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Applied Behavior Analysis Commons

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Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt 2019 Rollins College

Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt

Thesis Projects

Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) is a respondent conditioning procedure often implemented to elicit vocalizations in children with language delays. Unfortunately, the research showing the effect of increased rates of vocalizations is mixed. Through analogies drawn between SSP and autoshaping, da Silva and Williams (under review) identified variables potentially responsible for increasing the efficacy of SSP (da Silva & Williams, under review). The present study sought to evaluate the relative duration of the inter-trial interval (ITI) and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the duration of the ITI was systematically varied from 15 s to 60 s and the value of ISI was proportional ...


Learning From Incidents To Reduce The Risk Of Drowning In Swimming Pools: Implementation Of Experience-Based Feedback Regarding Near-Misses In Four Public Facilities In France, Élie Vignac, Pascal Lebihain, Bastien Soulé 2019 Centre d'Études des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives - Université de Rouen, France

Learning From Incidents To Reduce The Risk Of Drowning In Swimming Pools: Implementation Of Experience-Based Feedback Regarding Near-Misses In Four Public Facilities In France, Élie Vignac, Pascal Lebihain, Bastien Soulé

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The prevention of sports accidents must rely on a detailed knowledge of accident circumstances and risk factors. Today, very few studies have investigated in depth non-fatal drowning incidents that have occurred in public swimming pools (PSP). Learning from incidents seems likely to advance the knowledge of accident scenarios. This research study aimed to capture minor incidents that might identify safety lessons and preventive measures. Incidents of minor and major aquatic events were collected from four PSPs that had hosted 700,000 bathers per year. About 800 incidents and 300 aquatic rescues performed by lifeguards were recorded within a time frame ...


The Feedback Effect: Does Exposure To Interviewer Feedback Affect An Observer's Perception Of Veracity And Guilt?, Kayla A. Harrod 2019 CUNY John Jay College

The Feedback Effect: Does Exposure To Interviewer Feedback Affect An Observer's Perception Of Veracity And Guilt?, Kayla A. Harrod

Student Theses

Historically, assessing deception has been rooted in the belief that a guilty suspect displays signs of anxiety. Based on a suspect’s physical demeanor and other behavioral cues presented during an interrogative session, law enforcement personnel (LEP) will utilize a set of techniques to elicit information about a crime. One such technique is the administration of feedback, which is the verbal assessment of a suspect’s guilt. The issue that stems from administering feedback lies not only in how it is given but also how it is received and interpreted by others. In a two-part study, the possibility of a ...


Components Of Fluency-Based Instruction In The College Classroom, Jennifer Kourassanis Velasquez 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Components Of Fluency-Based Instruction In The College Classroom, Jennifer Kourassanis Velasquez

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The current research regarding the use of fluency-based instruction (FBI) to teach academic skills suggests the addition of FBI to traditional instruction produces better learning outcomes than traditional instruction alone. However, there is a lack of comparative research of the addition of FBI to traditional instruction vs. traditional instruction alone on student performance outcomes with college students. The present study was composed of two experiments to examine the effects of the addition of a component of FBI using a modified SAFMEDS (Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled) strategy to traditional instruction within the course’s existing curriculum on quiz ...


Systems Analysis Of Faculty Hiring Process Within Academia, Nicole P. Farrell 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Systems Analysis Of Faculty Hiring Process Within Academia, Nicole P. Farrell

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

There are three levels of performance discussed in organizational behavior management (OBM): (a) the organization level, (b) the process level, and (c) the job/performer level. Among these three levels of performance, individuals often focus least on the process level – which is the level that explains “how” work gets done (Rummler & Brache, 1995). However, if the processes are not effective, workers cannot complete tasks adequately, regardless of the contingencies applied by an organization. One way researchers can evaluate the effectiveness of processes within an organization is through the use of systems analysis. The purpose of the present study was to ...


Acceptability Of Social Media Incentives To Increase Physical Activity, Amanda Devoto, Anthony DeFulio 2019 Western Michigan University

Acceptability Of Social Media Incentives To Increase Physical Activity, Amanda Devoto, Anthony Defulio

The Hilltop Review

Background: Contingency management can be effective in promoting physical activity, but the change frequently does not sustain after the intervention is withdrawn. A feasible and sustainable physical activity intervention is needed. Social media may meet the criteria for a sustainable intervention, as it is free to use and enormously popular.

