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Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives. Individuals can differ in their strategic approach in learning the same categorization task, researchers have sought to study what specific stable individual differences traits can help explain these differences. This dissertation first surveyed extant literature on the impact of trait differences on category learning then examined the effect of temperament traits on these dependent variables. Chapter 2 (scoping review): This scoping review synthesized the past literature that examined the relationship between sources of stable individual differences and category learning performance and strategy use outcomes. Five database platforms were searched to identify relevant articles, cross-referencing was also performed. Sixty-nine studies …


Attitudes Of The Colleges Of Education Students Towards Individuals With Mobility Disabilities In Jordan, Khalid Mohammed Al Jundiu 2022 Association of Arab Universities

Attitudes Of The Colleges Of Education Students Towards Individuals With Mobility Disabilities In Jordan, Khalid Mohammed Al Jundiu

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

This descriptive study aimed to survey the attitudes of students at the College of Education towards individuals with motor disabilities in Jordan, in order to benefit from it in knowing the extent of the need for programs to change negative attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. The population of the current study consists of all Jordanian public universities for the first semester of the academic year 2020/2021. The study sample consisted of (712) male and female students. It was randomly selected from seven public universities Jordan. The researcher built a scale to achieve the aims of the study. The researcher used …


Mementos And The Endowment Effect, Charlene K. Chu, Suzanne B. Shu 2022 Chapman University

Mementos And The Endowment Effect, Charlene K. Chu, Suzanne B. Shu

Business Faculty Articles and Research

This research provides evidence for a new moderator of the endowment effect: having a memento of the endowed object. Three studies adapting classic endowment effect paradigms and using a variety of endowment objects and mementos demonstrate that having a memento of an endowment increases willingness to trade the endowment and decreases selling prices for the endowment. We provide evidence that mementos attenuate the endowment effect regardless of whether the memento is a separate small gain when facing the loss of the endowment or a small part of the original endowment that is kept. Examining mementos in context of the endowment …


The Effects Of Overshadowing In Drosophila Melanogaster With Experimentally Evolved Preference, Jill Lee 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

The Effects Of Overshadowing In Drosophila Melanogaster With Experimentally Evolved Preference, Jill Lee

Theses

As seen in decades of psychology research, preferences play a major role in driving the decision-making process in both humans and animals. Researchers have advocated for using the technique of experimental evolution as a way to address some of the foundational questions on preferences. These preferences can also affect what is later learned and how well new experiences are learned. Salience is usually mentioned as an important component of what could influence preferences. Animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, that lay eggs without any additional maternal or paternal care, it is important to be selective when deciding where to lay …


Simulated Owl Predation During Foraging Differentially Alters Choice And Fear Behavior Between Sex In Rats, Meghan M. Olsen 2022 Seattle Pacific University

Simulated Owl Predation During Foraging Differentially Alters Choice And Fear Behavior Between Sex In Rats, Meghan M. Olsen

Research Psychology Theses

Existing research on the predator cue circuit has indicated there are observed differences between sexes of animals either directly or indirectly exposed to a predator stimulus. Exposure increases predator directed attention, and overrides other motivational systems (hunger, pain, reproductive behavior). Little research has explored whether exposure to predation is associated with differential responses to non-predator related decision-making across a variety of tasks. Therefore, understanding the prioritization of motivational states when a predator stressor is present can aid in understanding sex differences in these processes in both adaptative and maladaptive conditions. To determine how repeated exposure to a predator stressor differentially …


Cognitive Consequences Of Covid-19 Infection And Quarantine-Induced Social Isolation: Hope For The Young And Mildly Infected, Kristin Nickole Kirchner 2022 University of South Carolina

Cognitive Consequences Of Covid-19 Infection And Quarantine-Induced Social Isolation: Hope For The Young And Mildly Infected, Kristin Nickole Kirchner

Theses and Dissertations

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 539 million individuals worldwide, and initial research supports the possibility that COVID-19 may damage the central nervous system either directly or indirectly. Neurological signs and noted cognitive deficits observed in even mildly infected patients are a cause for concern for those infected by COVID-19; the effect of social isolation on the central nervous system is also of interest. The present study sought to determine the extent of these potential cognitive deficits in a young and mildly infected sample of college students. Participants completed an extensive survey assessing their experience with COVID-19 and any …


Does Trait Self-Esteem Serve As A Resilience Factor In Maintaining Affective Well-Being? Findings From Daily Diary Studies In Singapore And The United States, Matthew H. S. NG, Verity Y. Q. LUA, Nadyanna M. MAJEED, Andree HARTANTO 2022 Singapore Management University

