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Marital Satisfaction: The Role Of Post-Formal Thought And Partner Blame, Kendall Jory, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Dr. Janet Trammell 2017 Seaver College

Marital Satisfaction: The Role Of Post-Formal Thought And Partner Blame, Kendall Jory, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Dr. Janet Trammell

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Post-formal thought, a recently identified fifth stage of developmental cognition, is a type of complex cognition initially present in emerging adulthood. It is more practical, flexible and dialectical than previous stages of cognition. Research has suggested the benefits of enhanced post-formal thought in intrapersonal functioning, as well as interpersonal functioning. In interpersonal functioning, social relationships provide an opportunity to think using post-formal cognition because two people often share different “truths” in a relationship which creates logical conflict that must be resolved to continue the relationship (Griffin et al, 2009). Using this framework, the current study aimed to further examine the ...


The Relationship Between Extraversion And Listening Comprehension Under High And Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions, Nicole Virzi, Steve Rouse, CIndy Miller-Perrin 2017 Pepperdine University

The Relationship Between Extraversion And Listening Comprehension Under High And Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions, Nicole Virzi, Steve Rouse, Cindy Miller-Perrin

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The proposed study contributes to the pool of research examining the link between level of extraversion and sensory stimulation. Numerous studies have shown that introverts are more susceptible to forms of auditory distraction than extraverts when completing cognitive tasks requiring visual attention, but no study has examined the opposite relationship: the differing effects of visual distraction on auditory comprehension amongst introverts and extraverts. Using undergraduate college students as participants, this study tested three hypotheses: 1) there will be a negative correlation between level of extraversion and self-reported distraction while under high-salience visual distraction, 2) there will be a positive correlation ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater 2017 Sacred Heart University

Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater

Deirdre Yeater

A presentation of Professor Yeater's incorporation in her class PSCC103 of 5 in- class discussions comparing human and non-human species, particularly dolphins, with an emphasis on the Catholic Intellectual Tradition and the importance of touch. PSCC-103, The Human Community: The Individual and Society, is a 3 credit course which engages students in a study of the relationship between psychology – the science of human behavior and mental processes, and the Catholic intellectual tradition – which is characterized by rigorous intellectual inquiry and an openness to scientific ideas. This course aims to help us understand ourselves as human persons, as well as ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

Christopher J. Lyddy

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar 2017 Providence College

Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar

Christopher Lyddy

Mindfulness research activity is surging within organizational science. Emerging evidence across multiple fields suggests that mindfulness is fundamentally connected to many aspects of workplace functioning, but this knowledge base has not been systematically integrated to date. This review coalesces the burgeoning body of mindfulness scholarship into a framework to guide mainstream management research investigating a broad range of constructs. The framework identifies how mindfulness influences attention, with downstream effects on functional domains of cognition, emotion, behavior, and physiology. Ultimately, these domains impact key workplace outcomes, including performance, relationships, and well-being. Consideration of the evidence on mindfulness at work stimulates important ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

School of Business Faculty Publications

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Big Data And The Well-Being Nexus: Tracking Google Search Activity By State Iq, Michael A. McDaniel, Bryan J. Pesta, Allison S. Gabriel 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Big Data And The Well-Being Nexus: Tracking Google Search Activity By State Iq, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Bryan J. Pesta, Allison S. Gabriel

Byran J. Pesta

In the era of “big data,” internet search activity can provide interesting insight into human behavior. Here we used the Google Correlate algorithm (a database tracking billions of user searches) to identify search terms that co-varied most strongly with U.S. state-level IQ and wellbeing (see Pesta, McDaniel, & Bertsch, 2010). First, we identified the 100 strongest positive (e.g., crock pot applesauce, custom woodworking) and negative (e.g., ASVAB for Dummies, Hello Kitty) search term covariates for state IQ. We then rationally clustered search terms into composites (e.g., “food,” “job seeking activity”) based on similarity of concept. Thereafter, we ...


Differential Epidemiology: Iq, Neuroticism, And Chronic Disease By The 50 U.S. States, Bryan J. Pesta, Sharon Bertsch, Michael A. McDaniel, Christine B. Mahoney 2017 Cleveland State University

Differential Epidemiology: Iq, Neuroticism, And Chronic Disease By The 50 U.S. States, Bryan J. Pesta, Sharon Bertsch, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Christine B. Mahoney

Byran J. Pesta

Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations between aggregate-level IQ and N (measured for the 50 U.S. states) and state differences in rates of chronic disease (e.g., stroke, heart disease). Controlling for health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise) reduced but did not eliminate these effects. Strong relationships also existed between IQ, N, disease, and a host of ...


