Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cognitive Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,849 Full-Text Articles 3,651 Authors 846,763 Downloads 195 Institutions

All Articles in Cognitive Psychology

Faceted Search

2,849 full-text articles. Page 1 of 106.

Threat-Related Attentional Bias In Relation To Anxiety And Depressive Symptoms In The General Population: The Potential Role Of Sex Effects, Beril Yaffe 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Threat-Related Attentional Bias In Relation To Anxiety And Depressive Symptoms In The General Population: The Potential Role Of Sex Effects, Beril Yaffe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Heightened sensitivity to relevant environmental stimuli (attentional bias) has been observed in relation to clinical and non-clinical anxiety and depression symptoms. While depression symptoms are associated with sensitivity to disorder and self-relevant words, hypervigilance to threatening stimuli is observed in relation to anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, attentional bias has been shown to play an important role in the development and maintenance of depressive and anxiety disorders. Accordingly, a large body of literature has examined threat-related attentional bias in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, several methodological inconsistencies exist across studies, including variability in definitions of threat, lack of consideration ...


The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Metamemory monitoring, the process of making subjective assessments of the status of one’s own memory, is crucial to guiding behavior and effective learning. Past cognitive research has shown that subjective confidence judgments are inferential in nature, and based on cues available at the time of the judgment. When confidence is based on cues that are related to objective memory performance, metamemory accuracy is high. However, past studies have shown that metamemory monitoring tends to be inaccurate because individuals base their confidence on information that is not predictive of memory success, such as the fluency with which items were encoded ...


A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective: Recent findings suggest phenomenological similarities across gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The key similarity between the disorders is the failure to inhibit or control a repetitive behavior (or urges to engage in a behavior) and intrusive thoughts. Our current understanding of the neural pathophysiological mechanisms linking gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the functioning of frontostriatal brain regions that support self-regulatory control in adults with gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Methods: The study compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level dependent response in 19 adults with pathological gambling (PG), 29 ...


Manipulating Goal States And Brain States: Using Eeg And Hd-Tdcs To Investigate Mechanisms Underlying The Influence Of Achievement Goals On Declarative Memory, Yuliya Ochakovskaya 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Manipulating Goal States And Brain States: Using Eeg And Hd-Tdcs To Investigate Mechanisms Underlying The Influence Of Achievement Goals On Declarative Memory, Yuliya Ochakovskaya

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

When it comes to learning factual information, students may benefit from having opportunities where they can learn from their mistakes as opposed to only being asked to study that information. However, the achievement goals that instructors set for their students may influence how students engage with these learning opportunities. Although some instructors may focus students on learning (i.e. mastery goals), others may seek to motivate students by focusing them on doing better than others (i.e. performance goals), which is thought promote greater sensitivity to errors and impair learning. Across two studies, the present dissertation examined the roles of ...


The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To investigate if making a word harder to read attenuates emotional influences like valence and arousal, we used a sample of Warriner and colleagues’ (2013) corpus with valence and arousal norms, a font manipulation from the perceptual fluency paradigm, and a word naming task. We found that, contrary to our hypotheses, emotional influences of words on RT were not attenuated in the disfluent condition; in fact, disfluency seemed to amplify the facilitative effects of high arousal. These results suggest that models of word recognition should consider the role that emotions play in recognition. They also provide limited support to models ...


Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The concept of mattering is an underdeveloped, yet important component of an employee’s success in the workplace, and personal well-being. Deficit-based leadership strategies employed by many organizations can break-down the ability for an employee to feel that they and their work matter, however, the focus by leaders on mattering can lead employees to feel: my leader is invested in my success, I am noticed, I am cared about, I am depended upon, I would be missed if I were not here, my leader is interested in what I say and do, I am appreciated, and I am noticed for ...


Ipad Use To Enhance Conversations Between Persons With Dementia And Their Family Caregivers, Kelsey Dynes 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Ipad Use To Enhance Conversations Between Persons With Dementia And Their Family Caregivers, Kelsey Dynes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Electronic conversational memory notebooks, a more current application of previous hardcopy versions, consist of personally relevant photographs and accompanying sentences. The notebooks help persons with dementia access memories during conversations. Person-centred communication (PCC) recognizes the individual, accommodating for personal beliefs and intentions. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether persons with dementia and their family caregivers could be educated and trained to use PCC while using an iPad-based electronic conversational memory notebook. Seven persons with mild to moderate dementia and their family caregiver completed the six-week study. Participants were educated and trained to use PCC while conversing ...


