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Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater 2019 Selected Works

Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater

Joe Pater

The birthdate of both generative linguistics and neural networks can be taken as 1957, the year of the publication of foundational work by both Noam Chomsky and Frank Rosenblatt. This paper traces the development of these two approaches to cognitive science, from their largely autonomous early development in their first thirty years, through their collision in the 1980s around the past tense debate (Rumelhart and McClelland 1986, Pinker and Prince 1988), and their integration in much subsequent work up to the present. Although this integration has produced a considerable body of results, the continued general gulf between these two lines ...


The Cognitive Effects Of Late Bilingualism On Executive Functions: Lifelong Benefits, Rachel Casper 2018 Brigham Young University

The Cognitive Effects Of Late Bilingualism On Executive Functions: Lifelong Benefits, Rachel Casper

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Late bilinguals, those who learn a language past the critical period, are often thought to not receive much benefits from their language learning in comparison to their early bilingual counterparts. A large of body of recent research suggests otherwise. Late bilinguals receive the same cognitive benefits as early bilinguals; these benefits are in higher levels of executive functions, specifically in inhibitory control and attentional switching. Higher levels of executive functions assist learners in improving their mental processing and cognitive health over the course of their lifetime. Aging bilinguals have greater cognitive health due to more white and gray matter density ...


Of Expectations And Experiences: 
The Moderating Effect Of Valenced Expectations On Enjoyment Of A Positive Vs. Negative Experience, Molly C. McGehee 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Of Expectations And Experiences: 
The Moderating Effect Of Valenced Expectations On Enjoyment Of A Positive Vs. Negative Experience, Molly C. Mcgehee

Shared Knowledge Conference

Some extant literature argues that expectations drive enjoyment of experiences, while other literature argues that expectations only comparatively influence enjoyment. The current work addresses this discrepancy and demonstrates that while positive expectations do result in favorable enjoyment of experiences, negative expectations result in the comparative process suggested by others.


13 - Who Should Lead: How Cognitive Ability And Personality Predict Leadership., Faith M. Rankin, Brendyn L. Melugin, Tyler Harrison 2018 University of North Georgia

13 - Who Should Lead: How Cognitive Ability And Personality Predict Leadership., Faith M. Rankin, Brendyn L. Melugin, Tyler Harrison

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Traditional measures of leadership explicitly ask test-takers whether they engage in successful leadership behaviors (e.g., Bass & Avolio, 1995). While these tests do show some relationships with leader effectiveness (Dumdum, Lowe, & Avolio, 2013), these tests are not ideal because test-takers could stretch the truth to make themselves appear to be a more qualified leader than they actually are. Because of this problem, we developed a test (Transactional/Transformational Implicit Leadership Test) designed to assess leadership style without appearing to be a measurement of leadership. For the present study, we administered our new measurement of leadership, a traditional leadership test, and ...


19 - The Role Of Chunk Strength And Grammaticality In Affecting Learning Of An Artificial Grammar, Tamika Crane 2018 Georgia State University

19 - The Role Of Chunk Strength And Grammaticality In Affecting Learning Of An Artificial Grammar, Tamika Crane

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm has been used for decades to investigate the ability to implicitly learn structured patterns in the environment (Reber, 1967).Two types of information are known to influence learning: grammaticality (the extent that sequences are consistent with the rules of the grammar) and chunk strength (surface similarity to previously observed exemplars). To further investigate the role of these two types of information on learning, we administered theAGL task to eighteen participants (18–33 years old). During Training, participants were instructed to reproduce symbol sequences generated from an artificial grammar; during Test, participants had to decide ...


The State Of The Video Game Industry And Potential Implications Of Current Business Practices, Stephen Friend 2018 South Georgia State College

The State Of The Video Game Industry And Potential Implications Of Current Business Practices, Stephen Friend

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The State of the Video Game Industry and Potential Implications of Current Business Practices

Stephen J. Friend - Stephenfri89@gmail.com

  • Student at South Georgia State University

Abstract

This study aims to highlight the state of the video game industry by examining “AAA” (triple A) development studios and publishing companies and their business structure along with their implementation of microtransactions and other monetary schemes. The fiscal returnings and statistic quarterly updates provided by GameIndustry.biz, GameRant, and Newzoo show companies such as Ubisoft and Electronic Arts(EA) are making more than 51% of their annual income from microtransactions. In conjunction, the ...


A Multidimensional Examination Of Parent Involvement Across Child And Parent Characteristics, S. Andrew Garbacz, Philippa S. McDowall, Elizabeth Schaughency, Susan M. Sheridan, Greg W. Welch 2018 University of Oregon

A Multidimensional Examination Of Parent Involvement Across Child And Parent Characteristics, S. Andrew Garbacz, Philippa S. Mcdowall, Elizabeth Schaughency, Susan M. Sheridan, Greg W. Welch

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The purpose of this study was to clarify equivocal findings in the parent-involvement literature and examine novel interactions in a New Zealand context. Specifically, this study tested direct effects of school year, parent education, family structure, and child gender on parent involvement in elementary school. In addition, interactions between parent, family, and child characteristics were explored as moderators on the relation of school year and parent involvement. Participants were 421 primary caregivers of children attending their first through final years of elementary school on New Zealand’s South Island. Structural equation models were used to detect direct and interaction effects ...


P-06 Faith, Hope And Love: An Integrated Conceptual Framework For Examining Religious Outcomes In A Global Church, Karl G. D. Bailey, Duane C. McBride, Shannon M. Trecartin 2018 Andrews University

P-06 Faith, Hope And Love: An Integrated Conceptual Framework For Examining Religious Outcomes In A Global Church, Karl G. D. Bailey, Duane C. Mcbride, Shannon M. Trecartin

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

The 2017-18 Global Church Member Survey conducted by the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church is designed to assess the quinquennial Church Strategic Plan (2015-2020). In designing this survey, we considered a variety of theoretical frameworks that could explain relationships between the target outcomes in the Strategic Plan. The resulting novel theoretical framework is based on Biblical principles and an integration of a number of frameworks in the social sciences: motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2008; Greenberg, Solomon, & Arndt, 2008; Koole, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 2006; Pyszczynski, Greenberg, & Goldenberg, 2003; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and hope (Bernardo, 2010; Snyder, 2002) from psychology, faith development (Dudley, 1994; Ji, 2004) from religious studies, social bonding (Hirschi, 1969; Yang et al ...


Visual And Verbal Serial List Learning In Patients With Statistically-Determined Mild Cognitive Impairment, Victor J. Wasserman 2018 Rowan University

Visual And Verbal Serial List Learning In Patients With Statistically-Determined Mild Cognitive Impairment, Victor J. Wasserman

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To compare verbal versus visual serial list learning test performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and assess relationships between serial list learning and hippocampal volume. Methods: Patients were diagnosed with non-MCI, amnestic MCI (aMCI), and combined mixed/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dysMCI). Outcome measures included immediate/delay free recall, and delay recognition performance from the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test (PrVLT) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R). Lateral hippocampal volumes were obtained. Results: Non-MCI patients scored better than other groups on P(r)VLT immediate/delay free recall. aMCI patients scored lower than other groups on P(r)VLT ...


Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull 2018 Dartmouth College

Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

To clarify and quantify the influence of video game violence (VGV) on aggressive behavior, we conducted a metaanalysis of all prospective studies to date that assessed the relation between exposure to VGV and subsequent overt physical aggression. The search strategy identified 24 studies with over 17,000 participants and time lags ranging from 3 months to 4 years. The samples comprised various nationalities and ethnicities with mean ages from 9 to 19 years. For each study we obtained the standardized regression coefficient for the prospective effect of VGV on subsequent aggression, controlling for baseline aggression. VGV was related to aggression ...


Never Again! Surviving Liberalized Prostitution In Germany, Sandra Norak, Ingeborg Kraus 2018 Psychologische Psychotherapeutin

Never Again! Surviving Liberalized Prostitution In Germany, Sandra Norak, Ingeborg Kraus

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article, co-authored by a six-year survivor of the sex trade industry in Germany (Sandra Norak) and a psychologist and trauma therapist (Ingeborg Kraus), provides perspectives on the difficulty of withstanding the coercion of traffickers and the difficulties of exiting prostitution in a country in which prostitution has been legalized, normalized and made “a job like any other.” This normalization persuades survivors to believe their traffickers that it is a legitimate occupation and encourages them to endure the violence. Liberalization also has prevented the development of needed trauma services to those seeking to exit the sex trade industry.


Threat-Related Attentional Bias In Relation To Anxiety And Depressive Symptoms In The General Population: The Potential Role Of Sex Effects, Beril Yaffe 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Threat-Related Attentional Bias In Relation To Anxiety And Depressive Symptoms In The General Population: The Potential Role Of Sex Effects, Beril Yaffe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Heightened sensitivity to relevant environmental stimuli (attentional bias) has been observed in relation to clinical and non-clinical anxiety and depression symptoms. While depression symptoms are associated with sensitivity to disorder and self-relevant words, hypervigilance to threatening stimuli is observed in relation to anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, attentional bias has been shown to play an important role in the development and maintenance of depressive and anxiety disorders. Accordingly, a large body of literature has examined threat-related attentional bias in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, several methodological inconsistencies exist across studies, including variability in definitions of threat, lack of consideration ...


A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective: Recent findings suggest phenomenological similarities across gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The key similarity between the disorders is the failure to inhibit or control a repetitive behavior (or urges to engage in a behavior) and intrusive thoughts. Our current understanding of the neural pathophysiological mechanisms linking gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the functioning of frontostriatal brain regions that support self-regulatory control in adults with gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Methods: The study compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level dependent response in 19 adults with pathological gambling (PG), 29 ...


Rumination And Rebound From Failure: Investigating How Trait And State Forms Of Ruminative Thought Influence Attention To Errors And The Ability To Correct Them In A Challenging Academic Environment, Ronald C. Whiteman 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Rumination And Rebound From Failure: Investigating How Trait And State Forms Of Ruminative Thought Influence Attention To Errors And The Ability To Correct Them In A Challenging Academic Environment, Ronald C. Whiteman

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Rumination is a recurrent and repetitive manner of thinking that can be triggered by blockage of personally-relevant goals, creating a temporary state of abstract and evaluative self-focus that can also become a chronic trait-like style of responding to personal challenges. Despite claims that rumination helps down-regulate unwanted emotion, cope with problems, and lead to goal attainment, it often increases negative affect, interferes with problem solving, and exacerbates goal-state discrepancies, particularly for women. Given the pervasiveness of rumination and its potential impact on cognitive processes and emotional states, one important yet untested question is how it might impact individuals’ ability to ...


Manipulating Goal States And Brain States: Using Eeg And Hd-Tdcs To Investigate Mechanisms Underlying The Influence Of Achievement Goals On Declarative Memory, Yuliya Ochakovskaya 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Manipulating Goal States And Brain States: Using Eeg And Hd-Tdcs To Investigate Mechanisms Underlying The Influence Of Achievement Goals On Declarative Memory, Yuliya Ochakovskaya

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

When it comes to learning factual information, students may benefit from having opportunities where they can learn from their mistakes as opposed to only being asked to study that information. However, the achievement goals that instructors set for their students may influence how students engage with these learning opportunities. Although some instructors may focus students on learning (i.e. mastery goals), others may seek to motivate students by focusing them on doing better than others (i.e. performance goals), which is thought promote greater sensitivity to errors and impair learning. Across two studies, the present dissertation examined the roles of ...


The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Metamemory monitoring, the process of making subjective assessments of the status of one’s own memory, is crucial to guiding behavior and effective learning. Past cognitive research has shown that subjective confidence judgments are inferential in nature, and based on cues available at the time of the judgment. When confidence is based on cues that are related to objective memory performance, metamemory accuracy is high. However, past studies have shown that metamemory monitoring tends to be inaccurate because individuals base their confidence on information that is not predictive of memory success, such as the fluency with which items were encoded ...


Gratitude Intervention Modulates P3 Amplitude In A Temporal Discounting Task, Andrea L. Patalano, Sydney L. Lolli, Charles A. Sanislow 2018 Wesleyan University

Gratitude Intervention Modulates P3 Amplitude In A Temporal Discounting Task, Andrea L. Patalano, Sydney L. Lolli, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Gratitude has been shown to reduce economic impatience. In particular, individuals induced to experience heightened gratitude are more willing to choose delayed larger rewards over immediate smaller rewards (i.e., they have lower discounting rates) than those in a neutral condition. Using the event-related potential (ERP) method, we investigated the relation between gratitude level and neurophysiological correlates. Of interest was motivated information processing, as indexed by the P3 component. Participants were administered a gratitude or a neutral mood induction followed by a temporal discounting task (choosing between a fixed immediate reward versus a future reward that varied across trials) while ...


The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To investigate if making a word harder to read attenuates emotional influences like valence and arousal, we used a sample of Warriner and colleagues’ (2013) corpus with valence and arousal norms, a font manipulation from the perceptual fluency paradigm, and a word naming task. We found that, contrary to our hypotheses, emotional influences of words on RT were not attenuated in the disfluent condition; in fact, disfluency seemed to amplify the facilitative effects of high arousal. These results suggest that models of word recognition should consider the role that emotions play in recognition. They also provide limited support to models ...


Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The concept of mattering is an underdeveloped, yet important component of an employee’s success in the workplace, and personal well-being. Deficit-based leadership strategies employed by many organizations can break-down the ability for an employee to feel that they and their work matter, however, the focus by leaders on mattering can lead employees to feel: my leader is invested in my success, I am noticed, I am cared about, I am depended upon, I would be missed if I were not here, my leader is interested in what I say and do, I am appreciated, and I am noticed for ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...


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