We Can't Get No (Life) Satisfaction? Comment On Oswald And Wu (2010), Bryan J. Pesta, Michael A. McDaniel, Sharon Bertsch 2017 Cleveland State University

We Can't Get No (Life) Satisfaction? Comment On Oswald And Wu (2010), Bryan J. Pesta, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Sharon Bertsch

Byran J. Pesta

Oswald and Wu (2010; Science) recently reported life satisfaction ranks for residents of the 50 U.S. states. Their rankings were framed as measures of “well-being,” but were derived from responses to only a single survey item (“In general, how satisfied are you with your life?”). Here we contrast Oswald and Wu's subjective rankings with our (Pesta, McDaniel & Bertsch, 2010) objective measures of state well-being. Strangely, our global index of well-being correlates −.43 with Oswald and Wu's life satisfaction ranks (intelligence, itself, correlates −.33 with these ranks). We argue that Oswald and Wu's rankings are misleading for ...


Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski

Byran J. Pesta

Job complexity and employee intelligence covary strongly. Likewise, race differences exist on mean IQ / g scores. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that race differences on cognitive tests are mainly g differences, and that the former should covary with how well mental tests measure the latter. Here we use jobs as “mental tests,” and predict that as job IQ increases, the percent of White and Asian workers will increase, while the percent of Black workers will decrease. We found moderate to strong support for Spearman’s hypothesis across these three racial groups. We also found a very large correlation (.86) between job ...


Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski

Byran J. Pesta

ColdWinters Theory (CWT; Lynn, 1991) offers a viable explanation for race differences in intelligence. It proposes that IQ gaps exist because of different evolutionary pressures faced by the ancestral humanswho left Africa, comparedwith thosewho remained. Support for CWT comes by showing correlations between national temperature and IQ. Here we test whether temperature correlates with IQ (and other well-being variables) across the 50 U.S. states. Although human evolution is recent, copious and regional (Wade, 2014), insufficient time has passed for it to have operated on non-native residents of the USA. Instead, CWTmust predict no difference—or remain agnostic—on the ...


Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski

Peter Poznanski

ColdWinters Theory (CWT; Lynn, 1991) offers a viable explanation for race differences in intelligence. It proposes that IQ gaps exist because of different evolutionary pressures faced by the ancestral humanswho left Africa, comparedwith thosewho remained. Support for CWT comes by showing correlations between national temperature and IQ. Here we test whether temperature correlates with IQ (and other well-being variables) across the 50 U.S. states. Although human evolution is recent, copious and regional (Wade, 2014), insufficient time has passed for it to have operated on non-native residents of the USA. Instead, CWTmust predict no difference—or remain agnostic—on the ...


Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski

Peter Poznanski

Job complexity and employee intelligence covary strongly. Likewise, race differences exist on mean IQ / g scores. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that race differences on cognitive tests are mainly g differences, and that the former should covary with how well mental tests measure the latter. Here we use jobs as “mental tests,” and predict that as job IQ increases, the percent of White and Asian workers will increase, while the percent of Black workers will decrease. We found moderate to strong support for Spearman’s hypothesis across these three racial groups. We also found a very large correlation (.86) between job ...


Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski

Peter Poznanski

Job complexity and employee intelligence covary strongly. Likewise, race differences exist on mean IQ / g scores. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that race differences on cognitive tests are mainly g differences, and that the former should covary with how well mental tests measure the latter. Here we use jobs as “mental tests,” and predict that as job IQ increases, the percent of White and Asian workers will increase, while the percent of Black workers will decrease. We found moderate to strong support for Spearman’s hypothesis across these three racial groups. We also found a very large correlation (.86) between job ...


Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Only In America: Cold Winters Theory, Race, Iq, And Well-Being, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter J. Poznanski

Peter Poznanski

ColdWinters Theory (CWT; Lynn, 1991) offers a viable explanation for race differences in intelligence. It proposes that IQ gaps exist because of different evolutionary pressures faced by the ancestral humanswho left Africa, comparedwith thosewho remained. Support for CWT comes by showing correlations between national temperature and IQ. Here we test whether temperature correlates with IQ (and other well-being variables) across the 50 U.S. states. Although human evolution is recent, copious and regional (Wade, 2014), insufficient time has passed for it to have operated on non-native residents of the USA. Instead, CWTmust predict no difference—or remain agnostic—on the ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


Supplemental Data For Onus Of The Bonus, Ellen E. Furlong, Laurie R. Santos 2017 Illinois Wesleyan University

Supplemental Data For Onus Of The Bonus, Ellen E. Furlong, Laurie R. Santos

Furlong Cognition Lab

No abstract provided.


Harnessing The Power Of Emotion For Social Change: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Anne M. W. Kelly 2017 Dakota Wesleyan University

Harnessing The Power Of Emotion For Social Change: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Anne M. W. Kelly

Numeracy

Scott Slovic and Paul Slovic (Eds.). Numbers and Nerves: Information, Emotion, and Meaning in a World of Data (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-776-5.

Literature and environment professor Scott Slovic, and his father, psychologist Paul Slovic, editors of this collection of essays and interviews, describe and demonstrate the psychological effects which hamper our ability to comprehend and respond appropriately to large numerical data. The collection then offers a brief survey of art works which, by first appealing to viewers’ emotions, can potentially move the viewer to a better understanding of numbers.


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