Introduction: The goal of the current study was to assess acceptability of using social media as an incentive for a physical activity intervention.

Materials and Methods: The current study surveyed 102 Mechanical Turk users on their social media use, physical activity habits, and interest in a proposed physical activity intervention ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Library Assistant, Central Library, Central University of South Bihar (CUSB), Gaya (Bihar)

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


The Broader Autism Phenotype In Early Childhood: Associations With Maternal Play Behaviors, Kezia Setiawan 2019 Purdue University

The Broader Autism Phenotype In Early Childhood: Associations With Maternal Play Behaviors, Kezia Setiawan

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Sustained Silent Reading And Reciprocal Reading On Reading Motivation For Middle School Students With Reading Delays, Margaret Uwayo 2019 Western Michigan University

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Sustained Silent Reading And Reciprocal Reading On Reading Motivation For Middle School Students With Reading Delays, Margaret Uwayo

Dissertations

Research suggests that secondary students with reading delays may lack reading motivation, which can be defined as the temporal reinforcement value of texts for an individual. However, reading motivation may be a critical component of their acquisition of reading proficiency. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of two research-based reading interventions - sustained silent reading and modified reciprocal reading - on the reading motivation of middle school students with reading delays. Participants were four 6th-grade students who were grouped into dyads in a reading intervention classroom. The primary dependent variable was book engagement under pairing and test ...


Players' Preference For Losses Disguised As Wins In Keno: A Concurrent Choice Procedure, Sarah Hall 2019 Northern Michigan University

Players' Preference For Losses Disguised As Wins In Keno: A Concurrent Choice Procedure, Sarah Hall

All NMU Master's Theses

Roughly 3% of American citizens are considered to be problem gamblers (NCPG, 2014). This compulsion can have a detrimental impact on the pathological gambler’s life. One factor that has been considered to lead to this compulsive gambling is the loss disguised as a win (LDW). These LDWs have been shown to increase slot machine playing in numerous studies. However, their effect has not been studied in connection to Club Keno, which is also a highly prevalent game. In 2017 the Michigan lottery took in over $600 million in revenue from Club Keno (FGSAD, 2017). The present study sought to ...


The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky

Theses and Dissertations

Nearly half of people suffering from psychopathology meet criteria for more than one disorder. Scholars have focused on understanding factors that may simultaneously maintain multiple psychiatric problems. Elevated distress during interpersonal conflict is likely to maintain both alcohol use and anxiety psychopathology. Reducing distress elicited by normative mother-adolescent conflict holds particular promise. Conflict is common in families with problematic drinking and anxiety disorders and the affective impact of parent-offspring conflict is malleable. Distress reduction skills, such as cognitive reappraisal, are effective in reducing distress during conflict. The current study examined the unique and combined effects of training mothers and adolescents ...


Check-In/Check-Out With High School Students, Ashley Murphy 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Check-In/Check-Out With High School Students, Ashley Murphy

Dissertations

Check-in/Check-out (CICO) has been shown effective in reducing problem behavior (PB) and increasing academically engaged behaviors (AEB) for elementary and middle school students (Mitchell, Adamson, & McKenna, 2017); however limited research has included high school students. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness and social validity of CICO for four high school students in a general education setting. During the initial intervention phase, two students refused to participate in the CICO process (i.e., did not attend check-ins or check-outs despite multiple efforts); therefore, CICO was ineffective for these students. For two other students, CICO was ineffective for improving behavioral performance ...


The Use Of Vouchers To Negatively Reinforce Number Of Weeks Compliant Among Clients In A Mental Health Court, Michele Nicole Murdock 2019 Western Kentucky University

The Use Of Vouchers To Negatively Reinforce Number Of Weeks Compliant Among Clients In A Mental Health Court, Michele Nicole Murdock

Dissertations

The literature is sparse on the use of contingency management procedures in a mental health court (MHC). The purpose of this study was to examine the use of negative reinforcement for behavioral changes in a MHC. Specifically, the present study explored whether a voucher-based contingency management intervention improved the number of weeks compliant on MHC probation and whether participants were more externally than internally motivated to comply with MHC probation requirements. Vouchers were given for compliance with MHC probation requirements. The vouchers allowed participants to miss a future court date. It was hypothesized that participants who received the voucher would ...


Why And How Public Trust Matters, David CHAN 2019 Singapore Management University

Why And How Public Trust Matters, David Chan

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

To build high trust cities, governments need to better understand the relationships linking people, leaders and the cities they inhabit. Behavioural scientist Professor David Chan explains the psychology of public trust.


