, Gail Brandt, Edd, Mph, Marisa New, Otr, Mph, Jamielou Delavan, Ba, Robyn Taylor, Mba, Amishi Shah, Mpa, Ma, Folasaya Adunola, Dds, Mph, Onyemaechi Nweke

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: Chronic diseases are an important contributor to morbidity and mortality among racial/ethnic minority, low-income, and other under-resourced populations. Given that state health departments (and their chronic disease programs) play a significant role in providing population and preventive health services, their capacity to promote health equity is an important consideration in national efforts to address chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine capacity needs of state chronic disease programs with respect to promoting health equity.

Methods: In 2015, the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors (NACDD) conducted a survey of its members that work within a ...


Achieving Health Equity For Indian Country, Jamie Ishcomer 2017 National Indian Health Board

Achieving Health Equity For Indian Country, Jamie Ishcomer

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The essence of health equity is giving resources where they are needed most. American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) continue to have the worst health outcomes, live in some of the most desperate of conditions, and lack access to even basic amenities that many other Americans could not survive without. Although Tribes have been plagued with social, economic and political injustice for centuries, there is an opportunity to put a stop to the systematic oppression and build up the first peoples of this country. A partnership between the National Indian Health Board (NIHB) and the National Partnership for Action ...


Rhode Island’S Health Equity Zones: Addressing Local Problems With Local Solutions, Nicole Alexander-Scott, MD, MPH, Ana P. Novais, MA, Carol Hall-Walker, MPA, Angela B. Ankoma, MPH, MSW, John P. Fulton, PhD 2017 Rhode Island Department of Health

Rhode Island’S Health Equity Zones: Addressing Local Problems With Local Solutions, Nicole Alexander-Scott, Md, Mph, Ana P. Novais, Ma, Carol Hall-Walker, Mpa, Angela B. Ankoma, Mph, Msw, John P. Fulton, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH) describes the strategies and infrastructure it has developed to fund its placed-based initiatives to address the social determinants of health to eliminate health disparities. Using a data driven and community-led approach, RIDOH funded 10 local collaboratives, each with its own, geographically-defined “Health Equity Zone,” or “HEZ,” and, to support the collaboratives, created a new “Health Equity Institute,” a “HEZ Team” of 9 seasoned project managers, and direct lines of communications between these assets and the Office of the Director of Health.


Implementation Of The National Partnership For Action To End Health Disparities: A Three-Year Retrospective, Oscar Espinosa, Brandon Coffee-Borden, MPP Coffee-Borden, MPP, Alexis Bakos, PhD, MPH, RN, D. Bakos, PhD, MPH, RN, Onyemaechi Nweke 2017 Community Science

Implementation Of The National Partnership For Action To End Health Disparities: A Three-Year Retrospective, Oscar Espinosa, Brandon Coffee-Borden, Mpp Coffee-Borden, Mpp, Alexis Bakos, Phd, Mph, Rn, D. Bakos, Phd, Mph, Rn, Onyemaechi Nweke

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Office of Minority Health (OMH) launched the National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities (NPA) to increase the effectiveness of efforts to eliminate health disparities by coordinating partners, leaders, and stakeholders committed to action. At its core, the NPA is an experiment in collaboration that relies heavily on those on the front line who are actively engaged in minority health work at multiple levels. It gives them the responsibility of identifying and helping to define core actions, new approaches, and new partnerships that ultimately will help ...


