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Pulse - A Consultation, Barry J. Mauer 2018 University of Central Florida

Pulse - A Consultation, Barry J. Mauer

Barry Mauer

On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen killed 49 people and injured 53 at the Pulse Nightclub in Orlando, Florida. We may never know or understand what was in Mateen’s mind, but we can situate his attack within the history of eliminationism in America. Islamist terrorism is just part of a larger phenomenon: right wing eliminationism. But despite centuries of right wing eliminationist words and deeds in the U.S., there is little or no mainstream recognition of the phenomenon. Instead, we are treated to more denial, more distraction, more obfuscation. Until we look this problem squarely in the face ...


What Is Familiar Is Beautiful: A Novel Approach Investigating The Relationship Between Aesthetics And Perceived Use, Travis M. Kent 2018 University of Kentucky

What Is Familiar Is Beautiful: A Novel Approach Investigating The Relationship Between Aesthetics And Perceived Use, Travis M. Kent

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Objective: This study investigates the application of aesthetic principles to designed objects with which we interact, specifically looking at the impact of perceived function of the objects on perceptions of visual appeal. Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that a product’s judged beauty or visual appeal is related to perceptions of its usability. Arguments have been put forward for both directions of causality leading to “what is beautiful is usable” and “what is usable is beautiful” hypotheses. Explanations for the relationship between usability and beauty judgments include stereotype effects, ecological explanations, and cognitive processing viewpoints. The current studies contribute to ...


Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett 2018 Georgia Southern University

Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

This study aimed to examine expressions of optimism bias and perceived controllability specifically regarding risks often associated with military service. Optimism bias refers to people’s tendency to believe they are less susceptible to experiencing negative life events compared to others. Previous studies show high levels of optimism bias are associated with strong perceptions of personal controllability. Optimism bias is a significant aspect of health promotion research particularly in the field of general occupational health and safety (OHS). However, optimism bias has never been investigated in the military OHS domain. Given the number of risks associated with military occupations, examination ...


Word Learning As Category Formation, Spencer Caplan 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Word Learning As Category Formation, Spencer Caplan

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A fundamental question in word learning is how, given only evidence about what objects a word has previously referred to, children are able to generalize the total class (Smith, 1979; Xu and Tenenbaum, 2007). E.g. how a child ends up knowing that \textit{`poodle'} only picks out a specific subset of dogs rather than the whole class and vice versa. Here we present a computational model of word learning which accounts for a wide range of previously conflicting experimental findings.


Quantitative Assessment Of Psycho-Social Factors Associated With Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement, Dianne Bentley 2018 Walden University

Quantitative Assessment Of Psycho-Social Factors Associated With Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement, Dianne Bentley

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Alcohol use disorders are a major health problem in the United States; approximately 7.4% of the population meets the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. However, Reed, Levin, and Evans (2012) reported a lack in research regarding alcoholism's risk factors and how these influence Alcoholics Anonymous involvement. Though there is evidence for several risk factors, researchers have found mixed results regarding gender and impulsivity. Social learning theory was the theoretical foundation of this study and guided the exploration and interpretation of these risk factors. Therefore, the purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental study was to understand the relationship that ...


Problem Solving, Decision Making, And Kirton Adaption-Innovation Theory In High-Performance Organizations, Miriam Grace Michael 2018 Walden University

Problem Solving, Decision Making, And Kirton Adaption-Innovation Theory In High-Performance Organizations, Miriam Grace Michael

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Research on high-performing nonprofit boards has indicated a positive relationship between a board's strength and an organization's effectiveness; however, how boards achieve success remains relatively unknown. The Kirton adaption-innovation (KAI) theory was used to examine board members' cognitive styles in relationship to facilitating problem solving and decision making. This nonexperimental, quantitative study included archived nonprofit board data from 2 American Society of Association Executives (ASAE) studies that had addressed the high performance of boards and factors associated with organizational success. A total of 102 randomly selected, high-performing nonprofit board members completed the KAI Inventory, which was used to ...


Rt And Parent Ratings.Txt, Rebecca A. Lundwall 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Rt And Parent Ratings.Txt, Rebecca A. Lundwall

Rebecca A Lundwall

Response time on an attention task and parent ratings of child inattention


Exploring The Underlying Mechanisms Of Structure Building, Reshma Gouravajhala 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring The Underlying Mechanisms Of Structure Building, Reshma Gouravajhala

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Structure building, the ability to build a coherent mental model of any narrative, requires the identification and integration of important parts of that narrative, as well as the suppression of irrelevant details. Critically, while individual differences in structure building have been shown to have important consequences in the classroom, little has been concluded about underlying deficits and causal mechanisms of low structure building ability. In the present study, we tested the theory that an impaired ability to suppress unimportant details is low structure builders’ sole deficit (Gernsbacher, 1990). We presented participants with educationally authentic text materials that offered varying degrees ...


