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Resilience As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Negative Life Events And Psychological Well-Being, Anna L. Faircloth 2017 Georgia Southern University

Resilience As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Negative Life Events And Psychological Well-Being, Anna L. Faircloth

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The relatively young field of positive psychology serves to redirect the focus of common psychological investigation and intervention on factors that deplete well-being, toward characteristics and experiences that promote happiness and well-being (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Two features that have been consistently associated with measures of psychological well-being are resilience and negative life events (Avey et al., 2010; Shonkoff et al., 2012). The current study examined the relationship between negative life events, well-being, and resilience. Specifically, the study was designed to determine if resilience mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological well-being among emerging adults. Participants were 325 college students (166 women; 158 men) who independently completed an online assessment comprised of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life ...


Examining Anxiety Schemas Through The Context Of A Stress-Intrapersonal Model, Kayla M. LeLeux-LaBarge 2017 Georgia Southern University

Examining Anxiety Schemas Through The Context Of A Stress-Intrapersonal Model, Kayla M. Leleux-Labarge

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Explicating vulnerability factors to anxiety difficulties is important as the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) lists anxiety as the most common and costly class of mental health disorders in the United States. Maladaptive schemas, as theorized by Young (1990), perpetuate anxiety pathology by hindering the individual’s ability to alter behaviors, thoughts, emotions, and overall approach to adverse events. Previous research indicates that intrapersonal resources can stymie the development of psychopathological features, even in the context of adverse life events (Floyd, Seltzer, Greenberg, & Song, 2013). The main purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship among adverse life events ...


The Effect Of Loving-Kindness Meditation On Physiological And Psychological Reactions To Violent Stimuli, Joseph A. Garcia 2017 Georgia Southern University

The Effect Of Loving-Kindness Meditation On Physiological And Psychological Reactions To Violent Stimuli, Joseph A. Garcia

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

In the past, meditation research has focused primarily on mindfulness meditation, but little research has examined Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM). LKM may be an important addition to treatment or preventative programs for people at risk of exposure to violence or aggression in their lives or work. The current research aims to add to the currently growing body of literature concerning LKM and compassion based meditation practices. The researchers sought to determine if a 12-week course in LKM would have any effect on galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate in beats per minute (BPM) during the presentation of a video containing ...


Traumatic Stress, World Assumptions, And Law Enforcement Officers, Douglas William Green 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Traumatic Stress, World Assumptions, And Law Enforcement Officers, Douglas William Green

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The present study examined the presence of traumatic stress reaction symptoms among active law enforcement officers, and the relationship between potentially traumatic work related experiences, officers’ cognitive views of the world, and the expression of those symptoms. The range of police roles and responsibilities arguably subjects officers to a greater variety of potentially traumatizing experiences than any other population, and the literature reflects that police officers express traumatic stress related symptoms at a greater rate than the general population. This study differs from previous work in that it utilizes snowball sampling to anonymously identify officers willing to participate without involving ...


Masculine Identities Among Asian American Men: Negotiating Varying Masculine Ideals For The Self And Others, Elisa J. Lee 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Masculine Identities Among Asian American Men: Negotiating Varying Masculine Ideals For The Self And Others, Elisa J. Lee

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The study examined the implications of varying masculine identities for Asian American men of East Asian descent. The study tested the hypotheses that compared to White men, Asian American men would endorse lower levels of Western hegemonic masculine ideals, see themselves as less masculine in terms of those ideals, and report lower levels of believing others perceive them as masculine by Western hegemonic standards. It also examined if the type of masculinity Asian American men endorsed moderated the psychological functioning (gender role conflict, psychological distress, and substance use) related to any discrepancies and synchronicities between self-perception and others’ perception (e ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Supervision On Trauma Training Outcomes For Assertive Community Treatment Teams, Sacha Zilkha 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Supervision On Trauma Training Outcomes For Assertive Community Treatment Teams, Sacha Zilkha

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Most individuals receiving mental health care do not have access to evidence-based psychological treatments, regardless of psychological disorder. Despite the development of effective evidence based treatments and available training, clinician uptake and adherence to such treatments has been low. In this study, the effectiveness of a trauma treatment training model was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design to better inform and address the gap between the existence of evidence based care and lack of evidence based treatment options available in the community. Specifically, data from 23 Assertive Community Treatment Teams in NYC that underwent a 1-day ICBT training along with 12-month ...


My Mother Needs Me! Is It Possible To Stay Connected While Being My Own Person? The Object Relations Of The Latina “Dutiful Daughter”, Juliana Martinez 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

My Mother Needs Me! Is It Possible To Stay Connected While Being My Own Person? The Object Relations Of The Latina “Dutiful Daughter”, Juliana Martinez

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Latinas are culturally expected to be “dutiful daughters” establishing strong attachments and adhering to the traditional values characterized by loyalty, cooperation, respect and interdependence within family members. Conventional Latina mother-daughter bonds, therefore, are expected to be exceptionally close. Healthy mother-daughter closeness can be a valuable source of support while closeness without differentiation from the mother may result in a lack of independence and poor interpersonal and personal growth. Mutuality of autonomy, a dimension of object relations (OR) theory, focuses on the progression of separation – individuation from developmentally normative fused representations in infancy to highly differentiated self-other representations as the ...


The Remembrance Of Things Past: Does Self-Report Moderate The Impact Of Childhood Sexual Abuse On Long-Term Psychiatric Consequences?, Christina N. Massey 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Remembrance Of Things Past: Does Self-Report Moderate The Impact Of Childhood Sexual Abuse On Long-Term Psychiatric Consequences?, Christina N. Massey

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research has shown that the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychiatric symptoms is quite varied, with some victims experiencing severe and lasting symptoms and others appearing well-adjusted. Disclosure of childhood sexual abuse has been associated with reduced psychiatric symptoms. Thus, the current study sought to examine the potential moderating effects of disclosure. It was hypothesized that disclosure of childhood maltreatment would be associated with fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and alcohol- and drug-related disorders and that this relationship between disclosure and psychiatric symptoms would remain consistent over time. In addition, it was hypothesized that the moderating effects ...


Feminine Ideology, Relational Self-Concept, And Internalizing Symptoms In Women, Anjali George 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Feminine Ideology, Relational Self-Concept, And Internalizing Symptoms In Women, Anjali George

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Investigators have theorized that women may experience internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety more frequently than men in part because of unique socialization processes that women undergo. One aspect of early socialization thought to contribute to women’s propensity for depression and anxiety is the way women are brought up to relate to themselves in relation to others, often placing greater importance on the needs, desires, and value of others, at times at a psychological cost to themselves. This study attempts to elucidate the relationship between gender socialization, relational self-concept, and internalizing symptoms in women.

Methods: Two hundred ...


Role Of Humor In Emotion Regulation: Differential Effects Of Adaptive And Maladaptive Forms Of Humor, Lindsay Mathews 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Role Of Humor In Emotion Regulation: Differential Effects Of Adaptive And Maladaptive Forms Of Humor, Lindsay Mathews

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Humor is widely believed to be an adaptive method of regulating emotions; however, the empirical literature remains inconclusive. One potential explanation for inconsistent results is that humor may be a multidimensional construct. Correlational research suggests that “adaptive” humor styles (Self-Enhancing and Affiliative) are more beneficial than “maladaptive” humor styles (Self-Defeating and Aggressive). The current study examined the effects of humor styles on positive and negative emotion in a sample of 146 young adults. In Part I of the study, participants were 1) randomly assigned to three conditions (adaptive humor, maladaptive humor, and distraction), 2) instructed to write about life events ...


Real Gender: Identity, Loss, And The Capacity To Feel Real, Hannah Wallerstein 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Real Gender: Identity, Loss, And The Capacity To Feel Real, Hannah Wallerstein

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project concerns gender and feeling real. It begins with a seeming paradox: on the one hand, since Judith Butler (1999; 2011) we can no longer think gender as ontological in any simple sense; on the other, clinical experience and the voices of transgender and gender-queer individuals shows gender to function on the order of reality, and one exceeding the social. In other words, if feeling real depended entirely on being read as such, how would we account for the many who pass easily as “real” men or women and yet feel unreal, or come to feel more real by ...


Providing Care For Many In The Context Of Few Resources: Secondary Traumatic Stress, Burnout And Moral Distress Experienced By Healthcare Providers In Rural Uganda, Lauren Michelle Dewey 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Providing Care For Many In The Context Of Few Resources: Secondary Traumatic Stress, Burnout And Moral Distress Experienced By Healthcare Providers In Rural Uganda, Lauren Michelle Dewey

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the context of the global nursing shortage, and particularly in low-resource settings, nurses are at an increased risk for work-related stress problems like secondary traumatic stress (STS), burnout, and moral distress. These three work-related mental health consequences, sometimes associated with absenteeism and intent to leave the profession, could potentially contribute further to the shortage of nurses. This two-part study is a longitudinal examination of the work-related mental health consequences experienced by healthcare providers in rural Uganda. In Study 1, participants (n=208; 159 students and 49 experienced health workers) completed self-report, psychosocial measures at baseline and 134 of the ...


Early Relational Experiences And Poor Psychological And Social Outcomes As Mediated By Internalized Heterosexism In Sexual Minority Women: Illustration Of A Theoretical Model, Katharine Williams 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Early Relational Experiences And Poor Psychological And Social Outcomes As Mediated By Internalized Heterosexism In Sexual Minority Women: Illustration Of A Theoretical Model, Katharine Williams

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research has indicated that LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) individuals are at elevated risk for psychopathology when compared with their heterosexual peers, a finding that was highlighted in the Institute of Medicine’s report on The Health of LGBT People (Cochran & Mays, 2000; Cochran et al., 2003; IOM, 2011; King et al., 2008). Sexual minorities and sexual minority couples also have been found to have greater romantic relationship difficulties than heterosexual peers (Balsam & Szymanski, 2005; Frost & Meyer, 2009; Mays, Cochran, & Roeder, 2003; Meyer & Dean, 1998; Otis et al., 2006; Spencer & Brown, 2007). Therefore, this study targeted sexual minorities exclusively and separately from their heterosexual peers to elucidate the patterns of vulnerabilities ...


