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Modeling The Influenza Virus Infection In A Host: Consideration Of Semi-Infectious Particles, Alex P. Farrell, Ruian Ke 2018 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Modeling The Influenza Virus Infection In A Host: Consideration Of Semi-Infectious Particles, Alex P. Farrell, Ruian Ke

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Human Papillomavirus: The Influence Of Prevention And Vaccination, Lacey N. Russell 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Human Papillomavirus: The Influence Of Prevention And Vaccination, Lacey N. Russell

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Human Papillomavirus infections (HPV) are the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Of cancers in parts of the body where HPV is often discovered about 80% originated from an HPV infection. Despite this knowledge and the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine, vaccination by both genders in Kentucky and on a national scale remains highly underutilized. As a result, preventable incidence and mortality rates from HPV-related illness are elevated. Health care delivery factors such as increased vaccination and preventative care, insurance coverage, and accessible rural health care are necessary for HPV prevention and promotion of holistic health. The ...


Modeling Hcv Interactions With P53: Implications For Carcinogenesis, Harsh Jain 2018 Florida State University

Modeling Hcv Interactions With P53: Implications For Carcinogenesis, Harsh Jain

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


South Africa, Hiv/Aids, And Education, Katie Roberts 2018 The University of San Francisco

South Africa, Hiv/Aids, And Education, Katie Roberts

Master's Projects and Capstones

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are huge problems in South Africa. HIV is a disease that attacks a person’s immune system and, if not properly treated, can lead to AIDS. While there is a treatment—antiretroviral drugs—HIV remains a highly stigmatized disease. This field project focuses on reducing stigma so people are unafraid to get tested or seek treatment. Created to benefit both teachers and their learners, the goal of this mathematics curriculum (consisting of 12 lesson plans and worksheets) is to begin HIV/AIDS awareness in school so accurate information is learned and ...


Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, CARLOS O. NESBETH, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy 2018 Meharry Medical College

Hiv Mortality Difference Between Black And White Women, Carlos O. Nesbeth, Rajiv Kandala, Syed Najeeb, Ruksana Nazneen, Banglore Murthy

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

OBJECTIVE

In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be among the top 10 leading causes of mortality for black women between the ages of 20 and 54¹, but does not rank among the top 10 leading causes of death for white women amongst all age groups². This study describes the HIV mortality difference between black and white women and formulate hypotheses that may reduce or eliminate disparities.

METHODS

Information was accessed through public data, the US Census, and the US Compressed Mortality File.

RESULTS

In these descriptive data from 1987 through 2015, including reliable HIV mortality ...


Food Insecurity And Pre-Hypertension, Pre-Diabetes In Adult Women: Results From The 2007-2010 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Michelle L. Redmond, PhD, MS, Fanglong Dong, PhD, Philip Twumasi-Ankrah, PhD, Robert B. Hines, PhD, MPH, Lisette T. Jacobson, PhD, MPA, MA, Elizabeth Ablah, PhD, MPH, Judy Johnston, MS, RD/LD, Tracie C. Collins, MD, MPH, MHCDS 2018 University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita

Food Insecurity And Pre-Hypertension, Pre-Diabetes In Adult Women: Results From The 2007-2010 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Michelle L. Redmond, Phd, Ms, Fanglong Dong, Phd, Philip Twumasi-Ankrah, Phd, Robert B. Hines, Phd, Mph, Lisette T. Jacobson, Phd, Mpa, Ma, Elizabeth Ablah, Phd, Mph, Judy Johnston, Ms, Rd/Ld, Tracie C. Collins, Md, Mph, Mhcds

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background

Being food insecure is generally defined as the limited or uncertain availability of safe and nutritious foods and is linked to poor nutrition and fully progressed diet-sensitive chronic diseases. However, little is known about the association between food insecurity and pre-clinical disease such as pre-hypertension and pre-diabetes. This study sought to examine the associations between food insecurity and pre-clinical disease among a racially/ethnically diverse population of women.

Methods

Using data from 2007-2010 NHANES, we examined associations between food security and pre-clinical disease among women 18-65 years. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in demographic variables. Bivariate and ...


Ebola: Africa, James Goodwin 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ebola: Africa, James Goodwin

Global Issues in Public Health

In this paper, I talk about the Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. Ebola is a rare virus that spreads through the immune system and can be fatal. Ebola is a pathogen from Africa, specifically West Africa. There has been almost 32,000 cases since 1976. Symptoms include, Fever, Headache, Muscle pain, Fatigue, Diarrhea, Vomiting, Stomach pain, and Bleeding/Bruising. Transmission happens during close or direct contact. World Health Organization has been making efforts to handle outbreaks such as the outbreak in 2014. World Health Organization mobilized and set up relief efforts. Education is a key idea for my thoughts on how we ...


Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu 2018 George Washington University

Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu

Medicine Faculty Publications

In HIV infected macrophages, a large population of viral genomes persists as the unintegrated form (uDNA) that is transcriptionally active. However, how this transcriptional activity is controlled remains unclear. In this report, we investigated whether Tat, the viral transactivator of transcription, is involved in uDNA transcription. We demonstrate that de novo Tat activity is generated from uDNA, and this uDNA-derived Tat (uTat) transactivates the uDNA LTR. In addition, uTat is required for the transcriptional persistence of uDNA that is assembled into repressive episomal minichromatin. In the absence of uTat, uDNA minichromatin is gradually silenced, but remains highly inducible by HDAC ...


Hiv/Aids: Ethiopia, Luzana Girmay 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hiv/Aids: Ethiopia, Luzana Girmay

Global Issues in Public Health

AIDS is a public health problem that affects the immune system of the human body which results in people getting affected by other diseases easily. This syndrome is caused by a pathogen known as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). There are numerous means of transmissions; some of which are drug use, contact with fluids like blood, semen, rectal fluids, and breast milk but the main mode of transmission is through sexual intercourse. The symptoms of HIV/AIDS include fever, rash, and night sweats. The highest number of HIV positive people are located in Africa, which is about 23.8 million people ...


Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas 2018 Liberty University

Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas

Senior Honors Theses

Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...


Modeling Culex Tarsalis Habitat Suitability In The Great Plains Of Montana, Teal Bullick 2018 Carroll College

Modeling Culex Tarsalis Habitat Suitability In The Great Plains Of Montana, Teal Bullick

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

As the leading cause of arbovirus encephalitis in the United States, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a public health risk in the state of Montana where infection rates in mosquitoes can be as high as 15%. Spatial modeling can serve as a tool for predicting outbreaks and directing prevention measures. Models for the entire state of Montana currently exist that predict WNV risk and habitat suitability of the predominant vector species Culex tarsalis. After collecting additional mosquito vector samples in the summer of 2017, I used niche modeling techniques with historic and new presence-only data to build a Cx. tarsalis ...


Land Cover Association Of Culex Tarsalis In Western Montana, Harold McNally 2018 Carroll College

Land Cover Association Of Culex Tarsalis In Western Montana, Harold Mcnally

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Cx. tarsalis is the major vector of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Montana, so a higher concentration of Cx. tarsalis would most likely correspond to an area of high WNV incidence. Previous studies performed in the U.S. found that wetland land cover had a positive influence on Cx. tarsalis, while the studies on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) presented conflicting results. In this experiment I attempted to answer the question: Does land cover type and NDVI affect Culex tarsalis distribution in Western Montana? It was hypothesized that both land cover type and a high NDVI value would have a ...


Kshv Induces Immunoglobulin Rearrangements In Mature B Lymphocytes, Jennifer Totonchy, Jessica M. Osborn, Amy Chadburn, Ramina Nabiee, Lissenya Argueta, Geoffrey Mikita, Ethel Cesarman 2018 Chapman University

Kshv Induces Immunoglobulin Rearrangements In Mature B Lymphocytes, Jennifer Totonchy, Jessica M. Osborn, Amy Chadburn, Ramina Nabiee, Lissenya Argueta, Geoffrey Mikita, Ethel Cesarman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) is a B cell tropic human pathogen, which is present in vivo in monotypic immunoglobulin λ (Igλ) light chain but polyclonal B cells. In the current study, we use cell sorting to infect specific B cell lineages from human tonsil specimens in order to examine the immunophenotypic alterations associated with KSHV infection. We describe IL-6 dependent maturation of naïve B lymphocytes in response to KSHV infection and determine that the Igλ monotypic bias of KSHV infection in vivo is due to viral induction of BCR revision. Infection of immunoglobulin κ (Igκ) naïve B cells induces ...


The Distribution Of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes In Us Population. Data From Nhanes 2006-2016, Hilary Elom, Shimin Zheng 2018 East Tennessee State University

The Distribution Of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes In Us Population. Data From Nhanes 2006-2016, Hilary Elom, Shimin Zheng

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Background: Unlike other non-hepatitis c viral infection, hepatitis c viral infection is a non-vaccine preventable disease. Thus, effective treatment is an important part in the prevention of complication of chronic hepatitis c infection. The viral genotype plays a significant role in the choice of treatment regimen.

Aim: the purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis c viral infection and the distribution of viral genotype in the US population.

Methods: Diagnosis of Hepatitis C viral infection was made by assaying the blood specimen collected from the study participants using Ampiclor monitor (Roche Diagnostic System, Inc Branchburg NJ ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, these individuals have chronic inflammation associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular pathology. HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Though the majority of proviruses that persist during antiviral therapy are defective for production of infectious virions, many are expressed, raising the possibility that the HIV-1 provirus or its transcripts contribute to ongoing inflammation. Here we found that the HIV-1 provirus activated innate immune ...