Combining An Intuitive Art Workshop And Neuroscience Rituals To Make Us Happy, Audrey Gran Weinberg 2017 Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences

Combining An Intuitive Art Workshop And Neuroscience Rituals To Make Us Happy, Audrey Gran Weinberg

The STEAM Journal

One might wonder how intuitive art can connect to neuroscience and how this could be accomplished. In this descriptive article, research connecting art therapy and neuroscience has been collected and a workshop on Intuitive Painting has been described in detail. The connection was made by the author based on an article by Barker (2017), ‘4 Rituals to be more Happy,’ who writes a popular science blog. The rituals: gratefulness, expressing negative emotions, decision making and human touch were combined with Dr. Pinkie Feinstein’s method of Intuitive Painting in a small group setting. Although subjective, it would seem that at ...


Increasing Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists Clinical Self-Efficacy Using Peer Mentoring, Megan Christine Bass 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Increasing Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists Clinical Self-Efficacy Using Peer Mentoring, Megan Christine Bass

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

The purpose of this project is to determine if clinical self-efficacy is increased in SRNAs at The University of Southern Mississippi after participation in the peer mentoring program. The project was a one-group pre and posttest design in a sample of SRNAs who received peer mentoring. To evaluate the students’ perceived clinical self-efficacy before and after the peer mentoring educational intervention, the Rowbotham and Schmitz Student Self-Efficacy scale (SSE) (2013) was adapted and administered to second-year SRNAs (N=17). Clinical performance, skill and knowledge development, social interaction with clinical faculty, and coping with clinical stress are the four areas evaluated ...


Effects Of Restrained Eating On Episodic Memory And Implications For Homeostatic Appetite Regulation, Morgan Kindel 2017 Chapman University

Effects Of Restrained Eating On Episodic Memory And Implications For Homeostatic Appetite Regulation, Morgan Kindel

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Recent studies in the fields of Psychology and Neuroscience suggest a relationship between episodic memory and appetite regulation. A majority of these studies have used BMI as an important variable in this relationship and have found mild episodic memory deficits to be more likely in individuals with higher BMI’s. The goal of this research was to determine whether restrained disordered eating, regardless of BMI, influenced episodic memory and appetite regulation. Initially, we predicted that individuals showing dietary restraint would show signs of a stronger episodic memory, and therefore would have weaker hunger cues and stronger satiety cues, and that ...


How Does Increasing The Power Of Retrieval Cues Change The Experience Of Remembering?, Oyku Uner 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

How Does Increasing The Power Of Retrieval Cues Change The Experience Of Remembering?, Oyku Uner

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increasing the power of retrieval cues typically enhances recall and recognition. Is this driven by remembering, knowing, or both? The current study used the remember/know paradigm in different recall tasks that manipulated the power of retrieval cues. In the first two experiments, participants studied words in a semantic or phonetic context, and were tested in one of these contexts, resulting in two match and two mismatch conditions. Participants recalled more in the match conditions, and this was driven by remembering. In the third experiment, participants studied multiple word lists and were tested immediately after each list with varying number ...


Quizzing And Restudy Dynamics In A Tst Paradigm: The (Null) Effect Of Feedback And The (Significant) Effects Of Metacognition, Francis Anderson 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Quizzing And Restudy Dynamics In A Tst Paradigm: The (Null) Effect Of Feedback And The (Significant) Effects Of Metacognition, Francis Anderson

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In authentic educational settings, using formative quizzes or tests can improve students’ memory by direct strengthening of the memory trace. There are other indirect effects of testing, however, such as improved understanding of what one does and does not know. That is, quizzes can benefit students’ metacognitive awareness, which may in turn affect their restudy behaviors. We tested whether different types of feedback (correct/incorrect, correct answer, or minimal) differentially affected students’ metacognition, changed their restudy behaviors, and influenced final test performance. We found no effect of feedback type, but were able to better understand quizzing and restudy dynamics in ...


The Impact Of Delay On Retrieval Success In The Parietal Memory Network, Nathan Anderson 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Impact Of Delay On Retrieval Success In The Parietal Memory Network, Nathan Anderson

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent work has identified a Parietal Memory Network (PMN), which exhibits regular patterns of activation during memory encoding and retrieval. Among these characteristic patterns, this network displays a strong “retrieval success” effect, showing greater activation for correctlyremembered studied items (hits) compared to correctly-rejected novel items (CRs). To date, most relevant studies have used short retention intervals. Here, we ask if the retrieval success effect seen in the PMN would remain consistent over a delay. Twenty participants underwent fMRI while encoding and recognizing scenes. Greater activity for hits than for correctly-rejected lures within PMN regions was observed after a short delay ...


