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What To Do When Scalar Invariance Fails: The Extended Alignment Method For Multi-Group Factor Analysis Comparison Of Latent Means Across Many Groups [Accepted Manuscript], Herbert W. Marsh, Jiesi Guo, Philip D. Parker, Benjamin Nagengast, T. Asparouhov, Bengt Muthen, Theresa Dicke 2018 Australian Catholic University

What To Do When Scalar Invariance Fails: The Extended Alignment Method For Multi-Group Factor Analysis Comparison Of Latent Means Across Many Groups [Accepted Manuscript], Herbert W. Marsh, Jiesi Guo, Philip D. Parker, Benjamin Nagengast, T. Asparouhov, Bengt Muthen, Theresa Dicke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Scalar invariance is an unachievable ideal that in practice can only be approximated; often using potentially questionable approaches such as partial invariance based on a stepwise selection of parameter estimates with large modification indices. Study 1 demonstrates an extension of the power and flexibility of the alignment approach for comparing latent factor means in large-scale studies (30 OECD countries, 8 factors, 44 items, N = 249,840), for which scalar invariance is typically not supported in the traditional confirmatory factor analysis approach to measurement invariance(CFA-MI). Importantly, we introduce an alignment-within-CFA (AwC) approach, transforming alignment from a largely exploratory tool into ...


Episodic-Like Memory In Dogs: Solving What-Where-When Tasks, Ka Ho Lo 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Episodic-Like Memory In Dogs: Solving What-Where-When Tasks, Ka Ho Lo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Episodic memory is a unique, personal memory that contains what happened, where it happened, and when it happened. Although episodic-like memory (ELM) in non-human animals has been shown using ­­what-where-when (WWW) memory paradigms, it has not previously been shown in dogs. Dogs are an excellent candidate for developing translational models of neurodegenerative disorders related to episodic memory, including Alzheimer’s disease. Dogs were tested on experiments that involved spatially and temporally unique odour sequences. Dogs were tested to see if they remembered the odours, their locations, and their time of presentation by choosing the earlier-exposed odour at the test. Findings ...


Examining The Different Learning Strategies Between Extroverts And Introverts Among Flight Students At Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, John R. Brooks 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Examining The Different Learning Strategies Between Extroverts And Introverts Among Flight Students At Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, John R. Brooks

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Extroverts and introverts have unique approaches to new materials that make learning more efficient. In fields like aviation, where quick learning and responses are required, students struggle because preferred comprehension strategies are not utilized. The research question is whether introverts/extroverts learn better when given the option to approach materials using strategies that match their personality type. A total of twenty-four participants from the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Flight Program will be chosen and placed into one of two different groups (extrovert/introvert) using a median split. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R) will determine personality trait (introvert or extrovert). All ...


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard (Gardner & Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977; Savage-Rumbaugh, 1986). Savage-Rumbaugh decided to take a different approach to learning after one individual demonstrated the ability to use the keyboard ...


Inequity And Excellence In Academic Performance: Evidence From 27 Countries [Accepted Manuscript], Philip D. Parker, Herbert W. Marsh, John P. Jerrim, Jiesi Guo, Theresa Dicke 2018 Australian Catholic University

Inequity And Excellence In Academic Performance: Evidence From 27 Countries [Accepted Manuscript], Philip D. Parker, Herbert W. Marsh, John P. Jerrim, Jiesi Guo, Theresa Dicke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Research suggests that a country does not need inequity to have high performance. However, such research has potentially suffered from confounders present in between-country comparative research (e.g., latent cultural differences). Likewise, relatively little consideration has been given to whether the situation may be different for high- or low-performing students. Using five cycles of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) database, the current research explores within-country trajectories in achievement and inequality measures to test the hypothesis of an excellence/equity tradeoff in academic performance. We found negative relations between performance and inequality that are robust and of statistical and ...


It's Not Just A Dog: The Role Of Companion Animals In The Family's Emotional System, Cassandra Leow 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

It's Not Just A Dog: The Role Of Companion Animals In The Family's Emotional System, Cassandra Leow

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Past studies have looked into the role of companion animals in families. This study intended to explore the role of companion animals in the family’s emotional system through the lens of Bowen Family Systems Theory. Data from a study on companion animal loss and grief were used. A qualitative phenomenological approach was adopted to analyze the data from interviews. Three primary themes emerged from the data: balanced family emotional system, response to relational anxiety and role of the absence companion animal. The first theme suggested that human family members and companion animals developed a balanced family emotional system through ...


An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn 2018 CUNY Hunter College

An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland conducted a training program in 2014 to develop a gestural command for their dolphins called “innovate”. This training paradigm was developed to resemble the seminal research by Pryor, Haag and O’Reilly (1969), as well as more recent efforts of Braslau-Schneck (1993) and Kuczaj and Eskelinen (2014) of training dolphins to offer “creative” behaviors not developed through conventional methods of behavioral modification, such as shaping. The goal of the present study was to observe records taken during the National Aquarium’s training procedure as well as data collected ~3 years after said training in ...


Evaluating Shame; A Comparative Look At Sexual And Physical Abuse, Kathryn McKenzie, Theresa Botts 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Evaluating Shame; A Comparative Look At Sexual And Physical Abuse, Kathryn Mckenzie, Theresa Botts

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Shame is a potential adverse effect which can occur following a traumatic experience, such as being a survivor of sexual and physical abuse. Demonstrating the prevalence and levels of shame resulting from sexual and physical abuse can be of interest to those professionals working with survivors of trauma. The purpose of this study was to separately evaluate the prevalence of shame within sexual and physical abuse. This study tested the following hypotheses: hypothesis 1, shame will be more prevalent and demonstrate higher levels in sexual abuse survivors than in physical abuse survivors and hypothesis 2, survivors of both sexual and ...


The Conundrum Of Causal Reasoning In Elephants, Beri Brown 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Conundrum Of Causal Reasoning In Elephants, Beri Brown

Master's Theses

Causal reasoning is marked by the ability to mentally reconstruct the missing part of a sequence in order to reproduce an outcome. While research on causal reasoning has been done with children, the results of the studies have been inconsistent. A standardized paradigm for comparative causal reasoning studies does not exist. Nissani (2006) investigated causal reasoning in a tool-use task with elephants and concluded that elephants were not capable of causal reasoning. The current study, a modified replication, yielded results that were not congruent with Nissani’s (2006) manuscript. Additionally, it was very unlikely that the Nissani (2006) study truly ...


Perceived Maternal Invalidation And Drinking Behavior: The Role Of Action Control, Elise Ann Warner 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Perceived Maternal Invalidation And Drinking Behavior: The Role Of Action Control, Elise Ann Warner

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol use disorder is one of the most prevalent disorders worldwide. As such, researchers have examined factors contributing to alcohol use. Perception of emotional experiences in childhood as invalidating by parents is one factor that has been found to predict later alcohol use, though less is known about maternal invalidation specifically. Parental invalidation has also been found to predict difficulty regulating affective states (i.e., negative and positive affect), which is also a determinant of alcohol use. Further, researchers have studied temptation to drink and restraint from drinking as related to alcohol use to better understand drinking behavior. Though there ...


Systems Of Quantity Judgment In Various Species: A Meta-Analysis, Tiffany A. Woodard Baker 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Systems Of Quantity Judgment In Various Species: A Meta-Analysis, Tiffany A. Woodard Baker

Dissertations

An abundance of behavioral and neuroimaging literature supports the presence of two cognitive systems for quantity judgments (Agrillo & Bisazza, 2014). In particular, small quantities are thought to be guided by the object-file system, a precise system that uses mental files to map onto real world objects, and large quantities by the approximate number system, an imprecise, estimation system (Dehaene, 1997). Evidence supporting both systems exists in a variety of species including nonhuman primates (Boysen & Hallberg, 2000), birds (Garland, Low, & Burns, 2012), amphibians (Uller, Jaeger, Guidry, & Martin, 2003), and fish (Agrillo, Dadda, Serena, Bisazza, 2009), but support may depend on species ...


