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Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar 2017 Providence College

Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar

Christopher Lyddy

Mindfulness research activity is surging within organizational science. Emerging evidence across multiple fields suggests that mindfulness is fundamentally connected to many aspects of workplace functioning, but this knowledge base has not been systematically integrated to date. This review coalesces the burgeoning body of mindfulness scholarship into a framework to guide mainstream management research investigating a broad range of constructs. The framework identifies how mindfulness influences attention, with downstream effects on functional domains of cognition, emotion, behavior, and physiology. Ultimately, these domains impact key workplace outcomes, including performance, relationships, and well-being. Consideration of the evidence on mindfulness at work stimulates important ...


Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski

Peter Poznanski

ColdWinters Theory (CWT; Lynn, 1991) offers a viable explanation for race differences in intelligence. It proposes that IQ gaps exist because of different evolutionary pressures faced by the ancestral humanswho left Africa, comparedwith thosewho remained. Support for CWT comes by showing correlations between national temperature and IQ. Here we test whether temperature correlates with IQ (and other well-being variables) across the 50 U.S. states. Although human evolution is recent, copious and regional (Wade, 2014), insufficient time has passed for it to have operated on non-native residents of the USA. Instead, CWTmust predict no difference—or remain agnostic—on the ...


Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski

Peter Poznanski

Job complexity and employee intelligence covary strongly. Likewise, race differences exist on mean IQ / g scores. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that race differences on cognitive tests are mainly g differences, and that the former should covary with how well mental tests measure the latter. Here we use jobs as “mental tests,” and predict that as job IQ increases, the percent of White and Asian workers will increase, while the percent of Black workers will decrease. We found moderate to strong support for Spearman’s hypothesis across these three racial groups. We also found a very large correlation (.86) between job ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


Supplemental Data For Onus Of The Bonus, Ellen E. Furlong, Laurie R. Santos 2017 Illinois Wesleyan University

Supplemental Data For Onus Of The Bonus, Ellen E. Furlong, Laurie R. Santos

Furlong Cognition Lab

No abstract provided.


Harnessing The Power Of Emotion For Social Change: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Anne M. W. Kelly 2017 Dakota Wesleyan University

Harnessing The Power Of Emotion For Social Change: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Anne M. W. Kelly

Numeracy

Scott Slovic and Paul Slovic (Eds.). Numbers and Nerves: Information, Emotion, and Meaning in a World of Data (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-776-5.

Literature and environment professor Scott Slovic, and his father, psychologist Paul Slovic, editors of this collection of essays and interviews, describe and demonstrate the psychological effects which hamper our ability to comprehend and respond appropriately to large numerical data. The collection then offers a brief survey of art works which, by first appealing to viewers’ emotions, can potentially move the viewer to a better understanding of numbers.


Connecting Numbers With Emotion: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Samuel L. Tunstall 2017 Michigan State University

Connecting Numbers With Emotion: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Scott Slovic and Paul Slovic (Eds.). Numbers and Nerves: Information, Emotion, and Meaning in a World of Data (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-776-5.

It is common to view quantitative literacy as reasoning with respect to numbers. In Numbers and Nerves, the contributors to the volume make clear that we should attend not only to how students consciously reason with numbers, but also how our innate biases influence our actions when faced with numbers. Beginning with the concepts of psychic numbing, and then psuedoinefficacy, the contributors to the volume examine how our behaviors when faced ...


Ask A Busy Person? A Reexamination Of Cognitive Performance Under Load, Graham Watson 2017 Walden University

Ask A Busy Person? A Reexamination Of Cognitive Performance Under Load, Graham Watson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A longstanding folk belief suggests that â??busyâ?? people possess the ability to get more done than others. Busyness, defined as the demands of everyday life, has been shown to generate cognitive load, which has been called â??cognitive busyness.â?? Although most cognitive theory would deny the possibility that cognitive load may enhance performance, some recent research may support the possibility. Cowan's 1988 information-processing model was used to study how measures of everyday busyness correlated with performance on cognitive tasks. The research question addressed whether any combination of such measures, in combination with working memory, could predict performance ...


