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Promoting Competence In College Students: The Role Of Psychological Flexibility, Elyse Rubin Rosenberg 2018 University of Vermont

Promoting Competence In College Students: The Role Of Psychological Flexibility, Elyse Rubin Rosenberg

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Psychological flexibility (PF), the core process of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; a third-wave cognitive-behavioral therapy), is the ability to stay focused on the present moment and intentionally engage in value-driven behavior despite experiencing difficult thoughts or feelings. This multifaceted construct includes components that target processes occurring both internally (e.g., cognitive processes) and behaviorally (e.g., value-consistent actions). Psychological flexibility has been applied to studies of adjustment in non-clinical samples and may be beneficial for college students as individuals navigate novel developmental stressors. Despite evidence suggesting the benefits of PF for psychological distress, additional work is needed to examine ...


Capitalizing On Positive Emotional Experiences: A Gratitude Intervention As An Emotional Uplift Strategy, Amanda L. Walker 2018 Georgia Southern University

Capitalizing On Positive Emotional Experiences: A Gratitude Intervention As An Emotional Uplift Strategy, Amanda L. Walker

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Positive psychological interventions are well suited to build upon positive experiences to enhance positive affect and coping resources; however, experimental research is limited, especially regarding if and how gratitude practices can bolster positive affect and coping resources. As a result, the purpose of the current research was to determine (a) if self-reports of gratitude traits vary by important demographic categories (i.e., gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, rural status), (b) if gratitude interventions elevate reports of positive affect after accounting for the effects of positive memory recall, and (c) if gratitude interventions contribute to greater elevations on coping resources (i.e ...


Anti-Muslim Prejudice When Exposed To News About Terrorism: The Roles Of Negative Affect And Psychological Inflexibility, Arthur T. Hatton Sr. 2018 Georgia Southern University

Anti-Muslim Prejudice When Exposed To News About Terrorism: The Roles Of Negative Affect And Psychological Inflexibility, Arthur T. Hatton Sr.

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

In the United States, some proposed law enforcement policies intended to prevent terrorism may violate the civil rights of American minorities. These policies include random searches by law enforcement, banning Muslims from entering the country, and refusing to grant asylum to Syrian refugees. Additionally, the rise of ISIS has heightened the salience of terrorism across the world and in the United States. The goal of the high-production videos produced by ISIS may be partially intended to create inter-religious conflict in the West. My study examines the effect of news about ISIS propaganda videos on Americans’ opinions about policies that limit ...


Doing Greater Good, While Doing No Individual Harm: A Public Health Approach To Human Trafficking Using A Human Rights-Centered Model, Patrick L. Kerr, Rachel Dash 2017 West Virginia University

Doing Greater Good, While Doing No Individual Harm: A Public Health Approach To Human Trafficking Using A Human Rights-Centered Model, Patrick L. Kerr, Rachel Dash

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Human trafficking (i.e., modern slavery) includes myriad forms of sex and labor trafficking. Widely ranging estimates of the prevalence of human trafficking are commonly cited; at the same time, accurate data on these phenomena remain elusive, and assumptions rather than empirical evidence about the nature, targets, and proliferation of trafficking often dominate public policy discourse.

In this paper, we describe the ways in which this lack of accurate data on basic prevalence rates has led to key limitations in anti-trafficking work. First, this lack of data prevents a clear understanding of the problem of trafficking. Second, this deficit limits ...


Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Psychoanalytic thinkers propose that aspects of an individual’s sexual fantasies are related to her psychological and interpersonal functioning. The present study aims to elucidate the significance of sexual fantasies with respect to women’s emotional and interpersonal lives. The study evaluated a model, which hypothesized that internal representations of self and others (e.g. attachment security, maturity of object relations) along with psychological and interpersonal factors would predict both the emotional content (guilt, fear, affection) of written sexual fantasy narratives, and overall romantic satisfaction in heterosexual women. Methods: Five hundred and thirty four women completed self-report questionnaires online ...