Vocal Rhythm Coordination And Preterm Infants: Rhythms Of Dialogue In A High-Risk Nicu Sample, Adrianne E. Lange 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Vocal Rhythm Coordination And Preterm Infants: Rhythms Of Dialogue In A High-Risk Nicu Sample, Adrianne E. Lange

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The contemporary bio-psycho-social view of mother-infant relationships holds that early interactions form the foundation of the growing infant’s sense of himself and the world. Prior to the development of linguistically-based communication, nonverbal communication patterns foster the infant’s socio-emotional growth, cognitive capacity and the development of optimal regulatory patterns. Preterm birth significantly alters the typical developmental trajectory on multiple levels and disrupts normal neurobiological and socio-emotional maturational processes, including those that build on early interpersonal experiences with caregivers. The current study of vocal rhythm coordination in preterm mother-infant dyads is the first of its kind. Aspects of infant prematurity ...


Investigating The Construct Of Psychopathy In Lebanese And American Adults, Marie-Anne Issa 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Investigating The Construct Of Psychopathy In Lebanese And American Adults, Marie-Anne Issa

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychopathy has been primarily investigated in forensic and psychiatric populations in North America. Cross-cultural studies, mainly conducted in Europe, have shown disparities in psychopathy scores and the measures’ psychometric properties, which raise the issue of cultural factors, such as individualism-collectivism, values, and different ways of emotional expression, and the impact of these cultural factors on the construct and its manifestation. Psychopathy has been rarely explored in Arab populations. This dissertation examines the construct of psychopathy among Lebanese adults, to assess its meaning, relevance, and utility among this population and compares the responses of Lebanese to American adults. The design of ...


Perceptions Of Money: Relationships Between Remembered Parental Rejection, Extrinsic Life Aspirations And Maladaptive Attitudes Toward Money, Rebecca J. Smith 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Perceptions Of Money: Relationships Between Remembered Parental Rejection, Extrinsic Life Aspirations And Maladaptive Attitudes Toward Money, Rebecca J. Smith

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examined the extent to which maternal rejection, paternal rejection, maternal care, and maternal overprotection predict extrinsic life aspirations as well as maladaptive money attitudes in young adults. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the Adult Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire correlates with the Parental Bonding Instrument. The variable, extrinsic life aspirations, was examined to determine if it mediates between parental rejection and maladaptive money attitudes. Finally, the present study examined gender differences with regard to parental rejection, extrinsic life aspirations, and maladaptive money attitudes. A multiple regression analysis was conducted in a college sample of 366 participants using self-report ...


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, Christy Owen 2016 Counseling

Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, Christy Owen

Fidei et Veritatis: The Liberty University Journal of Graduate Research

The past 20 years have been turbulent regarding Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), with conflicting research about its causes, effects, treatment, and prognosis. The current diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 fails to adequately address this disorder. A number of deviant and maladaptive behaviors common amongst children with RAD are not even mentioned in the diagnostic criteria. As such, the diagnostic definition is almost unidentifiable or incompatible with real-life conduct manifestations of the disorder. Rather, this author contends that RAD is foundationally a unique and extreme form of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) from Early Childhood Trauma. The child endured unspeakable neglect and ...


Grief, Bereavement, And Positive Psychology, Jesse E. Roberts, Andrea J. Thomas, James P. Morgan 2016 LifeShare of the Carolinas

Grief, Bereavement, And Positive Psychology, Jesse E. Roberts, Andrea J. Thomas, James P. Morgan

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

What does positive psychology have to offer people who are grieving? We explore this question in depth and consider how viewing bereavement and grief through the lens of positive psychology can help to normalize the grieving process and encourage the use of effective coping approaches. We provide research evidence in support of narrative reconstruction, posttraumatic growth, positive emotions, and spirituality as means to help survivors of loss to adjust and even to gain a new sense of meaning. We provide practical suggestions for individuals who are grieving and for those who are in relationship with them.


Cognitive Schemas As Longitudinal Predictors Of Depressive Relapse/Recurrence In An Undergraduate Population, Daniel Machado 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cognitive Schemas As Longitudinal Predictors Of Depressive Relapse/Recurrence In An Undergraduate Population, Daniel Machado

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

This study assessed longitudinally the predictors of relapse/recurrence in major depressive disorder, as well as future depressive symptomatology, by examining how people organize information and beliefs about the self and how this changes over time. A secondary objective was to assess the long-term stability of self-schema structures. A sample of undergraduate students completed a computer-based task assessing schema structure, as well as two measures of schema content at baseline, and three and six-month intervals. Analyses for relapse/recurrence yielded insignificant results. However, as predicted, social cognitive distortions at Time 1 and schema structure for negative interpersonal content at ...


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