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Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


Supplemental Data For Onus Of The Bonus, Ellen E. Furlong, Laurie R. Santos 2017 Illinois Wesleyan University

Supplemental Data For Onus Of The Bonus, Ellen E. Furlong, Laurie R. Santos

Furlong Cognition Lab

No abstract provided.


Harnessing The Power Of Emotion For Social Change: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Anne M. W. Kelly 2017 Dakota Wesleyan University

Harnessing The Power Of Emotion For Social Change: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Anne M. W. Kelly

Numeracy

Scott Slovic and Paul Slovic (Eds.). Numbers and Nerves: Information, Emotion, and Meaning in a World of Data (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-776-5.

Literature and environment professor Scott Slovic, and his father, psychologist Paul Slovic, editors of this collection of essays and interviews, describe and demonstrate the psychological effects which hamper our ability to comprehend and respond appropriately to large numerical data. The collection then offers a brief survey of art works which, by first appealing to viewers’ emotions, can potentially move the viewer to a better understanding of numbers.


Connecting Numbers With Emotion: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Samuel L. Tunstall 2017 Michigan State University

Connecting Numbers With Emotion: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Scott Slovic and Paul Slovic (Eds.). Numbers and Nerves: Information, Emotion, and Meaning in a World of Data (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-776-5.

It is common to view quantitative literacy as reasoning with respect to numbers. In Numbers and Nerves, the contributors to the volume make clear that we should attend not only to how students consciously reason with numbers, but also how our innate biases influence our actions when faced with numbers. Beginning with the concepts of psychic numbing, and then psuedoinefficacy, the contributors to the volume examine how our behaviors when faced ...


Ask A Busy Person? A Reexamination Of Cognitive Performance Under Load, Graham Watson 2017 Walden University

Ask A Busy Person? A Reexamination Of Cognitive Performance Under Load, Graham Watson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A longstanding folk belief suggests that â??busyâ?? people possess the ability to get more done than others. Busyness, defined as the demands of everyday life, has been shown to generate cognitive load, which has been called â??cognitive busyness.â?? Although most cognitive theory would deny the possibility that cognitive load may enhance performance, some recent research may support the possibility. Cowan's 1988 information-processing model was used to study how measures of everyday busyness correlated with performance on cognitive tasks. The research question addressed whether any combination of such measures, in combination with working memory, could predict performance ...


Process Dissociation Analyses Of Memory Changes In Healthy Aging, Preclinical, And Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence For Isolated Recollection Deficits, Peter R. Millar 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Process Dissociation Analyses Of Memory Changes In Healthy Aging, Preclinical, And Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence For Isolated Recollection Deficits, Peter R. Millar

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which breaks down in early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby’s (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64). Participants studied word pairs, e.g., “knee bone,” then completed a primed, explicit, cued fragment-completion memory task, e.g ...


Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, Jonathan Kenealy Doyon 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, Jonathan Kenealy Doyon

Master's Theses

Vision and haptics play a central role in perceiving environmental layout to guide action. Hajnal, Wagman, Doyon, and Clark (2016) demonstrated that visual perception of stand-on-ability is accurate compared to action capabilities, whereas haptic perception of stand-on-ability reliably underestimates action capabilities. This finding contradicts Gibson’s (1979) theory of equivalence in perceptual systems, which suggests that perception should be equivalent regardless of modality. Previous comparisons of visual and haptic perception tested the modalities in isolation. The current experiment directly compares visual to haptic perception of stand-on-ability by using one perceptual system to estimate the other. Observers viewed a surface set ...


Approaching Individual Differences Questions In Cognitive Control: A Case Study Of The Ax-Cpt, Shelly Cooper 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Approaching Individual Differences Questions In Cognitive Control: A Case Study Of The Ax-Cpt, Shelly Cooper

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Investigating individual differences in cognition requires addressing questions not often thought about in standard experimental designs, especially those regarding the psychometrics of a task. The purpose of the present study is to use the AX-CPT cognitive control task as a representative case study example to address four concerns that may impact the ability to answer questions related to individual differences. First, the importance of a task's true score variance for evaluating potential failures to replicate predicted individual differences effects is demonstrated. Second, evidence is provided that Internet-based studies (e.g., MTurk) can exhibit comparable, or even higher true score ...


The Effects Of Deception And Manipulation Of Motivation To Deceive On Event Related Potentials, Ethan C. Ashworth 2016 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Deception And Manipulation Of Motivation To Deceive On Event Related Potentials, Ethan C. Ashworth

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Correct Response Negativity (CRN) is an event-related potential component that is affected by the act of deception. However, there have been inconsistent findings on the effect of deception on the CRN. Suchotzki, et al. (2015) suggested that the design of the paradigm used to elicit the deceptive response is what controls the size of the CRN. Specifically, motivation to deceive changes the size of deception relative to telling the truth. This study attempted to follow up on suggestions made by Suchotzki et al. (2015) to investigate if extraneous motivation to lie does indeed invert the ratio of CRN in ...


Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...


An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth 2016 Novus Access & Ivy Tech Community College

An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

This study examined the potential relationship of accessible hands-on science learning experiences to the development of positive beliefs concerning one’s capacity to function in the sciences and motivation to consider science as a college major and career. Findings from Likert survey items given before and after engaging in accessible hands-on science laboratories show that students who were blind or had low vision (BLV) were more likely to agree with the following items after engaging in accessible science experiences: 1) I plan on enrolling as a science major in college; 2) My educational experiences, so far, have given me the ...