Mental Illness Stigma And Community Integration: Linking Perceived Experiences With Reported Behavior, Lauren L. Gonzales 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mental Illness Stigma And Community Integration: Linking Perceived Experiences With Reported Behavior, Lauren L. Gonzales

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examines the relationship between individual and neighborhood characteristics, stigmatizing experiences, and measures of community integration among individuals with mental illness. Surveys were administered to two samples: 608 community member participants and 343 participants with mental health diagnoses. Participants in both samples were recruited from 3 community sites in the New York City metropolitan area: East/Central Harlem in Manhattan, Crown Heights/East Flatbush in Brooklyn, and Yonkers and Mt. Vernon in Southern Westchester. Negative symptoms and perceived level of community microaggressions were strong predictors of community integration for participants with mental illness. Prior contact with mental illness predicted ...


An Examination Of Therapeutic Alliance During Prolonged Exposure In The Treatment Of A Comorbid Ptsd And Sud Population, Annelisa Pedersen 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

An Examination Of Therapeutic Alliance During Prolonged Exposure In The Treatment Of A Comorbid Ptsd And Sud Population, Annelisa Pedersen

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Prolonged exposure has emerged as a highly effective method of treating PTSD (Foa, Hembree, & Rothbaum, 2007; Ruzek et al., 2014), yet for some individuals it has proven to be anxiety-arousing to the point of being contraindicated (Morris, 2015). As a treatment, prolonged exposure can be a challenging procedure to implement given the high levels of avoidance, fear, and resistance that often accompany a diagnosis of PTSD (Arntz, Tiesema, & Kindt, 2007; Hoffart et al., 2013; McLaughlin et al., 2014). When it is used to treat individuals who carry an additional diagnosis of SUD, further complications may arise with respect to avoidance and tolerating the temporarily ...


The Relationships Among Different Traits Of Masculinity And Intimate Partner Violence, Jennifer E. Loveland 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Relationships Among Different Traits Of Masculinity And Intimate Partner Violence, Jennifer E. Loveland

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research has shown that distinct yet overlapping concepts of dominance, hostility towards women, and sexism—all indices of masculinity—influence the occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV), although the mechanisms are unclear. This paper seeks to explore the relationship between these individual-level trait measures of masculinity and two aspects of IPV, physical violence and coercive control. With inconsistent findings and the limited study of clinical populations, further examination of these concepts may provide increased understanding of the mechanisms behind IPV perpetration. Results will provide a greater understanding of the complexity of this violence in order to better assist individuals experiencing ...


Physiological Correlates Of Affective Decision-Making In Anxiety And Depression, Louisa I. Thompson 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Physiological Correlates Of Affective Decision-Making In Anxiety And Depression, Louisa I. Thompson

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Improving our understanding of cognitive and physiological profiles in anxiety and depression has the potential to reveal novel ways to target and improve treatments for these prevalent mental health conditions. The present study examined the impact of self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms on three established decision-making measures, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., 2002), and Game of Dice Task (GDT; Brand et al., 2005), in a diverse sample of 100 college students (age 18 to 35). Physiological measures of tonic heart rate variability and galvanic skin response were obtained to better characterize autonomic flexibility and ...


Minding The Baby®: Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences And Treatment Outcomes In A Mother-Infant Home Visiting Program, Jessica G. Albertson 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Minding The Baby®: Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences And Treatment Outcomes In A Mother-Infant Home Visiting Program, Jessica G. Albertson

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examined Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a sample of women participating in Minding the Baby® (MTB), a mother-infant home-visiting intervention known to have positive effects on mother-infant attachment. In addition to documenting maternal childhood trauma exposure within the sample, this study explored whether such exposure affected the intervention outcome or service delivery. We looked specifically at whether maternal childhood trauma exposure affected mother-child attachment or frequency of contact with home-visitors. We also examined the relationship between maternal early childhood trauma exposure and reflective functioning capacity (RF), a potential resiliency-promoting factor.

