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Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals, is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases in later life. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. In this thesis, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on fetal lung development, and define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA were administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to 18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure ...


A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The highly associated paediatric conditions of asthma and overweight have seen dramatic increases over the past few decades. This thesis explored air pollution exposure as a potential underlying mechanism of co-morbid asthma and overweight among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey were merged with a database containing estimates of air pollution as assessed by particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) concentrations at the postal code centroid in southwestern Ontario. Logistic regression was used to conduct the analysis. Adolescents were more likely to be overweight as PM2.5 concentrations increased. There ...


The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells that is not due to alcohol consumption. Steatosis results when more than 5-10% of the liver’s weight consists of fat. People who are overweight, or who have diabetes or high cholesterol are more likely to develop NAFLD. Over time, NAFLD can advance to cause cirrhosis, and eventually, liver cancer or failure.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, BDEs) are brominated flame- retardants, and are found in many plastics and household products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and computers. BDEs are released into the environment ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis Baumgardner

Dennis Baumgardner

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group

Stinging Nettle: The Bad, The Good, The Unknown, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging ...


One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

One-Carbon Metabolism Related B-Vitamins Alter The Expression Of Micrornas And Target Genes Within The Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mouse Colonic Epithelium, Riccardo Racicot

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

ABSTRACT

It has been widely recognized that microRNAs are involved in nearly all cellular processes that have been investigated and contribute to a variety of diseases including cancer. Our prior studies demonstrated the depletion of one-carbon metabolism related B-vitamins, including folate, vitamin B2, B6 and B12, induced a genomic DNA hypomethylation and an elevation of the tumorigenic Wnt signaling in mouse colonic epithelium. The present study aimed to define whether microRNAs serve as mediators between these B-vitamins and the Wnt signaling, and thereby influence intestinal tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression profiles were measured using miRNA microarray and real-time PCR on colonic epithelial ...


“The Most Poisonous Of All Diseases Of Mind Or Body”: Colorphobia And The Politics Of Reform, April J. Gemeinhardt 2016 University of Montana

“The Most Poisonous Of All Diseases Of Mind Or Body”: Colorphobia And The Politics Of Reform, April J. Gemeinhardt

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

Focusing on the mid-1830s through 1865, this thesis explores colorphobia—the irrational fear and hatred of black people otherwise known as racial prejudice—as a reform tactic adopted by abolitionists. It argues that colorphobia played a pivotal role in the radical abolitionist reform agenda for promoting anti-slavery, immediate emancipation, equal rights, and black advancement. By framing racial prejudice as a disease, abolitionists believed connotations, stigmas, and fears of illness would elicit more attention to the rapidly increasing racial prejudice in the free North and persuade prejudiced white Americans into changing their ways. Abolitionists used parallels to cholera, choleraphobia (fear of ...


Burden Of Skin Lesions Of Arsenicosis At Higher Exposure Through Groundwater Of Taluka Gambat District Khairpur, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Zafar Fatmi, Imran Abbasi, Mubashir Ahmed, Ambreen Kazi, Fujio Kayama 2015 Agha Khan University

Burden Of Skin Lesions Of Arsenicosis At Higher Exposure Through Groundwater Of Taluka Gambat District Khairpur, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Zafar Fatmi, Imran Abbasi, Mubashir Ahmed, Ambreen Kazi, Fujio Kayama

Zafar Fatmi

Prior surveys conducted have found higher proportion of arsenic-contaminated wells in villages along river Indus in Pakistan. This study aims to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions among population exposed to higher exposure in taluka Gambat district Khairpur in Sindh. The cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 to January 2009 among 610 households. A total of 707 water sources (hand pumps/wells) were tested from the villages of union councils of Agra and Jado Wahan for arsenic levels with Quick rapid arsenic field test kits. A total of 110 households exposed to arsenic levels >50 ppb were identified ...


