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Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater 2019 Selected Works

Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater

Joe Pater

The birthdate of both generative linguistics and neural networks can be taken as 1957, the year of the publication of foundational work by both Noam Chomsky and Frank Rosenblatt. This paper traces the development of these two approaches to cognitive science, from their largely autonomous early development in their first thirty years, through their collision in the 1980s around the past tense debate (Rumelhart and McClelland 1986, Pinker and Prince 1988), and their integration in much subsequent work up to the present. Although this integration has produced a considerable body of results, the continued general gulf between these two lines ...


A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Connectionism is an approach to neural-networks-based cognitive modeling that encompasses the recent deep learning movement in artificial intelligence. It came of age in the 1980s, with its roots in cybernetics and earlier attempts to model the brain as a system of simple parallel processors. Connectionist models center on statistical inference within neural networks with empirically learnable parameters, which can be represented as graphical models. More recent approaches focus on learning and inference within hierarchical generative models. Contra influential and ongoing critiques, I argue in this dissertation that the connectionist approach to cognitive science possesses in principle (and, as is becoming ...


The Increase Of How Mass Media Coverage Manipulates Our Minds, David B. Ross, Melissa Tara Sasso 2019 Nova Southeastern University

The Increase Of How Mass Media Coverage Manipulates Our Minds, David B. Ross, Melissa Tara Sasso

Dr. Melissa Tara Sasso

No abstract provided.


Limitations Of Sensory Systems (Loss) Assessment, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D. 2019 Pacific University

Limitations Of Sensory Systems (Loss) Assessment, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D.

Faculty Scholarship

This checklist is designed to assess the degree of loss in families with children who experience sensory system impairments and in specific issues with limitations to insight and awareness of self and others. There are 100 items in the checklist and the lower the score the higher degree of loss experienced. This is a pilot paper for this assessment of losses experienced within families who have children with sensory limitations, and it is designed to gather input on the following factors.

Construct, Trait, Skills or Competency

Primary Factor

  • Integrative Reason

Insight, awareness, clarity of thought

  • Eco-System Development

Individuation, environmental ...


Experimentally Examining The Proposed Relationships Among “Rehearsal-Based” Effects, Corey Ian McGill 2019 Louisiana State University

Experimentally Examining The Proposed Relationships Among “Rehearsal-Based” Effects, Corey Ian Mcgill

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Despite the importance of rehearsal to most models of verbal working memory, its role has been recently called into question. Much prior work in support of rehearsal models has centered on the experimental effects of word-length, phonological-similarity, and irrelevant sound on serial order recall performance and the interaction of all three with concurrent articulation. However, recent research has suggested that confounding effects of stimuli, such as orthographic neighborhood, may be the true cause of the word-length effect. While these findings alone have significant implications for modern models of rehearsal, to understand them within the context of modern theories of working ...


Local Processes Of Homophone Acquisition, Deniz Beser, Spencer Caplan 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Local Processes Of Homophone Acquisition, Deniz Beser, Spencer Caplan

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

The Naive Generalization Model (NGM) (Caplan, 2018) explains word learning phenomena as grounded in the local, dynamical process of category formation. A range of experimental evidence (Xu and Tenenbaum, 2007; Spencer et al., 2011; Lewis and Frank, 2018) supports the NGM over prior models of word learning such as Bayesian inference (Xu and Tenenbaum, 2007). Despite such progress, a number of theoretical phenomena remain unaddressed by previous accounts. In this paper, we present a novel extension to NGM which offers a strong fit to and explanation of experimental data on homophone acquisition (Dautriche et al., 2016).


Mindspace And Development Of Organizational Culture In Aviation Safety Management, Wilson Gilliam Jr 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Mindspace And Development Of Organizational Culture In Aviation Safety Management, Wilson Gilliam Jr

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Abstract

The organization’s role in establishing a culture fertile for safety development, risk management and mitigation is paramount. Barriers to the effectiveness of aviation safety systems may emerge when human biases interfere with the basic processes of safety management systems. Biases come in many forms and can serve as unconscious discriminatory behaviors against a person’s race, gender, sexual orientation, profession, skill level or other characteristic. Biases can also result from instinctive reactions and habitual patterns serving to protect one’s status, sense of belonging, desire to be viewed as normal and other characteristics. Minimizing biases within an organization ...


