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A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani 2016 University of Wyoming

A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani

Honors Theses AY 16/17

In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control recommended that all patients aged 13-64 be tested for HIV, regardless of lifestyle risks. This recommendation was implemented because in 2006, it was shown that risk based screening was insufficient and does not successfully identify all HIV cases. Early detection is beneficial both with respect to improving treatment outcomes in HIV patients and decreasing transmission to previously uninfected individuals. This recommendation still holds true in 2016. In 2007, Kristine Young (a University of Wyoming Honors student) administered a survey that sought to assess University of Wyoming student knowledge regarding the previously mentioned CDC ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


Analysis Of Hiv Diversity In Hiv-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (Hptn 061), Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Manya Magnus, +14 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Analysis Of Hiv Diversity In Hiv-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (Hptn 061), Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Manya Magnus, +14 Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study.

Methods

A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay ...


Isolation Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Youth: A Dimensional Concept Analysis, Michael Johnson, Elaine Amella 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Isolation Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Youth: A Dimensional Concept Analysis, Michael Johnson, Elaine Amella

Michael Johnson

Present the findings of a dimensional concept analysis of isolation within the context of LGBT youth. LGBT youth are at greater risk for negative health outcomes as compared to heterosexual youth, including depression, anxiety, suicide, substance abuse, and HIV/AIDS. Some studies suggest LGBT feeling and being isolated is related to some negative health outcomes. Other research reveals a relationship between isolation and negative health


P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi SenGupta 2016 George Washington University

P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi Sengupta

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, potentially accelerating immunological aging and dysfunction. In order to investigate the immunological aging in HIV patients, p16 protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, in T cell subsets in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected patients on and off ART as well as age-matched healthy controls. Results showed that untreated HIV-infected subjects exhibited ...


Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine Demarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80–90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity. In the current ...


Chemokine Levels In The Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate With Hiv-1 Acquisition And Are Reduced By Male Circumcision In Rakai, Uganda., Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M. Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul 2016 George Washington University

Chemokine Levels In The Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate With Hiv-1 Acquisition And Are Reduced By Male Circumcision In Rakai, Uganda., Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M. Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Coronal sulcus cytokine levels were compared between men who acquired HIV and controls who remained seronegative. Cytokines were also compared within men before ...


When It Isn’T Always Lyme: Expanding The Differential Diagnosis For Acute-Onset Polyarthralgia In The West Virginia Eastern Panhandle, Natalie A. Moffett, Rosemarie Lorenzetti 2016 West Virginia University

When It Isn’T Always Lyme: Expanding The Differential Diagnosis For Acute-Onset Polyarthralgia In The West Virginia Eastern Panhandle, Natalie A. Moffett, Rosemarie Lorenzetti

Marshall Journal of Medicine

This case presentation discusses a 36 year-old female animal care worker presenting with an acute-onset polyarthropathy during the summer months in a Lyme endemic region. Though she appeared to be a good candidate for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, her screening serology reported negative results and alternative diagnoses were considered. Her subsequent diagnosis with parvovirus B19 acts to remind the general practitioner to have confidence in the accuracy of a negative Lyme screen and, upon negative result, to expand the differential to include less common infections including parvovirus B19. It also highlights the need to remember parvovirus B19 in a ...


The Role Of Late Antigen In Cd4 Memory T Cell Formation During Influena [I.E. Influenza] Infection: A Dissertation, Bianca L. Bautista 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Late Antigen In Cd4 Memory T Cell Formation During Influena [I.E. Influenza] Infection: A Dissertation, Bianca L. Bautista

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

While memory CD4 T cells are critical for effective immunity to pathogens, the mechanisms underlying their generation are poorly defined. Although extensive work has been done to examine the role of antigen (Ag) in shaping memory formation, most studies focus on the requirements during the first few days of the response known as the priming phase. Little is known about whether or not Ag re-encounter by effector T cells (late Ag) alters CD4 memory T cell formation. Since influenza infection produces a large, heterogeneous, protective CD4 memory T cell population, I used this model to examine the role of late ...


