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Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


Marital Satisfaction: The Role Of Post-Formal Thought And Partner Blame, Kendall Jory, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Dr. Janet Trammell 2017 Seaver College

Marital Satisfaction: The Role Of Post-Formal Thought And Partner Blame, Kendall Jory, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Dr. Janet Trammell

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Post-formal thought, a recently identified fifth stage of developmental cognition, is a type of complex cognition initially present in emerging adulthood. It is more practical, flexible and dialectical than previous stages of cognition. Research has suggested the benefits of enhanced post-formal thought in intrapersonal functioning, as well as interpersonal functioning. In interpersonal functioning, social relationships provide an opportunity to think using post-formal cognition because two people often share different “truths” in a relationship which creates logical conflict that must be resolved to continue the relationship (Griffin et al, 2009). Using this framework, the current study aimed to further examine the ...


The Relationship Between Extraversion And Listening Comprehension Under High And Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions, Nicole Virzi, Steve Rouse, CIndy Miller-Perrin 2017 Pepperdine University

The Relationship Between Extraversion And Listening Comprehension Under High And Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions, Nicole Virzi, Steve Rouse, Cindy Miller-Perrin

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The proposed study contributes to the pool of research examining the link between level of extraversion and sensory stimulation. Numerous studies have shown that introverts are more susceptible to forms of auditory distraction than extraverts when completing cognitive tasks requiring visual attention, but no study has examined the opposite relationship: the differing effects of visual distraction on auditory comprehension amongst introverts and extraverts. Using undergraduate college students as participants, this study tested three hypotheses: 1) there will be a negative correlation between level of extraversion and self-reported distraction while under high-salience visual distraction, 2) there will be a positive correlation ...


Using Low-Stakes Repeated Testing Can Improve Student Learning: How (Some) Practice Makes Perfect, Sarah Grison, Steven G. Luke, Aya Shigeto, Patrick D.K. Watson 2017 Parkland College

Using Low-Stakes Repeated Testing Can Improve Student Learning: How (Some) Practice Makes Perfect, Sarah Grison, Steven G. Luke, Aya Shigeto, Patrick D.K. Watson

Aya Shigeto

Two studies in Introductory Psychology classes explored whether repeated low-stakes testing can augment learning. In Experiment 1, answering more in-class questions with student response systems (SRSs) predicted better learning when students had not read the text. In Experiment 2, taking online practice quizzes predicted better learning, especially when questions on a concept were grouped. Repeated low-stakes testing can aid learning, but we must develop evidence-based pedagogical tools to maximize effects.


Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Learning Of At-Risk Students, Patrick D.K. Watson, Sarah Grison, Steven G. Luke, Aya Shigeto 2017 Parkland College

Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Learning Of At-Risk Students, Patrick D.K. Watson, Sarah Grison, Steven G. Luke, Aya Shigeto

Aya Shigeto

29 graduate TAs and 1 faculty member teach 2700 Introductory Psychology students annually. This year we developed an assessment program to improve student learning and graduate teaching training (Shigeto et al., 2010). We studied the value of pedagogical tools developed for students in the Educational Opportunities Program (EOP). EOP selects students based on demographics and academic vulnerabilities for a special intro psych section. This section has an extra day per week for content presentation and additional student development support. These interventions have been demonstrated to enhance learning in minority students (Treisman, 1992).


Vergleich Zweier Schulbasierter Programme Zur Prävention Depressiver Symptome Bei Jugendlichen (Comparison Of Two School Based Depression Prevention Programs For Adolescents)., Patrick Pössel, Andrea B. Horn, Martin Hautzinger 2017 University of Louisville

