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Sucrose Demand And Essential Value In Mice With Early-Life Exposure To Risperidone, Megan Federoff 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sucrose Demand And Essential Value In Mice With Early-Life Exposure To Risperidone, Megan Federoff

LSU Master's Theses

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), such as risperidone, are widely prescribed to children, but the long-term effects of SGA treatment are not well understood. This study investigated the impact of early-life risperidone treatment on sucrose demand in mice in adulthood. Mice were administered risperidone or vehicle from postnatal day (PND) 33 to 60 and trained in adulthood (>PND 120) to nose poke for a sucrose solution reinforcer. The fixed ratio (FR) value (the number of responses required to produce sucrose delivery; the “price” of sucrose) was varied from 1 to 45, and the resulting consumption versus FR value data were analyzed …


Success Over Stress Support Group, Sophia Pescador-Torrance 2023 California State University, Monterey Bay

Success Over Stress Support Group, Sophia Pescador-Torrance

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

The Harden Wellness Center is located in Salinas, California on the campus of Harden Middle School. After surveying and interviewing eighth-grade students at Harden Middle School, it was determined that there was a need to provide healthy coping skills for stress and anxiety. The project provided students a place to learn healthy coping skills along with normalizing mental health services among adolescents. In order to engage students and keep them interested each week, focus on a new skill with an activity attached to reinforce the coping skill. By the end of the six weeks, the group started to talk about …


The Impact Of Music Therapy On Language Acquisition In Children With Nonverbal Autism, Alecia Bernau 2023 Liberty University

The Impact Of Music Therapy On Language Acquisition In Children With Nonverbal Autism, Alecia Bernau

Senior Honors Theses

Through an experimental method, the researcher investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to develop verbal communication skills after consistent exposure to songs with lyrics. Six children with nonverbal ASD were exposed to the same song with lyrics, with the goal of increased vocalization and language acquisition. Over nine sessions, subjects were pulled to participate in the experiment. The researcher played the song for the participants, recording the responses from each trial and categorizing them as either full words, verbal approximations, or miscellaneous verbalizations. The findings of the study suggest that there is a relationship between …


Freedom, Abortion, And Hypocrisy: The Effect Of Hypocrisy On Pro-Life Abortion Attitudes, Emily M. Vance 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Freedom, Abortion, And Hypocrisy: The Effect Of Hypocrisy On Pro-Life Abortion Attitudes, Emily M. Vance

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research suggests that highlighting the gap between inconsistent values can result in long-term attitude change (Rokeach, 1971), that feeling hypocritical might prompt pro-attitudinal behavior (e.g., Dickerson et al., 1992), and that a reactance decoy makes participants more receptive to subsequent persuasive messages (Schumpe et al., 2020). Drawing from these findings, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the impact of induced hypocrisy on pro-life abortion attitudes, an attitude commonly grounded in the value of freedom, depended on a reactance decoy. Consistent with Aronson et al.’s paradigm (1991), participants first publicly advocated for the importance of personal …


Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy Through A Trust In Science Training Intervention, Nathan Dumessa 2023 Clemson University

Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy Through A Trust In Science Training Intervention, Nathan Dumessa

All Dissertations

Vaccine hesitancy is an ongoing public health issue that has been underscored by the COVID-19 pandemic and has implications for future pandemics and other vaccines. This research aimed to understand and address the factors associated with hesitancy. Study 1 was a correlational study that measured several factors that could predict vaccine hesitancy among Black and White participants recruited online (n = 364). Findings suggest that trust in science was the strongest predictor of attitudes towards the vaccine’s safety and effectiveness, which in turn strongly predicted vaccine hesitancy. Study 1 established the direct and indirect relationships between several predictors of …


Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar 2023 California State University San Bernardino

Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Purpose: This study explored mental health workers perspectives on alternative approaches in responding to mental health crises.

The study was carried out in Southern California, in collaboration with mental health workers who currently work or previously have worked in mental health crisis. It adopted a post-positivists paradigm and data was gathered through individual interviews with mental health workers who have direct experience with mental health crisis response in the community and with the police. The twenty participants in the study were men and women working in the mental health field, and of various backgrounds, licensures, and ages.

The study found …


Does Watching Videos With Natural Scenery Restore Attentional Resources? A Critical Examination Through A Pre-Registered Within-Subject Experiment, Andree HARTANTO, Nicole Lee Anne TEO, Verity Y. Q. LUA, Keith TAY, Nicole R. Y. CHEN, Nadyanna M. MAJEED 2023 Singapore Management University

Does Watching Videos With Natural Scenery Restore Attentional Resources? A Critical Examination Through A Pre-Registered Within-Subject Experiment, Andree Hartanto, Nicole Lee Anne Teo, Verity Y. Q. Lua, Keith Tay, Nicole R. Y. Chen, Nadyanna M. Majeed

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Existing studies have shown that direct exposure to a real nature environment has a restorative effect on attentional resources after a mentally fatiguing task. However, it remains unclear whether virtual nature simulations can serve as a substitute for real nature experienced in the outdoors to restore executive attention. Given the mixed findings in the literature, the present study sought to examine if viewing videos with natural scenery (vs. a control with urban scenery) restores participants’ working memory capacity – measured by an operation span task – in a high-powered pre-registered within-subject experimental study. Overall, our within-subject experiment did not find …


Multiple Approaches To Examining Gender Norms In Romantic Relationships, Carrie Underwood 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Multiple Approaches To Examining Gender Norms In Romantic Relationships, Carrie Underwood

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Romantic relationships are essential to the human experience, and gender stereotypes are so ingrained they can be automatic. In this dissertation, I address three empirical questions through both quantitative and qualitative research methods, all of which contribute to the growing body of literature on gender norms and romantic relationships. In Chapter 2, I present a mixed-methods study that examines how heterosexual men reason about benevolent sexism. Results revealed themes of equality in the workplace and men’s roles as providers. In Chapter 4 I implemented a two-study research design to understand how heterosexual women and men reason about troubled romantic relationships. …


Food Related Intrusive Thoughts: A Pilot Study, Hoor Ul Ain 2023 University of Richmond

Food Related Intrusive Thoughts: A Pilot Study, Hoor Ul Ain

Honors Theses

Food related intrusive thoughts (FRITs), a type of intrusive thoughts, might be associated with greater frequency of food intake, greater anxiety and distress, and negative affect in general. However, little is known about the experience of FRITs in the moment. I hypothesized that (1) momentary food related intrusive thoughts or FRITs would be positively related to momentary negative affect and (2) that time since eating will moderate this relationship such that people with more time since eating will show a stronger positive relationship between FRITs and negative affect. These relationships were not found to be significant; however, there was a …


Trait Sadism In Bdsm Practitioners And Non-Practitioners, Marley Russell 2023 University of New Mexico

Trait Sadism In Bdsm Practitioners And Non-Practitioners, Marley Russell

Psychology ETDs

Sadism is an elusive construct within psychology. Multiple types are studied without clear psychometric or theoretical distinctions, and operationalizations of these respective sub-constructs lack validity. This study explores the empirical distinction between two sadism types: consensual sexual sadism (i.e. in the context of BDSM) and trait sadism. Trait sadism is widely synonymized with “everyday sadism”, but here conceptualized as a higher-order construct encompassing both everyday and a novel “prosocial sadism”. I develop and pilot the BDSM Identities and Behaviors (BIB) checklist in a sample of BDSM practitioners. I then compare those practitioners to non-practitioners on trait sadism and dark triad …


Academic Motivation In College Students: A Comparison Of Majors, Seth Tackett, Cassidy M. Tackett, Janelle McDaniel, Krista Nelson 2023 University of Louisiana Monroe

Academic Motivation In College Students: A Comparison Of Majors, Seth Tackett, Cassidy M. Tackett, Janelle Mcdaniel, Krista Nelson

Multidisciplinary Psychology: A Journal of Collaboration

Motivation provides a student with a way to complete necessary tasks. Academic motivation is a form of motivation that applies to academic challenges that a student will face while in school. These challenges can demand the student use extrinsic or intrinsic motivation to complete the task. In the present study, the researchers sought to discover if the academic motivation was similar between students majoring in several different academic programs. For the study, samples of education, nursing, and psychology majors were obtained and each participant was given a battery of instruments that assessed their levels of academic motivation, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. …


The Effects Of Family Size And Birth Order On Students' Social Emotional And Cognitive Development, Mary Watson 2023 Bowling Green State University

The Effects Of Family Size And Birth Order On Students' Social Emotional And Cognitive Development, Mary Watson

Honors Projects

This project sought to analyze and understand the differences in student’s cognitive and social emotional development based on their number of siblings (also referred to as family size) and birth order. To accomplish this, a 130-question survey was created and emailed to approximately 125 teachers. 27 survey responses were received, which is a response rate of approximately 21.6%. The response data was categorized by only child, oldest child, youngest child, child with one or two siblings, child with three or four siblings, and child with five or more siblings. Though the responses were varied, the data showed that oldest children …


Using Factor Mixture Modeling To Counter Faking, Raul Corrêa Ferraz 2023 University of South Carolina

Using Factor Mixture Modeling To Counter Faking, Raul Corrêa Ferraz

Theses and Dissertations

Self-reports (SRs) of typical behavior are often the only existing feasible method to gather data on important drivers of human performance. In applications such as personnel selection, SRs are vulnerable to intentional distortions, often referred to as faking. A review of the literature suggests that so far, the methods proposed to address faking are unsatisfactory. In a recent breakthrough, Pavlov et al. (2019) showed that high-stakes scale scores are best modeled as a function of a) propensity to fake, b) honest scores, and c) the interaction of these two terms. Pavlov et al. did not, however, propose any method to …


What's Your Biggest Secret?, Emely M. Oviedo, Sydney B. Snapp, George Kazanecki 2023 Governors State University

What's Your Biggest Secret?, Emely M. Oviedo, Sydney B. Snapp, George Kazanecki

Research Days

Initial study (e.g., Kahneman & Tversky, (1982) has indicated that failed actions (i.e., switches that result in negative outcomes) evoke more regret than inactions (i.e., non-switches resulting in negative outcomes), a vigorous finding in the regret literature. Subsequent work, however, revealed that individuals report more inaction regrets than action regrets (e.g., Gilovich & Medvec, 1994). The current research examines whether regret stemming from actions versus inactions are moderated by one’s attachment style. Attachment can be both crucial when it comes to decision making and one’s ability to mitigate the negative effects following a decision. Participants will be asked to complete …


The Association Between Vigorous Physical Activity And Alcohol Use, Christina James, Emily Junkin, Cathy Lau-Barraco 2023 Old Dominion University

The Association Between Vigorous Physical Activity And Alcohol Use, Christina James, Emily Junkin, Cathy Lau-Barraco

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Evidence supports a positive association between excessive exercise and alcohol use among young adults. Past research has looked at the effects of medium-intensity physical activity regarding alcohol use prevention among college students, suggesting a positive linear association between these two variables. However, prior research has primarily focused on men. Thus, questions regarding health-compromising behaviors, such as excessive drinking and exercise among women, remain to be investigated. Further, questions have been raised concerning the pattern of association between vigorous physical activity and alcohol use among men versus women. The present study aims to replicate prior research by evaluating (1) the association …


Chatgpt As Metamorphosis Designer For The Future Of Artificial Intelligence (Ai): A Conceptual Investigation, Amarjit Kumar Singh (Library Assistant), Dr. Pankaj Mathur (Deputy Librarian) 2023 Central University of South Bihar, Panchanpur, Gaya, Bihar

Chatgpt As Metamorphosis Designer For The Future Of Artificial Intelligence (Ai): A Conceptual Investigation, Amarjit Kumar Singh (Library Assistant), Dr. Pankaj Mathur (Deputy Librarian)

