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Determining The Protective Effects Of Quercetin Against Cadmium Toxicity In Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Caroline N. Smith 2017 Bellarmine University

Determining The Protective Effects Of Quercetin Against Cadmium Toxicity In Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Caroline N. Smith

Undergraduate Theses

Cadmium is a toxic industrial and environmental pollutant found in groundwater, air, soils, food and cigarettes. Chronic intake of low levels of cadmium has been shown to result in renal dysfunction due to cell death which can occur via apoptosis as well as necrosis. Previous studies have shown that plant extracts containing quercetin, a flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, protect against cadmium toxicity in rat liver hepatocytes. To determine if quercetin may have a protective effect in a cadmium-treated human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK-293 cells were treated using concentrations of cadmium chloride from 10 to 50 μM ...


Diet, Kidney Stones And Kidney Failure, lynda frassetto 2017 UCSF

Diet, Kidney Stones And Kidney Failure, Lynda Frassetto

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


The [E]Motionless Body No Longer: Tracing The Historical Intersections Of Mental Illness And Movement In The American Asylum, Holly Adele Herzfeld 2017 Bard College

The [E]Motionless Body No Longer: Tracing The Historical Intersections Of Mental Illness And Movement In The American Asylum, Holly Adele Herzfeld

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Multidisciplinary Studies of Bard College.


Longitudinal Changes In Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Between 18 And 36 Months In Children With Prenatal Triptan Exposure: Findings From The Norwegian Mother And Child Cohort Study, Mollie E. Wood, Jean A. Frazier, Hedvig M.E. Nordeng, Kate L. Lapane 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Longitudinal Changes In Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Between 18 And 36 Months In Children With Prenatal Triptan Exposure: Findings From The Norwegian Mother And Child Cohort Study, Mollie E. Wood, Jean A. Frazier, Hedvig M.E. Nordeng, Kate L. Lapane

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes between 18 and 36 months of age were associated with prenatal exposure to triptan medications, a class of 5-HT receptor agonists used in the treatment of migraine.

METHOD: Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a prospective birth cohort that includes nearly 40% of all pregnancies in Norway from 1999 to 2008, we identified 50 469 mother-child dyads who met inclusion criteria and were present for at least one follow-up assessment at 18 or 36 months postpartum. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist, the ...


Vinyl Chloride-Diet Interactions In Liver Disease : Potential Roles Of Autophagy And Energy Management., Anna L. Lang 2016 University of Louisville

Vinyl Chloride-Diet Interactions In Liver Disease : Potential Roles Of Autophagy And Energy Management., Anna L. Lang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vinyl chloride (VC) is a prevalent environmental toxicant that has been shown to cause liver injury at high, occupational exposures. However, most studies have not addressed interactions of low doses with risk-modifying factors. This study aims to explore low-level VC metabolite exposure interactions with other potential risk-modifying factors and their effect on underlying liver disease. We examined sub-hepatotoxic effects of a VC metabolite (chloroethanol, CE) in two murine models of liver injury using ethanol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In both, CE significantly enhanced liver injury when compared to either ethanol or LPS alone. Previous studies have shown an increase in mTOR ...


Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards 2016 James Madison University

Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...


Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals, is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases in later life. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. In this thesis, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on fetal lung development, and define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA were administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to 18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure ...


A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The highly associated paediatric conditions of asthma and overweight have seen dramatic increases over the past few decades. This thesis explored air pollution exposure as a potential underlying mechanism of co-morbid asthma and overweight among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey were merged with a database containing estimates of air pollution as assessed by particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) concentrations at the postal code centroid in southwestern Ontario. Logistic regression was used to conduct the analysis. Adolescents were more likely to be overweight as PM2.5 concentrations increased. There ...