Indoor Air Pollution (Pm2.5) Due To Secondhand Smoke In Selected Hospitality And Entertainment Venues Of Karachi, Pakistan, Asaad Nafees, Tahir Taj, Muhammad Kadir, Zafar Fatmi, Kiyoung Lee, Nalini Sathiakumar 2015 Aga Khan University

Indoor Air Pollution (Pm2.5) Due To Secondhand Smoke In Selected Hospitality And Entertainment Venues Of Karachi, Pakistan, Asaad Nafees, Tahir Taj, Muhammad Kadir, Zafar Fatmi, Kiyoung Lee, Nalini Sathiakumar

Zafar Fatmi

Objective : To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods : This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and cafés) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM2.5 levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. Results : All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM2.5 levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM2.5 levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m3 and the outdoor ...


Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations And Age Of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys, Thuy Lam, Paige Williams, Mary Lee, Susan Korrick, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Russ Hauser 2015 Harvard University

Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations And Age Of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys, Thuy Lam, Paige Williams, Mary Lee, Susan Korrick, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

BACKGROUND: In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development; however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. METHODS: In Chapaevsk, Russia, a town environmentally contaminated with OCPs, 350 8-9 year old boys with measured OCPs were enrolled during 2003-2005 and were followed annually for eight years. We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). We used ...


Association Between Chlorinated Pesticides In The Serum Of Prepubertal Russian Boys And Longitudinal Biomarkers Of Metabolic Function, Jane Burns, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Russ Hauser, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Thuy Lam, Mary Lee 2015 Harvard University

Association Between Chlorinated Pesticides In The Serum Of Prepubertal Russian Boys And Longitudinal Biomarkers Of Metabolic Function, Jane Burns, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Russ Hauser, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Thuy Lam, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been linked to adult metabolic disorders; however, few studies have examined these associations in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the associations of baseline serum OCPs (hexachlorobenzene, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in Russian boys with subsequent repeated measurements of serum glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, and calculated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (IR). During 2003-2005, we enrolled 499 boys aged 8-9 years in a prospective cohort; 318 had baseline serum OCPs and serum biomarkers measured at ages 10-13 years. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and mediation regression models were used to examine associations and direct and indirect (via ...


Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 In Cigarette Smoke Exposure And Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Lung Injury, Yashodhar P. Bhandary, Shwetha K. Shetty, Amarnath S. Marudamuthu, Krishna K. Midde, Hong-Long Ji, Homoyoun Shams, Renuka Subramaniam, Jian Fu, Steven Idell, Sreerama Shetty 2015 University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 In Cigarette Smoke Exposure And Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Lung Injury, Yashodhar P. Bhandary, Shwetha K. Shetty, Amarnath S. Marudamuthu, Krishna K. Midde, Hong-Long Ji, Homoyoun Shams, Renuka Subramaniam, Jian Fu, Steven Idell, Sreerama Shetty

Center for Research on Environmental Disease Faculty Publications

Parenchymal lung inflammation and airway and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis are associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE), which contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies indicate that people exposed to chronic cigarette smoke with or without COPD are more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We found increased p53, PAI-1 and apoptosis in AECs, with accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs of patients with COPD. In Wild-type (WT) mice with passive CSE (PCSE), p53 and PAI-1 expression and apoptosis were increased in AECs as was lung inflammation, while those lacking p53 or PAI-1 resisted AEC ...


Evaluation Of Bde-47 And -99 Lipid Modulating Effects In Hepg2 Human Carcinoma Cells, Eileen A. Holovac 2015 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Bde-47 And -99 Lipid Modulating Effects In Hepg2 Human Carcinoma Cells, Eileen A. Holovac

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a significantly more common problem in today’s society, affecting up to 25% of people in the United States as reported by the American Liver Foundation. According to the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases, NAFLD is the buildup of fat in the liver that is not caused by secondary factors such as alcohol consumption, hereditary disorders, or the use of steatogenic medication such as amioderone. A liver is considered fatty when 5-10% of the liver’s weight is fat. The progression of NAFLD can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, or ...


The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. McGann 2015 Liberty University

The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. Mcgann

Senior Honors Theses

Nodding syndrome (NS) is an emerging epidemic neurological disease that is shrouded in mystery. It is currently only found in the post-conflict regions of South Sudan, northern Uganda, and Tanzania. NS occurs in children from the ages of five to fifteen and is characterized by a loss of motor control in the neck muscles. Seizure episodes can range in intensity from atonic to tonic-clonic, and the onset of the first episode generally marks the beginning of a decline in the child’s physical and mental health. NS is a progressive disease that generally results in physical wasting, stunted growth, behavioral ...