Effectiveness Of Hazardous Attitudes Mitigation In Pilot Training, Matthew D. Furedy Ed.D. 2018 Assistant Professor of Aviation, University of Central Missouri

Effectiveness Of Hazardous Attitudes Mitigation In Pilot Training, Matthew D. Furedy Ed.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

One of the minimum levels of flight training required to fly within the US includes obtaining the necessary skills to acquire a Private Pilot Certificate. Further training requirements are needed depending on whether one desires to operate under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). It has been stated by the FAA that Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) training for pilots has been effective in reducing in-flight errors by up to 50 percent. Hazardous attitudes and their associated antidotes are currently discussed as part of the FAA’s ADM training for pilots. The purpose of this study is to ...


Spatial Memory For Isolated Arm Locations On The Radial Maze, Hayden MacDonald 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Spatial Memory For Isolated Arm Locations On The Radial Maze, Hayden Macdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to encode and retrieve information describing spatial locations allows organisms to solve a variety of natural problems. When multiple spatial locations vary with respect to foraging, predatory or environmental factors, successfully discriminating between these locations may result in increased fitness. Although, how do the spatial relations of multiple locations affect the encoding or retrieval of spatial information? Across three radial maze experiments, I addressed how spatial configuration affects working memory for multiple locations. Specifically, I asked 1) how spatial patterns affect memory for multiple locations, 2) how spatial isolation between to-be-visited locations may affect spatial memory, and 3 ...


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard (Gardner & Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977; Savage-Rumbaugh, 1986). Savage-Rumbaugh decided to take a different approach to learning after one individual demonstrated the ability to use the keyboard ...


Long-Term Focus Of Attentional Biases, Garrett Pollert 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Long-Term Focus Of Attentional Biases, Garrett Pollert

Theses and Dissertations

Prior research regarding attentional biases, or patterns of visual attention, have focused on attention over the initial second when exposed to pictoral food stimuli. This manuscript reviews the literature regarding attentional biases in overweight/obese individuals over this timeframe for the two previously defined components of attentional bias (attentional orientation and attentional maintenance). A new component is proposed, called “attentional re-engagement,” defined as the pattern of attentional shifts towards target stimulus types over longer periods of time. Overweight/Obese and Normal-weighted participants were recruited and engaged in an Extended Dot Probe task, wherein attentional orientation, maintenance, and re-engagement were assessed ...


So Others May Live: Enhancing Resilience And Performance For United States Coast Guard Helicopter Rescue Swimmer Candidates To Help Close The Ast Body-To-Billet Gap, Joseph E. Glaser-Reich 2018 University of Pennsylvania

So Others May Live: Enhancing Resilience And Performance For United States Coast Guard Helicopter Rescue Swimmer Candidates To Help Close The Ast Body-To-Billet Gap, Joseph E. Glaser-Reich

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The Coast Guard is facing a shortage of entry-level Aviation Survival Technicians, more commonly known as helicopter rescue swimmers, due to high attrition from the training pipeline. Stretching thin a workforce which operates under some of the worst conditions on the planet is a recipe for injury or even loss of life. Positive and performance psychology offer tools to enhance candidates’ performance and resilience in this high-stress environment to enable them to meet rigorous graduation standards. Informed by the military’s recent focus on building resilience, traditional psychological skills training (PST) and mindfulness training (MT) offer empirically-grounded instructional paradigms to ...


Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

For millennia, monasteries have been at the forefront of training virtues such as compassion, transcendence, service, gratitude, forgiveness, and grit, as well as foundational psychological capacities such as self-regulation, sustained, voluntary attention, emotional intelligence, and meta-cognitive awareness. Monasteries of the Future are modern institutions, both secular and religious, designed to provide the requisite financial, social, intellectual, and instructional support necessary to train a new generation of contemplative adepts. Forming a network of centers which collaborate and compete, Monasteries of the Future will establish and uphold the highest standards in the contemplative field. By partnering with modern science, most notably positive ...