The Psychology Of Baseball: How The Mental Game Impacts The Physical Game, Kiera Dalmass 2018 University of Connecticut

The Psychology Of Baseball: How The Mental Game Impacts The Physical Game, Kiera Dalmass

Honors Scholar Theses

The purpose of this study was to find whether or not sports psychology can be effective. Baseball was chosen as the sport for the study because baseball can be analyzed for nearly every single factor of the game, with the exception of the mental readiness or state of the player when he steps onto the field. It therefore provides the optimal atmosphere to provide clinical and statistical support to the field of sports psychology. Despite the various, numerous pieces of literature that praise and show support for sports psychology, there hasn’t been clinical research to support it. Additionally, multiple ...


Time, Number, Space, And The Domestic Dog, Krista M. Macpherson 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Time, Number, Space, And The Domestic Dog, Krista M. Macpherson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over the past 20 years, the field of animal cognition has seen a dramatic increase in the attention given to the study of cognition in the domestic dog. Since their origin at least 10, 000 years ago, dogs have been artificially selected by humans to protect our homes, guard our livestock, pull our sleds, and a multitude of other functions. Given their close relationship with humans, much of the current research in the area of dog cognition to date has focused on aspects of social cognition. Considerably less attention has been paid to domains that have traditionally been areas of ...


Identifying The Social Contexts Present For Mouthing Behaviors In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Erin E. Frick 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Identifying The Social Contexts Present For Mouthing Behaviors In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Erin E. Frick

Dissertations

Much of the research on dolphin communication has focused on the acoustic signals produced in a variety of social contexts. Although acoustic signals are undoubtedly an important aspect of dolphin communication systems, dolphin communication is multifaceted and multimodal (e.g., postural, visual and tactile signals, acoustic cues). The present study examined behaviors that involve the mouth (i.e., mouthing behaviors) in a group of captive dolphins using 2,696 minutes of underwater acoustic and video recordings collected from 2010 – 2014. Target behaviors are described as primarily visual (e.g., open-mouth display), both visual and acoustic (e.g., jaw claps), and ...


Risk Factors For Domestic Homicide: Immigrant & Canadian-Born Populations, Sakthi Kalaichandran 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Risk Factors For Domestic Homicide: Immigrant & Canadian-Born Populations, Sakthi Kalaichandran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Domestic violence is a critical human rights issue that can escalate to cases of domestic homicide. Globally, approximately 30% of women in relationships have reported experiencing violence at the hands of an intimate partner. In Canada this pattern is echoed, as over 25% of police-reported violent offences were from victims of domestic abuse. Recent research has revealed that immigrant & refugee victims experience unique risk factors that may render them more vulnerable to this form of violence. Yet, despite this burgeoning research area, and Canada’s diverse population of 6 million immigrants, there is a dearth of research pertaining to domestic ...


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber de Vere 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


Inaccurate Metacognitive Monitoring And Its Effects On Metacognitive Control And Task Outcomes In Self-Regulated L2 Learning, Jim R. Ranalli 2018 Iowa State University

Inaccurate Metacognitive Monitoring And Its Effects On Metacognitive Control And Task Outcomes In Self-Regulated L2 Learning, Jim R. Ranalli

English Publications

Accurate metacognitive monitoring of one’s own knowledge or performance is a precondition for self-regulated learning; monitoring informs metacognitive control, which in turn affects task outcomes. Studies of monitoring accuracy and its connection to knowledge and performance are common in psychology and educational research but rare in instructed SLA. This paper describes two studies in which actual performance and self-evaluated performance were compared. In Study 1, 64 college-level ESL learners completed L2 vocabulary tasks that differed in complexity and familiarity. Wide discrepancies in monitoring accuracy were observed. In Study 2, the same sample was divided into two groups, and the ...


Slave To The Rhythm: Variation In The Acoustic Signaling Of Picoides Woodpeckers, Alex Baer 2018 City University of New York (CUNY)

Slave To The Rhythm: Variation In The Acoustic Signaling Of Picoides Woodpeckers, Alex Baer

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

We explored rhythmic variation in acoustic signals by geography across four species of Picoides woodpeckers. We hypothesized that there would be an effect of geographic location on the cadence of drums and rattle-type calls. No significant effect was observed. However, drum cadence was observed to significantly impact conspecific recognition in playbacks.


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


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