When Less Is Less: Solving Multiple Simple Problems Is Not Complex Problem Solving—A Comment On Greiff Et Al. (2015), Joachim Funke, Andreas Fischer, Daniel V. Holt 2016 University of Heidelberg, Germany

When Less Is Less: Solving Multiple Simple Problems Is Not Complex Problem Solving—A Comment On Greiff Et Al. (2015), Joachim Funke, Andreas Fischer, Daniel V. Holt

Joachim Funke


In this commentary, we critically review the study of Greiff, Stadler, Sonnleitner,Wolff, and Martin, “Sometimes less is more: Comparing the validity of complex problem solving measures” (Intelligence, 2015, 50, 100–113). The main conclusion of Greiff et al. that the “multiple complex systems” (MCS) approach to measuring complex problem-solving ability possesses superior validity compared to classical microworld scenarios (“less is more”) seems to be an overgeneralization based on inappropriate analysis and selective interpretation of results. In its original form, MCS is a useful tool for investigating specific aspects of problem solving within dynamic systems. However, its value as an ...


Process Dissociation Analyses Of Memory Changes In Healthy Aging, Preclinical, And Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence For Isolated Recollection Deficits, Peter R. Millar 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Process Dissociation Analyses Of Memory Changes In Healthy Aging, Preclinical, And Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence For Isolated Recollection Deficits, Peter R. Millar

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which breaks down in early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby’s (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64). Participants studied word pairs, e.g., “knee bone,” then completed a primed, explicit, cued fragment-completion memory task, e.g ...


Does Use Of Neutralization Techniques Predict Delinquency And Substance Use Outcomes?, Erin C. Siebert 2016 Seattle Pacific University

Does Use Of Neutralization Techniques Predict Delinquency And Substance Use Outcomes?, Erin C. Siebert

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

This study was part of a larger research intervention that uses motivational interviewing (MI) as part of an in-school substance abuse intervention in local high schools in the greater Seattle area. Our aim was to test hypothesized relationships between marijuana use, other delinquent behavior, and neutralization techniques used by participants and determine their impact on the effectiveness of an MI-based intervention. Hypotheses were that neutralization technique use would decrease the effectiveness of an MI intervention due to the conflicting cognitive processes of justification and developing discrepancy. Of the 84 participants that completed Intake assessments, 60% were male and identified as ...


Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, Jonathan Kenealy Doyon 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, Jonathan Kenealy Doyon

Master's Theses

Vision and haptics play a central role in perceiving environmental layout to guide action. Hajnal, Wagman, Doyon, and Clark (2016) demonstrated that visual perception of stand-on-ability is accurate compared to action capabilities, whereas haptic perception of stand-on-ability reliably underestimates action capabilities. This finding contradicts Gibson’s (1979) theory of equivalence in perceptual systems, which suggests that perception should be equivalent regardless of modality. Previous comparisons of visual and haptic perception tested the modalities in isolation. The current experiment directly compares visual to haptic perception of stand-on-ability by using one perceptual system to estimate the other. Observers viewed a surface set ...


Secular But Not Superficial : An Overlooked Nonreligious/Nonspiritual Identity., Daniel G. Delaney 2016 University of Louisville

Secular But Not Superficial : An Overlooked Nonreligious/Nonspiritual Identity., Daniel G. Delaney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since Durkheim’s characterization of the sacred and profane as “antagonistic rivals,” the strict dichotomy has been framed in such a way that “being religious” evokes images of a life filled with profound meaning and value, while “being secular” evokes images of a meaningless, self-centered, superficial life, often characterized by materialistic consumerism and the cold, heartless environment of corporate greed. Consequently, to identify as “neither religious nor spiritual” runs the risk of being stigmatized as superficial, untrustworthy, and immoral. Conflicts and confusions encountered in the process of negotiating a nonreligious/nonspiritual identity, caused by the ambiguous nature of religious language ...