Methods: The study’s participants were 29 first-time ...


Women Who Perpetrate Partner Violence: The Role Of Attachment Insecurity And Emotion Regulation, Diana Adele Robinson 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

Women Who Perpetrate Partner Violence: The Role Of Attachment Insecurity And Emotion Regulation, Diana Adele Robinson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent and destructive social problem affecting millions of people around the world. Although partner violence has been widely examined among women, few studies have focused on women in the role of perpetrator. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the underlying mechanisms of IPV perpetration among college women. Specifically, we investigated the relationship among attachment insecurity (i.e., anxious and avoidant), emotion regulation (ER) strategies (i.e., expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), and IPV among a sample of college women. Participants (N = 177) were recruited from a Southern California university and completed measures ...


Executive Dysfunction Or State Regulation: A Dimensional Comparison Of Two Neuropsychological Theories Of Attention Disorder Symptoms Using Rdoc Paradigms, Justin Hull Ory 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Executive Dysfunction Or State Regulation: A Dimensional Comparison Of Two Neuropsychological Theories Of Attention Disorder Symptoms Using Rdoc Paradigms, Justin Hull Ory

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Two leading theories regarding the neurocognitive basis of attentional disorders are the executive dysfunction theory and the state regulation theory. The executive dysfunction theory takes a top-down approach, explaining the symptoms of ADHD as a byproduct of general deficits in executive functioning—particularly disinhibition. The state regulation theory takes a bottom-up approach, explaining the symptoms of ADHD as a failure to be sufficiently aroused by, and subsequently engage with, less stimulating or rewarding tasks. These two theories predict different patterns of performance on tasks of executive functioning and attention, and research has demonstrated mixed support for both theories. The present ...


Evaluating A Stepped Care Protocol For Postpartum Depression In A Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, Sarah C. Smith 2017 Eastern Tennessee State University

Evaluating A Stepped Care Protocol For Postpartum Depression In A Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, Sarah C. Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent, complex illness impacting 10% to 20% of mothers and their families. Treatments for PPD, such as medication and psychotherapy, are effective at reducing the severity of symptoms and generally improving quality of life for new mothers and their families. Unfortunately, many mothers with PPD go unrecognized due to a lack of standardized screening methods. Further, mothers regularly encounter barriers to accessible, evidence-based follow-up care to treatment even when symptoms of PPD are detected. The use of a stepped care protocol, set in a pediatric primary care clinic, is one proposed strategy to address the ...


Early Childhood Adversity And Chronic Illness: An Examination Of A High Risk- Forensic Inpatient Population, Courtney L. Cook 2017 East Tennessee State University

Early Childhood Adversity And Chronic Illness: An Examination Of A High Risk- Forensic Inpatient Population, Courtney L. Cook

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Individuals exposed adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk of developing chronic illnesses in adulthood including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic pain. A relationship between ACEs and health risk factors contributing to chronic disease such as smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle has also been established in prior literature. There is evidence that higher that individuals in forensic inpatient mental health samples are disproportionally exposed to ACEs, which may increase odds of chronic disease development. Despite this evidence, little research has examined the prevalence of ACEs and relationships between ACEs and chronic health conditions and risky health behaviors in ...


More Than Mere Synonyms: Examining The Differences Between Criminogenic Thinking And Criminogenic Attitudes, David W. Gavel 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

More Than Mere Synonyms: Examining The Differences Between Criminogenic Thinking And Criminogenic Attitudes, David W. Gavel

Dissertations

More than 75% of prison inmates are arrested for a new crime within five years of being released from prison. Known as recidivism, this trend of repeated criminal activity accounts for more than half of annual prison admissions, and rehabilitative programs demonstrate varying degrees of success in reducing recidivism. Andrews, Bonta, and Hoge (1990) demonstrated that offenders are less likely to recidivate when they receive services that match their assessed level of risk factors (e.g., history of violence), intervention needs (e.g., mental health diagnosis), and responsivity (e.g., ideal learning environment). Criminogenic cognition, mental events (e.g., thoughts ...


