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Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman 2018 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were collected from a cohort of school-aged Thai children who subsequently experienced a subclinical DENV infection or developed dengue illness. PBMC collected prior to infection were stimulated in vitro with DENV and the secretion of 30 cytokines was measured using a multiplexed ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4(+) memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA. If rev is provided in trans, all HIV-1 coding sequences are dispensable for activation except those cis-acting sequences required ...


Examining The Impact Of Hiv Medical And Social Case Management Program On Viral Load For Clients Living With Hiv/Aids In Nebraska, Abdulla Munir 2018 University of Nebraska Medical center

Examining The Impact Of Hiv Medical And Social Case Management Program On Viral Load For Clients Living With Hiv/Aids In Nebraska, Abdulla Munir

Service Learning/Capstone Experience

Abstract

Case management (CM) is one of the standard practices that has been implemented since 1990 to help people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the United States. The program is designed for low-income populations and it aims to address the barriers related to access to health care and improve the HIV outcomes. Previous studies identified a positive association with the provision of CM and improvement in viral outcomes. Increasing the viral suppression rates among HIV diagnosed individuals proved to reduce the risk of transmitting the infection, and disease incidence. Although CM program is provided to Nebraskans diagnosed with HIV ...


Risky Business: Millennials’ Protection Motivation Factors For Norovirus Outbreaks On College Campuses, Dylan Conrad Martinez 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Risky Business: Millennials’ Protection Motivation Factors For Norovirus Outbreaks On College Campuses, Dylan Conrad Martinez

Theses and Dissertations

The risk and severity of hNoV transmission is obscurely recognized to foodservice millennial customers. Most commonly associated with cruise ships, consumers are not aware of its full potential to strike at other locations, especially college campuses. For the foodservice industry and the university community, it is imperative that a proactive method for increasing millennials’ motivation to practice mitigation methods emerges to reduce future hNoV outbreaks on college campuses. Research has shown that students can play a major role in the spread of hNoV on college campuses. Therefore, the purpose of these studies is to examine motivations for health protective behaviors ...


A Comparison Of Agent-Based Models And Equation Based Models For Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Elizabeth Hunter, Brian Mac Namee, John D. Kelleher 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Comparison Of Agent-Based Models And Equation Based Models For Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Elizabeth Hunter, Brian Mac Namee, John D. Kelleher

Articles

There are two main methods that are used to model the spread of an infectious disease: agent-based modelling and equation based modelling. In this paper, we compare the results from an example implementation of each method, and show that although the agent-based model takes longer to setup and run, it provides additional information that is not available when using an equation based model. Specifically, the ability of the agent-based model to capture heterogeneous mixing and agent interactions enables it to give a better overall view of an outbreak. We compare the performance of both models by simulating a measles outbreak ...


Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman 2018 Brown University

Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of dengue, particularly patients at risk for plasma leakage, is important to clinical management. The objective of this study was to build predictive models for dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) using structural equation modelling (SEM), a statistical method that evaluates mechanistic pathways.

METHODS/FINDINGS: We performed SEM using data from 257 Thai children enrolled within 72 h of febrile illness onset, 156 with dengue and 101 with non-dengue febrile illnesses. Models for dengue, DHF, and DSS were developed based on data obtained three and one day(s) prior to fever resolution (fever ...


Upregulation Of Hla-E By Dengue And Not Zika Viruses, Elena Drews, Awadalkareem Adam, Phone Htoo, Elizabeth Townsley, Anuja Mathew 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Upregulation Of Hla-E By Dengue And Not Zika Viruses, Elena Drews, Awadalkareem Adam, Phone Htoo, Elizabeth Townsley, Anuja Mathew

Open Access Articles

Introduction: The most severe form of dengue virus (DENV) illness, dengue haemorrhagic fever, is characterised by plasma leakage and increased vascular permeability.

Objectives: Given the critical role that endothelial cells play in the pathogenesis of DENV, we wanted to determine whether infection with DENV altered the expression of MHC class I related genes including HLA-E.

Results: In this study, we provide evidence that HLA-E but not MICA/B or HLA-G is upregulated by all four serotypes of DENV in an endothelial cell line human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC)-1. In contrast, Zika virus (ZIKV), a related flavivirus, where plasma leakage ...


