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Connecting Emotions To Behavioral Outcomes, Whitney L. Spears 2017 Georgia Southern University

Connecting Emotions To Behavioral Outcomes, Whitney L. Spears

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The field of positive psychology has emerged within the last decade and focuses on investigating happiness and what constitutes a satisfying life (Seligman, 2011; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). One of the main purposes of positive psychology is to identify resources that can be used to promote psychologically beneficial outcomes (Fredrickson, 2001). Two positive psychological outcomes that can build resources to overcome negative circumstances and lead to a fulfilling life are resilience and well-being. A theory proposed by Fredrickson (1998) that offers a process by which individuals can enhance well-being and resilience is the broaden-and-build theory. Through this theory, it is hypothesized that experiencing positive affect can broaden an individual’s thoughts and actions, which can in turn build lasting personal outcomes (i.e., resilience and well-being; Fredrickson, 2001). The current study draws upon the tenets of the broaden-and-build theory to identify processes that may help clarify the connection between positive affect and positive psychological outcomes. Specifically, the main purpose of the current study was to determine if savoring strategies mediate the relationships between positive affect and positive psychological outcomes. Participants included two hundred and eighty-nine college students who were recruited to complete a series of online surveys. In regard to gender ...


Passenger Satisfaction And Mental Adaptation Under Adverse Conditions: Case Study In Manila, Andra Charis Mijares, Mio Suzuki, Tetsuo Yai 2016 Tokyo Institute of Technology

Passenger Satisfaction And Mental Adaptation Under Adverse Conditions: Case Study In Manila, Andra Charis Mijares, Mio Suzuki, Tetsuo Yai

Journal of Public Transportation

Public transportation systems in several developing cities face congestion, air pollution, and safety problems, yet many passengers use them regularly. This study examines the structure of passenger satisfaction and the role of mental adaptation under such conditions. Metro Manila MRT-3 was analyzed as a case study.

The actual and perceived conditions at the MRT-3 were assessed using surveys. Results of the waiting time and PM2.5 monitoring surveys revealed that passengers queue for 30 minutes, on average, while being exposed to unsafe levels of PM2.5. The questionnaire survey results show some discrepancies between actual and perceived values ...


Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...


Is Group Therapy Democratic? Enduring Consequences Of Outward Bound’S Alignment With The Human Potential Movement. A Response To “How To Be Nice And Get What You Want: Structural Referents Of 'Self’ And ‘Other’ In Experiential Education As (Un)Democratic Practice.", Jayson Seaman 2016 University of New Hampshire - Main Campus

Is Group Therapy Democratic? Enduring Consequences Of Outward Bound’S Alignment With The Human Potential Movement. A Response To “How To Be Nice And Get What You Want: Structural Referents Of 'Self’ And ‘Other’ In Experiential Education As (Un)Democratic Practice.", Jayson Seaman

Democracy and Education

Franklin Vernon provided an example of how programs viewing themselves as “cultural islands” are in fact embedded within historical capitalist relations, through the discourses of self that they promote. In this response, I expand on Vernon’s argument to situate the quasi-therapeutic practices he identified in the history of the human potential movement, which effectively merged with Outward Bound starting in the 1960s and continues to define outdoor experiential education. Where Vernon sought the structural referents to different models of self, this response seeks their historical origins. The response concludes by linking Vernon’s argument with existing critiques and parallel ...


Stress Coping Strategies In Indian Military Pilots-Preliminary Observations, Catherine Joseph 2016 Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Bangalore, India

Stress Coping Strategies In Indian Military Pilots-Preliminary Observations, Catherine Joseph

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

ABSTRACT

In aviators, stress coping has been linked to flying performance and has a bearing on flight safety and mission effectiveness. The objective of this research was to study coping strategies utilized by Indian military pilots. A sample of 160 military pilots was asked to complete a demographic data sheet and the Stress Coping Checklist. Preliminary findings suggest that, Indian pilots use flexible problem and emotion focussed coping strategies. This issue needs to be taken into account in both occupational and clinical realms of future research investigations on aviators.


Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti 2016 Chapman University

Angels And Demons: Using Behavioral Types In A Real-Effort Moral Dilemma To Identify Expert Traits, Hernan Bejerano, Ellen P. Green, Stephen Rassenti

ESI Publications

In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects' cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS), which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these ...


What Are The Predictors Of System-Wide Trust Loss In Transportation Automation?, Stephen Rice, Scott R. Winter, John E. Deaton, Ismael Cremer 2016 Florida Institute of Technology - Melbourne

What Are The Predictors Of System-Wide Trust Loss In Transportation Automation?, Stephen Rice, Scott R. Winter, John E. Deaton, Ismael Cremer

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Prior research has examined how individuals place trust in single (e.g., Meyer, 2001, 2004) and multiple (e.g., Geels-Blair, Rice, & Schwark, 2013) automated devices when one fails. This has shown that participants are influenced by system-wide trust (SWT). What has been missing is an investigation into what types of people succumb to SWT effects. The current study attempts to replicate SWT findings and identify possible predictors of individuals likely to be influenced by SWT. The findings did demonstrate a replication of SWT. The study found that ‘‘feelings of negativity when automated devices fail’’ was a significant predictor of SWT ...


