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Modeling Hiv Dynamics Following 3bnc117 Antibody Infusion, Samantha Erwin 2017 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Modeling Hiv Dynamics Following 3bnc117 Antibody Infusion, Samantha Erwin

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Analyzing Sexual Transmission In The Spread Of The Zika Virus In Colombia, Victoria M. Kelley 2017 UC Davis

Analyzing Sexual Transmission In The Spread Of The Zika Virus In Colombia, Victoria M. Kelley

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers 2017 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rhodes College

The Kinetics Of Type I Interferons During Influenza Virus Infection, Margaret A. Myers

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Healthcare Provider And Patient Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices (Kap) Regarding Zika Virus, Quinton Katler, Prachi Godiwala, Charles Macri, Beth Pineles, AIleen Chang, Homa Ahmadzia 2017 George Washington University

Healthcare Provider And Patient Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices (Kap) Regarding Zika Virus, Quinton Katler, Prachi Godiwala, Charles Macri, Beth Pineles, Aileen Chang, Homa Ahmadzia

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Introduction:

Zika virus emergence in the western hemisphere has prompted the critical need for tailored risk counseling. Our team created a KAP survey in order to assess provider and patient awareness of Zika virus symptoms, transmission, treatment, and current and future concerns in order to inform local risk counseling efforts.

Methods:

The cross-sectional survey was issued in Medical Faculty Associates (MFA) clinics and via online link to healthcare providers and community members. The REDCap Data Collection tool was used to capture responses with subsequent SAS data analysis.

Results:

A total of 172 responses were collected. Most respondents (97%) were aware ...


A Murine Model To Study Epilepsy And Sudep Induced By Malaria Infection., Paddy Ssentongo, Anna E Robuccio, Godfrey Thuku, Derek G Sim, Ali Nabi, Fatemeh Bahari, Balaji Shanmugasundaram, Myles W Billard, Andrew Geronimo, Kurt W Short, Patrick J Drew, Jennifer Baccon, Steven L Weinstein, Frank G Gilliam, José A Stoute, Vernon M Chinchilli, Andrew F Read, Bruce J Gluckman, Steven J Schiff 2017 George Washington University

A Murine Model To Study Epilepsy And Sudep Induced By Malaria Infection., Paddy Ssentongo, Anna E Robuccio, Godfrey Thuku, Derek G Sim, Ali Nabi, Fatemeh Bahari, Balaji Shanmugasundaram, Myles W Billard, Andrew Geronimo, Kurt W Short, Patrick J Drew, Jennifer Baccon, Steven L Weinstein, Frank G Gilliam, José A Stoute, Vernon M Chinchilli, Andrew F Read, Bruce J Gluckman, Steven J Schiff

Neurology Faculty Publications

One of the largest single sources of epilepsy in the world is produced as a neurological sequela in survivors of cerebral malaria. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanisms of such epileptogenesis remain unknown and no adjunctive therapy during cerebral malaria has been shown to reduce the rate of subsequent epilepsy. There is no existing animal model of postmalarial epilepsy. In this technical report we demonstrate the first such animal models. These models were created from multiple mouse and parasite strain combinations, so that the epilepsy observed retained universality with respect to genetic background. We also discovered spontaneous sudden unexpected death in epilepsy ...


Effect Of Immediate Initiation Of Antiretroviral Therapy On Risk Of Severe Bacterial Infections In Hiv-Positive People With Cd4 Cell Counts Of More Than 500 Cells Per Μl: Secondary Outcome Results From A Randomised Controlled Trial., Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Fred Gordin, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Effect Of Immediate Initiation Of Antiretroviral Therapy On Risk Of Severe Bacterial Infections In Hiv-Positive People With Cd4 Cell Counts Of More Than 500 Cells Per Μl: Secondary Outcome Results From A Randomised Controlled Trial., Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Fred Gordin, +Several Additional Authors

Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial.

METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells ...


Inside Unlv, Gian Galassi, Jennifer Vaughan, Carol C. Harter, Richard Flaherty, Rebecca Mills 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Inside Unlv, Gian Galassi, Jennifer Vaughan, Carol C. Harter, Richard Flaherty, Rebecca Mills

Rebecca Mills

No abstract provided.


Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky 2017 George Washington University

Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A. This activity was shown to be dependent on oxidative stress, and for NS4A they demonstrated involvement of the TOR ...


Hepatitis C Screening In The Baby Boomer Cohort, Peter Hyson 2017 University of Vermont

Hepatitis C Screening In The Baby Boomer Cohort, Peter Hyson

Family Medicine Block Clerkship, Student Projects

The USPSTF recommends a one-time screening for Hepatitis C, irrespective of prior risk factors, for individuals born between 1945-1965. Many patients in this group may not be aware of this recommendation or understand very much about Hepatitis C infection. This project sought to educate and promote screening among the "Baby Boomer" cohort at Hinesburg Family Medicine Clinic. A literature review on HCV screening in the age group cohort was carried out and a poster was created.


"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble 2017 George Washington University

"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of providing quarterly $70 gift card financial incentives to HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to encourage ART adherence and viral suppression, and represents the largest study to-date of a financial incentive intervention for HIV viral suppression. A post-trial qualitative substudy was undertaken to examine acceptability of the financial incentives among those receiving and implementing the intervention.

METHODS: Between July and October 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 12 investigators from 14 sites; three focus groups were conducted with 12 staff from 10 sites. Qualitative data collection elicited ...


A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signalling In Htlv-1-Associated Neuroinflammation., Soraya Maria Menezes, Fabio E Leal, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Daniele Decanine, Gilvaneia Silva-Santos, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signalling In Htlv-1-Associated Neuroinflammation., Soraya Maria Menezes, Fabio E Leal, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Daniele Decanine, Gilvaneia Silva-Santos, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 was the first human retrovirus to be associated to cancer, namely Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL), but its pathogenesis remains enigmatic, since only a minority of infected individuals develops either ATL or the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A functional FAS -670 polymorphism in an interferon (IFN)-regulated STAT1-binding site has been associated to both ATL and HAM/TSP susceptibility. Fashi T stem cell memory (Tscm) cells have been identified as the hierarchical apex of ATL, but have not been investigated in HAM/TSP. In addition, both FAS and STAT1 have ...


Mait Cells Are Reduced In Frequency And Functionally Impaired In Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection: Potential Clinical Implications., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal 2017 George Washington University

Mait Cells Are Reduced In Frequency And Functionally Impaired In Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection: Potential Clinical Implications., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HTLV-1 infection is associated with several inflammatory disorders, including the neurodegenerative condition HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is unclear why a minority of infected subjects develop HAM/TSP. The cellular immune response has been implicated in the development of inflammatory alterations in these patients; however the pathogenic mechanisms for disease progression remain unclear. Furthermore, HTLV-1-infected individuals have an increase incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, suggesting that immunological defect are associated with HTLV-1 infection. Evidence suggests an important role for Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in the early control of Mtb infection. Chronic viral infections like HIV ...


Perspectives On Model Forecasts Of The 2014–2015 Ebola Epidemic In West Africa: Lessons And The Way Forward, Gerardo Chowell, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Stefano Merler, Alessandro Vespignani 2017 George Washington University

Perspectives On Model Forecasts Of The 2014–2015 Ebola Epidemic In West Africa: Lessons And The Way Forward, Gerardo Chowell, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Stefano Merler, Alessandro Vespignani

Global Health Faculty Publications

The unprecedented impact and modeling efforts associated with the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provides a unique opportunity to document the performances and caveats of forecasting approaches used in near-real time for generating evidence and to guide policy. A number of international academic groups have developed and parameterized mathematical models of disease spread to forecast the trajectory of the outbreak. These modeling efforts often relied on limited epidemiological data to derive key transmission and severity parameters, which are needed to calibrate mechanistic models. Here, we provide a perspective on some of the challenges and lessons drawn from these ...


Defining The Risk Of Zika And Chikungunya Virus Transmission In Human Population Centers Of The Eastern United States, Carrie A. Manore, Richard S. Ostfeld, Folashade B. Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L. LaDeau 2017 Old Dominion University

Defining The Risk Of Zika And Chikungunya Virus Transmission In Human Population Centers Of The Eastern United States, Carrie A. Manore, Richard S. Ostfeld, Folashade B. Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L. Ladeau

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae. albopictus and then to other humans in USA cities with variable human densities and ...