Impact Of Tropical Climate On Selective Attention And Affect, Guillaume R. Coudevylle, Maria Popa-Roch, Stéphane Sinnapah, Olivier Hue, Nicolas Robin 2018 University of French West Indies

Impact Of Tropical Climate On Selective Attention And Affect, Guillaume R. Coudevylle, Maria Popa-Roch, Stéphane Sinnapah, Olivier Hue, Nicolas Robin

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Heat has an impact on several aspects of human cognition but the effects of the tropical climate (i.e., hot and wet) have rarely been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether selective attention and affect are negatively impacted by the tropical climate. The study followed a within-participants design: participants responded to an affective scale (PANAS) and performed an attention task (d2 Test) in two experimental climate conditions (tropical vs. neutral) with a one-week interval between sessions. The results indicated that they had lower positive affect and selective attention in the tropical climate than in the neutral ...


Complexities And Challenges Of Nonduality, Elizabeth Stephens 2018 California Institute of Integral Studies

Complexities And Challenges Of Nonduality, Elizabeth Stephens

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

States of consciousness referred to as nonduality, awakening, enlightenment, moksha, peak experience, unitive states, or void states, among other terms, have garnered increasing secular attention and have become a topic of psychological and neuroscientific research. A review of the literature revealed many challenges to studying this set of states, such as inconsistent conceptualizations, a variety of models and theories, and conflicting descriptions indicating that the actual experience may not live up to the superlative descriptions found in historical texts or the expectations put forth by nondual teachers. A great deal more empirical research on this topic is needed, and researchers ...


Finding The Right Equation For Success: An Exploratory Study On The Effects Of A Growth Mindset Intervention On College Students In Remedial Math, Tyrone A. Fleurizard, Patrick R. Young 2018 Wingate University

Finding The Right Equation For Success: An Exploratory Study On The Effects Of A Growth Mindset Intervention On College Students In Remedial Math, Tyrone A. Fleurizard, Patrick R. Young

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

More and more students enter college in need of math remediation. Students in remedial math courses tend to report low self-efficacy, which negatively affects academic performance. To help low-achieving students succeed, researchers such as Dweck (2006) find that fostering a growth mindset increases self-efficacy and academic performance. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of a growth mindset intervention on the self-efficacy and performance of students in remedial math. It was hypothesized that students who participated in the growth mindset intervention would report higher levels of self-efficacy and test scores than the students who did not ...


American Indian Student Motivation At A Tribal College, Rebecca L. Izzo 2018 University of New Mexico

American Indian Student Motivation At A Tribal College, Rebecca L. Izzo

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between motivational characteristics of American Indian college students attending a tribal college. The Inventory of School Motivation (ISM) was utilized to identify motivational constructs. The literature in general continues to portray American Indian students as the lowest academically achieving subgroup as well as having a lack of persistence and high dropout rate in higher education. This study identified areas that support motivation to attend college, which then can be shared with the tribal college to develop programs and innovations to recruit and sustain American Indian students in education, as well as ...


From Rock Art To Vertical Forests, Hall, Gill 2018 California Institute of Integral Studies

From Rock Art To Vertical Forests, Hall, Gill

Journal of Conscious Evolution

No abstract provided.


What Are The Overall Benefits Of Dance Improvisation, And How Do They Affect Cognition And Creativity?, Carley Wright 2018 Honors College, Pace University

What Are The Overall Benefits Of Dance Improvisation, And How Do They Affect Cognition And Creativity?, Carley Wright

Honors College Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to define the terms improvisation, cognition, and creativity, and therefore find the direct correlation between all three, and how they can all be involved within dance. The main intention is to determine whether or not improvisational dance can positively influence one’s creative mindset, thus improving the cognitive learning process. Furthermore, it is to discover if the development of a creative mindset can be established through dance improvisation at an early age. In this exploration, the majority of my research will come from the examination of previously conducted experiments, as well as guiding and ...


Exploring The Clinical Utility Of Mobile Applications For Promoting Affect Regulation Among Clients With Behavioral Health Problems, Caroline Fenkel 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Exploring The Clinical Utility Of Mobile Applications For Promoting Affect Regulation Among Clients With Behavioral Health Problems, Caroline Fenkel

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Nearly 25 percent of adults in the United States are diagnosed with a behavioral health condition, most commonly depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Each of these diagnoses is associated with significant disruptions in affect regulation which encompasses the capacity to up and down regulate emotions. Best practice treatment for these conditions includes psychotropic medications combined with individual or group-based psychotherapeutic modalities which regardless of the therapist’s theoretical orientation attempt to promote affect regulation through skill transfer and strategies for observing one’s ability to regulate emotions. Similarly, attention to regulatory capacity is central to many emerging self-help ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress