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A Case Study On Toxoplasmosis: Ocular Disease, Caleb A. Vass DO, Elliot Freed 2020 HCA Healthcare

A Case Study On Toxoplasmosis: Ocular Disease, Caleb A. Vass Do, Elliot Freed

Capital Division Virtual Research Day 2020

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Primary infection by this organism is usually asymptomatic. Some immunocompetent patients infected with this parasite can present as an acute systemic infection but symptoms can also present as ocular disease. In these instances, the ocular disease may be the only symptom, and can be from either an acute infection or a reactivation of the disease.


Parameter Estimation For Tear Film Thinning, Rayanne Luke 2020 University of Delaware

Parameter Estimation For Tear Film Thinning, Rayanne Luke

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Trends In The Sources Of Endophthalmitis At Kresge Eye Institute, Anita Vaishampayan, Kresge Eye Institute 2020 Wayne State University

Trends In The Sources Of Endophthalmitis At Kresge Eye Institute, Anita Vaishampayan, Kresge Eye Institute

Medical Student Research Symposium

Purpose

Endophthalmitis is a defined as a purulent inflammation of the intraocular fluids, namely the vitreous and aqueous humor. Endophthalmitis most commonly develops from infection, but can also be acquired from inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. We sought to determine these sources at our institute and to look for trends in our urban population.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of patients who attended the Kresge Eye Institute in Detroit, MI between 2003 to 2018 was performed. Patient list was identified from our EMR using the diagnoses codes related endophthalmitis. Information gathered included demographics, type of tissue/fluid cultured, the presumed source ...


Long-Term Outcomes Of Bleb Needling Following Primary Glaucoma Filtering Surgery In Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, Bryen Turco, Vaama Patel, Chaesik Kim, Justin Tannir, Lauren Keshishian, Anju Goyal, Mark Juzych, Bret Hughes, Faisal Ridha Al-Timimi 2020 Kresge Eye Institute

Long-Term Outcomes Of Bleb Needling Following Primary Glaucoma Filtering Surgery In Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, Bryen Turco, Vaama Patel, Chaesik Kim, Justin Tannir, Lauren Keshishian, Anju Goyal, Mark Juzych, Bret Hughes, Faisal Ridha Al-Timimi

Medical Student Research Symposium

Purpose: To determine the long-term success rate of bleb needling in a predominantly African American population and to identify factors associated with success.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational clinical study in patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Patients who underwent a primary trabeculectomy, with or without an express shunt placement, and then subsequently had a bleb needling procedure were selected for this study. Patients were followed every three months for a period of two years. Failure criteria included achieving an intraocular pressure (IOP) of greater than 20 mmHg or greater than 80% of the pre-needling value on two subsequent ...


Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells In Control Vs. Glaucomatous Retinas, Edward Hamad 2020 The University of Akron

Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells In Control Vs. Glaucomatous Retinas, Edward Hamad

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Glaucoma is a common cause of vision loss worldwide and has a large scope of symptoms, ranging from pupillary reflex defects to sleep disorders. These issues can be explained partially by a recently found subtype of retinal ganglion cells that express melanopsin, denoted melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells or mRGCs for short. These cells function primarily as photoreceptors in the non-image forming pathway, but can receive input from rods and cones. Since mRGCs play a role in the pupillary reflex and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, I investigated if glaucoma leads to the degeneration of these cells in a mouse model ...


Role Of Ciliary Proteins Adp Ribosylation Factor Like Gtpase 13b (Arl13b) And Bardet-Biedl Syndrome-8 (Bbs8) In Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis, Maintenance, And Viability, Tanya L. Dilan 2020 West Virginia University

Role Of Ciliary Proteins Adp Ribosylation Factor Like Gtpase 13b (Arl13b) And Bardet-Biedl Syndrome-8 (Bbs8) In Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis, Maintenance, And Viability, Tanya L. Dilan

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Photoreceptor neurons are modified primary cilia with an extended ciliary compartment known as the outer segment (OS). The mechanisms behind the elaboration of photoreceptor cilia, OS morphogenesis, and maintenance remain poorly understood. In this work, we focused on dissecting the role of two ciliary proteins, the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor-like GTPase 13B (ARL13B) and Bardet-Biedl Syndrome-8 (BBS8) in the context of photoreceptor biology. Both BBS8 and ARL13B are linked to defects in ciliogenesis (cilia development) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (vision loss). ARL13B is implicated in regulating ciliary length, and BBS8 is part of the Bardet-Biedl Syndrome complex (BBSome); the BBSome is ...


An In-Depth Review Of Retinitis Pigmentosa Development And Pathologies Overtime In Patients, Abdul Harris 2019 Wayne State University

An In-Depth Review Of Retinitis Pigmentosa Development And Pathologies Overtime In Patients, Abdul Harris

Honors College Theses

Retinitis Pigmentosa is a disease which can cause blindness and affects around 2.5 million people worldwide. It is a disorder that has a multitude of ways of being inherited, such as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive as well as X-linked and mitochondrial linked disorder. While some versions of RP may be syndromic (20%-30%), a majority of cases are in fact non-syndromic. The majority of non-syndromic cases inherited via autosomal dominant RP having RHO gene mutations, and X-linked means of inheritance having majority of patients with RPGR gene mutations. Ushers Syndrome, a syndromic version of retinitis pigmentosa and autosomal recessive ...


