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Nutrigenomics Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Durpri Lin 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Nutrigenomics Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Durpri Lin

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are nutrients that reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As micronutrients that selectively accumulate in the retina of the eye, L/Z can protect the macula from oxidative damage that contributes to AMD. This review will discuss the role of genes as a mediator between increased intake of dietary L/Z and decreased risk of AMD. Figure 1 outlines a pathway of L/Z that is subject to genetic influences, from 1) the diet to 2) the bloodstream to 3) the retina of the eye. First, L/Z are carotenoids that cannot be ...


Effects Of Age, Race, And Ethnicity On The Optic Nerve And Peripapillary Region Using Spectral-Domain Oct 3d Volume Scans, Linda Yi-Chieh Poon, Hussein Antar, Edem Tsikata, Rong Guo, Georgia Papadogeorgou, Madeline Freeman, Ziad Khoueir, Ramon Lee, Eric Shieh, Huseyin Simavli, Christian John Que, Johannes F. de Boer, Teresa C. Chen 2018 Harvard Medical School

Effects Of Age, Race, And Ethnicity On The Optic Nerve And Peripapillary Region Using Spectral-Domain Oct 3d Volume Scans, Linda Yi-Chieh Poon, Hussein Antar, Edem Tsikata, Rong Guo, Georgia Papadogeorgou, Madeline Freeman, Ziad Khoueir, Ramon Lee, Eric Shieh, Huseyin Simavli, Christian John Que, Johannes F. De Boer, Teresa C. Chen

Open Access Articles

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of age, race, and ethnicity on the optic nerve and peripapillary retina using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) three-dimensional (3D) volume scans in normal subjects.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed at a single institution in Boston. All patients received retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans and an optic nerve 3D volume scan. The SD-OCT software calculated peripapillary RNFL thickness, retinal thickness (RT), and retinal volume (RV). Custom-designed software calculated neuroretinal rim minimum distance band (MDB) thickness and area.

Results: There were 272 normal subjects, including 175 whites, 40 blacks, 40 Asians, and 17 ...


Eye Tissue Regeneration: Seam As A Cure For Prevalent Eye Disease, Molly Bute 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Eye Tissue Regeneration: Seam As A Cure For Prevalent Eye Disease, Molly Bute

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

SEAM (Self-formed ectodermal autonomous multizone) is a form of eye tissue regeneration discovered by Japanese scientists in 2016. This tissue regeneration encompasses tissues from all areas of the human eye. The SEAM forms tissues using stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells were used in the first study, and produces four concentric zones. The SEAM that has been created was shown to cure corneal blindness in animal models, and has the potential to cure a multitude of human eye diseases in the future.


Macular Phototoxicity After Corneal Cross-Linking, Paulo Rodolfo Barbisan Tagliari, Marina Goncalves Viturino Monteiro, Fernanda Maria Souto Silveira, Bo Tian, Roberto Damian Pacheco Pinto, Lucas Barasnevicius Quagliato, Mauricio Abujamra Nascimento, Rosane Silvestre de Castro, Carlos Eduardo Arieta Leite 2018 State University of Campinas, Brazil

Macular Phototoxicity After Corneal Cross-Linking, Paulo Rodolfo Barbisan Tagliari, Marina Goncalves Viturino Monteiro, Fernanda Maria Souto Silveira, Bo Tian, Roberto Damian Pacheco Pinto, Lucas Barasnevicius Quagliato, Mauricio Abujamra Nascimento, Rosane Silvestre De Castro, Carlos Eduardo Arieta Leite

Open Access Articles

Purpose: To assess potential vascular, structural, and functional changes to the macula in patients with keratoconus that underwent ultraviolet A (UVA)-riboflavin-mediated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) therapy.

Patients and methods: Seventeen eyes from 17 patients of age 16 years or older with keratoconus undergoing CXL treatment were studied. The same eye served as its own control (before CXL vs after CXL). Eyes were evaluated in terms of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, intraocular pressure, Amsler grid, retinography, fluorescein angiography, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) prior to CXL and 7 and 30 days after treatment. Multifocal electroretinography ...


Maximum Blink Interval Is Associated With Tear Film Breakup Time: A New Simple, Screening Test For Dry Eye Disease, Takenori Inomata, Masao Iwagami, Yoshimune Hiratsuka, Keiichi Fujimoto, Yuichi Okumura, Tina Shiang, Akira Murakami 2018 Juntendo University

Maximum Blink Interval Is Associated With Tear Film Breakup Time: A New Simple, Screening Test For Dry Eye Disease, Takenori Inomata, Masao Iwagami, Yoshimune Hiratsuka, Keiichi Fujimoto, Yuichi Okumura, Tina Shiang, Akira Murakami

Open Access Articles

The prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) is increasing worldwide, and its diagnosis often needs dedicated reagents and machines. We investigated the usefulness of maximum blink interval (MBI) (the length of time that participants could keep their eyes open) in screening for DED. This cross-sectional study included 292 patients (194 with DED and 98 without DED) recruited between September 2016 and September 2017. We compared the MBI between patients with and without DED; examined correlations between MBI and other clinical features of DED, including subjective symptoms (Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score), tear film breakup time (TFBUT), cornea fluorescence score (CFS), and ...


Genetic Modification Of Inherited Retinopathy In Mice, Yang Kong 2018 The University of Maine

Genetic Modification Of Inherited Retinopathy In Mice, Yang Kong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The retina, as a critical component of the sensory system, consists of multiple cell types, of which, photoreceptors play a key role in receiving, integrating and transmitting light signals. The biofunctions of photoreceptors rely on their proper growth and development, which is predominantly governed by a cluster of molecules that comprise the transcriptional regulation for photoreceptor development. Any disruption of these molecules potentially incurs retinal pathologies.

It is known that deficiencies of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E member 3 (NR2E3) or neural retina leucine-zipper (NRL), two molecules in regulating photoreceptor cell development, cause photoreceptor dysplasia. In a sensitized chemical ...


Automated Diagnosis And Grading Of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography, Harpal Singh. Sandhu, Ahmed Eltanboly, Ahmed Shalaby, Robert S. Keynton, Schlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz 2018 University of Louisville

Automated Diagnosis And Grading Of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography, Harpal Singh. Sandhu, Ahmed Eltanboly, Ahmed Shalaby, Robert S. Keynton, Schlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz

Open Access Articles

Purpose: We determine the feasibility and accuracy of a computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) system to diagnose and grade nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images.

Methods: A cross-sectional, single-center study was done of type II diabetics who presented for routine screening and/or monitoring exams. Inclusion criteria were age 18 or older, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type II, and clear media allowing for OCT imaging. Exclusion criteria were inability to image the macula, posterior staphylomas, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and concurrent retinovascular disease. All patients underwent a full dilated eye exam and spectral-domain OCT of a 6 x 6 ...


Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Aerobic glycolysis accounts for approximately 80%-90% of glucose used by adult photoreceptors (PRs); yet, the importance of aerobic glycolysis for PR function or survival remains unclear. Here, we further established the role of aerobic glycolysis in murine rod and cone PRs. We show that loss of hexokinase-2 (HK2), a key aerobic glycolysis enzyme, does not affect PR survival or structure but is required for normal rod function. Rods with HK2 loss increase their mitochondrial number, suggesting an adaptation to the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, cones adapt without increased mitochondrial number but require HK2 to adapt to metabolic ...


Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential For Normal Rod Function And Controls Secondary Cone Death In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Joris Cipi, Shun-Yun Cheng, Marina Zieger, Nissim Hay, Claudio Punzo

Open Access Articles

Aerobic glycolysis accounts for approximately 80%-90% of glucose used by adult photoreceptors (PRs); yet, the importance of aerobic glycolysis for PR function or survival remains unclear. Here, we further established the role of aerobic glycolysis in murine rod and cone PRs. We show that loss of hexokinase-2 (HK2), a key aerobic glycolysis enzyme, does not affect PR survival or structure but is required for normal rod function. Rods with HK2 loss increase their mitochondrial number, suggesting an adaptation to the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, cones adapt without increased mitochondrial number but require HK2 to adapt to metabolic ...


