Process Dissociation Analyses Of Memory Changes In Healthy Aging, Preclinical, And Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence For Isolated Recollection Deficits, 2016 Washington University in St. Louis
Process Dissociation Analyses Of Memory Changes In Healthy Aging, Preclinical, And Very Mild Alzheimer Disease: Evidence For Isolated Recollection Deficits, Peter R. Millar
Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which breaks down in early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby’s (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64). Participants studied word pairs, e.g., “knee bone,” then completed a primed, explicit, cued fragment-completion memory task, e.g ...
Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, Jonathan Kenealy Doyon
Vision and haptics play a central role in perceiving environmental layout to guide action. Hajnal, Wagman, Doyon, and Clark (2016) demonstrated that visual perception of stand-on-ability is accurate compared to action capabilities, whereas haptic perception of stand-on-ability reliably underestimates action capabilities. This finding contradicts Gibson’s (1979) theory of equivalence in perceptual systems, which suggests that perception should be equivalent regardless of modality. Previous comparisons of visual and haptic perception tested the modalities in isolation. The current experiment directly compares visual to haptic perception of stand-on-ability by using one perceptual system to estimate the other. Observers viewed a surface set ...
Approaching Individual Differences Questions In Cognitive Control: A Case Study Of The Ax-Cpt, 2016 Washington University in St. Louis
Approaching Individual Differences Questions In Cognitive Control: A Case Study Of The Ax-Cpt, Shelly Cooper
Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Investigating individual differences in cognition requires addressing questions not often thought about in standard experimental designs, especially those regarding the psychometrics of a task. The purpose of the present study is to use the AX-CPT cognitive control task as a representative case study example to address four concerns that may impact the ability to answer questions related to individual differences. First, the importance of a task's true score variance for evaluating potential failures to replicate predicted individual differences effects is demonstrated. Second, evidence is provided that Internet-based studies (e.g., MTurk) can exhibit comparable, or even higher true score ...
Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, 2016 University of Pennsylvania
Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe
Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects
With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...
An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., 2016 Novus Access & Ivy Tech Community College
An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth
Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities
This study examined the potential relationship of accessible hands-on science learning experiences to the development of positive beliefs concerning one’s capacity to function in the sciences and motivation to consider science as a college major and career. Findings from Likert survey items given before and after engaging in accessible hands-on science laboratories show that students who were blind or had low vision (BLV) were more likely to agree with the following items after engaging in accessible science experiences: 1) I plan on enrolling as a science major in college; 2) My educational experiences, so far, have given me the ...
A Validation Of The Efficacy Of Descriptive Instrumental Collective Case Study Research Methodology For Examining Pilot Cognitive Functioning, 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide
A Validation Of The Efficacy Of Descriptive Instrumental Collective Case Study Research Methodology For Examining Pilot Cognitive Functioning, Clint R. Balog
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace
The research conducted developed a descriptive understanding of how the cognitive processes of risk assessment, problem solving, and decision making, as well as other supportive processes, are employed by pilots-in-command (PICs) during the experience of extended, extreme, in-flight emergencies. This understanding is then applied to similar dynamic, operational environments. The research also validated the applicability and efficacy of Robert Stake’s 1995 descriptive, instrumental, collective case study methodology as a tool for investigating such phenomenon and developing such an understanding. Specifically, the research details the necessary procedures for employing this methodology successfully, and provides example of those procedures, and their ...
Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, 2016 Wright State University
Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin
Patient Experience Journal
The growing literature on shared decision making and patient centered care emphasizes the patient’s role in clinical care, but research on clinical reasoning almost exclusively addresses physician cognition. In this article, we suggest clinical cognition is distributed between physicians and patients and assess how distributed clinical cognition functions during interactions between medical professionals and patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A combination of cognitive task analysis and discourse analysis reveals the distribution of clinical reasoning between 24 patients and 3 medical professionals engaged in MS management. Findings suggest that cognition was distributed between patients and physicians in all major tasks ...
Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, Bryan D. Grant
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Quantifying the processes of coping is one way to make the concept both descriptive and testable. Decisional Control (DC) is a formal, mathematically-specified, normative model which prescribes that an individual faced with a variety of alternatives in a stressing situation will attempt to minimize objective and perceived threat of an adverse event inherent within their choices. In this study, a game-theoretic probability mixture model created for DC was evaluated using established indexes of model fit to empirical decision and choice data. Sources of empirical departure from the fully normative model predictions, notably individual and group cognitive mapping of choice linked ...
Connecting Psychopathology Meta-Structure And Mechanisms, 2016 Wesleyan University
Connecting Psychopathology Meta-Structure And Mechanisms, Charles A. Sanislow
Charles A. Sanislow
No abstract provided.
Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, 2016 Chapman University
Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti
In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects' cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS), which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these ...
Creativity And Cognitive Skills Among Millennials: Thinking Too Much And Creating Too Little, 2016 Chapman University
Creativity And Cognitive Skills Among Millennials: Thinking Too Much And Creating Too Little, Brice Corgnet, Antonio M. Espín, Roberto Hernán-González
Economics Faculty Articles and Research
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers. To answer this question, we study the relationship between millennials' creativity and their performance on fluid intelligence (Raven) and cognitive reflection (CRT) tests ...