Yap/Taz Activation Drives Uveal Melanoma Initiation And Progression, Huapeng Li, Qi Li, Kyvan Dang, Shan Ma, Jennifer L. Cotton, Sun Yang, Lihua Julie Zhu, April C. Deng, Y. Tony Ip, Randy L. Johnson, Xu Wu, Claudio Punzo, Junhao Mao 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Yap/Taz Activation Drives Uveal Melanoma Initiation And Progression, Huapeng Li, Qi Li, Kyvan Dang, Shan Ma, Jennifer L. Cotton, Sun Yang, Lihua Julie Zhu, April C. Deng, Y. Tony Ip, Randy L. Johnson, Xu Wu, Claudio Punzo, Junhao Mao

Open Access Articles

Uveal melanoma (UM), the most common ocular malignancy, is characterized by GNAQ/11 mutations. Hippo/YAP and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) emerge as two important signaling pathways downstream of G protein alpha subunits of the Q class (GalphaQ/11)-mediated transformation, although whether and how they contribute to UM genesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we adapt an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based ocular injection method to directly deliver Cre recombinase into the mouse uveal tract and demonstrate that Lats1/2 kinases suppress UM formation specifically in uveal melanocytes. We find that genetic activation of YAP, but not Kras, is ...


A Cohesin Subunit Variant Identified From A Peripheral Sclerocornea Pedigree, Bi Ning Zhang, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Pancy Oi Sin Tam, Yu Liu, Chi Pui Pang, Vishal Jhanji, Li Jia Chen, Wai Kit Chu 2019 The Chinese University of Hong Kong

A Cohesin Subunit Variant Identified From A Peripheral Sclerocornea Pedigree, Bi Ning Zhang, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Pancy Oi Sin Tam, Yu Liu, Chi Pui Pang, Vishal Jhanji, Li Jia Chen, Wai Kit Chu

Open Access Articles

Background: Sclerocornea is a rare congenital disorder characterized with the opacification of the cornea. Here, we report a nonconsanguineous Chinese family with multiple peripheral sclerocornea patients spanning across three generations inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.

Methods: This is a retrospective case series of a peripheral sclerocornea pedigree. Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were conducted and assessed on 14 pedigree members. Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the genetic alterations in the affected pedigree members. Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were established using blood samples from the family members. Functional tests were performed with these cell lines.

Results: Six affected and eight unaffected ...


Graft Versus Host Disease-Associated Dry Eye: Role Of Ocular Surface Mucins And The Effect Of Rebamipide, A Mucin Secretagogue, Kiumars Shamloo, Ashley Barbarino, Saleh Alfuraih, Ajay Sharma 2019 Chapman University

Graft Versus Host Disease-Associated Dry Eye: Role Of Ocular Surface Mucins And The Effect Of Rebamipide, A Mucin Secretagogue, Kiumars Shamloo, Ashley Barbarino, Saleh Alfuraih, Ajay Sharma

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. The present study was designed to investigate the role of ocular surface glycocalyx and mucins in graft versus host disease (GVHD)-associated dry eye. The ameliorative effect of topical rebamipide, a mucin secretagogue, on GVHD-associated dry eye was also tested.

METHODS. A mouse model of allogeneic transplantation was used to induce ocular GVHD with C57BL/6 as donors and B6D2F1 as recipient mice. Phenol red thread method and fluorescein staining was used to quantify tear secretion and corneal keratopathy. At 8 weeks after the allogeneic transplantation, corneas were harvested to perform glycocalyx staining and confocal microscopy. Goblet cell staining ...


The Road To Ocular Gene Therapy: Lessons From The Past, Hemant Khanna 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Road To Ocular Gene Therapy: Lessons From The Past, Hemant Khanna

Eyes to the Past Reception Presentations

This presentation at the Eyes to the Past exhibit reception by Hemant Khanna, PhD, principal investigator and associate professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, UMass Medical School, discusses the learnings gathered from ocular gene therapy over the years and new discoveries taking place at UMass Medical School.


Hindsight Is 20/20: A Review Of The Archives, Lauren Colwell 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hindsight Is 20/20: A Review Of The Archives, Lauren Colwell

Eyes to the Past Reception Presentations

This presentation at the Eyes to the Past exhibit reception by Lauren Colwell, MD Candidate 2020, UMass Medical School, reviewed the various ophthalmology-related artifacts included in the historical collection.


Association Between Perifoveal Drusen Burden Determined By Oct And Genetic Risk In Early And Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Johanna M. Seddon, James P. Dossett, Rafael Widjajahakim, Bernard Rosner 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Perifoveal Drusen Burden Determined By Oct And Genetic Risk In Early And Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Johanna M. Seddon, James P. Dossett, Rafael Widjajahakim, Bernard Rosner

Open Access Articles

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine associations between macular drusen parameters derived from an automatic optical coherence tomography (OCT) algorithm, nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) stage, and genetic variants.

