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Automated Diagnosis And Grading Of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography, Harpal Singh. Sandhu, Ahmed Eltanboly, Ahmed Shalaby, Robert S. Keynton, Schlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz 2018 University of Louisville

Automated Diagnosis And Grading Of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography, Harpal Singh. Sandhu, Ahmed Eltanboly, Ahmed Shalaby, Robert S. Keynton, Schlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz

Open Access Articles

Purpose: We determine the feasibility and accuracy of a computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) system to diagnose and grade nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images.

Methods: A cross-sectional, single-center study was done of type II diabetics who presented for routine screening and/or monitoring exams. Inclusion criteria were age 18 or older, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type II, and clear media allowing for OCT imaging. Exclusion criteria were inability to image the macula, posterior staphylomas, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and concurrent retinovascular disease. All patients underwent a full dilated eye exam and spectral-domain OCT of a 6 x 6 ...


Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Aerobic glycolysis accounts for approximately 80%-90% of glucose used by adult photoreceptors (PRs); yet, the importance of aerobic glycolysis for PR function or survival remains unclear. Here, we further established the role of aerobic glycolysis in murine rod and cone PRs. We show that loss of hexokinase-2 (HK2), a key aerobic glycolysis enzyme, does not affect PR survival or structure but is required for normal rod function. Rods with HK2 loss increase their mitochondrial number, suggesting an adaptation to the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, cones adapt without increased mitochondrial number but require HK2 to adapt to metabolic ...


Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo

Open Access Articles

Aerobic glycolysis accounts for approximately 80%-90% of glucose used by adult photoreceptors (PRs); yet, the importance of aerobic glycolysis for PR function or survival remains unclear. Here, we further established the role of aerobic glycolysis in murine rod and cone PRs. We show that loss of hexokinase-2 (HK2), a key aerobic glycolysis enzyme, does not affect PR survival or structure but is required for normal rod function. Rods with HK2 loss increase their mitochondrial number, suggesting an adaptation to the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, cones adapt without increased mitochondrial number but require HK2 to adapt to metabolic ...


An Active Efficient Coding Model Of The Development Of Amblyopia, Samuel Eckmann, Lukas Klimmasch, Bertram Shi, Jochen Triesch 2018 Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

An Active Efficient Coding Model Of The Development Of Amblyopia, Samuel Eckmann, Lukas Klimmasch, Bertram Shi, Jochen Triesch

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb 2018 University of Louisville

Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mutations in genes encoding the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins nyctalopin and LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness because they are critical to depolarizing bipolar cell function in the retina. LRIT3 has two closely related family members, LRIT1 and LRIT2. In silico analyses of publicly available RNA-Seq data showed that Lrit1 was highly expressed in the retina. Here I describe the expression pattern and impact of loss of LRIT1 on retinal function. To enable these studies, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create an Lrit1-/- mouse line. Retinal morphology and morphometry analyses showed no gross changes in retinal structure ...


Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner 2018 East Tennessee State University

Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner

Appalachian Student Research Forum

This report describes the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with blurry vision, increased intraocular pressure, and conjunctival injection after posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Initially post-operative endophalmitis and foreign body inflammation were considered as differential diagnoses, but after further examination pan-uveitis was diagnosed. Uveitis is an ocular finding that may indicate several diseases, one of which is Behçet’s Disease. During the interview, the patient mentioned a history of apthous ulcers and genital ulcers which then lead to the clinical diagnosis of Behçet’s Disease. This report emphasizes that Behçet’s Disease is rare in Caucasians. Therefore, is ...


Reduced Intraepithelial Corneal Nerve Density And Sensitivity Accompany Desiccating Stress And Aging In C57bl/6 Mice, Mary Ann Stepp, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Gauri Tadvalkar, Alexa Williams, S Pflugfelder, C de Paiva 2018 George Washington University

Reduced Intraepithelial Corneal Nerve Density And Sensitivity Accompany Desiccating Stress And Aging In C57bl/6 Mice, Mary Ann Stepp, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Gauri Tadvalkar, Alexa Williams, S Pflugfelder, C De Paiva

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Dry Eye disease causes discomfort and pain in millions of patients. Using a mouse acute desiccating stress (DS) model we show that DS induces a reduction in intraepithelial corneal nerve (ICN) density, corneal sensitivity, and apical extension of the intraepithelial nerve terminals (INTs) that branch from the subbasal nerves (SBNs). Topical application of 0.02% Mitomycin C (MMC) or vehicle alone has no impact on the overall loss of axon density due to acute DS. Chronic dry eye, which develops progressively as C57BL/6 mice age, is accompanied by significant loss of the ICNs and corneal sensitivity between 2 and ...


Transcriptome Profiling Of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals Mir-204 As A Multi-Target Biotherapy Deliverable By Raavs, Yi Lu, Phillip W. L. Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J. Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D. Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcriptome Profiling Of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals Mir-204 As A Multi-Target Biotherapy Deliverable By Raavs, Yi Lu, Phillip W. L. Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J. Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D. Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao

Open Access Articles

Corneal neovascularization (NV) is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs) and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs. Among these, we selected miR-204 and assessed its efficacy and therapeutic ...


Slt Versus Alt In Glaucoma Patients Treated Previously With 360-Degree Slt—A Randomised, Single-Blind, Equivalence Clinical Trial, Hui Guo 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Slt Versus Alt In Glaucoma Patients Treated Previously With 360-Degree Slt—A Randomised, Single-Blind, Equivalence Clinical Trial, Hui Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Our objectives were to compare the efficacy and safety between selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) for the open-angle glaucoma patients who had 360-degree SLT previously and to explore the baseline predictors for the treatment success. Data were obtained from a multicenter, patient-masked, randomised, parallel-group, active-controlled trial. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either SLT or ALT. At 12-month follow-up, the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction was 3.35 mmHg and 3.36 mmHg after SLT and ALT respectively. The difference of mean IOP reduction was -0.01 mmHg (n=115). The 95% CI of ...


Dznep Inhibits H3k27me3 Deposition And Delays Retinal Degeneration In The Rd1 Mice, Shijie Zheng, Lirong Xiao, Yu Liu, Yujiao Wang, Lin Cheng, Junjun Zhang, Naihong Yan, Danian Chen 2018 Sichuan University

Dznep Inhibits H3k27me3 Deposition And Delays Retinal Degeneration In The Rd1 Mice, Shijie Zheng, Lirong Xiao, Yu Liu, Yujiao Wang, Lin Cheng, Junjun Zhang, Naihong Yan, Danian Chen

Open Access Articles

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal degenerative diseases causing progressive loss of photoreceptors. Numerous gene mutations are identified to be related with RP, but epigenetic modifications may also be involved in the pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that both DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate photoreceptor cell death in RP mouse models. However, the role of histone methylation in RP has never been investigated. In this study, we found that trimethylation of several lysine sites of histone H3, including lysine 27 (H3K27me3), increased in the retinas of rd1 mice. Histone methylation inhibitor DZNep significantly reduced the calpain activity ...


Cataract Blindness: Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Treatment Barriers And High Blindness Rates For Women In Rural Regions Of Andhra Pradesh, Kiranpreet Kaur 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cataract Blindness: Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Treatment Barriers And High Blindness Rates For Women In Rural Regions Of Andhra Pradesh, Kiranpreet Kaur

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Despite efforts of Vision 2020 in India, the 2001 Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) extrapolated that approximately 18.7 million blind people resided in India and projected an increase to 31.6 million blind people by 2020. Within the Andhra Pradesh state itself, the preventable blindness population had increased from approximately 1,143,150 people in 1990 to 1,402,264 people in 2001, against reformation attempts by the National Program for Control of Blindness. Of this, cataracts were consistently the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Numerous public health studies have been conducted to outline factors that preclude treatment ...


Analysis Of Ocular Changes In A Cyp1b1-/- Mouse, Kylie Barto 2018 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Ocular Changes In A Cyp1b1-/- Mouse, Kylie Barto

Honors Research Projects

The goal of the research is to investigate the structural changes seen in Primary Congenital Glaucoma using a mouse model. Eye sections of a Cyp1b1-/- mouse were compared to eye sections of a healthy normal mouse (wild type, WT). Initial examination of the cornea, iris, and irodocorneal angle showed structural changes in Cyp1b1-/-. These changes were similar to those described in the literature using other animal models. This suggests that a mutation in Cyp1b1-/- in a mouse results in a phenotype similar to that seen in PCG human patients and this model could be used to investigate the pathophysiology of ...