Do Learners Have Insight Into The Levels Of Processing Effect? Exploring Unresolved Levels Of Processing Phenomena With Judgments Of Learning, Elif Eylul Tekin 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Do Learners Have Insight Into The Levels Of Processing Effect? Exploring Unresolved Levels Of Processing Phenomena With Judgments Of Learning, Elif Eylul Tekin

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The levels of processing (LOP) effect shows that semantic processing leads to better retention than other types of processing. The effect is routinely obtained on many types of tests, yet, to this day, its mechanisms are still debated and it is poorly understood. In two old/new recognition experiments, I investigated potential explanations as to why the LOP effect occurs under intentional learning instructions. I asked a) whether subjects were aware of the LOP effect while they were studying the material, b) whether explicitly encouraging subjects to study the words with their idiosyncratic strategies would eliminate the effect, and c ...


Elements Of Moral Functioning In Sport And School, Christopher Funk 2017 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Elements Of Moral Functioning In Sport And School, Christopher Funk

Dissertations

Moral functioning is complex and implicates numerous cognitive and affective processes. Drawing upon Rest’s four-component model of moral functioning and more recent dual-process accounts of cognition, the current study examined a model of moral functioning in both sport and school contexts. Specifically, drawing upon the empirical record, a model of moral functioning was proposed and tested wherein moral identity influenced the adoption of specific contesting orientations, which, in turn, influenced prosocial and antisocial behaviors, both directly and indirectly via moral foundations and moral disengagement. Fit of the model was moderately strong in both contexts, though significant contextual differences emerged ...


Preliminary Evidence For The Impact Of Combat Experiences On Gray Matter Volume Of The Posterior Insula, Ashley N. Clausen, Sandra A. Billinger, Jason-Flor V. Sisante, Hideo Suzuki, Robin L. Aupperle 2017 Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK,

Preliminary Evidence For The Impact Of Combat Experiences On Gray Matter Volume Of The Posterior Insula, Ashley N. Clausen, Sandra A. Billinger, Jason-Flor V. Sisante, Hideo Suzuki, Robin L. Aupperle

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Background: Combat-exposed veteran populations are at an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula have been implicated in both autonomic arousal to emotional stressors and homeostatic processes, which may contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction in combat veteran populations. The aim of the present study was to explore the intersecting relationships of combat experiences, rostral ACC and posterior insula volume, and cardiovascular health in a sample of combat veterans.

Method: Twenty-four male combat veterans completed clinical assessment of combat experiences and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Subjects completed a magnetic resonance imaging scan and autosegmentation using FreeSurfer was ...


Prompting Deliberation About Nanotechnology: Information, Instruction, And Discussion Effects On Individual Engagement And Knowledge, Lisa M. PytlikZillig, Myiah J. Hutchens, Peter Muhlberger, Alan J. Tomkins 2017 University of Nebraska

Prompting Deliberation About Nanotechnology: Information, Instruction, And Discussion Effects On Individual Engagement And Knowledge, Lisa M. Pytlikzillig, Myiah J. Hutchens, Peter Muhlberger, Alan J. Tomkins

Journal of Public Deliberation

Deliberative (and educational) theories typically predict knowledge gains will be enhanced by information structure and discussion. In two studies, we experimentally manipulated key features of deliberative public engagement (information, instructions, and discussion) and measured impacts on cognitive-affective engagement and knowledge about nanotechnology. We also examined the direct and moderating impacts of individual differences in need for cognition and gender. Findings indicated little impact of information (organized by topic or by pro-con relevance). Instructions (prompts to think critically) decreased engagement in Study 1, and increased it in Study 2, but did not impact post-knowledge. Group discussion had strong positive benefits for ...


Biculturalism, Bilingualism, & Executive Function Among U.S. Latinos: Implications For Cognitive Reserve, Leticia G. Vallejo 2017 Marquette University

Biculturalism, Bilingualism, & Executive Function Among U.S. Latinos: Implications For Cognitive Reserve, Leticia G. Vallejo

Dissertations (2009 -)

The current study was an exploratory investigation of the cultural constructs of biculturalism and bilingualism as predictors of executive function among a community-based sample of 25 older adult Latinos living in the U.S. The potential moderating effects of education and bicultural identity integration were also examined. Using regression analyses, biculturalism and bilingualism were examined independently as predictors of performance on three separate tasks of executive function: trail making tests, a phonemic fluency task, and a clock drawing task. Bilingualism was not found to predict performance on any of the executive functioning tasks. In the overall sample, biculturalism also was ...


Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Anxiety, And Personality And Ms Patient Estimations Of Memory Function, Jordan Charboneau 2017 Marquette University

Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Anxiety, And Personality And Ms Patient Estimations Of Memory Function, Jordan Charboneau

Dissertations (2009 -)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by a wide range of physical, cognitive, psychological, and behavioral symptoms. To effectively diagnose and treat MS, clinicians rely on patient reports of function to help identify and treat their problems (Kinsinger, Lattie, & Mohr, 2010). Specifically, self-reports of cognitive symptoms are a valuable source of information upon which clinicians depend (Van der Hiele, Spliethoff-Kamminga, Ruimschotel, Middelkoop, & Visser, 2012). While patient reports of cognitive functioning, including memory, are important, there has been substantial debate about the accuracy of such information. The present study investigated the association between general cognitive impairment ...


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