Vergleich Zweier Schulbasierter Programme Zur Prävention Depressiver Symptome Bei Jugendlichen (Comparison Of Two School Based Depression Prevention Programs For Adolescents)., Patrick Pössel, Andrea B. Horn, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Depressive Störungen im Jugendalter sind ein weitverbreitetes Problem mit weitreichenden psychosozialen Folgen. Um beidem vorzubeugen wurde ein kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutisches und ein auf dem Paradigma des Expressiven Schreibens beruhendes universales schulbasiertes Präventionsprogramm entwickelt. Fragestellung: Haben die beiden Präventionsprogramme positive Wirkung auf depressive Symptomatik und Lebenszufriedenheit Jugendlicher? Methode: Es wurde eine randomisierte Kontrollgruppenstudie mit 3-Monats Follow-up an 579 Realschülern und -schülerinnen der 8. Klasse durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Das kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutische Programm wirkt in Abhängigkeit der Ausgangssymptomatik kurz- bzw. mittelfristig auf die depressive Symptomatik, während das Schreibprogramm unabhängig von der Ausgangssymptomatik kurz- und mittelfristig positiv auf die Lebenszufriedenheit wirkt. Schlussfolgerungen: Trotz Einschränkungen in Bezug ...


Verhaltensdiagnostik Aus Der Perspektive Der Kognitiven Therapie Analyse Automatischer Gedanken Und Grundüberzeugungen (Behavioral Diagnostics From The View Of The Cognitive Therapy : Identification Of Automatic Thoughts And Attitudes)., Patrick Pössel, Martin Hautzinger 2017 University of Louisville

Verhaltensdiagnostik Aus Der Perspektive Der Kognitiven Therapie Analyse Automatischer Gedanken Und Grundüberzeugungen (Behavioral Diagnostics From The View Of The Cognitive Therapy : Identification Of Automatic Thoughts And Attitudes)., Patrick Pössel, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

Die Veränderung von mit psychischen Problemen verbundenen negativen automatischen Gedanken und Grundüberzeugungen ist zentraler Bestandteil jeder Kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie. Daher ist die Aufdeckung dieser dem Bewusstsein oft nur wenig zugänglichen kognitiven Prozessen von entscheidender Bedeutung für den Erfolg einer Psychotherapie. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden neben dem ABCDE-Protokoll, welches die Standardmethode zur Identifikation und Veränderung negativer automatischer Gedanken ist, unterschiedliche Methoden zur Exploration von Grundüberzeugungen (Beispielsituationen sammeln, Imaginationsmethode, Pfeil-abwärts-Technik) detailliert dargestellt. Hierbei wird das eher induktive Vorgehen zur Aufdeckung von Grundüberzeugungen von Albert Ellis mit den mehr deduktiven Strategien von Aaron Beck und den Weiterentwicklungen von Judith Beck verglichen.

The modification of ...


Universelle, Schulbasierte Prävention Der Depression Im Jugendalter : Ergebnisse Einer Follow-Up-Studie (Universal, School-Based Prevention Of Depression In Adolescence : Results Of A Follow-Up Study)., Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel, Susanne Al-Wiswasi, Franz Petermann 2017 University of Louisville

Universelle, Schulbasierte Prävention Der Depression Im Jugendalter : Ergebnisse Einer Follow-Up-Studie (Universal, School-Based Prevention Of Depression In Adolescence : Results Of A Follow-Up Study)., Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel, Susanne Al-Wiswasi, Franz Petermann

Patrick Pössel

Zahlreiche internationale empirische Befunde belegen heute, dass depressive Symptome und Störungen im Jugendalter ein weit verbreitetes, oftmals folgenreiches und ernst zu nehmendes Gesundheitsproblem darstellen. Depressive Jugendliche zeigen in vielen Fällen erhebliche Alltagsbeeinträchtigungen und verschiedene komorbide psychische Probleme. Sie tragen ein deutliches Risiko, auch in ihrer weiteren Entwicklung – bis in das Erwachsenenalter – unter anhaltenden oder wiederkehrenden depressiven Episoden, anderen psychischen Störungen und psychosozialen Beeinträchtigungen zu leiden (vgl. Groen & Petermann, 2002). Neben der persönlichen Leidensgeschichte der Betroffenen ist davon auszugehen, dass bereits depressive Störungen im Jugendalter mit hohen und längerfristigen öffentlichen Kosten zusammenhängen, die etwa durch notwendige Behandlungsmaßnahmen oder spätere finanzielle Aufwendungen (z.B. durch Arbeitszeitausfälle, Frühberentungen) entstehen können (vgl. Cicchetti & Toth, 1998; Greenberg, Domitrovich & Bumbarger, 2001; Harrington & Clark, 1998). This paper presents results of an evaluation of an universal, school-based prevention program aimed at preventing depression in adolescence. This training named "Lust an realistischer Sicht & Leichtigkeit im sozialen Alltag" (LARS & LISA; Pössel, Horn, Seemann & Hautzinger, in press) was developed in Tübingen and constitutes a cognitive-behavioral group-training. The evaluated version consisted of nine 90-minute sessions and was carried out with 179 students ...