Cultural Effects On Rape Trauma Syndrome: Evaluating The Claims, Kelsey West 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Cultural Effects On Rape Trauma Syndrome: Evaluating The Claims, Kelsey West

Psychology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

No abstract provided.


The Political Personality Of 2016 Republican Presidential Nominee Donald J. Trump, Aubrey Immelman 2016 St. John's University and the College of St. Benedict

The Political Personality Of 2016 Republican Presidential Nominee Donald J. Trump, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

The paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Donald J. Trump, Republican nominee in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, conducted 2015–2016 from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Trump was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM–IV.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index ...


Investigating The Construct Of Psychopathy In Lebanese And American Adults, Marie-Anne Issa 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Investigating The Construct Of Psychopathy In Lebanese And American Adults, Marie-Anne Issa

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychopathy has been primarily investigated in forensic and psychiatric populations in North America. Cross-cultural studies, mainly conducted in Europe, have shown disparities in psychopathy scores and the measures’ psychometric properties, which raise the issue of cultural factors, such as individualism-collectivism, values, and different ways of emotional expression, and the impact of these cultural factors on the construct and its manifestation. Psychopathy has been rarely explored in Arab populations. This dissertation examines the construct of psychopathy among Lebanese adults, to assess its meaning, relevance, and utility among this population and compares the responses of Lebanese to American adults. The design of ...


Death Priming In Investigations: The Effects On Worldview Threat, Out-Group Derogation, And Stereotyping, Laure Brimbal 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Death Priming In Investigations: The Effects On Worldview Threat, Out-Group Derogation, And Stereotyping, Laure Brimbal

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Terror Management Theory (TMT) hypothesizes that thinking about one’s own death creates a need to boost our worldview and our self-esteem in order to cope with this existential threat. Decades of research support the theory’s premises with findings in many different settings (Burke, Martens, & Faucher, 2010). The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the findings of TMT to research on decision making in investigations. In two studies, I evaluated how thinking about one’s death (Mortality Salience, MS) affected mock investigators’ reactions to the outcome of a case they investigated and their perceptions of a suspect, depending on their group memberships.

In Study 1, participants (n = 299) were either death primed or not and asked to provide their assessment of a case as a police investigator. They were then told of the outcome of the case in court (either fair or unfair), asked how they felt about it. They were also asked how they would investigate a similar case in the future to assess for the impact of outcome on motivational bias. Results showed only an effect for outcome, where participants reacted more positively (and less negatively) to the fair outcome then the unfair outcome. Participants also showed a tendency to generally seek out more information in the unfair outcome condition; however, there was no sign of increased confirmation bias.

In Study 2 (n = 403), I either primed participants with MS or not and manipulated what role they took on to investigate the case (police investigator or journalist), and the race of the suspect (either in-group or out-group member of different races (Black, Hispanic, or ...


Organizational Justice And Social Media In The Employee Selection Process, Hayden Hickey 2016 Western Kentucky University

Organizational Justice And Social Media In The Employee Selection Process, Hayden Hickey

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

This study combines aspects of social media’s role in employee selection and how it relates to potential employee attitudes toward a company. By measuring participants’ attitudes when told that their Facebook profiles would be taken into consideration in determining their job ability, applicant feelings of procedural justice (i.e., fairness of a process; PJ) were assessed and compared to a control group. To measure interactional justice (i.e., fairness regarding interpersonal treatment; IJ), participants were divided into two conditions: participants in the high justice condition were given an explanation of the rationale behind using social media as an evaluation ...


Age Differences In The Effects Of Semantic Context On Speech Perception: The Role Of Uncertainty., John Ryan Morton 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Age Differences In The Effects Of Semantic Context On Speech Perception: The Role Of Uncertainty., John Ryan Morton

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent experiments have shown that semantic context effects on spoken word recognition differ between young and older adults (Rogers, Jacoby & Sommers, 2012; Sommers et. al, in prep). These experiments have shown that older adults provide significantly more incorrect responses than young adults when context predicts a phonological competitor that is semantically more likely than the actual target item. Incorrectly responding with the semantically predicted item rather than the true target item, with high confidence, is referred to as false hearing. The general design used in the studies reported for this dissertation is to compare identification of sentence-final items (presented in noise) in ...


Channeling The River: Using Positive Psychology To Prevent Cultural Helplessness, As Applied To African-American Law Students, Dwayne Allen Thomas 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Channeling The River: Using Positive Psychology To Prevent Cultural Helplessness, As Applied To African-American Law Students, Dwayne Allen Thomas

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Helplessness deficits are characterized by an organism’s failure to escape escapable situations after exposure to aversive stimuli. It has recently been learned that helplessness is the mammalian default protective response, and that it is subdued as mammals learn to control their environment. Human helplessness responses are mediated by our ability to think; explanations for adverse stimuli that tend toward the individual’s inability to control a stimulus can cause a person to exhibit helplessness deficits. This paper proposes a theory of cultural helplessness, positing that information and beliefs spread through cultural transmission can provide individuals with automatic explanations, which ...