Treatment Challenges In An Atypical Presentation Of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis And Uveitis (Tinu), S Caplash, S Gangaputra, S Kodati, Shamir Tuchman, Hemalatha Srinivasalu, H Sen 2018 George Washington University

Treatment Challenges In An Atypical Presentation Of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis And Uveitis (Tinu), S Caplash, S Gangaputra, S Kodati, Shamir Tuchman, Hemalatha Srinivasalu, H Sen

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Purpose: To describe an atypical presentation of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis (TINU), with challenges in treatment course. Observations: A 12-year-old Hispanic female presented to the National Eye Institute's Uveitis clinic with bilateral blurred vision, red eyes and photophobia, not responsive to topical steroids. On exam, she had bilateral severe panuveitis with areas of subretinal fluid. During her evaluation, she was noted to have elevated serum creatinine. A kidney biopsy confirmed the presence of severe tubulointerstitial nephritis and interstitial fibrosis. She was treated with oral steroids with excellent resolution of symptoms and subretinal fluid. She continued to have anterior segment ...


Gene Therapy Using A Minicep290 Fragment Delays Photoreceptor Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Leber Congenital Amaurosis, Wei Zhang, Linjing Li, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Hemant Khanna 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Therapy Using A Minicep290 Fragment Delays Photoreceptor Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Leber Congenital Amaurosis, Wei Zhang, Linjing Li, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Hemant Khanna

Open Access Articles

Mutations in the cilia-centrosomal protein CEP290 are frequently observed in autosomal recessive childhood blindness disorder Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). No treatment or cure currently exists for this disorder. The Cep290(rd16) (retinal degeneration 16) mouse (a model of LCA) carries a mutation in the Cep290 gene. This mutation leads to shorter cilia formation and defective photoreceptor structure and function. A roadblock to developing a gene replacement strategy for CEP290 using conventional adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is its large size. The identification and characterization is reported of a miniCEP290 gene that is amenable to AAV2/8-mediated delivery and delaying retinal degeneration ...


Loss Of The Cone-Enriched Caspase-7 Does Not Affect Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Aditya Venkatesh, Shun-Yun Cheng, Claudio Punzo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Loss Of The Cone-Enriched Caspase-7 Does Not Affect Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Aditya Venkatesh, Shun-Yun Cheng, Claudio Punzo

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Purpose: The apoptotic mechanisms responsible for secondary cone death in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) remain largely unknown. The cone-enriched apoptotic protease caspase-7 (Casp7) is thought to be triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and plays a pivotal role in mice deficient in the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, a deficiency that causes achromatopsia in humans and in mice with autosomal dominant rhodopsin mutations, in particular the T17M mutation. Thus, we tested in two mouse models of RP whether the cone-enriched Casp7 plays a role during secondary cone death.

Methods: Casp7 knockout mice were crossed to two different RP mouse models with significantly ...


Modifiable And Non-Modifiable Factors Related To The Macular Pigment Optical Density (Mpod) In A Population Of College-Aged Adults, Genesis Gisselle Guerra Gaitan 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Modifiable And Non-Modifiable Factors Related To The Macular Pigment Optical Density (Mpod) In A Population Of College-Aged Adults, Genesis Gisselle Guerra Gaitan

LSU Master's Theses

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness among the elderly worldwide. Retinal problems, specifically in the macula, hold potential for development of AMD. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) gives a measure of the thickness of the macula and therefore health of the macula. Some of the populations at risk for development of AMD include being white, female, and having light eye color. Factors related to the development of the disease have been divided into modifiable and non-modifiable; non-modifiable include a genetic predisposition. Control of modifiable factors, including body mass index (BMI) and diet [dietary intake ...


