The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, 2015 Liberty University
The Plight Of The Lucluc: Examining The Deadly Mystery Of Nodding Syndrome, Ethan K. Mcgann
Senior Honors Theses
Nodding syndrome (NS) is an emerging epidemic neurological disease that is shrouded in mystery. It is currently only found in the post-conflict regions of South Sudan, northern Uganda, and Tanzania. NS occurs in children from the ages of five to fifteen and is characterized by a loss of motor control in the neck muscles. Seizure episodes can range in intensity from atonic to tonic-clonic, and the onset of the first episode generally marks the beginning of a decline in the child’s physical and mental health. NS is a progressive disease that generally results in physical wasting, stunted growth, behavioral ...
Better Safe Than Sorry: A Precautionary Toxic Substances Control Act Reform Proposal, 2015 Washington University School of Law
Better Safe Than Sorry: A Precautionary Toxic Substances Control Act Reform Proposal, Andrew Liebler
Washington University Journal of Law & Policy
In 2011, the Natural Resources Defense Council released an issue paper on disease clusters in the United States. The paper documented the phenomenon of unusually large groups of people afflicted with certain diseases in a circumscribed place and time. These heightened incidences of various ailments have been linked to the presence of various toxic chemicals in the environment and consumer products. At the heart of this problem is the failure of America’s primary regulatory safeguard against harmful chemical exposure: the Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”). In response to the TSCA’s shortcomings, this Note argues that the current US ...
On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, 2013 Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile
On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar
Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications
Archaic mummies from northern Chile were examined for the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The excellent preservation of mummies and louse nits/eggs permitted a study of the degree of head lice infestation. We studied 63 Chinchorro mummies (ca. 5000–3000 years B.P.) from the Arica-Camarones coast. An area of 2 cm × 2 cm on each mummy’s head was systematically inspected for louse nits/eggs. Hairs with nits/eggs and lice were collected and analyzed using optic and scanning electronic microscopy. About 79% (50/63) of the mummies resulted positive for pediculosis, with an average of 2.1 ...
Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, 2013 University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand Van Der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci
Papers in Natural Resources
We undertook the analysis of Zweeloo Woman, a bog mummy from the Netherlands, to assess her parasitic state. Evidence of infection came from two areas: (1) liver paraffin sections and (2) microfossils washed from an intestinal section. Although the liver had shrunken considerably, objects consistent with operculated trematode eggs were found. After evaluating the range of trematode species that produce eggs in liver tissue, we arrived at the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Although only 0.1 ml of sediment was recovered from an intestinal section, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also identified. No eggs of D. dendriticum ...
Environmental And Occupational Interventions For Primary Prevention Of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework, 2013 University of Maryland School of Law
Environmental And Occupational Interventions For Primary Prevention Of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework, Carolina Espina, Miquel Porta, Joachim Schüz, Ildefonso Hernández Aguado, Robert V. Percival, Carlos Dora, Terry Slevin, Julietta Rodriguez Guzman, Tim Meredith, Philip J. Landrigan, Maria Neira
Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. A substantial portion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace.
The objective of this study was to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer.
The study concluded that opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens.
Could You Repeat That Please? Forty-Five Years Of Testing Pesticides On People, 2013 SelectedWorks
Could You Repeat That Please? Forty-Five Years Of Testing Pesticides On People, Barbara R. Leiterman Esq.
Barbara R. Leiterman Esq.
Little has been published in the literature about pesticide experiments conducted on human subjects. Yet there were at least twenty-two tests between 1967 and 2011 in which people were intentionally exposed to specific doses of pesticides. Almost all of these experiments violated scientific ethics and human rights. This article aims to describe those tests and their shortcomings, and explore the laws and regulations that incentivize such human experimentation. Ironically, as the public desire for pesticide safety increases, so does the industry’s motivation to test pesticides on people. Bringing these pesticide experiments to light, expanding the public discourse on the ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis: An Assessment Of Vermont’S Treatment Plan And The Lack Of Preventative Treatment, 2013 Sacred Heart University
Eastern Equine Encephalitis: An Assessment Of Vermont’S Treatment Plan And The Lack Of Preventative Treatment, Lauren E. Bierman
WAC Prize Winners
When an avian host and the Culiseta melanura mosquito meet in fresh water hardwood swamps, the Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEE) is spread to the bird community. When that same bird is bitten by a mosquito that feeds on humans, such as the Aedes, Coquillettidia, and Culex species, the EEE virus has found its bridge vector. EEE is a rare disease in humans; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2010 that the virus affects an average of 6 people per year (Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution section, para 2). In 2010, blood collected from deer and moose tested ...
Medical Direction Of Wilderness And Other Operational Emergency Medical Services Programs, 2012 Oregon Health & Science University
Medical Direction Of Wilderness And Other Operational Emergency Medical Services Programs, Craig R. Warden, Michael G. Millin, Seth C. Hawkins, Richard N. Bradley
Richard N Bradley
Within a healthcare system, operational emergency medical services (EMS) programs provide prehospital emergency care to patients in austere and resource-limited settings. Some of these programs are additionally considered to be wilderness EMS programs, a specialized type of operational EMS program, as they primarily function in a wilderness setting (eg, wilderness search and rescue, ski patrols, water rescue, beach patrols, and cave rescue). Other operational EMS programs include urban search and rescue, air medical support, and tactical law enforcement response. The medical director will help to ensure that the care provided follows protocols that are in accordance with local and state ...
Bioarchaeology Of Compassion: Exploring Extreme Cases Of Pathology In A Bronze Age Skeletal Population From Tell Abraq, U.A.E., 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Bioarchaeology Of Compassion: Exploring Extreme Cases Of Pathology In A Bronze Age Skeletal Population From Tell Abraq, U.A.E., Jamie D. Vilos
UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones
Tell Abraq is a Bronze Age archaeological site located in the modern day United Arab Emirates and was occupied from the 3rd millennium BC to the 1st century AD. The coastal location provided access to both marine and agricultural resources as well as trade routes and foreign exchange. The tomb at the site was in use for 200 years (2200-2000 BC) and housed the commingled remains of a minimum of 286 adults. These individuals lived hard lives, dependent on good health to maintain a life-line of sustenance for themselves and each other. A number of individuals with severe expressions of ...
Environmental Toxins: Biological, Chemical And Radiological Terrorism, 2011 The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Environmental Toxins: Biological, Chemical And Radiological Terrorism, Richard N. Bradley
Richard N Bradley
Children have greater risk of harm than adults after exposure to chemical, biological or radiological weapons, as may be seen following some acts of terrorism. This chapter reviews potential chemical agents, separating them into four categories: nerve agents, blister agents, cyanides, and choking agents. It reviews both recognition and treatment. The chapter also reviews symptoms, modes of transmission and treatment for the following biological agents: smallpox, plague, tularemia, anthrax, botulism, and viral hemorrhagic fevers.