The Guide To Community Preventive Services Review Of Interventions To Promote Health Equity In The United States, Robert Hahn, Jonathan E. Fielding, M.D., M.P.H., M.A., M.B.A, Robert L. Johnson, M.D., Carles Muntaner, M.D., Ph.D., M.H.S., Benedict I. Truman, M.D., M.P.H., Tracy Orleans 2017 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Guide To Community Preventive Services Review Of Interventions To Promote Health Equity In The United States, Robert Hahn, Jonathan E. Fielding, M.D., M.P.H., M.A., M.B.A, Robert L. Johnson, M.D., Carles Muntaner, M.D., Ph.D., M.H.S., Benedict I. Truman, M.D., M.P.H., Tracy Orleans

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The optimal approach to eliminating health inequities is through evidence-based interventions. In 2009, the non-federal Community Preventive Services Task Force launched a series of systematic reviews of interventions to promote health equity. Topics to be considered include education, employment, housing, and transportation. Thus far, reviews have focused on educational interventions: center-based early childhood education, full-day kindergarten programs, out-of-school time academic programs, high school completion programs, and school-based health centers. These reviews demonstrate the benefits of diverse educational interventions in advancing health equity. Here, we summarize the strategy of Community Guide health equity reviews, first findings and challenges.


Tuberculous And Cryptococcal Meningitis In A Setting With High Tb And Low Hiv Prevalence, Afrasyab Khan, Bushra Jamil, Rahmat Ali, Sana Sultan 2017 Aga Khan University

Tuberculous And Cryptococcal Meningitis In A Setting With High Tb And Low Hiv Prevalence, Afrasyab Khan, Bushra Jamil, Rahmat Ali, Sana Sultan

Bushra Jamil

OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in presentation and outcome of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CCM). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from December 1995 to December 2005. METHODOLOGY: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of TBM or CCM were included in this study. The signs and symptoms, laboratory findings and other variables of patients were entered and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software version 14. RESULTS: We compared 16 patients of TBM with 11 of CCM. None of the patients with TBM were Human Immunodeficiency ...


Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. LaCount 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia

Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could ...


Advances In Developing Therapies To Combat Zika Virus: Current Knowledge And Future Perspectives, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kuldeep Dharma, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal S. Malik, Deepak Kumar, Raj K. Singh, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Sunil K. Joshi 2017 Old Dominion University

Advances In Developing Therapies To Combat Zika Virus: Current Knowledge And Future Perspectives, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kuldeep Dharma, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal S. Malik, Deepak Kumar, Raj K. Singh, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Sunil K. Joshi

Bioelectrics Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) remained largely quiescent for nearly six decades after its first appearance in 1947. ZIKV reappeared after 2007, resulting in a declaration of an international “public health emergency” in 2016 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Until this time, ZIKV was considered to induce only mild illness, but it has now been established as the cause of severe clinical manifestations, including fetal anomalies, neurological problems, and autoimmune disorders. Infection during pregnancy can cause congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological degeneration, and in other cases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, making infections with ZIKV a substantial public health concern. Genomic and ...


Vorinostat Renders The Replication-Competent Latent Reservoir Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) Vulnerable To Clearance By Cd8 T Cells., Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis 2017 George Washington University

Vorinostat Renders The Replication-Competent Latent Reservoir Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) Vulnerable To Clearance By Cd8 T Cells., Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR) induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA). The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen. Here we show a reduction in the recovery of replication-competent virus ...


A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Herpes Zoster And The Risk Of Cardiac And Cerebrovascular Events, Nathaniel Erskine, Hoang Tran, Len L. Levin, Christine M. Ulbricht, Joyce D. Fingeroth, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, Sonal Singh

Library Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events.

METHODS/RESULTS: Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on ...


Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch 2017 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch

Wenjun Li

Previous studies have shown that DNA prime, Ad5 boost vaccines protect against neutralization-sensitive but not neutralization-resistant virus variants within the SIVsmE660 swarm. Here we show that Ad prime, Env protein boost vaccines protect against neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants. We perform two studies in rhesus monkeys with Ad35/Ad26 vectors expressing SIVmac239 Gag/Pol/Env with or without an AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H gp140 protein boost. In a repetitive, low-dose challenge study, we observe robust protection against acquisition of infection by both Ad Alone and Ad/Env vaccines. In a single, high-dose challenge study, only the Ad/Env vaccine affords significant protection against acquisition ...


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