What Does Motivated Mean? Re-Presenting Learning, Technology, And Motivation In Middle Schools Via New Ethnographic Writing, 2016 University of Nebraska at Lincoln
What Does Motivated Mean? Re-Presenting Learning, Technology, And Motivation In Middle Schools Via New Ethnographic Writing, Justin Olmanson
Middle Grades Review
This article offers a critique of the way middle schoolers are often positioned as generalizable objects that can be acted upon to produce measurable increases in motivation and learning. The critique invites a reconsideration and cultural analysis of some of the dominant discourses and perceptions of technology, young adolescence, and the study of motivation. The use of New Ethnographic Writing—a method that performs a cultural critique via extended scenes connects to the roles and status of motivation, technology, and educational research methods deployed within public schools. Coupled with weak theory, this approach offers a way to understand young adolescents ...
Brain Betrayal: A Neuropsychological Categorization Of Insider Attacks, 2016 University of Georgia
Brain Betrayal: A Neuropsychological Categorization Of Insider Attacks, Rachel L. Whitman
KSU Conference on Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice
Thanks to an abundance of highly publicized data breaches, Information Security (InfoSec) is taking a larger place in organizational priorities. Despite the increased attention, the threat posed to employers by their own employees remains a frightening prospect studied mostly in a technical light. This paper presents a categorization of insider deviant behavior and misbehavior based off of the neuropsychological foundations of three main types of insiders posing a threat to an organization: accidental attackers; neurologically “hot” malcontents, and neurologically “cold” opportunists.
Review Of Qualitative Research: A Guide To Design And Implementation (4th Ed.) (2016) By S.B. Merriam & E.J. Tisdell., 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Review Of Qualitative Research: A Guide To Design And Implementation (4th Ed.) (2016) By S.B. Merriam & E.J. Tisdell., Wayne A. Babchuk
Educational Psychology Papers and Publications
I strongly recommend Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation for qualitative and general methodology courses and for researchers and practitioners looking for guidance in planning or gaining a better understanding of qualitative research. It is a wonderful text that provides succinct and useful descriptions of fundamental attributes of qualitative research, invaluable examples for planning and conducting research studies, and strategies for disseminating and evaluating research. As qualitative research has gained momentum in academic disciplines and applied fields of practice, the text provides a bedrock publication for adult education scholars and practitioners to help further advance our discipline.
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.
The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.
To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.
The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).
There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...
Evaluating The Validity Of Technology-Enhanced Educational Assessment Items And Tasks: An Empirical Approach To Studying Item Features And Scoring Rubrics., 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Evaluating The Validity Of Technology-Enhanced Educational Assessment Items And Tasks: An Empirical Approach To Studying Item Features And Scoring Rubrics., Ally Thomas
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
With the advent of the newly developed Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards, innovative assessments, including technology-enhanced items and tasks, will be needed to meet the challenges of developing valid and reliable assessments in a world of computer-based testing. In a recent critique of the next generation assessments in math (i.e., Smarter Balanced), Rasmussen (2015) observed that many aspects of the technology “enhancements” can be expected to do more harm than good as the computer interfaces may introduce construct irrelevant variance. This paper focused on issues surrounding the design of TEIs and how cognitive load ...
Assessing The Impact Of Emotion In Dual Pathway Models Of Sensory Processing., 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Assessing The Impact Of Emotion In Dual Pathway Models Of Sensory Processing., James H. Kryklywy
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
In our daily environment, we are constantly encountering an endless stream of information which we must be able to sort and prioritize. Some of the features that influence this are the emotional nature of stimuli and the emotional context of events. Emotional information is often given preferential access to neurocognitive resources, including within sensory processing systems. Interestingly, both auditory and visual systems are divided into dual processing streams; a ventral object identity/perception stream and a dorsal object location/action stream. While effects of emotion on the ventral streams are relatively well defined, its effect on dorsal stream processes remains ...
Mathematical Practice And Human Cognition, 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Mathematical Practice And Human Cognition, Bernd Buldt
Philosophy Faculty Presentations
Frank Quinn (of Jaffe-Quinn fame, see ) worked out the basics of his own account of mathematical practice, an account that is informed by an analysis of contemporary mathematics and its pedagogy (see ). Taking this account as our starting point, we can characterize the current mathematical practice to acquire and work with new concepts as a cognitive adaptation strategy that, first, emerged to meet the challenges posed by the growing abstractness of its objects and which, second, proceeds according to the following three-pronged approach:
(i) sever as many ties to ordinary language as possible and limit ordinary language explanations ...
Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, 2016 Counseling
Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, Christy Owen
Fidei et Veritatis: The Liberty University Journal of Graduate Research
The past 20 years have been turbulent regarding Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), with conflicting research about its causes, effects, treatment, and prognosis. The current diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 fails to adequately address this disorder. A number of deviant and maladaptive behaviors common amongst children with RAD are not even mentioned in the diagnostic criteria. As such, the diagnostic definition is almost unidentifiable or incompatible with real-life conduct manifestations of the disorder. Rather, this author contends that RAD is foundationally a unique and extreme form of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) from Early Childhood Trauma. The child endured unspeakable neglect and ...
Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), 2016 European Ecopsychology Society
Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla
Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD
"[...] A recurring theme in “ecopsychology,” in its present and inchoate form, is the continuation and extension of “spirit” in juxtaposition with other privileged and/or habitually preferred (perhaps even psychologically needed) practices or causes (spirituality-somethings, farcical chemistry or physics, yoga, coopted and partially understood indigenous lore, extreme diets, and various fetishes). That these mostly emotion-laden, unreasoned, and/or idiosyncratic amalgamations are prevalent says more about the psychological needs of the persons espousing these sentiments or beliefs (their hobbies or interests) than about “nature.” Certainly, it is nothing new that humans project their hopes, desperations, and wish-fulfillment thinking onto the shifting ...