The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells that is not due to alcohol consumption. Steatosis results when more than 5-10% of the liver’s weight consists of fat. People who are overweight, or who have diabetes or high cholesterol are more likely to develop NAFLD. Over time, NAFLD can advance to cause cirrhosis, and eventually, liver cancer or failure.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, BDEs) are brominated flame- retardants, and are found in many plastics and household products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and computers. BDEs are released into the environment ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis Baumgardner

Dennis Baumgardner

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


Newly Developed And Validated Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System And Evidence That It Outperforms Peak Eosinophil Count For Disease Diagnosis And Monitoring, Margaret H. Collins, Lisa J. Martin, Eileen Steinle Alexander, J Todd Boyd, Rachel Sheridan, Hua He, Scott Pentiuk, Philip E. Putnam, J Pablo Abonia, Vincent A. Mukkada, James P. Franciosi, Marc E. Rothenberg 2016 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Newly Developed And Validated Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System And Evidence That It Outperforms Peak Eosinophil Count For Disease Diagnosis And Monitoring, Margaret H. Collins, Lisa J. Martin, Eileen Steinle Alexander, J Todd Boyd, Rachel Sheridan, Hua He, Scott Pentiuk, Philip E. Putnam, J Pablo Abonia, Vincent A. Mukkada, James P. Franciosi, Marc E. Rothenberg

Faculty Scholarship

Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed by symptoms, and at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils per high power field in an esophageal biopsy. Other pathologic features have not been emphasized. We developed a histology scoring system for esophageal biopsies that evaluates eight features: eosinophil density, basal zone hyperplasia, eosinophil abscesses, eosinophil surface layering, dilated intercellular spaces, surface epithelial alteration, dyskeratotic epithelial cells and lamina propria fibrosis. Severity (grade) and extent (stage) of abnormalities were scored using a 4 point scale (0 normal; 3 maximum change). Reliability was demonstrated by strong to moderate agreement among 3 pathologists who scored biopsies independently (p≤0.008 ...


“The Most Poisonous Of All Diseases Of Mind Or Body”: Colorphobia And The Politics Of Reform, April J. Gemeinhardt 2016 University of Montana

“The Most Poisonous Of All Diseases Of Mind Or Body”: Colorphobia And The Politics Of Reform, April J. Gemeinhardt

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Focusing on the mid-1830s through 1865, this thesis explores colorphobia—the irrational fear and hatred of black people otherwise known as racial prejudice—as a reform tactic adopted by abolitionists. It argues that colorphobia played a pivotal role in the radical abolitionist reform agenda for promoting anti-slavery, immediate emancipation, equal rights, and black advancement. By framing racial prejudice as a disease, abolitionists believed connotations, stigmas, and fears of illness would elicit more attention to the rapidly increasing racial prejudice in the free North and persuade prejudiced white Americans into changing their ways. Abolitionists used parallels to cholera, choleraphobia (fear of ...


One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot

Masters Theses

ABSTRACT

It has been widely recognized that microRNAs are involved in nearly all cellular processes that have been investigated and contribute to a variety of diseases including cancer. Our prior studies demonstrated the depletion of one-carbon metabolism related B-vitamins, including folate, vitamin B2, B6 and B12, induced a genomic DNA hypomethylation and an elevation of the tumorigenic Wnt signaling in mouse colonic epithelium. The present study aimed to define whether microRNAs serve as mediators between these B-vitamins and the Wnt signaling, and thereby influence intestinal tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression profiles were measured using miRNA microarray and real-time PCR on colonic epithelial ...


The Fight For Zadroga, Naeisha Rose 2015 CUNY Graduate School of Journalism

The Fight For Zadroga, Naeisha Rose

Capstones

The attack on the World Trade Center cost many first responders and volunteers, like Ken George, a retired highway crewmember who was part of the search and rescue, to lose their health. Ken had needs a respirator for his restricted airway disease, he is o n 33 medications and five years ago he had a heart attack. Bi- =weekly or monthly, he visits a doctor for his PTSD, his heart, his lungs and general healthcare. After seeing the devastating conditions that the responders like Ken worked in, Congresswoman C arolyn Maloney (D-12) worked tirelessly with many politicians, both Democrats and ...


Antioncogenic And Oncogenic Properties Of Nrf2 In Arsenic-Induced Carcinogenesis, Young-Ok Son, Poyil Pratheeshkumar, Ram Vinod Roy, Andrew Hitron, Lei Wang, Sasidharan Padmaja Divya, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Gang Chen, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi 2015 University of Kentucky

Antioncogenic And Oncogenic Properties Of Nrf2 In Arsenic-Induced Carcinogenesis, Young-Ok Son, Poyil Pratheeshkumar, Ram Vinod Roy, Andrew Hitron, Lei Wang, Sasidharan Padmaja Divya, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Gang Chen, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi

Center for Research on Environmental Disease Faculty Publications

Arsenic (As3+) is a carcinogen with considerable environmental and occupational relevancy. The present study shows that As3+-transformed human lung bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells (AsT cells) exhibit the property of apoptosis resistance. The level of basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) is very low in AsT cells in correlation with elevated expressions of both antioxidant enzymes and antiapoptotic proteins. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and p62 are constitutively expressed. These two proteins up-regulate antioxidant enzymes and antiapoptotic proteins. The knockdown of Nrf2 or p62 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced both ROS levels and As3+-induced apoptosis ...


Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations And Age Of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys, Thuy Lam, Paige Williams, Mary Lee, Susan Korrick, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Russ Hauser 2015 Harvard University

Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations And Age Of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys, Thuy Lam, Paige Williams, Mary Lee, Susan Korrick, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

BACKGROUND: In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development; however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. METHODS: In Chapaevsk, Russia, a town environmentally contaminated with OCPs, 350 8-9 year old boys with measured OCPs were enrolled during 2003-2005 and were followed annually for eight years. We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). We used ...


Association Between Chlorinated Pesticides In The Serum Of Prepubertal Russian Boys And Longitudinal Biomarkers Of Metabolic Function, Jane Burns, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Russ Hauser, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Thuy Lam, Mary Lee 2015 Harvard University

Association Between Chlorinated Pesticides In The Serum Of Prepubertal Russian Boys And Longitudinal Biomarkers Of Metabolic Function, Jane Burns, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Russ Hauser, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Thuy Lam, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been linked to adult metabolic disorders; however, few studies have examined these associations in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the associations of baseline serum OCPs (hexachlorobenzene, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in Russian boys with subsequent repeated measurements of serum glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, and calculated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (IR). During 2003-2005, we enrolled 499 boys aged 8-9 years in a prospective cohort; 318 had baseline serum OCPs and serum biomarkers measured at ages 10-13 years. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and mediation regression models were used to examine associations and direct and indirect (via ...


Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 In Cigarette Smoke Exposure And Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Lung Injury, Yashodhar P. Bhandary, Shwetha K. Shetty, Amarnath S. Marudamuthu, Krishna K. Midde, Hong-Long Ji, Homoyoun Shams, Renuka Subramaniam, Jian Fu, Steven Idell, Sreerama Shetty 2015 University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 In Cigarette Smoke Exposure And Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Lung Injury, Yashodhar P. Bhandary, Shwetha K. Shetty, Amarnath S. Marudamuthu, Krishna K. Midde, Hong-Long Ji, Homoyoun Shams, Renuka Subramaniam, Jian Fu, Steven Idell, Sreerama Shetty

Center for Research on Environmental Disease Faculty Publications

Parenchymal lung inflammation and airway and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis are associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE), which contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies indicate that people exposed to chronic cigarette smoke with or without COPD are more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We found increased p53, PAI-1 and apoptosis in AECs, with accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs of patients with COPD. In Wild-type (WT) mice with passive CSE (PCSE), p53 and PAI-1 expression and apoptosis were increased in AECs as was lung inflammation, while those lacking p53 or PAI-1 resisted AEC ...


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