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Disorders of Environmental Origin Commons

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Evaluation Of Bde-47 And -99 Lipid Modulating Effects In Hepg2 Human Carcinoma Cells, Eileen A. Holovac 2015 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Bde-47 And -99 Lipid Modulating Effects In Hepg2 Human Carcinoma Cells, Eileen A. Holovac

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a significantly more common problem in today’s society, affecting up to 25% of people in the United States as reported by the American Liver Foundation. According to the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases, NAFLD is the buildup of fat in the liver that is not caused by secondary factors such as alcohol consumption, hereditary disorders, or the use of steatogenic medication such as amioderone. A liver is considered fatty when 5-10% of the liver’s weight is fat. The progression of NAFLD can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, or ...


The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. McGann 2015 Liberty University

The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. Mcgann

Senior Honors Theses

Nodding syndrome (NS) is an emerging epidemic neurological disease that is shrouded in mystery. It is currently only found in the post-conflict regions of South Sudan, northern Uganda, and Tanzania. NS occurs in children from the ages of five to fifteen and is characterized by a loss of motor control in the neck muscles. Seizure episodes can range in intensity from atonic to tonic-clonic, and the onset of the first episode generally marks the beginning of a decline in the child’s physical and mental health. NS is a progressive disease that generally results in physical wasting, stunted growth, behavioral ...


Better Safe Than Sorry: A Precautionary Toxic Substances Control Act Reform Proposal, Andrew Liebler 2015 Washington University School of Law

Better Safe Than Sorry: A Precautionary Toxic Substances Control Act Reform Proposal, Andrew Liebler

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

In 2011, the Natural Resources Defense Council released an issue paper on disease clusters in the United States. The paper documented the phenomenon of unusually large groups of people afflicted with certain diseases in a circumscribed place and time. These heightened incidences of various ailments have been linked to the presence of various toxic chemicals in the environment and consumer products. At the heart of this problem is the failure of America’s primary regulatory safeguard against harmful chemical exposure: the Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”). In response to the TSCA’s shortcomings, this Note argues that the current US ...


On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar 2013 Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile

On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Archaic mummies from northern Chile were examined for the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The excellent preservation of mummies and louse nits/eggs permitted a study of the degree of head lice infestation. We studied 63 Chinchorro mummies (ca. 5000–3000 years B.P.) from the Arica-Camarones coast. An area of 2 cm × 2 cm on each mummy’s head was systematically inspected for louse nits/eggs. Hairs with nits/eggs and lice were collected and analyzed using optic and scanning electronic microscopy. About 79% (50/63) of the mummies resulted positive for pediculosis, with an average of 2.1 ...


Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand van der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci 2013 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand Van Der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci

Papers in Natural Resources

We undertook the analysis of Zweeloo Woman, a bog mummy from the Netherlands, to assess her parasitic state. Evidence of infection came from two areas: (1) liver paraffin sections and (2) microfossils washed from an intestinal section. Although the liver had shrunken considerably, objects consistent with operculated trematode eggs were found. After evaluating the range of trematode species that produce eggs in liver tissue, we arrived at the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Although only 0.1 ml of sediment was recovered from an intestinal section, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also identified. No eggs of D. dendriticum ...


Environmental And Occupational Interventions For Primary Prevention Of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework, Carolina Espina, Miquel Porta, Joachim Schüz, Ildefonso Hernández Aguado, Robert V. Percival, Carlos Dora, Terry Slevin, Julietta Rodriguez Guzman, Tim Meredith, Philip J. Landrigan, Maria Neira 2013 University of Maryland School of Law

Environmental And Occupational Interventions For Primary Prevention Of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework, Carolina Espina, Miquel Porta, Joachim Schüz, Ildefonso Hernández Aguado, Robert V. Percival, Carlos Dora, Terry Slevin, Julietta Rodriguez Guzman, Tim Meredith, Philip J. Landrigan, Maria Neira

Faculty Scholarship

Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. A substantial portion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace.

The objective of this study was to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer.

The study concluded that opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens.


Could You Repeat That Please? Forty-Five Years Of Testing Pesticides On People, Barbara R. Leiterman Esq. 2013 SelectedWorks

Could You Repeat That Please? Forty-Five Years Of Testing Pesticides On People, Barbara R. Leiterman Esq.