Speech Interfaces And Pilot Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Kenneth A. Ward 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Speech Interfaces And Pilot Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Kenneth A. Ward

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

As the aviation industry modernizes, new technology and interfaces must support growing aircraft complexity without increasing pilot workload. Natural language processing presents just such a simple and intuitive interface, yet the performance implications for use by pilots remain unknown. A meta-analysis was conducted to understand performance effects of using speech and voice interfaces in a series of pilot task analogs. The inclusion criteria selected studies that involved participants performing a demanding primary task, such as driving, while interacting with a vehicle system to enter numbers, dial radios, or enter a navigation destination. Compared to manual system interfaces, voice interfaces reduced ...


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra 2019 Claremont Colleges

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


An Analysis And Critique Of Mental Health Treatment In American State Prisons And Proposal For Improved Care, Shelby Hayne 2019 Claremont Colleges

An Analysis And Critique Of Mental Health Treatment In American State Prisons And Proposal For Improved Care, Shelby Hayne

Scripps Senior Theses

Mental health treatment in state prisons is revealed to be highly variable, under-funded, and systematically inadequate. Existing literature exposes this injustice but fails to provide a comprehensive proposal for reform. This paper attempts to fill that gap, outlining a cost-effective, evidence-based treatment proposal, directly addressing the deficits in care revealed through analysis of our current system. In addition, this paper provides historical overviews of the prison system and mental health treatment, utilizing theoretical perspectives to contextualize this proposal in the present state of affairs. Lastly, the evidence is provided to emphasize the potential economic and social benefits of improving mental ...


Is Memory Enhanced By The Context Or Survival Threats? A Quantitative And Qualitative Review On The Survival Processing Paradigm, Peter Kay Chai TAY, Peter K. JONASON, Norman P. LI, Grand H.-L. CHENG 2019 Singapore Management University

Is Memory Enhanced By The Context Or Survival Threats? A Quantitative And Qualitative Review On The Survival Processing Paradigm, Peter Kay Chai Tay, Peter K. Jonason, Norman P. Li, Grand H.-L. Cheng

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Consistent with an evolutionary perspective, memory may be enhanced when people are in precarious situations. Particularly, a survival processing effect (SPE) has been found whereby people have better memory for a list of items when the items are rated for their relevance in a grassland context that contains survival threats including predators, and the lack of food and water. In this article, we systematically review research that investigated the SPE to disentangle the contextual effects (e.g., grassland) from survival effects (e.g., presence of predators) on memory. A total of 56 articles (106 experiments) that reported findings relating to ...


Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall 2019 Pennsylvania State University, Mont Alto

Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

We discuss the connection between the numeracy and social justice movements both in historical context and in its modern incarnation. The intersection between numeracy and social justice encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and quantitative topics, but within that variety there are important commonalities. We examine the importance of sound quantitative measures for understanding social issues and the necessity of interdisciplinary collaboration in this work. Particular reference is made to the papers in the first part of the Numeracy special collection on social justice, which appear in this issue.


Where There's A Will, There's A Way: Implementing Motivational Strategies To Combat Decision Fatigue, David Huang 2019 Claremont Colleges

Where There's A Will, There's A Way: Implementing Motivational Strategies To Combat Decision Fatigue, David Huang

CMC Senior Theses

Recent research suggests we have a limited supply of willpower, termed the “ego”, which becomes depleted by undergoing cognitively demanding tasks. Any acts of volition, including decision-making, self-control, and taking responsibility, reduce this supply of “ego” (Baumeister, 1998), which impedes our ability to further perform these tasks. Decision fatigue, a specific form of ego depletion, is prevalent everywhere from judicial court cases (Danzinger, Levav, & Avnaim-Pesso, 2010) to our daily lives. There is now significant mainstream media exposure and literature on decision fatigue and the activities to which it applies. However, it remains contested how to best handle its negative consequences ...


Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that the cognitive differences between humans and nonhuman animals do not make humans superior to animals. I suggest that humans have domain-general cognitive abilities that make them superior in causing uniquely complex changes in the world not caused by any other species. The ability to conceive of and articulate a claim of rights is an example. However, possession of superior cognitive ability does not entitle humans to superior moral status. It is sentience, not cognitive complexity, that is the basis for the assignment of rights and the protections under the law that accompany them.


