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Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett 2018 Georgia Southern University

Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

This study aimed to examine expressions of optimism bias and perceived controllability specifically regarding risks often associated with military service. Optimism bias refers to people’s tendency to believe they are less susceptible to experiencing negative life events compared to others. Previous studies show high levels of optimism bias are associated with strong perceptions of personal controllability. Optimism bias is a significant aspect of health promotion research particularly in the field of general occupational health and safety (OHS). However, optimism bias has never been investigated in the military OHS domain. Given the number of risks associated with military occupations, examination ...


Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Anxiety, And Personality And Ms Patient Estimations Of Memory Function, Jordan Charboneau 2017 Marquette University

Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Anxiety, And Personality And Ms Patient Estimations Of Memory Function, Jordan Charboneau

Dissertations (2009 -)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by a wide range of physical, cognitive, psychological, and behavioral symptoms. To effectively diagnose and treat MS, clinicians rely on patient reports of function to help identify and treat their problems (Kinsinger, Lattie, & Mohr, 2010). Specifically, self-reports of cognitive symptoms are a valuable source of information upon which clinicians depend (Van der Hiele, Spliethoff-Kamminga, Ruimschotel, Middelkoop, & Visser, 2012). While patient reports of cognitive functioning, including memory, are important, there has been substantial debate about the accuracy of such information. The present study investigated the association between general cognitive impairment ...


Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a defense of perceptual pluralism, the thesis that perceptual systems deliver multiple types of representations including those used in thought. In particular, it argues that perceptual systems output iconic (i.e., image-like, analog) representations as well as discursive (i.e., language-like, digital) states. A central thesis is that perceptual representations of objects are propositional and composed of concepts. It also develops a compositional syntax of iconic representation called the coordination model, according to which icons are sets of primitive parts, each of which determines values along multiple analog feature dimensions simultaneously. The dissertation supports the conclusion that ...


Examining The Concurrent And Predictive Relations Of Working Memory In Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Ashley N. Simone 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining The Concurrent And Predictive Relations Of Working Memory In Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Ashley N. Simone

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity which lead to impairment in multiple settings (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Childhood ADHD has been concurrently associated with various neurocognitive deficits and one in particular that has been under examination over the past several years is working memory (WM). WM is a temporary storage system that is responsible for maintenance and/or manipulation of information in order to complete complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. Researchers have postulated that WM is one of several potential endophenotypes of ADHD (Castellanos & Tannock, 2002) and ...


Cognitive And Affective Control Deficits In Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Melissa-Ann Mackie 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cognitive And Affective Control Deficits In Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Melissa-Ann Mackie

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control constrains mental operations to prioritize information that reaches conscious awareness and is essential to flexible, adaptive behavior under conditions of uncertainty. However, cognitive control can be compromised by neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is characterized by the presence of social and communicative deficits, and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. Although prior investigations have attempted to elucidate the nature of cognitive control deficits in ASD, whether there is an underlying deficit in cognitive and affective control associated with the symptom domains of ASD remains unclear. The present series of eight experiments presents an information theoretic framework ...


Geopoll - Integrate Cartographic Questions In Web Forms, Polls Or Surveys, Adrien Bigler, Olivier Ertz, Daniel Rappo, Sarah Composto, Florent Joerin, Maude Luggen Risse 2017 HEIG-VD / Media Engineering Institute, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland

Geopoll - Integrate Cartographic Questions In Web Forms, Polls Or Surveys, Adrien Bigler, Olivier Ertz, Daniel Rappo, Sarah Composto, Florent Joerin, Maude Luggen Risse

Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings

Most of the web forms, polls or surveys are composed with classical input fields (check boxes, radio buttons, select lists, etc.) and a lot of standards web forms builders or services (e.g. Typeform, WuFoo, Google Forms, Survey Monkey, etc.) help to build and deploy them. Nowadays, offering a text area to catch a ZIP code or a select list to point out a country remains the best way to explicitly collect geospatial data. But what about mapping interfaces to integrate cartographic questions and/or cartographic answers as a more suitable solution? How to let form’s respondents indicate in ...


Giving Students The Finger, David Moshman 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Giving Students The Finger, David Moshman

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Does academic freedom protect giving students the finger? On August 25, University of Nebraska-Lincoln sophomore Kaitlyn Mullen set up a table on campus outside the student union to promote Turning Point USA, a campus-based libertarian/conservative organization. TPUSA is known for its Professor Watchlist, which seeks to “expose and document college professors who discriminate against conservative students and advance leftist propaganda in the classroom.” Before long, there were people demonstrating against her. Ultimately, Mullen was harassed and intimidated by several individuals employed to teach at UNL, with the apparent intent of suppressing her intellectual freedom. One of them labeled her ...


Fusing Self-Reported And Sensor Data From Mixed-Reality Training, Trevor Richardson, Stephen B. Gilbert, Joseph Holub, Frederick Thompson, Anastacia MacAllister, Rafael Radkowski, Eliot Winer 2017 Iowa State University

Fusing Self-Reported And Sensor Data From Mixed-Reality Training, Trevor Richardson, Stephen B. Gilbert, Joseph Holub, Frederick Thompson, Anastacia Macallister, Rafael Radkowski, Eliot Winer

Anastacia MacAllister

Military and industrial use of smaller, more accurate sensors are allowing increasing amounts of data to be acquired at diminishing costs during training. Traditional human subject testing often collects qualitative data from participants through self-reported questionnaires. This qualitative information is valuable but often incomplete to assess training outcomes. Quantitative information such as motion tracking data, communication frequency, and heart rate can offer the missing pieces in training outcome assessment. The successful fusion and analysis of qualitative and quantitative information sources is necessary for collaborative, mixed-reality, and augmented-reality training to reach its full potential. The challenge is determining a reliable framework ...