Better Safe Than Sorry: A Precautionary Toxic Substances Control Act Reform Proposal, Andrew Liebler 2015 Washington University School of Law

Better Safe Than Sorry: A Precautionary Toxic Substances Control Act Reform Proposal, Andrew Liebler

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

In 2011, the Natural Resources Defense Council released an issue paper on disease clusters in the United States. The paper documented the phenomenon of unusually large groups of people afflicted with certain diseases in a circumscribed place and time. These heightened incidences of various ailments have been linked to the presence of various toxic chemicals in the environment and consumer products. At the heart of this problem is the failure of America’s primary regulatory safeguard against harmful chemical exposure: the Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”). In response to the TSCA’s shortcomings, this Note argues that the current US ...


Why Has The Rise In Obesity Not Reversed The Decline In Cardiovascular Mortality? Cardiometabolic Death Rate Trends In Brazil (1980-2011), Paulo Lotufo 2014 Universidade de São Paulo

Why Has The Rise In Obesity Not Reversed The Decline In Cardiovascular Mortality? Cardiometabolic Death Rate Trends In Brazil (1980-2011), Paulo Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Enhancing Immunomodulation On Innate Immunity By Shape Transition Among Rna Triangle, Square And Pentagon Nanovehicles, Emil F. Khisamutdinov, Hui Li, Daniel L. Jasinski, Jiao Chen, Jian Fu, Peixuan Guo 2014 University of Kentucky

Enhancing Immunomodulation On Innate Immunity By Shape Transition Among Rna Triangle, Square And Pentagon Nanovehicles, Emil F. Khisamutdinov, Hui Li, Daniel L. Jasinski, Jiao Chen, Jian Fu, Peixuan Guo

Center for Research on Environmental Disease Faculty Publications

Modulation of immune response is important in cancer immunotherapy, vaccine adjuvant development and inflammatory or immune disease therapy. Here we report the development of new immunomodulators via control of shape transition among RNA triangle, square and pentagon. Changing one RNA strand in polygons automatically induced the stretching of the interior angle from 60° to 90° or 108°, resulting in self-assembly of elegant RNA triangles, squares and pentagons. When immunological adjuvants were incorporated, their immunomodulation effect for cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 induction was greatly enhanced in vitro and in animals up to 100-fold, while RNA polygon controls induced unnoticeable effect. The ...


On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar 2013 Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile

On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Archaic mummies from northern Chile were examined for the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The excellent preservation of mummies and louse nits/eggs permitted a study of the degree of head lice infestation. We studied 63 Chinchorro mummies (ca. 5000–3000 years B.P.) from the Arica-Camarones coast. An area of 2 cm × 2 cm on each mummy’s head was systematically inspected for louse nits/eggs. Hairs with nits/eggs and lice were collected and analyzed using optic and scanning electronic microscopy. About 79% (50/63) of the mummies resulted positive for pediculosis, with an average of 2.1 ...


Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand van der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci 2013 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand Van Der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci

Papers in Natural Resources

We undertook the analysis of Zweeloo Woman, a bog mummy from the Netherlands, to assess her parasitic state. Evidence of infection came from two areas: (1) liver paraffin sections and (2) microfossils washed from an intestinal section. Although the liver had shrunken considerably, objects consistent with operculated trematode eggs were found. After evaluating the range of trematode species that produce eggs in liver tissue, we arrived at the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Although only 0.1 ml of sediment was recovered from an intestinal section, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also identified. No eggs of D. dendriticum ...


Perinatal Exposure To Perchlorate. Thiocyanate, And Nitrate In New Jersey Mothers And Newborns, Benjamin Blount, David Rich, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Susan Lashley, Cande Ananth, Eileen Murphy, John Smulian, Betty Spain, Dana Barr, Paromita Hore, Mark Robson 2013 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Perinatal Exposure To Perchlorate. Thiocyanate, And Nitrate In New Jersey Mothers And Newborns, Benjamin Blount, David Rich, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Susan Lashley, Cande Ananth, Eileen Murphy, John Smulian, Betty Spain, Dana Barr, Paromita Hore, Mark Robson

John C Smulian MD, MPH

No abstract provided.


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