Barbara R. Leiterman Esq.

Little has been published in the literature about pesticide experiments conducted on human subjects. Yet there were at least twenty-two tests between 1967 and 2011 in which people were intentionally exposed to specific doses of pesticides. Almost all of these experiments violated scientific ethics and human rights. This article aims to describe those tests and their shortcomings, and explore the laws and regulations that incentivize such human experimentation. Ironically, as the public desire for pesticide safety increases, so does the industry’s motivation to test pesticides on people. Bringing these pesticide experiments to light, expanding the public discourse on the ...


Eastern Equine Encephalitis: An Assessment Of Vermont’S Treatment Plan And The Lack Of Preventative Treatment, Lauren E. Bierman 2013 Sacred Heart University

Eastern Equine Encephalitis: An Assessment Of Vermont’S Treatment Plan And The Lack Of Preventative Treatment, Lauren E. Bierman

WAC Prize Winners

When an avian host and the Culiseta melanura mosquito meet in fresh water hardwood swamps, the Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEE) is spread to the bird community. When that same bird is bitten by a mosquito that feeds on humans, such as the Aedes, Coquillettidia, and Culex species, the EEE virus has found its bridge vector. EEE is a rare disease in humans; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2010 that the virus affects an average of 6 people per year (Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution section, para 2). In 2010, blood collected from deer and moose tested ...


Medical Direction Of Wilderness And Other Operational Emergency Medical Services Programs, Craig R. Warden, Michael G. Millin, Seth C. Hawkins, Richard N. Bradley 2012 Oregon Health & Science University

Medical Direction Of Wilderness And Other Operational Emergency Medical Services Programs, Craig R. Warden, Michael G. Millin, Seth C. Hawkins, Richard N. Bradley

Richard N Bradley

Within a healthcare system, operational emergency medical services (EMS) programs provide prehospital emergency care to patients in austere and resource-limited settings. Some of these programs are additionally considered to be wilderness EMS programs, a specialized type of operational EMS program, as they primarily function in a wilderness setting (eg, wilderness search and rescue, ski patrols, water rescue, beach patrols, and cave rescue). Other operational EMS programs include urban search and rescue, air medical support, and tactical law enforcement response. The medical director will help to ensure that the care provided follows protocols that are in accordance with local and state ...


Bioarchaeology Of Compassion: Exploring Extreme Cases Of Pathology In A Bronze Age Skeletal Population From Tell Abraq, U.A.E., Jamie D. Vilos 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Bioarchaeology Of Compassion: Exploring Extreme Cases Of Pathology In A Bronze Age Skeletal Population From Tell Abraq, U.A.E., Jamie D. Vilos

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Tell Abraq is a Bronze Age archaeological site located in the modern day United Arab Emirates and was occupied from the 3rd millennium BC to the 1st century AD. The coastal location provided access to both marine and agricultural resources as well as trade routes and foreign exchange. The tomb at the site was in use for 200 years (2200-2000 BC) and housed the commingled remains of a minimum of 286 adults. These individuals lived hard lives, dependent on good health to maintain a life-line of sustenance for themselves and each other. A number of individuals with severe expressions of ...


Environmental Toxins: Biological, Chemical And Radiological Terrorism, Richard N. Bradley 2011 The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Environmental Toxins: Biological, Chemical And Radiological Terrorism, Richard N. Bradley

Richard N Bradley

Children have greater risk of harm than adults after exposure to chemical, biological or radiological weapons, as may be seen following some acts of terrorism. This chapter reviews potential chemical agents, separating them into four categories: nerve agents, blister agents, cyanides, and choking agents. It reviews both recognition and treatment. The chapter also reviews symptoms, modes of transmission and treatment for the following biological agents: smallpox, plague, tularemia, anthrax, botulism, and viral hemorrhagic fevers.


When Curiosity Kills More Than The Cat: The Perils Of Unchecked Scientific Inquiry, Jamie Shannon 2010 Pomona College

When Curiosity Kills More Than The Cat: The Perils Of Unchecked Scientific Inquiry, Jamie Shannon

Pomona Senior Theses

This work analyzes the ecological, physical, emotional and health impacts of the US nuclear testing done in the Marshall Islands in the mid-20th century.


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