The Musicality Of The Water Lilies/La Musicalité Des Nymphéas (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries 2017 College of the Holy Cross

The Musicality Of The Water Lilies/La Musicalité Des Nymphéas (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Art Gallery exhibition “Gabrielle Thierry: The Musicality of the Water Lilies/La Musicalité des Nymphéas” from Aug. 30 through Oct. 7.

Thierry’s series of eight large-scale paintings were inspired by her rediscovery of the “Water Lilies” landscapes by Claude Monet on view at the the Musée de l’Orangerie in Paris. With special permission from the museum, Thierry painted in front of Monet’s originals over a period of 18 months from 2010 to 2012, where she ...


Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath 2017 Iowa State University

Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method are provided for facilitating workload management. The system processes first sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a first person, and processes second sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a second person. Information representative of the estimates of the current cognitive states of the first person and the second person is simultaneously rendered on a display device.


Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method: Patent Application, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method: Patent Application, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method for providing more than two levels of classification distinction of a user state are provided. The first and second general states of a user are sensed. The first general state is classified as either a first state or a second state, and the second general state is classified as either a third state or a fourth state. The user state of the user is then classified as one of at least three different classification states.


The Whole Picture: Body Posture Recognition In Infancy, Alyson J. Hock 2017 University of Kentucky

The Whole Picture: Body Posture Recognition In Infancy, Alyson J. Hock

Alyson J. Chroust

Holistic image processing is tied to expertise and is characteristic of face and body processing by adults. Infants process faces holistically, but it is unknown whether infants process body information holistically. In the present study, we examined whether infants discriminate changes in body posture holistically. Body posture is an important nonverbal cue that signals emotion, intention, and goals of others even from a distance. In the current study, infants were tested for discrimination between body postures that differ in limb orientations in three conditions: in the context of the whole body, with just the limbs that change orientation, or with ...


Semantic Attention: Effects Of Modality, Lexicality And Semantic Content, David Britton 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Semantic Attention: Effects Of Modality, Lexicality And Semantic Content, David Britton

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the discovery of the Stroop Effect in 1935 questions about the role of language vs. non-lexical stimuli in selective attention remain. Early researchers attributed the powerful distracting influence shown in the Stroop task, naming the color in which a spelled word is printed when incongruent with the color name the word spells, to an automaticity of language that gives it privileged access to meaning, but many others since have shown various ways to reduce or even reverse this distracting effect of an incongruent word. This study addresses this by using EEG to record neural activity along with reaction time ...


Harm And Victim Age As Factors In The Determination Of Intentionality And Culpability, Donal David Barnard Jr. 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Harm And Victim Age As Factors In The Determination Of Intentionality And Culpability, Donal David Barnard Jr.

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the United States criminal justice system, jurors are directed to determine a defendant’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt by establishing both the act of committing a crime (actus reus) and the culpable mental state of the defendant (mens rea), that is, the defendant’s intentionality. The role of a juror in a criminal case is that of a factfinder, deciding whether the two elements of the crime have been met. Criminal cases where jurors are asked to decide the facts vary in the harm that resulted. The more severe the harm, the greater the perceived injustice. This research ...


Understanding The Role Of The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex In Emotional Memory Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation And Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, R. Rachel Weintraub-Brevda 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Understanding The Role Of The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex In Emotional Memory Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation And Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, R. Rachel Weintraub-Brevda

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotional stimuli can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on memory, such that emotional stimuli can be distracting from current neutral working memory goals, while also leading to enhanced episodic memory for the distracting emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has multiple roles in the enhancing effects of emotion on memory through top-down/controlled processes, including 1) coping with negative distraction and 2) elaborative encoding of negative information. Additionally, previous research has alluded to hemispheric differences in the VLPFC (Chapter 1). However, previous research has been correlational, with no strong laterality tests of the VLPFC ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić

Joseph W. Houpt

Research in cognitive psychology often focuses on how people deal with multiple sources of information. One important aspect of this research is whether people use the information in parallel (at the same time) or in series (one at a time). Various approaches to distinguishing parallel and serial processing have been proposed, but many do not satisfactorily address the mimicking dilemma between serial and parallel classes of models. The mean interaction contrast (MIC) is one measure is designed to improve discriminability of serial-parallel model properties. The MIC has been applied in limited settings because the measure required a large number of ...


Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method for providing more than two levels of classification distinction of a user state are provided. The first and second general states of a user are sensed. The first general state is classified as either a first state or a second state, and the second general state is classified as either a third state or a fourth state. The user state of the user is then classified as one of at least three different classification states.


Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

Integrated surveillance systems and methods for processing multiple sensor inputs and determining a best route for avoiding multiple hazards. An example method performed on a first aircraft includes generating a plurality of routes for avoiding a previously determined alert from a first advisory system. Then, probability of success information is generated at other advisory systems for each of the plurality of routes. The best route of the plurality of routes is determined based on the generated probabilities and output to the flight crew or other aircraft. The probability of success information includes a previously defined uncertainty value. The uncertainty value ...


Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs 2017 Iowa State University

Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs

Michael C. Dorneich

An augmented tutoring system is provided that includes a simulation device, at least one sensor and a controller. The simulation device is adapted to provide a simulation that has an objective to accomplish by a student, wherein to achieve the objective a plurality of tasks must be correctly completed. The at least one sensor is adapted to monitor a cognitive state of the student while engaged with the simulation. The controller is adapted to process cognitive state information from the at least one sensor and to process student progress information relating to the completion of each of the tasks. The ...


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