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Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett 2018 Georgia Southern University

Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

This study aimed to examine expressions of optimism bias and perceived controllability specifically regarding risks often associated with military service. Optimism bias refers to people’s tendency to believe they are less susceptible to experiencing negative life events compared to others. Previous studies show high levels of optimism bias are associated with strong perceptions of personal controllability. Optimism bias is a significant aspect of health promotion research particularly in the field of general occupational health and safety (OHS). However, optimism bias has never been investigated in the military OHS domain. Given the number of risks associated with military occupations, examination ...


Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a defense of perceptual pluralism, the thesis that perceptual systems deliver multiple types of representations including those used in thought. In particular, it argues that perceptual systems output iconic (i.e., image-like, analog) representations as well as discursive (i.e., language-like, digital) states. A central thesis is that perceptual representations of objects are propositional and composed of concepts. It also develops a compositional syntax of iconic representation called the coordination model, according to which icons are sets of primitive parts, each of which determines values along multiple analog feature dimensions simultaneously. The dissertation supports the conclusion that ...


Cognitive And Affective Control Deficits In Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Melissa-Ann Mackie 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cognitive And Affective Control Deficits In Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Melissa-Ann Mackie

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control constrains mental operations to prioritize information that reaches conscious awareness and is essential to flexible, adaptive behavior under conditions of uncertainty. However, cognitive control can be compromised by neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is characterized by the presence of social and communicative deficits, and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. Although prior investigations have attempted to elucidate the nature of cognitive control deficits in ASD, whether there is an underlying deficit in cognitive and affective control associated with the symptom domains of ASD remains unclear. The present series of eight experiments presents an information theoretic framework ...


Examining The Concurrent And Predictive Relations Of Working Memory In Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Ashley N. Simone 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining The Concurrent And Predictive Relations Of Working Memory In Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Ashley N. Simone

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity which lead to impairment in multiple settings (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Childhood ADHD has been concurrently associated with various neurocognitive deficits and one in particular that has been under examination over the past several years is working memory (WM). WM is a temporary storage system that is responsible for maintenance and/or manipulation of information in order to complete complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. Researchers have postulated that WM is one of several potential endophenotypes of ADHD (Castellanos & Tannock, 2002) and ...


Fusing Self-Reported And Sensor Data From Mixed-Reality Training, Trevor Richardson, Stephen B. Gilbert, Joseph Holub, Frederick Thompson, Anastacia MacAllister, Rafael Radkowski, Eliot Winer 2017 Iowa State University

Fusing Self-Reported And Sensor Data From Mixed-Reality Training, Trevor Richardson, Stephen B. Gilbert, Joseph Holub, Frederick Thompson, Anastacia Macallister, Rafael Radkowski, Eliot Winer

Anastacia MacAllister

Military and industrial use of smaller, more accurate sensors are allowing increasing amounts of data to be acquired at diminishing costs during training. Traditional human subject testing often collects qualitative data from participants through self-reported questionnaires. This qualitative information is valuable but often incomplete to assess training outcomes. Quantitative information such as motion tracking data, communication frequency, and heart rate can offer the missing pieces in training outcome assessment. The successful fusion and analysis of qualitative and quantitative information sources is necessary for collaborative, mixed-reality, and augmented-reality training to reach its full potential. The challenge is determining a reliable framework ...


The Musicality Of The Water Lilies/La Musicalité Des Nymphéas (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries 2017 College of the Holy Cross

The Musicality Of The Water Lilies/La Musicalité Des Nymphéas (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Art Gallery exhibition “Gabrielle Thierry: The Musicality of the Water Lilies/La Musicalité des Nymphéas” from Aug. 30 through Oct. 7.

Thierry’s series of eight large-scale paintings were inspired by her rediscovery of the “Water Lilies” landscapes by Claude Monet on view at the the Musée de l’Orangerie in Paris. With special permission from the museum, Thierry painted in front of Monet’s originals over a period of 18 months from 2010 to 2012, where she ...


Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath 2017 Iowa State University

Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method are provided for facilitating workload management. The system processes first sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a first person, and processes second sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a second person. Information representative of the estimates of the current cognitive states of the first person and the second person is simultaneously rendered on a display device.


Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method: Patent Application, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method: Patent Application, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method for providing more than two levels of classification distinction of a user state are provided. The first and second general states of a user are sensed. The first general state is classified as either a first state or a second state, and the second general state is classified as either a third state or a fourth state. The user state of the user is then classified as one of at least three different classification states.


The Whole Picture: Body Posture Recognition In Infancy, Alyson J. Hock 2017 University of Kentucky

The Whole Picture: Body Posture Recognition In Infancy, Alyson J. Hock

Alyson J. Chroust

Holistic image processing is tied to expertise and is characteristic of face and body processing by adults. Infants process faces holistically, but it is unknown whether infants process body information holistically. In the present study, we examined whether infants discriminate changes in body posture holistically. Body posture is an important nonverbal cue that signals emotion, intention, and goals of others even from a distance. In the current study, infants were tested for discrimination between body postures that differ in limb orientations in three conditions: in the context of the whole body, with just the limbs that change orientation, or with ...


Semantic Attention: Effects Of Modality, Lexicality And Semantic Content, David Britton 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Semantic Attention: Effects Of Modality, Lexicality And Semantic Content, David Britton

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the discovery of the Stroop Effect in 1935 questions about the role of language vs. non-lexical stimuli in selective attention remain. Early researchers attributed the powerful distracting influence shown in the Stroop task, naming the color in which a spelled word is printed when incongruent with the color name the word spells, to an automaticity of language that gives it privileged access to meaning, but many others since have shown various ways to reduce or even reverse this distracting effect of an incongruent word. This study addresses this by using EEG to record neural activity along with reaction time ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić

Joseph W. Houpt

Research in cognitive psychology often focuses on how people deal with multiple sources of information. One important aspect of this research is whether people use the information in parallel (at the same time) or in series (one at a time). Various approaches to distinguishing parallel and serial processing have been proposed, but many do not satisfactorily address the mimicking dilemma between serial and parallel classes of models. The mean interaction contrast (MIC) is one measure is designed to improve discriminability of serial-parallel model properties. The MIC has been applied in limited settings because the measure required a large number of ...


Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method for providing more than two levels of classification distinction of a user state are provided. The first and second general states of a user are sensed. The first general state is classified as either a first state or a second state, and the second general state is classified as either a third state or a fourth state. The user state of the user is then classified as one of at least three different classification states.


Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

Integrated surveillance systems and methods for processing multiple sensor inputs and determining a best route for avoiding multiple hazards. An example method performed on a first aircraft includes generating a plurality of routes for avoiding a previously determined alert from a first advisory system. Then, probability of success information is generated at other advisory systems for each of the plurality of routes. The best route of the plurality of routes is determined based on the generated probabilities and output to the flight crew or other aircraft. The probability of success information includes a previously defined uncertainty value. The uncertainty value ...


Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs 2017 Iowa State University

Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs

Michael C. Dorneich

An augmented tutoring system is provided that includes a simulation device, at least one sensor and a controller. The simulation device is adapted to provide a simulation that has an objective to accomplish by a student, wherein to achieve the objective a plurality of tasks must be correctly completed. The at least one sensor is adapted to monitor a cognitive state of the student while engaged with the simulation. The controller is adapted to process cognitive state information from the at least one sensor and to process student progress information relating to the completion of each of the tasks. The ...


Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath 2017 Iowa State University

Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method are provided for facilitating workload management. The system processes first sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a first person, and processes second sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a second person. Information representative of the estimates of the current cognitive states of the first person and the second person is simultaneously rendered on a display device.


Fitting The Fractional Polynomial Model To Non-Gaussian Longitudinal Data, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Jeffrey D. Long, Greg W. Welch, Arthur Reynolds, Susan M. Swearer 2017 University of Virginia

Fitting The Fractional Polynomial Model To Non-Gaussian Longitudinal Data, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Jeffrey D. Long, Greg W. Welch, Arthur Reynolds, Susan M. Swearer

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

As in cross sectional studies, longitudinal studies involve non-Gaussian data such as binomial, Poisson, gamma, and inverse-Gaussian distributions, and multivariate exponential families. A number of statistical tools have thus been developed to deal with non-Gaussian longitudinal data, including analytic techniques to estimate parameters in both fixed and random effects models. However, as yet growth modeling with non-Gaussian data is somewhat limited when considering the transformed expectation of the response via a linear predictor as a functional form of explanatory variables. In this study, we introduce a fractional polynomial model (FPM) that can be applied to model non-linear growth with non-Gaussian ...


Secondary Students’ Writing Achievement Goals: Assessing The Mediating Effects Of Mastery And Performance Goals On Writing Self-Efficacy, Affect, And Writing Achievement, Meryem Yilmaz Soylu, Mary G. Zeleny, Ruomeng Zhao, Michael S. Dempsey, Douglas F. Kauffman 2017 Ankara, Turkey

Secondary Students’ Writing Achievement Goals: Assessing The Mediating Effects Of Mastery And Performance Goals On Writing Self-Efficacy, Affect, And Writing Achievement, Meryem Yilmaz Soylu, Mary G. Zeleny, Ruomeng Zhao, Michael S. Dempsey, Douglas F. Kauffman

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The two studies reported here explored the factor structure of the newly constructed Writing Achievement Goal Scale (WAGS), and examined relationships among secondary students’ writing achievement goals, writing self-efficacy, affect for writing, and writing achievement. In the first study, 697 middle school students completed the WAGS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for this data with a three-factor model that corresponds with mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. The results of Study 1 were an indication for the researchers to move forward with Study 2, which included 563 high school students. The secondary students completed theWAGS, as ...


Prospective Studies Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Kevin Sullivan 2017 University of Maine

Prospective Studies Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Kevin Sullivan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The association of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, kidney function, and arterial stiffness with cognitive impairment in older adults is a well-studied phenomenon. However, there is considerably less evidence relating cardiovascular health specifically to a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). As a precursor state of dementia, MCI is characterized by a decline in cognitive function from previous level, but not to the degree that activities of daily living are impaired. Not everyone who is diagnosed with MCI will eventually transition to dementia, but the transition rates are much higher compared to the general population (5-15% per year ...


Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

In human-performance-driven fields such as the social and behavioral sciences and education, there is a particular risk for a disconnect between current research and applied practice. Often, new findings require policy changes and workforce re-education before being applied in a meaningful way. Therefore, a continuous need for practitioner professional development and continuation training exists to ensure informed practices. This presentation is motivated by these needs and aims to help flight training professionals to make informed decisions when designing and conducting flight training events. Based on a conceptual framework of cognitive and behavioral theories in learning, a variety of common training ...


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