The Kinetics Of Type 1 Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers 2016 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

The Kinetics Of Type 1 Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years’ infection and as a result, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that a moderate protection is possible, which may correlate with antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Previous studies in the Lu lab demonstrated that in an HIV-1 vaccine phase I trial, DP6-001, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation, could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities along with multiple Fc ...


Sex Industry And Sex Workers In Nevada, Jennifer Heineman, Rachel T. MacFarlane, Barbara G. Brents 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Sex Industry And Sex Workers In Nevada, Jennifer Heineman, Rachel T. Macfarlane, Barbara G. Brents

Barbara G. Brents

Las Vegas has long been known as the symbolic center of the commercial sex industry. Nevada is host to the only legal system of prostitution in the United States. From the early legalization of quickie divorce and marriage to the marketing of its large resorts, sexuality has been a key component of Nevada’s tourist economy. If trends continue, for good or for ill, the sex industry will be an even larger part of the economy in the future.


Prevention Of Sexual Transmission Of Ebola In Liberia Through A National Semen Testing And Counselling Programme For Survivors: An Analysis Of Ebola Virus Rna Results And Behavioural Data, Moses J. Soka, Mary J. Choi, Christine Wasunna, Jeffrey A. Bailey 2016 Ministry of Health, Monrovia, Liberia

Prevention Of Sexual Transmission Of Ebola In Liberia Through A National Semen Testing And Counselling Programme For Survivors: An Analysis Of Ebola Virus Rna Results And Behavioural Data, Moses J. Soka, Mary J. Choi, Christine Wasunna, Jeffrey A. Bailey

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus has been detected in semen of Ebola virus disease survivors after recovery. Liberia's Men's Health Screening Program (MHSP) offers Ebola virus disease survivors semen testing for Ebola virus. We present preliminary results and behavioural outcomes from the first national semen testing programme for Ebola virus.

METHODS: The MHSP operates out of three locations in Liberia: Redemption Hospital in Montserrado County, Phebe Hospital in Bong County, and Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa County. Men aged 15 years and older who had an Ebola treatment unit discharge certificate are eligible for inclusion. Participants' semen samples were tested for ...


Airway Secretory Micrornaome Changes During Rhinovirus Infection In Early Childhood., M. Gutierrez, J. Gomez, Geovanny Perez, Krishna Pancham, Dinesh K. Pillai, M. Giri, S. Ferrante, Robert J. Freishtat, Mary C. Rose, Diego A. Preciado, Gustavo Nino 2016 George Washington University

Airway Secretory Micrornaome Changes During Rhinovirus Infection In Early Childhood., M. Gutierrez, J. Gomez, Geovanny Perez, Krishna Pancham, Dinesh K. Pillai, M. Giri, S. Ferrante, Robert J. Freishtat, Mary C. Rose, Diego A. Preciado, Gustavo Nino

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs) that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV) to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome) and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV) infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood.

METHODS:

Nasal airway secretions were obtained from ...


State-Of-The-Art Monitoring In Treatment Of Dengue Shock Syndrome: A Case Series, Steven L. Moulton, Jane Mulligan, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalanarooj, Greg Z. Grudic, Sharone Green, Robert V. Gibbons, Gary W. Muniz, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Alan L. Rothman, Stephen J. Thomas, Victor A. Convertino 2016 University of Colorado

State-Of-The-Art Monitoring In Treatment Of Dengue Shock Syndrome: A Case Series, Steven L. Moulton, Jane Mulligan, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalanarooj, Greg Z. Grudic, Sharone Green, Robert V. Gibbons, Gary W. Muniz, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Alan L. Rothman, Stephen J. Thomas, Victor A. Convertino

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss is essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of "shock"; and (2) track fluid resuscitation status.

METHODS: Continuous noninvasive photoplethysmographic waveforms were collected over a 5-month period from three children of Thai ethnicity with clinical suspicion of dengue. Waveform data were processed by the algorithm to calculate each child's Compensatory Reserve Index, where 1 represents ...


Anticancer Effect Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract In Human Cancer Cell Lines, María Del Mar Zayas-Viera, Pablo Vivas-Mejia, Ph.D, Jeyshka Reyes, PhD 2016 University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus

Anticancer Effect Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract In Human Cancer Cell Lines, María Del Mar Zayas-Viera, Pablo Vivas-Mejia, Ph.D, Jeyshka Reyes, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Many medicinal plants are used as chemo preventives and antitumor agents in numerous experimental models of carcinogenesis. Moringa oleifera is a plant that contains several phytochemicals, which have been used for medical purposes including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, metabolism activator, anti-asthmatic, anti-anemia, hormone-producing, liver protector, and detoxifier, among others. Moringa oleifera extracts have also been proposed as potential anticancer agents. Cancer is one of the main causes of deaths worldwide. Although many drugs exist against several types of cancer, more specific agents with lower side effects are necessary. Few reports exist regarding the antitumor activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in cancer ...


The Role Of Sumo And Coilin In The Cajal Body, Shanya Whitehorse, Mario Izaguirre-Sierra, PhD 2016 Northern New Mexico College

The Role Of Sumo And Coilin In The Cajal Body, Shanya Whitehorse, Mario Izaguirre-Sierra, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Our lab is solely based on learning about the molecular biology of the cell nucleus using basic model organism such as plants and flies. We focus on the study of the Cajal Body (CB) and specifically, we are interested to know how nuclear bodies can be formed without a membrane. The CB and the nucleolus are conserved nuclear bodies in all eukaryotic cells. CBs contain multiple proteins and RNA species involved in many pathways such as splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance.

Coilin is one of the main proteins in the nucleus and it is known to be required for ...


Addressing Diabetes Prevention At The American Indian Summer Medical Wellness Camp, Mahpiya Vanderbilt, Francine Gachupin, PhD, MPH 2016 University of Arizona

Addressing Diabetes Prevention At The American Indian Summer Medical Wellness Camp, Mahpiya Vanderbilt, Francine Gachupin, Phd, Mph

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

American Indian youth ages 10-19 are nine times more likely of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites. A family history of diabetes, being overweight, and being inactive are the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The American Indian Summer Medical Wellness Camp is a six day camp for American Indian youth where they are taught about nutrition and fitness in an effort to prevent diabetes. What I looked at is if students who have attended the camp in previous years make different choices than the youth who have never attended camp. I hypothesize that if ...


Hiv-1 Vpr Causes Synaptodendritic Damage In Neurons, María A. Torres Rivera, Richard Noel, Jr., PhD, Bethzaly Velázquez-Pérez, Neysha Martínez-Orengo, MS 2016 Ponce Health Sciences University-Ponce Research Institute

Hiv-1 Vpr Causes Synaptodendritic Damage In Neurons, María A. Torres Rivera, Richard Noel, Jr., Phd, Bethzaly Velázquez-Pérez, Neysha Martínez-Orengo, Ms

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

HIV weakens the immune system by infecting and destroying T-cells, leaving the body vulnerable to infection and the development of AIDS. Conventional treatments for HIV, such as combined anti-rectroviral therapy (cART), fail to prevent the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Neurological dysfunction has been directly related to the invasion of HIV in the central nervous system (CNS). HIV produces neurotoxic proteins, such as the Viral Protein R (Vpr), which contribute to HAND. Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain and an important HIV target. We hypothesize that astrocytes expressing Vpr will cause neuronal damage in our co-culture ...


Protein Expression Of Steroid Receptors In Macaca Mulatta Endometriotic Lesions, Héctor Torres, Lynette Ruiz, PhD, Olga Gonzalez, DVM, Luisa Morales, DrPH 2016 Ponce Health Sciences University

Protein Expression Of Steroid Receptors In Macaca Mulatta Endometriotic Lesions, Héctor Torres, Lynette Ruiz, Phd, Olga Gonzalez, Dvm, Luisa Morales, Drph

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Endometriosis is pathologically defined as the presence of endometrial tissue in ectopic locations. Currently, there are no specific, non-invasive biomarkers and no cure for endometriosis. Non-human primates (NHP), including Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques), have been highlighted as appropriate models to study endometriosis due to genetic, physiological, and anatomical similarities to humans. Research shows endometriosis might be associated with molecular deviations in human peritoneal endometriosis, such as increased levels of estrogen receptors and decreased levels of progesterone receptors.

The aim of this study is to determine protein expression of steroid receptors in five endometriotic lesions of rhesus macaques. We propose that ...


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