Reduced Incidence And Better Liver Disease Outcomes Among Chronic Hcv Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis, Adeyinka Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Terence N. Bukong 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Reduced Incidence And Better Liver Disease Outcomes Among Chronic Hcv Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis, Adeyinka Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Terence N. Bukong

Open Access Articles

Background and Aim: The effect of cannabis use on chronic liver disease (CLD) from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, the most common cause of CLD, has been controversial. Here, we investigated the impact of cannabis use on the prevalence of CLD among HCV infected individuals.

Methods: We analyzed hospital discharge records of adults (age > /= 18 years) with a positive HCV diagnosis. We evaluated records from 2007 to 2014 of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We excluded records with other causes of chronic liver diseases (alcohol, hemochromatosis, NAFLD, PBC, HBV, etc.). Of the 188,333 records, we matched cannabis users to ...


Routine, Opt-Out Hiv Testing In A Rural Emergency Department, Ciarra JM Dortche 2018 East Carolina University

Routine, Opt-Out Hiv Testing In A Rural Emergency Department, Ciarra Jm Dortche

6th Annual Rural HIV Research and Training Conference

There are approximately 1,800 people living with HIV in eastern North Carolina and are unaware of their infection. A decade ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued revised recommendations to routinely test for HIV in various settings, including emergency departments. We used those guidelines to test adults, treat those unaware of their infection, and re-link others to care.


T Cell Epitope Engineering: An Avian H7n9 Influenza Vaccine Strategy For Pandemic Preparedness And Response, Leonard Moise, Bethany M. Biron, Christine M. Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia A. Schiffer, Ted M. Ross, William D. Martin, Anne S. De Groot 2018 University of Rhode Island

T Cell Epitope Engineering: An Avian H7n9 Influenza Vaccine Strategy For Pandemic Preparedness And Response, Leonard Moise, Bethany M. Biron, Christine M. Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia A. Schiffer, Ted M. Ross, William D. Martin, Anne S. De Groot

Schiffer Lab Publications

The delayed availability of vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic created a sense of urgency to better prepare for the next influenza pandemic. Advancements in manufacturing technology, speed and capacity have been achieved but vaccine effectiveness remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe a novel vaccine design strategy called immune engineering in the context of H7N9 influenza vaccine development. The approach combines immunoinformatic and structure modeling methods to promote protective antibody responses against H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA) by engineering whole antigens to carry seasonal influenza HA memory CD4(+) T cell epitopes - without perturbing native antigen structure - by galvanizing HA-specific memory ...


Impact Of Cigarette Smoking Status On Pain Intensity Among Veterans With And Without Hepatitis C, Shaina M. Lynch, Sarah M. Wilson, Eric C. DeRycke, Mary A. Driscoll, William C. Becker, Joseph L. Goulet, Robert D. Kerns, Kristin M. Mattocks, Cynthia A. Brandt, Harini Bathulapalli, Melissa Skanderson, Sally G. Haskell, Lori A. Bastian 2018 Medical College of Wisconsin

Impact Of Cigarette Smoking Status On Pain Intensity Among Veterans With And Without Hepatitis C, Shaina M. Lynch, Sarah M. Wilson, Eric C. Derycke, Mary A. Driscoll, William C. Becker, Joseph L. Goulet, Robert D. Kerns, Kristin M. Mattocks, Cynthia A. Brandt, Harini Bathulapalli, Melissa Skanderson, Sally G. Haskell, Lori A. Bastian

Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations

Objective: Chronic pain is a significant problem in patients living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for high pain intensity among veterans. This study aims to examine the independent associations with smoking and HCV on pain intensity, as well as the interaction of smoking and HCV on the association with pain intensity.

Design/Particpants: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study of veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) who had at least one visit to a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care clinic between 2001 and 2014.

Methods: HCV ...