Integrating Beck’S Cognitive Model And The Response Style Theory In An Adolescent Sample., Stephanie Winkeljohn Black, Patrick Pössel 2017 University of Louisville

Integrating Beck’S Cognitive Model And The Response Style Theory In An Adolescent Sample., Stephanie Winkeljohn Black, Patrick Pössel

Patrick Pössel

Depression becomes more prevalent as individuals progress from childhood to adulthood. Thus, empirically supported and popular cognitive vulnerability theories to explain depression in adulthood have begun to be tested in younger age groups, particularly adolescence, a time of significant cognitive development. Beck’s cognitive theory and the response style theory are well known, empirically supported theories of depression. The current, two-wave longitudinal study (N = 462; mean age = 16.01 years; SD = 0.69; 63.9 % female) tested various proposed integrative models of Beck’s cognitive theory and the response style theory, as well as the original theories themselves, to determine ...


Testing Three Different Sequential Mediational Interpretations Of Beck's Cognitive Model For The Development Of Depression., Patrick Pössel, Stephanie Winkeljohn Black 2017 University of Louisville

Testing Three Different Sequential Mediational Interpretations Of Beck's Cognitive Model For The Development Of Depression., Patrick Pössel, Stephanie Winkeljohn Black

Patrick Pössel

Objectives: This study tested and compared three sequential interpretations of Beck’s cognitive model of the development of depression (1996). The causal mediational interpretation identifies dysfunctional attitudes as most distal to depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive distortions, cognitive triad, and negative automatic thoughts, with each construct successively more proximal to depressive symptoms. By contrast, the symptom model reverses the causal chain with negative automatic thoughts as the most proximal consequence and dysfunctional attitudes as the most distal consequence of depression. The bidirectional model merges both interpretations into one model. Previous studies on sequential interpretations of Beck’s model have not ...


Influence Of General Self-Efficacy On The Effects Of A School-Based Universal Primary Prevention Program Of Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Randomized And Controlled Follow-Up Study., Patrick Pössel, Christiane Baldus, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Martin Hautzinger 2017 University of Louisville

Influence Of General Self-Efficacy On The Effects Of A School-Based Universal Primary Prevention Program Of Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Randomized And Controlled Follow-Up Study., Patrick Pössel, Christiane Baldus, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

Background:  Depressive disorders in adolescents are a widespread and increasing problem. Prevention seems a promising and feasible approach.

Methods:  We designed a cognitive-behavioral school-based universal primary prevention program and followed 347 eighth-grade students participating in a randomized controlled trial for three months.

Results:  In line with our hypothesis, participants in the prevention program remained on a low level of depressive symptoms, having strong social networks. The control group showed increasing depressive symptoms and a reduced social network. Contrary to our expectations, students low in self-efficacy benefited more from the program than high self-efficient students. Social network did not mediate the ...


Evaluation Eines Deutschsprachigen Instrumentes Zur Erfassung Positiver Und Negativer Automatischer Gedanken Bei Kindern Und Jugendlichen (Evaluation Of A German-Language Tool For Measuring Positive And Negative Automatic Thoughts In Children And Adolescents)., Silke Huffziger, Thomas D. Meyer, Simone Seemann, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel 2017 Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim

Evaluation Eines Deutschsprachigen Instrumentes Zur Erfassung Positiver Und Negativer Automatischer Gedanken Bei Kindern Und Jugendlichen (Evaluation Of A German-Language Tool For Measuring Positive And Negative Automatic Thoughts In Children And Adolescents)., Silke Huffziger, Thomas D. Meyer, Simone Seemann, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel

Patrick Pössel

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Negative automatische Gedanken stellen nach Beck eine wichtige Ursache für depressive Störungen dar. Fragestellung: Überprüfung der psychometrischen Gütekriterien des deutschen „Fragebogens für negative und positive automatische Gedanken” (FAG) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Methode: Der Fragebogen wurde an einer unselektierten Stichprobe aus der Allgemeinbevölkerung (n = 952) zwischen 11 und 16 Jahren untersucht. Die Stichprobe wurde in die beiden Gruppen ≤ 13 Jahre und > 13 Jahre aufgeteilt. Ergebnisse: In der Gruppe ≤ 13 Jahre wurden die Skalen „negative Selbstaussagen” und „positive Selbstaussagen”, in der Gruppe > 13 Jahre die Skalen „negative Selbstaussagen”, „Selbstvertrauen” und „Wohlbefinden” faktorenanalytisch extrahiert. Die internen Konsistenzen der FAG-Skalen lagen ...


Bidirectional Relations Of Religious Orientation And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Short-Term Longitudinal Study., Patrick Pössel, Nina C. Martin, Judy Garber, Aaron W. Banister, Natalie K. Pickering, Martin Hautzinger 2017 University of Louisville

Bidirectional Relations Of Religious Orientation And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Short-Term Longitudinal Study., Patrick Pössel, Nina C. Martin, Judy Garber, Aaron W. Banister, Natalie K. Pickering, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

Religious orientation can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic: intrinsically oriented individuals “live their religion,” whereas extrinsically oriented individuals practice religion mainly to gain external benefits. In adults, depression has been found to correlate negatively with intrinsic religious orientation and positively with extrinsic orientation. Studies of the relation between religiosity and depression typically have not been longitudinal, conducted with adolescents, controlled for the influence of other factors associated with depression (i.e., negative cognitions), or examined the reverse relation of depression predicting religious orientation. Our four-month longitudinal study of 273 ninth-grade students addressed these issues. Results showed that higher intrinsic ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater 2017 Sacred Heart University

Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater

Deirdre Yeater

A presentation of Professor Yeater's incorporation in her class PSCC103 of 5 in- class discussions comparing human and non-human species, particularly dolphins, with an emphasis on the Catholic Intellectual Tradition and the importance of touch. PSCC-103, The Human Community: The Individual and Society, is a 3 credit course which engages students in a study of the relationship between psychology – the science of human behavior and mental processes, and the Catholic intellectual tradition – which is characterized by rigorous intellectual inquiry and an openness to scientific ideas. This course aims to help us understand ourselves as human persons, as well as ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

Christopher J. Lyddy

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar 2017 Providence College

Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar

Christopher J. Lyddy

Mindfulness research activity is surging within organizational science. Emerging evidence across multiple fields suggests that mindfulness is fundamentally connected to many aspects of workplace functioning, but this knowledge base has not been systematically integrated to date. This review coalesces the burgeoning body of mindfulness scholarship into a framework to guide mainstream management research investigating a broad range of constructs. The framework identifies how mindfulness influences attention, with downstream effects on functional domains of cognition, emotion, behavior, and physiology. Ultimately, these domains impact key workplace outcomes, including performance, relationships, and well-being. Consideration of the evidence on mindfulness at work stimulates important ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

School of Business Faculty Publications

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Big Data And The Well-Being Nexus: Tracking Google Search Activity By State Iq, Michael A. McDaniel, Bryan J. Pesta, Allison S. Gabriel 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Big Data And The Well-Being Nexus: Tracking Google Search Activity By State Iq, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Bryan J. Pesta, Allison S. Gabriel

Byran J. Pesta

In the era of “big data,” internet search activity can provide interesting insight into human behavior. Here we used the Google Correlate algorithm (a database tracking billions of user searches) to identify search terms that co-varied most strongly with U.S. state-level IQ and wellbeing (see Pesta, McDaniel, & Bertsch, 2010). First, we identified the 100 strongest positive (e.g., crock pot applesauce, custom woodworking) and negative (e.g., ASVAB for Dummies, Hello Kitty) search term covariates for state IQ. We then rationally clustered search terms into composites (e.g., “food,” “job seeking activity”) based on similarity of concept. Thereafter, we ...


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