An Active Efficient Coding Model Of The Development Of Amblyopia, Samuel Eckmann, Lukas Klimmasch, Bertram Shi, Jochen Triesch 2018 Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

An Active Efficient Coding Model Of The Development Of Amblyopia, Samuel Eckmann, Lukas Klimmasch, Bertram Shi, Jochen Triesch

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb 2018 University of Louisville

Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mutations in genes encoding the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins nyctalopin and LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness because they are critical to depolarizing bipolar cell function in the retina. LRIT3 has two closely related family members, LRIT1 and LRIT2. In silico analyses of publicly available RNA-Seq data showed that Lrit1 was highly expressed in the retina. Here I describe the expression pattern and impact of loss of LRIT1 on retinal function. To enable these studies, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create an Lrit1-/- mouse line. Retinal morphology and morphometry analyses showed no gross changes in retinal structure ...


Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner 2018 East Tennessee State University

Differential Diagnosis Of Pan-Uveitis: Behçet’S Disease, Peter Blosser, Remil Simon, Courtney Ridner

Appalachian Student Research Forum

This report describes the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with blurry vision, increased intraocular pressure, and conjunctival injection after posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Initially post-operative endophalmitis and foreign body inflammation were considered as differential diagnoses, but after further examination pan-uveitis was diagnosed. Uveitis is an ocular finding that may indicate several diseases, one of which is Behçet’s Disease. During the interview, the patient mentioned a history of apthous ulcers and genital ulcers which then lead to the clinical diagnosis of Behçet’s Disease. This report emphasizes that Behçet’s Disease is rare in Caucasians. Therefore, is ...


Pilot Study Of Anxiety, Depression, And Quality Of Life In Patients With The Diagnosis Of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma, Regine Nshimiyimana, DNP, BPharm, FNP-BC, AGACNP-BC, OCN, AOCNP 2018 George Washington University

Pilot Study Of Anxiety, Depression, And Quality Of Life In Patients With The Diagnosis Of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma, Regine Nshimiyimana, Dnp, Bpharm, Fnp-Bc, Agacnp-Bc, Ocn, Aocnp

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Background: Awareness of a patient’s anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in those with metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) can influence care that meets patients’ bio-psychosocial-spiritual needs.

Objectives: To measure the level of anxiety, depression, and QOL in patients with MUM and explore differences by gender, age range, time to metastatic disease, and duration of illness since metastasis.

Methods: We used a descriptive-comparative survey design. Over three months, a convenience sample of 70 patients with MUM aged ≥ 18 years, treated at a Mid-Atlantic hospital were invited to complete a combined survey of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and ...


Reduced Intraepithelial Corneal Nerve Density And Sensitivity Accompany Desiccating Stress And Aging In C57bl/6 Mice, Mary Ann Stepp, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Gauri Tadvalkar, Alexa Williams, S Pflugfelder, C de Paiva 2018 George Washington University

Reduced Intraepithelial Corneal Nerve Density And Sensitivity Accompany Desiccating Stress And Aging In C57bl/6 Mice, Mary Ann Stepp, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Gauri Tadvalkar, Alexa Williams, S Pflugfelder, C De Paiva

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Dry Eye disease causes discomfort and pain in millions of patients. Using a mouse acute desiccating stress (DS) model we show that DS induces a reduction in intraepithelial corneal nerve (ICN) density, corneal sensitivity, and apical extension of the intraepithelial nerve terminals (INTs) that branch from the subbasal nerves (SBNs). Topical application of 0.02% Mitomycin C (MMC) or vehicle alone has no impact on the overall loss of axon density due to acute DS. Chronic dry eye, which develops progressively as C57BL/6 mice age, is accompanied by significant loss of the ICNs and corneal sensitivity between 2 and ...


Transcriptome Profiling Of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals Mir-204 As A Multi-Target Biotherapy Deliverable By Raavs, Yi Lu, Phillip W. L. Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J. Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D. Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcriptome Profiling Of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals Mir-204 As A Multi-Target Biotherapy Deliverable By Raavs, Yi Lu, Phillip W. L. Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J. Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D. Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao

Open Access Articles

Corneal neovascularization (NV) is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs) and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs. Among these, we selected miR-204 and assessed its efficacy and therapeutic ...