Predictors Of Re-Accessing Mental Health Services For Children And Adolescents, Catalina Sarmiento 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Predictors Of Re-Accessing Mental Health Services For Children And Adolescents, Catalina Sarmiento

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The natural history of mental health disorders suggests that a substantial number of children experience persistent or recurrent problems and may need more than 1 episode of care. However, there is a paucity of research on recurrent service use. The present study examined the rates and predictors of re-accessing community-based care. Secondary data analyses were conducted on administrative and chart review data from 5 mental health agencies in southwest, eastern, and central Ontario. Approximately a third (30%) of children who had an episode of care re-accessed services again within 4 years; the median time to re-access was 13 months. Social ...


Examining The Psychosocial And Academic Factors Predicting Depression And Anxiety Symptomology Across First Year And Later Year University Students, Natalie Eckberg, Aileen M. Pidgeon, Heide Magya 2017 Bond University

Examining The Psychosocial And Academic Factors Predicting Depression And Anxiety Symptomology Across First Year And Later Year University Students, Natalie Eckberg, Aileen M. Pidgeon, Heide Magya

Aileen M. Pidgeon

University students across the world report higher levels of mental health problems compared to the general population. Past research has focused on investigating mental health problems among first-year university students. However, a paucity of existing research compares the prevalence of mental health problems in first-year university students to students in later year-levels. To address this gap, the current study compared the level of depression and anxiety symptomology experienced by university students (n = 198) from Australia and the United States, across first, second, third, and fourth-year levels. The results found no significant differences in the level of depression and anxiety symptomology ...


Do You “Like” Me?: Reassurance Seeking On Facebook And Depression, Callista Forchuk 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Do You “Like” Me?: Reassurance Seeking On Facebook And Depression, Callista Forchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study was to expand interpersonal theories of depression by incorporating online social behaviour. This study assessed the influence of Facebook reassurance seeking on concurrent depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of attachment anxiety in this relation. A sample of 458 undergraduates (68% female; mean age 18.54) completed self-report computer-based questionnaires of offline reassurance seeking, Facebook reassurance seeking, attachment style, and depression. Contrary to hypotheses, Facebook reassurance seeking was not associated with depressive symptoms. However, there was an interaction whereby, for those higher in attachment anxiety, more Facebook reassurance seeking was associated with lessened ...


Loneliness And Family Burden: An Exploratory Investigation On The Emotional Experiences Of Caregivers Of Patients With Severe Mental Illness, Francesca Dicé, Felice Zoena 2017 University of Naples, Federico II

Loneliness And Family Burden: An Exploratory Investigation On The Emotional Experiences Of Caregivers Of Patients With Severe Mental Illness, Francesca Dicé, Felice Zoena

The Qualitative Report

We present here an exploratory descriptive investigation about the needs of the caregivers of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) referring to a mental health service of a Southern Italian city. Twelve caregivers were queried, as experienced contacts, about their own emotional involvement and their relationship with the patient by means of a semi-structured interview. Interviews were subjected to a qualitative thematic-categorical analysis. The results reveal painful experiences of anguish and feelings of inadequacy stemming from care-giving, which gravely impact the caregivers' personal well-being and family relations.


Caregivers' Role In Fostering Resilience In Preschoolers, Kristen Yule 2017 Marquette University

Caregivers' Role In Fostering Resilience In Preschoolers, Kristen Yule

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The present study examined the association between specific parenting practices and the development of resilience in preschoolers from high-risk families. The current study used a multi-method, multi-informant design to identify parenting behaviors associated with positive adjustment and well-being in preschoolers exposed to adversity. Families were recruited from Head Start programs and 124 childcaregiver dyads agreed to participate. Child participants (51% male) from grades K3 through K5 ranged from 3-6 years of age (M = 4), while caregivers (85.5% female) were between the ages of 19 and 69 years (M = 32). Participants were predominately Black or African American. Resilience was assessed ...


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