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Inside Unlv, Gian Galassi, Jennifer Vaughan, Carol C. Harter, Richard Flaherty, Rebecca Mills 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Inside Unlv, Gian Galassi, Jennifer Vaughan, Carol C. Harter, Richard Flaherty, Rebecca Mills

Rebecca Mills

No abstract provided.


Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky 2017 George Washington University

Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A. This activity was shown to be dependent on oxidative stress, and for NS4A they demonstrated involvement of the TOR ...


A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signalling In Htlv-1-Associated Neuroinflammation., Soraya Maria Menezes, Fabio E Leal, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Daniele Decanine, Gilvaneia Silva-Santos, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signalling In Htlv-1-Associated Neuroinflammation., Soraya Maria Menezes, Fabio E Leal, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Daniele Decanine, Gilvaneia Silva-Santos, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 was the first human retrovirus to be associated to cancer, namely Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL), but its pathogenesis remains enigmatic, since only a minority of infected individuals develops either ATL or the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A functional FAS -670 polymorphism in an interferon (IFN)-regulated STAT1-binding site has been associated to both ATL and HAM/TSP susceptibility. Fashi T stem cell memory (Tscm) cells have been identified as the hierarchical apex of ATL, but have not been investigated in HAM/TSP. In addition, both FAS and STAT1 have ...


Hepatitis C Screening In The Baby Boomer Cohort, Peter Hyson 2017 University of Vermont

Hepatitis C Screening In The Baby Boomer Cohort, Peter Hyson

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

The USPSTF recommends a one-time screening for Hepatitis C, irrespective of prior risk factors, for individuals born between 1945-1965. Many patients in this group may not be aware of this recommendation or understand very much about Hepatitis C infection. This project sought to educate and promote screening among the "Baby Boomer" cohort at Hinesburg Family Medicine Clinic. A literature review on HCV screening in the age group cohort was carried out and a poster was created.


"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble 2017 George Washington University

"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of providing quarterly $70 gift card financial incentives to HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to encourage ART adherence and viral suppression, and represents the largest study to-date of a financial incentive intervention for HIV viral suppression. A post-trial qualitative substudy was undertaken to examine acceptability of the financial incentives among those receiving and implementing the intervention.

METHODS: Between July and October 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 12 investigators from 14 sites; three focus groups were conducted with 12 staff from 10 sites. Qualitative data collection elicited ...


A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani 2016 University of Wyoming

A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani

Honors Theses AY 16/17

In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control recommended that all patients aged 13-64 be tested for HIV, regardless of lifestyle risks. This recommendation was implemented because in 2006, it was shown that risk based screening was insufficient and does not successfully identify all HIV cases. Early detection is beneficial both with respect to improving treatment outcomes in HIV patients and decreasing transmission to previously uninfected individuals. This recommendation still holds true in 2016. In 2007, Kristine Young (a University of Wyoming Honors student) administered a survey that sought to assess University of Wyoming student knowledge regarding the previously mentioned CDC ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Promote Viral Replication And Cell Cycle Mediators In Arenavirus-Induced Hepatitis., Gretchen E. Holz 2016 University of Louisville

Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Promote Viral Replication And Cell Cycle Mediators In Arenavirus-Induced Hepatitis., Gretchen E. Holz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lassa virus (LASV) is an arenavirus and causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever in West Africa for which there is no vaccine. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is used as a surrogate to mimic LASV-induced liver pathology. LCMV-WE, not LCMV-ARM, causes disease in primates and mice characterized by hepatitis, high viral load, hepatocyte proliferation, and upregulated proliferative triggers (e.g. TNF-α, IL-6 ). We hypothesize LCMV-WE induces pathological hepatocyte proliferation via pro-inflammatory triggers (TNF-α, IL-6) from macrophages, leading to: increased viral replication, modulated cell cycle, and arrested cell cycle. RAW 264.7 macrophages and AML-12 hepatocytes, were used ...


Analysis Of Hiv Diversity In Hiv-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (Hptn 061), Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Manya Magnus, +14 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Analysis Of Hiv Diversity In Hiv-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (Hptn 061), Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Manya Magnus, +14 Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study.

Methods

A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay ...


Isolation Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Youth: A Dimensional Concept Analysis, Michael Johnson, Elaine Amella 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Isolation Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Youth: A Dimensional Concept Analysis, Michael Johnson, Elaine Amella

Michael Johnson

Present the findings of a dimensional concept analysis of isolation within the context of LGBT youth. LGBT youth are at greater risk for negative health outcomes as compared to heterosexual youth, including depression, anxiety, suicide, substance abuse, and HIV/AIDS. Some studies suggest LGBT feeling and being isolated is related to some negative health outcomes. Other research reveals a relationship between isolation and negative health


P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi SenGupta 2016 George Washington University

P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi Sengupta

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, potentially accelerating immunological aging and dysfunction. In order to investigate the immunological aging in HIV patients, p16 protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, in T cell subsets in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected patients on and off ART as well as age-matched healthy controls. Results showed that untreated HIV-infected subjects exhibited ...


Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine Demarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80–90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity. In the current ...