Intelligence As Mental Manipulation In Humans And Nonhuman Animals, Moran Bar-Hen-Schweiger, Avishai Henik 2019 Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Intelligence As Mental Manipulation In Humans And Nonhuman Animals, Moran Bar-Hen-Schweiger, Avishai Henik

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman review and evaluate various aspects of the notion of human superiority. In this commentary we focus on intelligence and suggest a biologically based view of intelligence applicable to humans and non-human species alike. “Mental manipulation” (e.g., mental transformations, rotations, perspective-taking), an extension of object manipulation, provides a continuous, biologically based concept for studying intelligent behavior in humans and other species and challenges the notion of human superiority.


The Effect Of Talker And Contextual Variability On Memory For Words In Sentences, Nichole Runge 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

The Effect Of Talker And Contextual Variability On Memory For Words In Sentences, Nichole Runge

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has found that adding different forms of variability during study can affect later memory at test. For example, having words spoken by different talkers has been shown to improve recall of known and novel words (Goldinger et al., 1999; Barcroft & Sommers, 2005), and varying the cues in cue-target related word pairs has been found to improve recall of the targets (Glenberg, 1979; Bevan et al., 1966). It was unclear, however, whether benefits of variability would extend to more naturalistic stimuli, such as sentences, which have higher working memory demands. The present set of experiments investigated how talker and contextual variability, both individually and combined, affect free recall of target words that appear in semantically-related sentences.

Target words were sentence-final items ...


The Effects Of Proficiency And Task Context On L2-L1 Noncognate Masked Translation Priming In Chinese-English Bilinguals, Mark J. McPhedran 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Proficiency And Task Context On L2-L1 Noncognate Masked Translation Priming In Chinese-English Bilinguals, Mark J. Mcphedran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The masked translation priming effect was examined in Chinese-English bilinguals using three experimental paradigms: lexical decision, semantic categorization, and speeded episodic recognition. A machine-learning approach was used to assess the subject- and item-specific factors that contribute to the sizes of translation priming effects across these tasks. The factors that contributed to translation priming effects were found to be task specific. Priming effects in lexical decision were associated with higher self-rated listening and writing abilities in English, especially when primes were high-frequency and targets were low-frequency. Priming effects in semantic categorization were associated with more frequent use of English in daily ...


The Effect Of Disfluency On The Framing Effect, Jon P. Baldwin, Haley M. Newton, Matthew E. Davis 2018 Wingate University

The Effect Of Disfluency On The Framing Effect, Jon P. Baldwin, Haley M. Newton, Matthew E. Davis

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

This study investigated the framing effect and examined whether disfluency reduces susceptibility to framing. Prior work has shown that when information is presented in a fluent manner individuals process the content quickly, however when it is presented in a disfluent hard-to-read manner more analytical processing systems are activated. The current study examined the impact of fluency and dual process theory on framing susceptibility. Participants completed three classic decision problems (Asian Disease Problem, School Dropout Prevention Problem, and Fatal Disease Problem) with answers written in a risk seeking or risk averse manner and the font manipulated. The framing effect was again ...


The Effects Of Semantic Priming On Lexical Processing, Alexander Taikh 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Semantic Priming On Lexical Processing, Alexander Taikh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present experiments were designed to investigate the locus of the semantic priming effect, a phenomenon that has received much research attention. Semantically related primes (e.g., cat) might activate the lexical representations of their targets (e.g., DOG) through automatic spreading activation at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the prime and target, or through generation of words expected to follow the prime at long SOAs. Alternately, semantically related primes might be used strategically to aid responding after target identification. The effects of masked orthographic primes (e.g., judpe-JUDGE), in contrast, are assumed to be strictly lexical and automatic ...


Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski 2018 Seton Hall University

Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Knowledge of cause and effect allows individuals to meaningfully interpret the events they perceive in the world, and the understanding of causality is thought to be grounded in the understanding of forces (Wolf, Ritter, & Holmes, 2014). Previous research has linked handedness with both the ability to exert force (e.g., Linkenauger et al., 2005) and causal learning (e.g., Goedert & Czarnowski, 2017). Historically, number lines have been used to assess causality, but because handedness has a strong spatial element, SNARC effects may influence judgments (Fias, 1996). The current experiment replicates previous work by Goedert and Czarnowski (2017) but changes the ...


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