A Validation Of The Efficacy Of Descriptive Instrumental Collective Case Study Research Methodology For Examining Pilot Cognitive Functioning, Clint R. Balog 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide

A Validation Of The Efficacy Of Descriptive Instrumental Collective Case Study Research Methodology For Examining Pilot Cognitive Functioning, Clint R. Balog

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The research conducted developed a descriptive understanding of how the cognitive processes of risk assessment, problem solving, and decision making, as well as other supportive processes, are employed by pilots-in-command (PICs) during the experience of extended, extreme, in-flight emergencies. This understanding is then applied to similar dynamic, operational environments. The research also validated the applicability and efficacy of Robert Stake’s 1995 descriptive, instrumental, collective case study methodology as a tool for investigating such phenomenon and developing such an understanding. Specifically, the research details the necessary procedures for employing this methodology successfully, and provides example of those procedures, and their ...


Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin 2016 Wright State University

Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin

Patient Experience Journal

The growing literature on shared decision making and patient centered care emphasizes the patient’s role in clinical care, but research on clinical reasoning almost exclusively addresses physician cognition. In this article, we suggest clinical cognition is distributed between physicians and patients and assess how distributed clinical cognition functions during interactions between medical professionals and patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A combination of cognitive task analysis and discourse analysis reveals the distribution of clinical reasoning between 24 patients and 3 medical professionals engaged in MS management. Findings suggest that cognition was distributed between patients and physicians in all major tasks ...


Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, Bryan D. Grant 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, Bryan D. Grant

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Quantifying the processes of coping is one way to make the concept both descriptive and testable. Decisional Control (DC) is a formal, mathematically-specified, normative model which prescribes that an individual faced with a variety of alternatives in a stressing situation will attempt to minimize objective and perceived threat of an adverse event inherent within their choices. In this study, a game-theoretic probability mixture model created for DC was evaluated using established indexes of model fit to empirical decision and choice data. Sources of empirical departure from the fully normative model predictions, notably individual and group cognitive mapping of choice linked ...


Connecting Psychopathology Meta-Structure And Mechanisms, Charles A. Sanislow 2016 Wesleyan University

Connecting Psychopathology Meta-Structure And Mechanisms, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

No abstract provided.


Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti 2016 Chapman University

Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti

ESI Publications

In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects' cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS), which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these ...


Creativity And Cognitive Skills Among Millennials: Thinking Too Much And Creating Too Little, Brice Corgnet, Antonio M. Espín, Roberto Hernán-González 2016 Chapman University

Creativity And Cognitive Skills Among Millennials: Thinking Too Much And Creating Too Little, Brice Corgnet, Antonio M. Espín, Roberto Hernán-González

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers. To answer this question, we study the relationship between millennials' creativity and their performance on fluid intelligence (Raven) and cognitive reflection (CRT) tests ...


What Does Motivated Mean? Re-Presenting Learning, Technology, And Motivation In Middle Schools Via New Ethnographic Writing, Justin Olmanson 2016 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

What Does Motivated Mean? Re-Presenting Learning, Technology, And Motivation In Middle Schools Via New Ethnographic Writing, Justin Olmanson

Middle Grades Review

This article offers a critique of the way middle schoolers are often positioned as generalizable objects that can be acted upon to produce measurable increases in motivation and learning. The critique invites a reconsideration and cultural analysis of some of the dominant discourses and perceptions of technology, young adolescence, and the study of motivation. The use of New Ethnographic Writing—a method that performs a cultural critique via extended scenes connects to the roles and status of motivation, technology, and educational research methods deployed within public schools. Coupled with weak theory, this approach offers a way to understand young adolescents ...


Brain Betrayal: A Neuropsychological Categorization Of Insider Attacks, Rachel L. Whitman 2016 University of Georgia

Brain Betrayal: A Neuropsychological Categorization Of Insider Attacks, Rachel L. Whitman

KSU Proceedings on Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

Thanks to an abundance of highly publicized data breaches, Information Security (InfoSec) is taking a larger place in organizational priorities. Despite the increased attention, the threat posed to employers by their own employees remains a frightening prospect studied mostly in a technical light. This paper presents a categorization of insider deviant behavior and misbehavior based off of the neuropsychological foundations of three main types of insiders posing a threat to an organization: accidental attackers; neurologically “hot” malcontents, and neurologically “cold” opportunists.


Review Of Qualitative Research: A Guide To Design And Implementation (4th Ed.) (2016) By S.B. Merriam & E.J. Tisdell., Wayne A. Babchuk 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Review Of Qualitative Research: A Guide To Design And Implementation (4th Ed.) (2016) By S.B. Merriam & E.J. Tisdell., Wayne A. Babchuk

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

I strongly recommend Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation for qualitative and general methodology courses and for researchers and practitioners looking for guidance in planning or gaining a better understanding of qualitative research. It is a wonderful text that provides succinct and useful descriptions of fundamental attributes of qualitative research, invaluable examples for planning and conducting research studies, and strategies for disseminating and evaluating research. As qualitative research has gained momentum in academic disciplines and applied fields of practice, the text provides a bedrock publication for adult education scholars and practitioners to help further advance our discipline.


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