Chemokine Levels In The Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate With Hiv-1 Acquisition And Are Reduced By Male Circumcision In Rakai, Uganda., Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M. Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul 2016 George Washington University

Chemokine Levels In The Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate With Hiv-1 Acquisition And Are Reduced By Male Circumcision In Rakai, Uganda., Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M. Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Coronal sulcus cytokine levels were compared between men who acquired HIV and controls who remained seronegative. Cytokines were also compared within men before ...


When It Isn’T Always Lyme: Expanding The Differential Diagnosis For Acute-Onset Polyarthralgia In The West Virginia Eastern Panhandle, Natalie A. Moffett, Rosemarie Lorenzetti 2016 West Virginia University

When It Isn’T Always Lyme: Expanding The Differential Diagnosis For Acute-Onset Polyarthralgia In The West Virginia Eastern Panhandle, Natalie A. Moffett, Rosemarie Lorenzetti

Marshall Journal of Medicine

This case presentation discusses a 36 year-old female animal care worker presenting with an acute-onset polyarthropathy during the summer months in a Lyme endemic region. Though she appeared to be a good candidate for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, her screening serology reported negative results and alternative diagnoses were considered. Her subsequent diagnosis with parvovirus B19 acts to remind the general practitioner to have confidence in the accuracy of a negative Lyme screen and, upon negative result, to expand the differential to include less common infections including parvovirus B19. It also highlights the need to remember parvovirus B19 in a ...


The Role Of Late Antigen In Cd4 Memory T Cell Formation During Influena [I.E. Influenza] Infection: A Dissertation, Bianca L. Bautista 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Late Antigen In Cd4 Memory T Cell Formation During Influena [I.E. Influenza] Infection: A Dissertation, Bianca L. Bautista

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

While memory CD4 T cells are critical for effective immunity to pathogens, the mechanisms underlying their generation are poorly defined. Although extensive work has been done to examine the role of antigen (Ag) in shaping memory formation, most studies focus on the requirements during the first few days of the response known as the priming phase. Little is known about whether or not Ag re-encounter by effector T cells (late Ag) alters CD4 memory T cell formation. Since influenza infection produces a large, heterogeneous, protective CD4 memory T cell population, I used this model to examine the role of late ...


The Kinetics Of Type 1 Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers 2016 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

The Kinetics Of Type 1 Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years’ infection and as a result, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that a moderate protection is possible, which may correlate with antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Previous studies in the Lu lab demonstrated that in an HIV-1 vaccine phase I trial, DP6-001, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation, could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities along with multiple Fc ...


Sex Industry And Sex Workers In Nevada, Jennifer Heineman, Rachel T. MacFarlane, Barbara G. Brents 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Sex Industry And Sex Workers In Nevada, Jennifer Heineman, Rachel T. Macfarlane, Barbara G. Brents

Barbara G. Brents

Las Vegas has long been known as the symbolic center of the commercial sex industry. Nevada is host to the only legal system of prostitution in the United States. From the early legalization of quickie divorce and marriage to the marketing of its large resorts, sexuality has been a key component of Nevada’s tourist economy. If trends continue, for good or for ill, the sex industry will be an even larger part of the economy in the future.


Prevention Of Sexual Transmission Of Ebola In Liberia Through A National Semen Testing And Counselling Programme For Survivors: An Analysis Of Ebola Virus Rna Results And Behavioural Data, Moses J. Soka, Mary J. Choi, Christine Wasunna, Jeffrey A. Bailey 2016 Ministry of Health, Monrovia, Liberia

Prevention Of Sexual Transmission Of Ebola In Liberia Through A National Semen Testing And Counselling Programme For Survivors: An Analysis Of Ebola Virus Rna Results And Behavioural Data, Moses J. Soka, Mary J. Choi, Christine Wasunna, Jeffrey A. Bailey

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus has been detected in semen of Ebola virus disease survivors after recovery. Liberia's Men's Health Screening Program (MHSP) offers Ebola virus disease survivors semen testing for Ebola virus. We present preliminary results and behavioural outcomes from the first national semen testing programme for Ebola virus.

METHODS: The MHSP operates out of three locations in Liberia: Redemption Hospital in Montserrado County, Phebe Hospital in Bong County, and Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa County. Men aged 15 years and older who had an Ebola treatment unit discharge certificate are eligible for inclusion. Participants' semen samples were tested for ...


Airway Secretory Micrornaome Changes During Rhinovirus Infection In Early Childhood., M. Gutierrez, J. Gomez, Geovanny Perez, Krishna Pancham, Dinesh K. Pillai, M. Giri, S. Ferrante, Robert J. Freishtat, Mary C. Rose, Diego A. Preciado, Gustavo Nino 2016 George Washington University

Airway Secretory Micrornaome Changes During Rhinovirus Infection In Early Childhood., M. Gutierrez, J. Gomez, Geovanny Perez, Krishna Pancham, Dinesh K. Pillai, M. Giri, S. Ferrante, Robert J. Freishtat, Mary C. Rose, Diego A. Preciado, Gustavo Nino

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs) that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV) to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome) and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV) infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood.

METHODS:

Nasal airway secretions were obtained from ...


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