Does Trait Self-Esteem Serve As A Resilience Factor In Maintaining Affective Well-Being? Findings From Daily Diary Studies In Singapore And The United States, Matthew H. S. Ng, Verity Y. Q. Lua, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Andree Hartanto

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Research suggests that self-esteem could be a protective factor in stressful or unfavorable situations. However, little research has been done on the buffering role of self-esteem in the context of daily stressors on affective reactivity. Three daily diary studies (of which two were conducted in Singapore and one in the United States) were carried out to examine this relationship. In all three studies, trait self-esteem was measured at baseline. Subsequently, daily assessment was conducted on exposure to daily stressors, and positive and negative affect for seven to eight days. Multilevel modeling showed that trait self-esteem did not moderate the relationship …


Sex Differences In Locomotor Activity And Behavioral Sensitization In Rats Administered Fentanyl, Jessica J. Lee, Nareen Sadik, Cameron Davidson PhD, Majd Yahya, Josie Zdun, Shane Perrine PhD 2022 Wayne State University

Sex Differences In Locomotor Activity And Behavioral Sensitization In Rats Administered Fentanyl, Jessica J. Lee, Nareen Sadik, Cameron Davidson Phd, Majd Yahya, Josie Zdun, Shane Perrine Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Opioid overdoses have continued to increase, and women have experienced a greater rate of increase than males. Preclinical studies demonstrate marked sex differences in addiction-related behaviors, with females being more vulnerable due to a potential role of estradiol. We sought to understand how the estrous cycle, as a proxy measure of estradiol, influences sex differences in the sensitizing effects of fentanyl. In this ongoing study, we used male and female rats to investigate potential sex effects of fentanyl (20µg/kg subcutaneously) administration for 14 days and a forced abstinence period of 13 days on behavioral sensitization via locomotor activity (LMA) following …


Comparing Crime Scene Trajectories: Sexual Versus Nonsexual Serial Homicides, Jonathan T. Dixon 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Comparing Crime Scene Trajectories: Sexual Versus Nonsexual Serial Homicides, Jonathan T. Dixon

Student Theses

When faced with a possible serial offender, crime linkage analysis is crucial in identifying which crime scenes belong to the same offender. Thus, when analyzing behavioral consistency to link crimes, it is essential to use a classification model that is empirically tested and is based on the type of crime being investigated. Several classification models examine patterns of consistency and change using a combination of thematic and behavioral subgroups; however, they are tested using sexual and nonsexual crime scenes, which some recent literature argues are two distinct types of homicide and should be examined separately. The present study tests the …


Analyzing The Variable Pain, Payton Ruediger, Ryan W. Carpenter, Melissa Nance 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Analyzing The Variable Pain, Payton Ruediger, Ryan W. Carpenter, Melissa Nance

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This presentation is a thorough analysis of participant physical pain and physical impairment within the given study. This data was conducted through an EMA study. The smartphone apps TigerAware and Qualtrics were used to give participants surveys throughout the course of ten days. The participants were undergraduate students at UMSL who received extra credit for participating in the study. Out of the 126 participants, 13 were male and 113 female. The surveys focused on comparing the relationship between alcohol usage and other variables. These surveys had questions relating to alcohol usage, marijuana usage, mood, pain, and questions about daily functioning. …


The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces, Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood 2022 Kennesaw State University

The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces, Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood

Faculty Publications

Research in human-computer interaction (HCI) has shown inconsistencies in the relationship between users’ perception of usability and the quality of visual design in digital products. Research is lacking in the gaming domain for visual design in user interfaces on tablet screens. Despite extensive research on visual aesthetics and perceived usability, best practices offer limited guidance for game interfaces from a user-centered design perspective.

The objectives of this study are twofold: to employ a design-oriented methodology to create a real iOS tablet game app from start to finish using ideation, focus groups, iterative prototyping, usability testing, and empirically evaluating game participants’ …


A Comparison Of Fixed Pay, Piece-Rate Pay, And Bonus Pay When Performers Receive Tiered Goals, Alejandro Ramos 2022 Western Michigan University

A Comparison Of Fixed Pay, Piece-Rate Pay, And Bonus Pay When Performers Receive Tiered Goals, Alejandro Ramos

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of participants under three pay systems when all were given five tiered goals. Seventy-one undergraduate students were randomly assigned to receive either fixed pay, base pay with bonuses, or piece-rate pay. Over the course of six 45-minute sessions, one of which served as a covariate, participants engaged in a computerized simulated medical record data entry task. The primary dependent variable was the average number of correctly completed medical records per session. An increasing relationship was expected to be found between the three groups with respect to the number of correctly …


Exploring The Effectiveness Of Multiple-Exemplar Training For Visual Analysis Of Ab-Design Graphs, Verena S. Bethke 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Exploring The Effectiveness Of Multiple-Exemplar Training For Visual Analysis Of Ab-Design Graphs, Verena S. Bethke