A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani 2016 University of Wyoming

A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani

Honors Theses AY 16/17

In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control recommended that all patients aged 13-64 be tested for HIV, regardless of lifestyle risks. This recommendation was implemented because in 2006, it was shown that risk based screening was insufficient and does not successfully identify all HIV cases. Early detection is beneficial both with respect to improving treatment outcomes in HIV patients and decreasing transmission to previously uninfected individuals. This recommendation still holds true in 2016. In 2007, Kristine Young (a University of Wyoming Honors student) administered a survey that sought to assess University of Wyoming student knowledge regarding the previously mentioned CDC ...


Regulation Of Alpha-Herpesvirus Reactivation From Latency By Stress, Insun Kook 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Regulation Of Alpha-Herpesvirus Reactivation From Latency By Stress, Insun Kook

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) and Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) are crucial etiological viral agent of clinical diseases. HSV-1 and BHV-1 establish latent infection in sensory neurons. Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus excretion and transmission. Stress increases corticosteroid levels and the incidence of HSV-1 and BHV-1 reactivation from latency. The synthetic corticosteroid, dexamethasone (DEX) mimics stress and induces BHV-1 and HSV-1 reactivation. However, molecular mechanisms by which corticosteroid mediates viral reactivation are not well understood. My dissertation has focused on elucidating events that induce BHV- 1 or HSV-1 reactivation during the early stages of stress-induced escape ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


Analysis Of Hiv Diversity In Hiv-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (Hptn 061), Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Manya Magnus, +14 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Analysis Of Hiv Diversity In Hiv-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (Hptn 061), Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A. Marzinke, Manya Magnus, +14 Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study.

Methods

A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay ...


Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Promote Viral Replication And Cell Cycle Mediators In Arenavirus-Induced Hepatitis., Gretchen E. Holz 2016 University of Louisville

Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Promote Viral Replication And Cell Cycle Mediators In Arenavirus-Induced Hepatitis., Gretchen E. Holz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lassa virus (LASV) is an arenavirus and causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever in West Africa for which there is no vaccine. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is used as a surrogate to mimic LASV-induced liver pathology. LCMV-WE, not LCMV-ARM, causes disease in primates and mice characterized by hepatitis, high viral load, hepatocyte proliferation, and upregulated proliferative triggers (e.g. TNF-α, IL-6 ). We hypothesize LCMV-WE induces pathological hepatocyte proliferation via pro-inflammatory triggers (TNF-α, IL-6) from macrophages, leading to: increased viral replication, modulated cell cycle, and arrested cell cycle. RAW 264.7 macrophages and AML-12 hepatocytes, were used ...


South Africans With Recent Pregnancy Rarely Know Partner’S Hiv Serostatus: Implications For Serodiscordant Couples Interventions, Lynn T. Matthews, Lizzie Moore, Tamaryn L. Crankshaw, Cecilia Milford, Fortunate N. Mosery, Ross Greener, Christina Psaros, Steven A, Safren, David Bangsberg, Jennifer A. Smit 2016 Center for Global Health & Division of Infectious Disease

South Africans With Recent Pregnancy Rarely Know Partner’S Hiv Serostatus: Implications For Serodiscordant Couples Interventions, Lynn T. Matthews, Lizzie Moore, Tamaryn L. Crankshaw, Cecilia Milford, Fortunate N. Mosery, Ross Greener, Christina Psaros, Steven A, Safren, David Bangsberg, Jennifer A. Smit

David Bangsberg

Background: Implementation of safer conception strategies requires knowledge of partner HIV-serostatus. We recruited women and men in a high HIV-prevalence setting for a study to assess periconception risk behavior among individuals reporting HIV-serodiscordant partnerships. We report screening data from that study with the objective of estimating the proportion of individuals who are aware that they are in an HIV-serodiscordant relationship at the time of conception. Methods: We screened women and men attending antenatal and antiretroviral clinics in Durban, South Africa for enrollment in a study of periconception risk behavior among individuals with serodiscordant partners. Screening questionnaires assessed for study eligibility ...


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