Gelsolin Dysfunction Causes Photoreceptor Loss In Induced Pluripotent Cell And Animal Retinitis Pigmentosa Models, Roly Megaw, Hashem Abu-Arafeh, Melissa Jungnickel, Carla Mellough, Christine Gurniak, Walter Witke, Wei Zhang, Hemant Khanna, Pleasantine Mill, Baljean Dhillon, Alan F. Wright, Majlinda Lako, Charles Ffrench-Constant 2017 University of Edinburgh

Gelsolin Dysfunction Causes Photoreceptor Loss In Induced Pluripotent Cell And Animal Retinitis Pigmentosa Models, Roly Megaw, Hashem Abu-Arafeh, Melissa Jungnickel, Carla Mellough, Christine Gurniak, Walter Witke, Wei Zhang, Hemant Khanna, Pleasantine Mill, Baljean Dhillon, Alan F. Wright, Majlinda Lako, Charles Ffrench-Constant

Open Access Articles

Mutations in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) cause X-linked RP (XLRP), an untreatable, inherited retinal dystrophy that leads to premature blindness. RPGR localises to the photoreceptor connecting cilium where its function remains unknown. Here we show, using murine and human induced pluripotent stem cell models, that RPGR interacts with and activates the actin-severing protein gelsolin, and that gelsolin regulates actin disassembly in the connecting cilium, thus facilitating rhodopsin transport to photoreceptor outer segments. Disease-causing RPGR mutations perturb this RPGR-gelsolin interaction, compromising gelsolin activation. Both RPGR and Gelsolin knockout mice show abnormalities of actin polymerisation and mislocalisation of rhodopsin in ...


Endothelin Receptor-Mediated Neurodegeneration In Glaucoma, Nolan McGrady 2017 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Endothelin Receptor-Mediated Neurodegeneration In Glaucoma, Nolan Mcgrady

Theses and Dissertations

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex set of optic neuropathies which are characterized by the degeneration of the optic nerve, cupping of the optic disk and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). There are approximately 3 million Americans who currently suffer from this disease although this is most likely an underestimation since many individuals with glaucoma are unaware that they have the disease. POAG is an age-related disease progressing slowly over the course of several decades and is most commonly associated with an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP). Currently available treatments for glaucoma, both surgical and pharmacological, are solely ...


Moxifloxacin Concentration And Proteomic Analysis Of Aqueous Humor In Human Uveitis Associated With Oral Moxifloxacin Therapy, David M. Hinkle, Nicole A. Kruh-Garcia, Jonathan N. Kruh, Carolyn Broccardo, Priyanka Doctor, C. Stephen Foster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Moxifloxacin Concentration And Proteomic Analysis Of Aqueous Humor In Human Uveitis Associated With Oral Moxifloxacin Therapy, David M. Hinkle, Nicole A. Kruh-Garcia, Jonathan N. Kruh, Carolyn Broccardo, Priyanka Doctor, C. Stephen Foster

Open Access Articles

PURPOSE: The aim was to report the aqueous humor moxifloxacin concentration and proteome profile of an individual with bilateral uveitis-like syndrome with pigment dispersion.

METHODS: Multiple reactions monitoring mass spectrometry quantified the aqueous concentration of moxifloxacin in the affected individual. Shotgun proteomic analysis performed via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) defined the protein profile in the affected individual and unaffected control samples.

RESULTS: Moxifloxacin was present at higher than expected levels in aqueous humor 18 days following oral administration. One-third of the proteins were identified by significantly lower spectral counts in the aqueous of the individual with moxifloxacin ...


Corneal Edema And Keratitis Following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty, E T. Liu, L S. Seery, A Arosemena, Tania Lamba, C J. Chaya 2017 George Washington University

Corneal Edema And Keratitis Following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty, E T. Liu, L S. Seery, A Arosemena, Tania Lamba, C J. Chaya

Ophthalmology Faculty Publications

Purpose

To describe three cases of keratitis following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty(SLT).

Observations

Three females with a history of glaucoma presented with corneal edema, keratitis (endothelial, epithelial) and decreased visual acuity shortly after SLT. There was variable resolution of symptoms after starting treatment with oral antiherpetics and topical steroids.

Conclusions and importance

With the increase in usage of SLT as a treatment for glaucoma and subsequent reports of keratitis, it is imperative for ophthalmic surgeons to be aware of herpes simplex as a possible risk factor. Prompt treatment with antivirals and steroids can potentially prevent scarring and permanent damage to ...


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