Slt Versus Alt In Glaucoma Patients Treated Previously With 360-Degree Slt—A Randomised, Single-Blind, Equivalence Clinical Trial, Hui Guo 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Slt Versus Alt In Glaucoma Patients Treated Previously With 360-Degree Slt—A Randomised, Single-Blind, Equivalence Clinical Trial, Hui Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Our objectives were to compare the efficacy and safety between selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) for the open-angle glaucoma patients who had 360-degree SLT previously and to explore the baseline predictors for the treatment success. Data were obtained from a multicenter, patient-masked, randomised, parallel-group, active-controlled trial. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either SLT or ALT. At 12-month follow-up, the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction was 3.35 mmHg and 3.36 mmHg after SLT and ALT respectively. The difference of mean IOP reduction was -0.01 mmHg (n=115). The 95% CI of ...


Dznep Inhibits H3k27me3 Deposition And Delays Retinal Degeneration In The Rd1 Mice, Shijie Zheng, Lirong Xiao, Yu Liu, Yujiao Wang, Lin Cheng, Junjun Zhang, Naihong Yan, Danian Chen 2018 Sichuan University

Dznep Inhibits H3k27me3 Deposition And Delays Retinal Degeneration In The Rd1 Mice, Shijie Zheng, Lirong Xiao, Yu Liu, Yujiao Wang, Lin Cheng, Junjun Zhang, Naihong Yan, Danian Chen

Open Access Articles

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal degenerative diseases causing progressive loss of photoreceptors. Numerous gene mutations are identified to be related with RP, but epigenetic modifications may also be involved in the pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that both DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate photoreceptor cell death in RP mouse models. However, the role of histone methylation in RP has never been investigated. In this study, we found that trimethylation of several lysine sites of histone H3, including lysine 27 (H3K27me3), increased in the retinas of rd1 mice. Histone methylation inhibitor DZNep significantly reduced the calpain activity ...


Cataract Blindness: Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Treatment Barriers And High Blindness Rates For Women In Rural Regions Of Andhra Pradesh, Kiranpreet Kaur 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cataract Blindness: Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Treatment Barriers And High Blindness Rates For Women In Rural Regions Of Andhra Pradesh, Kiranpreet Kaur

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Despite efforts of Vision 2020 in India, the 2001 Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) extrapolated that approximately 18.7 million blind people resided in India and projected an increase to 31.6 million blind people by 2020. Within the Andhra Pradesh state itself, the preventable blindness population had increased from approximately 1,143,150 people in 1990 to 1,402,264 people in 2001, against reformation attempts by the National Program for Control of Blindness. Of this, cataracts were consistently the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Numerous public health studies have been conducted to outline factors that preclude treatment ...


Gene Therapy Using A Minicep290 Fragment Delays Photoreceptor Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Leber Congenital Amaurosis, Wei Zhang, Linjing Li, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Hemant Khanna 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Therapy Using A Minicep290 Fragment Delays Photoreceptor Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Leber Congenital Amaurosis, Wei Zhang, Linjing Li, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Hemant Khanna

Open Access Articles

Mutations in the cilia-centrosomal protein CEP290 are frequently observed in autosomal recessive childhood blindness disorder Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). No treatment or cure currently exists for this disorder. The Cep290(rd16) (retinal degeneration 16) mouse (a model of LCA) carries a mutation in the Cep290 gene. This mutation leads to shorter cilia formation and defective photoreceptor structure and function. A roadblock to developing a gene replacement strategy for CEP290 using conventional adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is its large size. The identification and characterization is reported of a miniCEP290 gene that is amenable to AAV2/8-mediated delivery and delaying retinal degeneration ...


Treatment Challenges In An Atypical Presentation Of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis And Uveitis (Tinu), S Caplash, S Gangaputra, S Kodati, Shamir Tuchman, Hemalatha Srinivasalu, H Sen 2018 George Washington University

Treatment Challenges In An Atypical Presentation Of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis And Uveitis (Tinu), S Caplash, S Gangaputra, S Kodati, Shamir Tuchman, Hemalatha Srinivasalu, H Sen

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Purpose: To describe an atypical presentation of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis (TINU), with challenges in treatment course. Observations: A 12-year-old Hispanic female presented to the National Eye Institute's Uveitis clinic with bilateral blurred vision, red eyes and photophobia, not responsive to topical steroids. On exam, she had bilateral severe panuveitis with areas of subretinal fluid. During her evaluation, she was noted to have elevated serum creatinine. A kidney biopsy confirmed the presence of severe tubulointerstitial nephritis and interstitial fibrosis. She was treated with oral steroids with excellent resolution of symptoms and subretinal fluid. She continued to have anterior segment ...


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