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In behavior analysis, data are usually analyzed using visual analysis of the graphed data. There are a wide range of methods used to visually analyze data, from a basic ‘textbook’ style approach to the use of visual aids, decision-rubrics, and computer-based approaches. In the literature, there have been some comparisons of the efficacy of different approaches. Visual analysis as a behavior can be taught using a variety of methods, independent of how the skill itself is to be performed. Teaching methods include lecture, online instruction, and equivalence-based instruction. There is not much research on the teaching of visual analysis specifically, …


Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic stress increases generalization of fear to non-threatening cues, a key symptom in numerous psychiatric mood disorders. However, the mechanisms through which stress impacts safety learning remain poorly understood. To probe the relationship between stress and safety learning, this dissertation employed multiple behaviors, in conjunction with in-vivo multisite physiology during explicit safety and fear discrimination learning. In Chapter 1, I outline the role of chronic stress in driving neurological adaptations that result in generalized fear and highlight how this occurs because of impaired safety cue encoding. In Chapter 2, I show that chronic stress in the form of social defeat …


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker, …


Mental Health Stigma And Law Enforcement Officers, Moses Park 2022 University of Massachusetts Global

Mental Health Stigma And Law Enforcement Officers, Moses Park

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological research was to describe the perception of law enforcement officers (LEOs) about the stigmatizing behavior they experienced from fellow officers in their organization, after they sought mental health services, following a traumatic event they were involved in.

Methodology: The methodology for this research study will be qualitative from a phenomenological perspective. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 12 active and retired LEOs who served in southern California.

Findings: After the analysis, seven major findings were yielded. The major findings of the study are: (a) Within the law enforcement …


Combining Non-Traditional Therapeutic Competencies With Dance/Movement Therapy In Response To Client Reactivity: The Development Of A Method, Nicole Koontz 2022 Lesley University

Combining Non-Traditional Therapeutic Competencies With Dance/Movement Therapy In Response To Client Reactivity: The Development Of A Method, Nicole Koontz

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Individuals with reactive attachment disorder present as guarded towards therapeutic care and respond passively to treatment or become combative and aggressive. Previous body-based interventions for individuals with reactive attachment disorder included dangerous and unethical approaches that led to traumatization, distrust, and even death. Historical attachment therapies focused on making the client feel powerless and hopeless to accept care rather than practitioners adjusting to individualized client-centered care. A dance/movement therapy-informed method was developed to provide a nonthreatening therapeutic space to foster genuine participation for clients who present with reactivity towards treatment. The method was implemented over the course of seven weeks …


God’S Plan For Life: Training Drill Sergeants To Better Serve Their Neighbor By Developing Moral Character Utilizing The “Transformational Moral Leadership” Model, Matthew Christensen 2022 Concordia Seminary - Saint Louis

God’S Plan For Life: Training Drill Sergeants To Better Serve Their Neighbor By Developing Moral Character Utilizing The “Transformational Moral Leadership” Model, Matthew Christensen

Doctor of Ministry Major Applied Project

Instances of moral failure within the U.S. Army raises the question of whether an individual’s character may be developed and improved by utilizing a moral decision-making process. If so, is it possible to measure this improvement? From a Lutheran perspective, is it possible to improve moral character without appealing to the boundaries provided by God’s Word and a Christian community influencing the spiritual dimensions of one’s life.

This project set out to build upon an eighteen-hour Transformational Moral Leadership training model being utilized to strengthen the moral character of drill sergeants at Fort Benning, Georgia. The project allowed me as …


Understanding The Influence Of Perceptual Noise On Visual Flanker Effects Through Bayesian Model Fitting, Jordan Deakin, Dietmar Heinke 2022 University of Birmingham

Understanding The Influence Of Perceptual Noise On Visual Flanker Effects Through Bayesian Model Fitting, Jordan Deakin, Dietmar Heinke

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Perfectionism, Alcohol Intoxication, And Deliberate Self-Harm In Men And Women, Lissa N. Mandell 2022 Mississippi State University

Perfectionism, Alcohol Intoxication, And Deliberate Self-Harm In Men And Women, Lissa N. Mandell

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated associations between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and perfectionism, although most of that research used retrospective self-report measures of DSH, which are prone to various cognitive biases. Although perfectionism has been associated with alcohol abuse, no research has examined how alcohol intoxication may moderate the relation between perfectionism and DSH. The aims of this experimental study were to determine if perfectionism is associated with a laboratory analogue of DSH (the Self-Aggression Paradigm) and examine the role of alcohol intoxication as a potential moderator. Using archival data, blood alcohol content (BAC) was manipulated by randomly assigning participants to reach …


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