Effects Of Choice On Multiplication And Division Fluency Acquisition For Third Grade Students, Terri Tammelin 2019 Northern Michigan University

Effects Of Choice On Multiplication And Division Fluency Acquisition For Third Grade Students, Terri Tammelin

All NMU Master's Theses

Students with the most pronounced behavioral needs are the ones missing the most instruction. A three-tiered system of intervention that is data driven and uses evidence based interventions is used within schools to meet the needs of all students. Within this tiered system, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), founded in the sciences of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), are used. Of the many PBIS interventions, instructional choice at Tier I has been established as an effective, low intensity, teacher delivered support that aims to reduce challenging behaviors and increase academic engagement. Instructional choice involves two parts: selection in response to ...


Behavioral And Psychophysiological Effects Of Near-Miss Outcomes In A Game Of War, Erin Wylie 2019 Northern Michigan University

Behavioral And Psychophysiological Effects Of Near-Miss Outcomes In A Game Of War, Erin Wylie

All NMU Master's Theses

Within the gambling literature, the misidentification of outcomes has been shown to affect gambling behaviors in players. A notably salient stimulus frequently cited as leading to the misidentification of wins is near-misses. Near-misses occur when the outcome of an event closely resembles a winning outcome, even though it is a loss. The current study intended to further investigate the effects of near-misses relative to wins and losses on player’s inter-trial latencies and the presence of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 event related potentials (ERPs) in a game of war card game. FRN is a negative fronto-central ERP component ...


Recalibration Of Perceived Distance In Virtual Environments Occurs Rapidly And Transfers Asymmetrically Across Scale, Jonathan W. Kelly, William W. Hammel, Zachary D. Siegel, Lori A. Sjolund 2019 Iowa State University

Recalibration Of Perceived Distance In Virtual Environments Occurs Rapidly And Transfers Asymmetrically Across Scale, Jonathan W. Kelly, William W. Hammel, Zachary D. Siegel, Lori A. Sjolund

Jonathan W. Kelly

Distance in immersive virtual reality is commonly underperceived relative to intended distance, causing virtual environments to appear smaller than they actually are. However, a brief period of interaction by walking through the virtual environment with visual feedback can cause dramatic improvement in perceived distance. The goal of the current project was to determine how quickly improvement occurs as a result of walking interaction (Experiment 1) and whether improvement is specific to the distances experienced during interaction, or whether improvement transfers across scales of space (Experiment 2). The results show that five interaction trials resulted in a large improvement in perceived ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg 2019 Iowa State University

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg

Dan Nettleton

The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...


Retrieval Enhances Route Knowledge Acquisition, But Only When Movement Errors Are Prevented., Jonathan W. Kelly, Shana Carpenter, Lori A. Sjolund 2019 Iowa State University

Retrieval Enhances Route Knowledge Acquisition, But Only When Movement Errors Are Prevented., Jonathan W. Kelly, Shana Carpenter, Lori A. Sjolund

Jonathan W. Kelly

Studies of the testing effect have shown that retrieval significantly improves learning. However, most of these studies have been restricted to simple types of declarative verbal knowledge. Five experiments were designed to explore whether testing improves acquisition of route knowledge, which has a procedural component consisting of actions to be performed at decision points (Golledge, 1991). Participants learned a route through a series of connected rooms in a virtual building. Each room contained multiple doors, only one of which led to the next room. During encoding, participants were shown the correct sequence of doors in a manner similar to global ...


Comparison Of Two Methods For Improving Distance Perception In Virtual Reality, Jonathan W. Kelly, Lucia A. Cherep, Brenna Klesel, Zachary D. Siegel, Seth George 2019 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Methods For Improving Distance Perception In Virtual Reality, Jonathan W. Kelly, Lucia A. Cherep, Brenna Klesel, Zachary D. Siegel, Seth George

Jonathan W. Kelly

Distance is commonly underperceived in virtual environments (VEs) compared to real environments. Past work suggests that displaying a replica VE based on the real surrounding environment leads to more accurate judgments of distance, but that work has lacked the necessary control conditions to firmly make this conclusion. Other research indicates that walking through a VE with visual feedback improves judgments of distance and size. This study evaluated and compared those two methods for improving perceived distance in VEs. All participants experienced a replica VE based on the real lab. In one condition, participants visually previewed the real lab prior to ...


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