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Disorders of Environmental Origin Commons

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Why Do We Worry About Trace Poisons?, Allan Mazur 2016 University of New Hampshire

Why Do We Worry About Trace Poisons?, Allan Mazur

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Mazur relates how protests by the political left against nuclear tests and by the political right against fluoridation set the stage for Silent Spring to move the public toward being concerned about latent risks.


Fish Advisories: Useful Or Difficult To Interpret?, Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld 2016 University of New Hampshire

Fish Advisories: Useful Or Difficult To Interpret?, Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors note that fish and shellfish offer significant exposure to environmental toxins but find that consumer knowledge and other factors may limit efforts to control risk in urban populations.


[Review Of] Elizabeth M. Whelan, Toxic Terror: The Truth Behind The Cancer Scares, Sarah Redfield 2016 University of New Hampshire

[Review Of] Elizabeth M. Whelan, Toxic Terror: The Truth Behind The Cancer Scares, Sarah Redfield

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: Elizabeth M. Whelan, Toxic Terror: The Truth Behind the Cancer Scares (Prometheus Books 1993). Acknowledgements, appendix, figures, foreword by Norman F. Borlaug, index, notes tables. LC 92-34154; ISBN 0-87975-788-4. [476 pp. Cloth $26.95. 59 John Glenn Drive, Buffalo NY 14228-2197.]


The Media, Risk Assessment And Numbers: They Don't Add Up, Sharon M. Friedman 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Media, Risk Assessment And Numbers: They Don't Add Up, Sharon M. Friedman

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Professor Friedman argues that, for risks to be reported accurately, journalism educators must help their students understand science, numbers and statistics.


[Review Of] National Research Council, Issues In Risk Assessment, Diane M. Albert 2016 University of New Hampshire

[Review Of] National Research Council, Issues In Risk Assessment, Diane M. Albert

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: National Research Council, Issues in Risk Assessment (National Academy Press). Appendices, executive summary, figures, preface, references, tables. LC 92-61838; ISBN 0-309-04786-2. [374 pp. Paper $37.50 - S&H, $4 for first and $0.50 for each additional copy. 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20418.]


[Review Of] M. Stuart Madden, Toxic Torts Deskbook, Laura Marron 2016 University of New Hampshire

[Review Of] M. Stuart Madden, Toxic Torts Deskbook, Laura Marron

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

M. Stuart Madden, Toxic Torts Deskbook (Lewis Publishers 1992). Acknowledgements, case index, general index, notes, preface. LC 91-48238; ISBN 0- 87371-508-X. [230 pp. Cloth $69.95 domestic, $84.00 elsewhere. 2000 Corporate Boulevard, NW, Boca Raton FL 33431.]Review of:


Coping With The Risk Of Cancer In Children Living Near Power Lines, Eileen N. Abt 2016 University of New Hampshire

Coping With The Risk Of Cancer In Children Living Near Power Lines, Eileen N. Abt

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Ms. Abt briefly summarizes evidence linking power lines with a possible increase in risk of childhood cancer. She also recounts how, although many experts remain skeptical of causality, public fears, whether or not warranted, have themselves created serious problems. Finally, she proposes ways to address those problems.


Fertile Women May Now Apply: Fetal Protection Policies After Johnson Controls, Barbara Ruhe Grumet 2016 University of New Hampshire

Fertile Women May Now Apply: Fetal Protection Policies After Johnson Controls, Barbara Ruhe Grumet

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

In its recent interpretation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the U.S. Supreme Court leaves little room for permissible occupational sex discrimination. However, its decision has wider implications. Here, Professor Grumet takes a look at some of them from both a legal and a social perspective, including matters such as employees' reproductive freedom and employers' potential liability for a variety of possible injuries to employees' offspring.


Risk Assessment For Developmental Toxicity: Airborne Occupational Exposure To Ethanol And Iodine, Donald R. Mattison 2016 University of New Hampshire

Risk Assessment For Developmental Toxicity: Airborne Occupational Exposure To Ethanol And Iodine, Donald R. Mattison

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dean Mattison explains hazard identification, hazard characterization and exposure characterization as furnishing a foundation for Risk assessment generally. He then illustrates their application in assessing the fetal Risk posed by two common substances. Ultimately, he argues that only after Risks have been so examined can women of child bearing age (or anyone) decide what if any measures are appropriate to avoid them.


Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards 2016 James Madison University

Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...


Vinyl Chloride-Diet Interactions In Liver Disease : Potential Roles Of Autophagy And Energy Management., Anna L. Lang 2016 University of Louisville

Vinyl Chloride-Diet Interactions In Liver Disease : Potential Roles Of Autophagy And Energy Management., Anna L. Lang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vinyl chloride (VC) is a prevalent environmental toxicant that has been shown to cause liver injury at high, occupational exposures. However, most studies have not addressed interactions of low doses with risk-modifying factors. This study aims to explore low-level VC metabolite exposure interactions with other potential risk-modifying factors and their effect on underlying liver disease. We examined sub-hepatotoxic effects of a VC metabolite (chloroethanol, CE) in two murine models of liver injury using ethanol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In both, CE significantly enhanced liver injury when compared to either ethanol or LPS alone. Previous studies have shown an increase in mTOR ...


Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals, is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases in later life. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. In this thesis, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on fetal lung development, and define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA were administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to 18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure ...


A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The highly associated paediatric conditions of asthma and overweight have seen dramatic increases over the past few decades. This thesis explored air pollution exposure as a potential underlying mechanism of co-morbid asthma and overweight among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey were merged with a database containing estimates of air pollution as assessed by particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) concentrations at the postal code centroid in southwestern Ontario. Logistic regression was used to conduct the analysis. Adolescents were more likely to be overweight as PM2.5 concentrations increased. There ...


The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells that is not due to alcohol consumption. Steatosis results when more than 5-10% of the liver’s weight consists of fat. People who are overweight, or who have diabetes or high cholesterol are more likely to develop NAFLD. Over time, NAFLD can advance to cause cirrhosis, and eventually, liver cancer or failure.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, BDEs) are brominated flame- retardants, and are found in many plastics and household products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and computers. BDEs are released into the environment ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis Baumgardner

Dennis Baumgardner

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


Newly Developed And Validated Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System And Evidence That It Outperforms Peak Eosinophil Count For Disease Diagnosis And Monitoring, Margaret H. Collins, Lisa J. Martin, Eileen Steinle Alexander, J Todd Boyd, Rachel Sheridan, Hua He, Scott Pentiuk, Philip E. Putnam, J Pablo Abonia, Vincent A. Mukkada, James P. Franciosi, Marc E. Rothenberg 2016 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Newly Developed And Validated Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System And Evidence That It Outperforms Peak Eosinophil Count For Disease Diagnosis And Monitoring, Margaret H. Collins, Lisa J. Martin, Eileen Steinle Alexander, J Todd Boyd, Rachel Sheridan, Hua He, Scott Pentiuk, Philip E. Putnam, J Pablo Abonia, Vincent A. Mukkada, James P. Franciosi, Marc E. Rothenberg

Faculty Scholarship

Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed by symptoms, and at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils per high power field in an esophageal biopsy. Other pathologic features have not been emphasized. We developed a histology scoring system for esophageal biopsies that evaluates eight features: eosinophil density, basal zone hyperplasia, eosinophil abscesses, eosinophil surface layering, dilated intercellular spaces, surface epithelial alteration, dyskeratotic epithelial cells and lamina propria fibrosis. Severity (grade) and extent (stage) of abnormalities were scored using a 4 point scale (0 normal; 3 maximum change). Reliability was demonstrated by strong to moderate agreement among 3 pathologists who scored biopsies independently (p≤0.008 ...


One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

ABSTRACT

It has been widely recognized that microRNAs are involved in nearly all cellular processes that have been investigated and contribute to a variety of diseases including cancer. Our prior studies demonstrated the depletion of one-carbon metabolism related B-vitamins, including folate, vitamin B2, B6 and B12, induced a genomic DNA hypomethylation and an elevation of the tumorigenic Wnt signaling in mouse colonic epithelium. The present study aimed to define whether microRNAs serve as mediators between these B-vitamins and the Wnt signaling, and thereby influence intestinal tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression profiles were measured using miRNA microarray and real-time PCR on colonic epithelial ...


“The Most Poisonous Of All Diseases Of Mind Or Body”: Colorphobia And The Politics Of Reform, April J. Gemeinhardt 2016 University of Montana

“The Most Poisonous Of All Diseases Of Mind Or Body”: Colorphobia And The Politics Of Reform, April J. Gemeinhardt

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

Focusing on the mid-1830s through 1865, this thesis explores colorphobia—the irrational fear and hatred of black people otherwise known as racial prejudice—as a reform tactic adopted by abolitionists. It argues that colorphobia played a pivotal role in the radical abolitionist reform agenda for promoting anti-slavery, immediate emancipation, equal rights, and black advancement. By framing racial prejudice as a disease, abolitionists believed connotations, stigmas, and fears of illness would elicit more attention to the rapidly increasing racial prejudice in the free North and persuade prejudiced white Americans into changing their ways. Abolitionists used parallels to cholera, choleraphobia (fear of ...


Burden Of Skin Lesions Of Arsenicosis At Higher Exposure Through Groundwater Of Taluka Gambat District Khairpur, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Zafar Fatmi, Imran Abbasi, Mubashir Ahmed, Ambreen Kazi, Fujio Kayama 2015 Agha Khan University

Burden Of Skin Lesions Of Arsenicosis At Higher Exposure Through Groundwater Of Taluka Gambat District Khairpur, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Zafar Fatmi, Imran Abbasi, Mubashir Ahmed, Ambreen Kazi, Fujio Kayama

Zafar Fatmi

Prior surveys conducted have found higher proportion of arsenic-contaminated wells in villages along river Indus in Pakistan. This study aims to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions among population exposed to higher exposure in taluka Gambat district Khairpur in Sindh. The cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 to January 2009 among 610 households. A total of 707 water sources (hand pumps/wells) were tested from the villages of union councils of Agra and Jado Wahan for arsenic levels with Quick rapid arsenic field test kits. A total of 110 households exposed to arsenic levels >50 ppb were identified ...


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