Exposing The “Shadow Side”: Female-Female Competition In Jane Austen’S Emma, Melissa M. Lyman 2016 University of New Orleans

Exposing The “Shadow Side”: Female-Female Competition In Jane Austen’S Emma, Melissa M. Lyman

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Many critics have examined the shifting nature of female friendship in Jane Austen’s Emma from cultural and historical angles. However, a comprehensive scientific analysis of female-female alliance and competition in the novel remains incomplete. The Literary Darwinist approach considers the motivations of fictional characters from an evolutionary perspective, focusing primarily on human cognition and behaviors linked to reproductive success, social control, and survival. While overt physical displays of male competition are conspicuous in the actions of the human species and those of their closest primate relatives, female aggression is often brandished psychologically and indirectly, which makes for a much ...


Defining A Positive Citizenship; Wellbeing For Emancipation, Leora V. Rifkin 2016 University of Pennsylvania Master's of Applied Positive Psychology

Defining A Positive Citizenship; Wellbeing For Emancipation, Leora V. Rifkin

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive psychology as a field has made substantial advances when it comes to understanding positive experiences and positive traits, yet there is a deficiency in theory, research, and application of how to build and enable positive institutions. This paper argues that positive psychologists and practitioners need to focus on how positive psychology can support and contribute to macro level community wellbeing, specifically focused and concerned with justice. At the origins of this nation’s history is dehumanization and oppression of certain populations, denying citizens full participation in our democracy. This paper asks, what allows people to be psychologically ready to ...


I'Ve Got Your Back: Utilizing Improv As A Tool To Enhance Workplace Relationships, Jordana Cole 2016 University of Pennsylvania

I'Ve Got Your Back: Utilizing Improv As A Tool To Enhance Workplace Relationships, Jordana Cole

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

As the average American adult spends more time at work than anywhere else, the workplace, and the relationships built therein, plays a key role in overall well-being. With this in mind, many organizations dedicate significant time and resources to improve employee well-being, often in the form of fun, social events. In recent years, improvisational comedy, or improv, has emerged as a popular teambuilding activity due to its foundations in play, spontaneity, and trust. However, improv is more than just fun and laughs. Beyond merely being an energizing teambuilding event, I argue that improv has the ability to generate positive social ...


Music Student Satisfaction: The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences And Major Satisfaction, Cora Marie Powers 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Music Student Satisfaction: The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences And Major Satisfaction, Cora Marie Powers

Masters Theses

Based on Holland’s (1997) theory of person-environment fit, the primary purpose of this study was to examine learning style preferences of college music students utilizing the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and VARK Learning Styles Inventory (Kolb, 1976, 1984 ; Fleming & Mills, 1992). These preferences were also explored relative to music students’satisfaction with their major. A tendency to prefer the Aural, Kinesthetic, and Active Experimentation learning styles was observed in the 134 music majors sampled. Among the music students sampled, those who most prefer the Active Experimentation learning style are most satisfied with their major. Some differences in learning style ...


A Public-Domain Personality Item Bank For Use With The Raymark, Schmit, And Guion (1997) Pprf, Scott Highhouse, Michael J. Zickar, Margaret E. Brooks, Charlie L. Reeve, Shreya T. Sarkar-Barney, Robert M. Guion 2016 Bowling Green State University

A Public-Domain Personality Item Bank For Use With The Raymark, Schmit, And Guion (1997) Pprf, Scott Highhouse, Michael J. Zickar, Margaret E. Brooks, Charlie L. Reeve, Shreya T. Sarkar-Barney, Robert M. Guion

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

Presented is the development of a repository of work-related personality items that may be used to assess job-related traits identified by the Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF: Raymark, Schmit, & Guion, 1997). Analyses of the item pool administered to a sample (n = 412) of trade apprentices showed evidence to support the12 work-related Big 5 sub-dimensions identified by the PPRF. A smaller validity study (n = 47) suggested that personality dimensions identified as job-related by the PPRF were related to important job-related outcomes.


Threat Of Technological Unemployment: Are Hiring Managers Discounted For Using Standardized Employee Selection Practices?, Kevin P. Nolan, Nathan T. Carter, Dev K. Dalal 2016 Hofstra University

Threat Of Technological Unemployment: Are Hiring Managers Discounted For Using Standardized Employee Selection Practices?, Kevin P. Nolan, Nathan T. Carter, Dev K. Dalal

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

Two studies were conducted to examine the tenability of Meehl’s (1986) “threat of technological unemployment” explanation for why practitioners of employee selection resist using standardized decision-making practices. The results of Study 1 support the existence of this threat by demonstrating that practitioners received less credit for the outcomes of employment decisions when structured rather than unstructured interviews were used to evaluate candidates and analytical rather than holistic data combination was used to determine candidates’ overall evaluations. The results of Study 2 support the influence of this threat on employee selection by demonstrating that practitioners recognized the effects using the ...


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