The Effects Of Deception And Manipulation Of Motivation To Deceive On Event Related Potentials, Ethan C. Ashworth 2016 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Deception And Manipulation Of Motivation To Deceive On Event Related Potentials, Ethan C. Ashworth

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Correct Response Negativity (CRN) is an event-related potential component that is affected by the act of deception. However, there have been inconsistent findings on the effect of deception on the CRN. Suchotzki, et al. (2015) suggested that the design of the paradigm used to elicit the deceptive response is what controls the size of the CRN. Specifically, motivation to deceive changes the size of deception relative to telling the truth. This study attempted to follow up on suggestions made by Suchotzki et al. (2015) to investigate if extraneous motivation to lie does indeed invert the ratio of CRN in ...


The Relationship Between P300 Evoked Potentials And Prefrontal Cortex Oxygen Use: A Combined Eeg And Nirs Study, Will S. Rizer 2016 Northern Michigan University

The Relationship Between P300 Evoked Potentials And Prefrontal Cortex Oxygen Use: A Combined Eeg And Nirs Study, Will S. Rizer

All NMU Master's Theses

The P300 subcomponent, P3b, is an event related potential detected at the scalp surface when a working memory comparison results in differences between the contents of working memory and incoming stimulus information. Previous research has indicated that as infrequent targets become more difficult to detect (morphologically similar to a frequent non-target stimulus) the P300 becomes attenuated. fMRI research has also indicated increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during P300 generation. To examine the relationship between P3b amplitude and PFC activity participants performed an easy and difficult target detection task in both EEG and NIRS called the oddball. The EEG and behavioral ...


Approaching Individual Differences Questions In Cognitive Control: A Case Study Of The Ax-Cpt, Shelly Cooper 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Approaching Individual Differences Questions In Cognitive Control: A Case Study Of The Ax-Cpt, Shelly Cooper

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Investigating individual differences in cognition requires addressing questions not often thought about in standard experimental designs, especially those regarding the psychometrics of a task. The purpose of the present study is to use the AX-CPT cognitive control task as a representative case study example to address four concerns that may impact the ability to answer questions related to individual differences. First, the importance of a task's true score variance for evaluating potential failures to replicate predicted individual differences effects is demonstrated. Second, evidence is provided that Internet-based studies (e.g., MTurk) can exhibit comparable, or even higher true score ...


Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...


An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth 2016 Novus Access & Ivy Tech Community College

An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

This study examined the potential relationship of accessible hands-on science learning experiences to the development of positive beliefs concerning one’s capacity to function in the sciences and motivation to consider science as a college major and career. Findings from Likert survey items given before and after engaging in accessible hands-on science laboratories show that students who were blind or had low vision (BLV) were more likely to agree with the following items after engaging in accessible science experiences: 1) I plan on enrolling as a science major in college; 2) My educational experiences, so far, have given me the ...


A Validation Of The Efficacy Of Descriptive Instrumental Collective Case Study Research Methodology For Examining Pilot Cognitive Functioning, Clint R. Balog 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide

A Validation Of The Efficacy Of Descriptive Instrumental Collective Case Study Research Methodology For Examining Pilot Cognitive Functioning, Clint R. Balog

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The research conducted developed a descriptive understanding of how the cognitive processes of risk assessment, problem solving, and decision making, as well as other supportive processes, are employed by pilots-in-command (PICs) during the experience of extended, extreme, in-flight emergencies. This understanding is then applied to similar dynamic, operational environments. The research also validated the applicability and efficacy of Robert Stake’s 1995 descriptive, instrumental, collective case study methodology as a tool for investigating such phenomenon and developing such an understanding. Specifically, the research details the necessary procedures for employing this methodology successfully, and provides example of those procedures, and their ...


Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin 2016 Wright State University

Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin

Patient Experience Journal

The growing literature on shared decision making and patient centered care emphasizes the patient’s role in clinical care, but research on clinical reasoning almost exclusively addresses physician cognition. In this article, we suggest clinical cognition is distributed between physicians and patients and assess how distributed clinical cognition functions during interactions between medical professionals and patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A combination of cognitive task analysis and discourse analysis reveals the distribution of clinical reasoning between 24 patients and 3 medical professionals engaged in MS management. Findings suggest that cognition was distributed between patients and physicians in all major tasks ...


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