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to explore ChatGPT’s potential as an innovative designer tool for the future development of artificial intelligence. Specifically, this conceptual investigation aims to analyze ChatGPT’s capabilities as a tool for designing and developing near about human intelligent systems for futuristic used and developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Also with the helps of this paper, researchers are analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of ChatGPT as a tool, and identify possible areas for improvement in its development and implementation. This investigation focused on the various features and functions of ChatGPT that …


The Implications Of Sexual Assault Awareness On Sexual Overperception Bias, Zach Buckner 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Implications Of Sexual Assault Awareness On Sexual Overperception Bias, Zach Buckner

Master's Theses

Heterogeneity has recently emerged in research investigating men’s overperceptions of women’s sexual receptivity, namely that such overperceptions are less robust than previously considered. Various social movements (e.g., #MeToo) could be a modern-day contextual factor that has reduced men’s tendency toward overperception. In this study, participants viewed hypothetical information regarding sexual assault perpetration committed by men or women (or control information) before rating opposite-sex targets on perceived sexual interest in them and reporting individual differences in just and dangerous world. The results indicate that individuals who hold stronger beliefs in an unjust world are more sensitive to perceived threats from potential …


Anxiety Disorders And Executive Functions: A Three-Level Meta-Analysis Of Reaction Time And Accuracy, Nadyanna M. MAJEED, Yi Jing CHUA, Meenakshi KOTHARI, Manmeet KAUR, Frosch Y. X. QUEK, Matthew H. S. NG, Wee Qin NG, Andree HARTANTO 2023 Singapore Management University

Anxiety Disorders And Executive Functions: A Three-Level Meta-Analysis Of Reaction Time And Accuracy, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Yi Jing Chua, Meenakshi Kothari, Manmeet Kaur, Frosch Y. X. Quek, Matthew H. S. Ng, Wee Qin Ng, Andree Hartanto

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Anxiety disorders, one of the most common classes of psychological disorders, have been shown to result in a decreased quality of life. Although some research suggests that anxiety disorders are linked to impairments in executive functioning, the inconsistency in the current literature yields an unclear conclusion on the relationship between the two. The current meta-analysis systematically investigated 55 records (N = 4601; kReactionTime = 44, kAccuracy = 79) that compared various groups with anxiety disorders to healthy controls on executive function tasks. Overall, our meta-analysis showed that individuals with anxiety disorders exhibited significant deficits in performance efficiency (reaction times) on …


Insights Into Accuracy Of Social Scientists' Forecasts Of Societal Change, Igor GROSSMA, Andree HARTANTO, Nadyanna M. MAJEED, et al See comments for full list of authors 2023 University of Waterloo

Insights Into Accuracy Of Social Scientists' Forecasts Of Societal Change, Igor Grossma, Andree Hartanto, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Et Al See Comments For Full List Of Authors

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

How well can social scientists predict societal change, and what processes underlie their predictions? To answer these questions, we ran two forecasting tournaments testing accuracy of predictions of societal change in domains commonly studied in the social sciences: ideological preferences, political polarization, life satisfaction, sentiment on social media, and gender-career and racial bias. Following provision of historical trend data on the domain, social scientists submitted pre-registered monthly forecasts for a year (Tournament 1; N=86 teams/359 forecasts), with an opportunity to update forecasts based on new data six months later (Tournament 2; N=120 teams/546 forecasts). Benchmarking forecasting accuracy revealed that social …


Gender And Deception: Moral Perceptions And Legal Responses, Gregory Klass, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan 2023 Georgetown University Law Center

Gender And Deception: Moral Perceptions And Legal Responses, Gregory Klass, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Decades of social science research has shown that the identity of the parties in a legal action can affect case outcomes. Parties’ race, gender, class, and age all affect decisions of prosecutors, judges, juries, and other actors in a criminal prosecution or civil litigation. Less studied has been how identity might affect other forms of legal regulation. This Essay begins to explore perceptions of deceptive behavior—i.e., how wrongful it is, and the extent to which it should be regulated or punished—and the relationship of those perceptions to the gender of the actors. We hypothesize that ordinary people tend to perceive …


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