Hla-C Downregulation By Hiv-1 Adapts To Host Hla Genotype, Nathaniel D. Batchel, Gisele Umviligihozo, Suzanne Pickering, Talia Mota, Hua Liang, Gregory Q. Del Prete, Pramita Chatterjee, Guinevere Q. Lee, Rasmi Thomas, Mark A. Brockman, Stuart Neil, Mary Carrington, Bosco M. Bwana, David Bangsberg, +several additional authors 2018 The George Washington University, Washington DC

Hla-C Downregulation By Hiv-1 Adapts To Host Hla Genotype, Nathaniel D. Batchel, Gisele Umviligihozo, Suzanne Pickering, Talia Mota, Hua Liang, Gregory Q. Del Prete, Pramita Chatterjee, Guinevere Q. Lee, Rasmi Thomas, Mark A. Brockman, Stuart Neil, Mary Carrington, Bosco M. Bwana, David Bangsberg, +Several Additional Authors

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

HIV-1 can downregulate HLA-C on infected cells, using the viral protein Vpu, and the magnitude of this downregulation varies widely between primary HIV-1 variants. The selection pressures that result in viral downregulation of HLA-C in some individuals, but preservation of surface HLA-C in others are not clear. To better understand viral immune evasion targeting HLA-C, we have characterized HLA-C downregulation by a range of primary HIV-1 viruses. 128 replication competent viral isolates from 19 individuals with effective anti-retroviral therapy, show that a substantial minority of individuals harbor latent reservoir virus which strongly downregulates HLA-C. Untreated infections display no change in ...


Select Gp120 V2 Domain Specific Antibodies Derived From Hiv And Siv Infection And Vaccination Inhibit Gp120 Binding To Alpha4beta7, Sakaorat Lertjuthaporn, Shan Lu, Yang Lou, Shixia Wang, James Arthos 2018 Mahidol University

Select Gp120 V2 Domain Specific Antibodies Derived From Hiv And Siv Infection And Vaccination Inhibit Gp120 Binding To Alpha4beta7, Sakaorat Lertjuthaporn, Shan Lu, Yang Lou, Shixia Wang, James Arthos

Open Access Articles

The GI tract is preferentially targeted during acute/early HIV-1 infection. Consequent damage to the gut plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. The basis for preferential targeting of gut tissues is not well defined. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides derived from HIV and SIV gp120 bind directly to integrin alpha4beta7, a gut-homing receptor. Using both cell-surface expressed alpha4beta7 and a soluble alpha4beta7 heterodimer we demonstrate that its specific affinity for gp120 is similar to its affinity for MAdCAM (its natural ligand). The gp120 V2 domain preferentially engages extended forms of alpha4beta7 in a cation -sensitive manner and is inhibited ...


The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease that affects the valves of the heart. Injection drug use is currently a leading risk factor among patients with endocarditis. We conducted a prospective study using data from hospital chart records among patients with endocarditis in London, Ontario, which has a relatively high prevalence of people who inject drugs to assess the severity of the issue and the major risk factors of mortality pertaining to this population. This study had a sample size of 353 and included a review of the incidence of admissions of endocarditis, as well as a survival analysis, using both ...


Implementing A Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Intervention For Safer Conception Among Hiv Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations For Health Care Providers, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Dea L. Biancarelli, Ashley A. Leech, Meg Sullivan, Angela R. Bazzi 2018 Boston University School of Public Health

Implementing A Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Intervention For Safer Conception Among Hiv Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations For Health Care Providers, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Dea L. Biancarelli, Ashley A. Leech, Meg Sullivan, Angela R. Bazzi

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships frequently desire children. Although partners who are virally suppressed pose almost no risk of transmitting HIV to their partners, partners who are inconsistently on therapy may transmit HIV to their partners when attempting to conceive. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an available safer conception strategy for these couples but is not consistently offered. We sought to better understand barriers to PrEP implementation for couples seeking conception and patient perceptions on what providers could do to encourage use. We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 11 participants representing six couples taking PrEP for safer conception in a safety-net ...


Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell 2018 East Tennessee State University

Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As HIV is now primarily a chronic condition, treatment is given life-long with changes as necessitated by alterations in tolerability and efficacy. Thus, personalized medicine may be useful in the prevention of unnecessary drug exposure and avoidable side effects. Three of the four currently available HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir, are widely utilized antiretrovirals in the USA and exhibit variations in outcomes among subjects. To interrogate differences among subjects receiving these drugs, we investigated the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with drug exposure, clinical outcomes, and subject-reported adverse events. HIV+ adults (≥18 years ...


Prevalence And Correlates Of Physical And Sexual Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Living With Hiv In Uganda, Cynthia R. Young, Angela Kaida, Jerome Kabakyenga, Winnie R. Muyindike, Nicholas Musinguzi, Jeffrey N. Martin, Peter W. Hunt, David Bangsberg, Jessica E. Haberer, Lynn T. Matthews 2018 Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA

Prevalence And Correlates Of Physical And Sexual Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Living With Hiv In Uganda, Cynthia R. Young, Angela Kaida, Jerome Kabakyenga, Winnie R. Muyindike, Nicholas Musinguzi, Jeffrey N. Martin, Peter W. Hunt, David Bangsberg, Jessica E. Haberer, Lynn T. Matthews

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global health problem. Women who experience IPV have increased HIV incidence, reduced antiretroviral adherence, and a lower likelihood of viral load suppression. There is a lack of evidence regarding how to effectively identify and support women living with HIV (WLWH) experiencing IPV, including uncertainty whether universal or targeted screening is most appropriate for lower-resourced settings. We examined physical and sexual IPV prevalence and correlates among WLWH in Uganda to understand the burden of IPV and factors that could help identify women at risk.

Methods: We utilized data from women receiving ART and ...


Limiting Antibiotic Use In Acute Sinusitis: Partly A Matter Of Vocabulary?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Limiting Antibiotic Use In Acute Sinusitis: Partly A Matter Of Vocabulary?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In his issue introduction, the editor-in-chief of Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews comments on an included article that describes the successful use of an electronic medical record best practice alert to reduce the rate of antibiotic prescription for acute sinusitis. Various methods previously tried to improve antibiotic stewardship in this illness are briefly reviewed. Borrowing on the model of acute bronchitis, it is suggested that a change in conveyed diagnostic vocabulary to “sinus cold” when describing acute sinusitis may help limit antibiotics for this predominantly viral infection.


Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen 2018 College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University; Institute for Family Health

Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Acute sinusitis has viral etiology in more than 90% of cases, but antibiotics are prescribed for more than 80% of adults in the United States. While applications of computer-assisted guidelines have been found effective in reducing inaccurate prescribing for acute respiratory infections, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the utilization of electronic best practice alerts (BPA) in improving treatment for acute sinusitis.

Methods: This observational cohort study examined prescribing behavior for sinusitis at a single Federally Qualified Health Center 1 year prior and during the first year of implementation of a BPA in the electronic health ...


Total Body Cd4+ T Cell Dynamics In Treated And Untreated Siv Infection Revealed By In Vivo Imaging, Michele Di Mascio, Sharat Srinivasula, Insook Kim, Gorka Duralde, Alexis St. Claire, Paula DeGrange, Marisa St. Claire, Keith A. Reimann, Erin E. Gabriel, Jorge Carrasquillo, Richard C. Reba, Chang Paik, Henry C. Lane 2018 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Total Body Cd4+ T Cell Dynamics In Treated And Untreated Siv Infection Revealed By In Vivo Imaging, Michele Di Mascio, Sharat Srinivasula, Insook Kim, Gorka Duralde, Alexis St. Claire, Paula Degrange, Marisa St. Claire, Keith A. Reimann, Erin E. Gabriel, Jorge Carrasquillo, Richard C. Reba, Chang Paik, Henry C. Lane

Open Access Articles

The peripheral blood represents only a small fraction of the total number of lymphocytes in the body. To develop a more thorough understanding of T cell dynamics, including the effects of SIV/SHIV/HIV infection on immune cell depletion and immune reconstitution following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), one needs to utilize approaches that allow direct visualization of lymphoid tissues. In the present study, noninvasive in vivo imaging of the CD4+ T cell pool has revealed that the timing of the CD4+ T cell pool reconstitution following initiation of ART in SIV-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs) appears seemingly stochastic among clusters of ...


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