Methods: Eyes classified as early or intermediate AMD with OCT imaging and genetic data were selected (n = 239 eyes). Drusen area and volume measurements were estimated using the Zeiss Cirrus advanced retinal pigment epithelium analysis algorithm in a perifoveal zone centered on the fovea. Associations between drusen measurements and common genetic variants in the complement and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid pathways and the ARMS2/HTRA1 variant were calculated ...


A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander 2019 Harvard Medical School

A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease where apoptosis, microglia activation, and inflammation have been linked to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and axon degeneration. We demonstrated previously that FasL-Fas signaling was required for axon degeneration and death of RGCs in chronic and inducible mouse models of glaucoma and that Fas activation triggered RGC apoptosis, glial activation, and inflammation. Here, we investigated whether targeting the Fas receptor with a small peptide antagonist, ONL1204, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a microbead-induced mouse model of glaucoma.

METHODS: Intracameral injection of microbeads was used to elevate intraocular pressure (IOP) in ...


International Multi-Center Study Of Iatrogenic Retinal Tears In Pars Plana Vitrectomy, Omar A. Saleh, Rami A. Al-Dwairi, Hasan Mohidat, Denis Jusufbegovic, Brooke Nesmith, Yoreh Barak, Michael Mimouni, Shlomit Schaal 2019 Jordan University of Science and Technology

International Multi-Center Study Of Iatrogenic Retinal Tears In Pars Plana Vitrectomy, Omar A. Saleh, Rami A. Al-Dwairi, Hasan Mohidat, Denis Jusufbegovic, Brooke Nesmith, Yoreh Barak, Michael Mimouni, Shlomit Schaal

Open Access Articles

AIM: To study and compare the effect of different surgical settings on the development of iatrogenic retinal tears (IRT) in conventional (20-gauge) and microincisional vitrectomy.

METHODS: An international retrospective comparative study of 394 patients who had simple vitrectomy at three tertiary centers. Surgeries were performed by four retina surgeons using different viewing systems. Two groups of eyes were compared: microincisional vitrectomy (327 eyes) and conventional (67 eyes) vitrectomy. An iatrogenic tear was defined as the occurrence of one or more peripheral retinal tears during surgery or at any visit in the first 6wk postoperatively.

RESULTS: Mean age was 67+/-12y ...


Shortened Cataract Surgery By Standardisation Of The Perioperative Protocol According To The Joint Commission International Accreditation: A Retrospective Observational Study, Yuichi Okumura, Takenori Inomata, Masao Iwagami, Atsuko Eguchi, Ju Mizuno, Tina Shiang, Shiori Kawasaki, Akie Shimada, Eiichi Inada, Atsushi Amano, Akira Murakami 2019 Juntendo University

Shortened Cataract Surgery By Standardisation Of The Perioperative Protocol According To The Joint Commission International Accreditation: A Retrospective Observational Study, Yuichi Okumura, Takenori Inomata, Masao Iwagami, Atsuko Eguchi, Ju Mizuno, Tina Shiang, Shiori Kawasaki, Akie Shimada, Eiichi Inada, Atsushi Amano, Akira Murakami

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of standardisation of the perioperative protocol based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation guidelines for operating time in cataract surgery.

DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.

SETTING: Single centre in Japan.

PARTICIPANTS: Between March 2014 and June 2016, 3127 patients underwent cataract surgery under topical anaesthesia including 2581 and 546 patients before and after JCI accreditation, respectively.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: We compared three time periods, comprising the preprocedure/surgery time (pre-PT), PT and post-PT, and total PT (TPT) of cataract surgery between patients before and after JCI accreditation, by regression analysis adjusted for age, sex ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Joe Smith

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


For Your Eyes Only, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Case Study, Alexander Fishman, Jared Ward, Richard Pescatore 2019 Rowan University

For Your Eyes Only, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Case Study, Alexander Fishman, Jared Ward, Richard Pescatore

Stratford Campus Research Day

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus is a reactivation of a latent Varicella Zoster Virus that specifically involves the eye. The reactivation often occurs during immunocompromised states which allows latent virus in the dorsal root ganglia of sensory nerves to begin viral replication an d s pread via peripheral axons. Diagnosis is based on two characteristic findings; herpetic lesions on the eyelids, forehead, or elsewhere within the V1 dermatome, and ocular findings. Symptoms can vary but are often quite painful. Some patients experience a prodrome of tingling sensation prior to the appearance of a zoster dermatitis . HZO can also present initially as flu ...


Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre 2019 University of Connecticut

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

Abnormal ocular motility is a common manifestation of many underlying pathologies particularly those that are neurological. Dynamics of saccades, when the eye rapidly changes its point of fixation, have been characterized for many neurological disorders including concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and Parkinson’s disease. However, widespread saccade analysis for diagnostic and research purposes requires the recognition of certain eye movement parameters. Key information such as velocity and duration must be determined from data based on a wide set of patients’ characteristics that may range in eye shapes and iris, hair and skin pigmentation [36]. Previous work on saccade analysis ...


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