An Assessment Of Cultural Perceptions And Recognition Of Ebola Virus Disease, And Its Correlation With Traditional Burial Practice In Rural Guinea, Chulwoo Park, Amira Roess, Sally Lahm, Mamadou Kally Bah, Mohamed Campel Camara, John Sandberg 2018 George Washington University

An Assessment Of Cultural Perceptions And Recognition Of Ebola Virus Disease, And Its Correlation With Traditional Burial Practice In Rural Guinea, Chulwoo Park, Amira Roess, Sally Lahm, Mamadou Kally Bah, Mohamed Campel Camara, John Sandberg

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

In the midst of the unprecedented Ebola outbreak in West Africa during 2014-2016, the humanitarian response to control the disease was hampered in part because there was a limited understanding of local traditional rituals or indigenous medicine (ethnomedicine) on the part of the responders. The Ebola outbreak claimed 11,310 lives, more than all other outbreaks combined. West African burial funeral ceremonies and surrounding rituals may have hindered interventions that included the forceful removal of the sick or dead from the community.

Objective:

Our objective was to understand transmission associated with traditional burial practices in rural Guinea. Through the ...


Sequence Analysis Of The Potato Aphid Macrosiphum Euphorbiae Transcriptome Identified Two New Viruses, Marcella A. Texeira, Noa Sela, Hagop S. Atamian, Ergude Bao, Rita Chaudhury, Jacob MacWilliams, Jiangman He, Sophie Mantelin, Thomas Girke, Isgouhi Kaloshian 2018 University of California, Riverside

Sequence Analysis Of The Potato Aphid Macrosiphum Euphorbiae Transcriptome Identified Two New Viruses, Marcella A. Texeira, Noa Sela, Hagop S. Atamian, Ergude Bao, Rita Chaudhury, Jacob Macwilliams, Jiangman He, Sophie Mantelin, Thomas Girke, Isgouhi Kaloshian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, is an important agricultural pest that causes economic losses to potato and tomato production. To establish the transcriptome for this aphid, RNA-Seq libraries constructed from aphids maintained on tomato plants were used in Illumina sequencing generating 52.6 million 75±105 bp paired-end reads. The reads were assembled using Velvet/Oases software with SEED preprocessing resulting in 22,137 contigs with an N50 value of 2,003bp. After removal of contigs from tomato host origin, 20,254 contigs were annotated using BLASTx searches against the non-redundant protein database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information ...


Training Course In Focused Assessment With Sonography For Hiv/Tb In Hiv Prevalent Medical Centers In Malawi, Timothy Canan, Risa Hoffman, Alan Schooley, Zachary Boas, Kristin Schwab, Daniel Kahn, Roger Shih, Khumbo Phiri, Julie Parent, Ben Allan Banda, Ronald Chagoma, Chifundo Chipungu, Kara-Lee Pool 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

Training Course In Focused Assessment With Sonography For Hiv/Tb In Hiv Prevalent Medical Centers In Malawi, Timothy Canan, Risa Hoffman, Alan Schooley, Zachary Boas, Kristin Schwab, Daniel Kahn, Roger Shih, Khumbo Phiri, Julie Parent, Ben Allan Banda, Ronald Chagoma, Chifundo Chipungu, Kara-Lee Pool

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: This article describes the process of training medical providers of different backgrounds about the “focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB” (FASH) exam to expand the availability of ultrasound for TB diagnosis in resource poor settings in the central region of Malawi.

Methods and Materials: A survey was completed by the 19 eligible participants before and after a 4-day training course regarding the utility of the FASH exam. A six-question quiz was used to assess knowledge of the use of ultrasound in the FASH exam before and after the course.

Results: Participants’ knowledge of the FASH technique significantly improved ...


Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche 2018 University of Vermont

Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

The 2015-2016 epidemic in the Americas caused by the Zika Virus (ZIKV) triggered a dramatic increase in the number of scholarly publications on this topic. In an effort to understand and characterize this body of literature, a bibliometric study was conducted on all articles found in PubMed that were published on the Zika virus between 1952 and 2016. Study parameters included publication date, source journal, subject and category of source journal, and country of first author. The data was frequency-ranked, enabling identification of the most highly productive journal titles, subject areas, and countries. The study concluded with a comparison between ...


Personae Non Gratae, Laura Bisaillon 2018 University of Toronto Scarborough

Personae Non Gratae, Laura Bisaillon

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

The Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis has traditionally published creative pieces. We believe that this expression is a reflective way to contribute to critical issues in social justice. It was important to the author that this poem has a bilingual appearance. The poem was originally written in English and translated to Amharic.


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