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More Than Just Virtual Communication: Examining Canadian Volunteers’ Virtual Contact Experiences With Refugees, Maria Besselink 2022 The University of Western Ontario

More Than Just Virtual Communication: Examining Canadian Volunteers’ Virtual Contact Experiences With Refugees, Maria Besselink

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canada plays a key role in addressing the ‘global refugee crisis’ as it accepts more refugees per capita than any other country. Although Canadians increasingly view support for immigration and multiculturalism as integral components of their national identity, the number of immigrants and refugees Canada accepts yearly is an increasingly polarized issue. In line with the Intergroup Contact Hypothesis, the current study investigated how Canadian volunteers’ repeated virtual contact experiences with refugees affected their generalized attitudes towards refugees over time. Our findings did not suggest that the quality and quantity of participants’ virtual contact experiences affected their attitudes. The findings …


Level Up: Examining The Effects Of Sexualized Video Game Characters, Sarah D. Lethbridge 2022 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Level Up: Examining The Effects Of Sexualized Video Game Characters, Sarah D. Lethbridge

Selected Honors Theses

Characters in video games, especially female characters, are often designed or depicted to be sexually attractive. These characters are sexualized by exaggerated body proportions, revealing clothing, and behavior. There are a variety of methods by which players could be impacted by these sexualized characters, including the mere exposure effect, Proteus effect, and avatar identification. The increase of video game usage and sales in recent years, specifically among the COVID-19 pandemic, brings a greater need to understand the effects of these video games. Little research currently exists on the topic, and often provides conflicting data. The current study enlisted volunteers to …


Impact Of Number Of Alternatives And Spatial Arrangement On Decoy Effects, Jacob M. Stanley 2022 University of South Carolina

Impact Of Number Of Alternatives And Spatial Arrangement On Decoy Effects, Jacob M. Stanley

Theses and Dissertations

The way in which people make decisions is largely guided by the context of the choice set. Choice sets that contain decoy alternatives can result in context effects that violate rational principles of decision making. Most studies on contextual choice manipulate preference among two alternatives in the context of a decoy using three option choice sets. However, many real-world decisions are made among choice sets with many more than three alternatives, such as in online shopping. We tested for attraction and compromise decoy effects in choice sets with varying numbers of alternatives by using a within-subjects preferential grocery shopping task. …


Testing Models Of Context-Dependent Outcome Encoding In Reinforcement Learning, William M. Hayes IV 2022 University of South Carolina

Testing Models Of Context-Dependent Outcome Encoding In Reinforcement Learning, William M. Hayes Iv

Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies of reinforcement learning (RL) have established that choice outcomes are encoded in a context-dependent fashion. Several computational models have been proposed to explain context-dependent encoding, including reference point centering and range adaptation models. The former assumes that outcomes are centered around a running estimate of the average reward in each choice context, while the latter assumes that outcomes are compared to the minimum reward and then scaled by an estimate of the range of outcomes in each choice context. However, there are other computational mechanisms that can explain context dependence in RL. In the present study, a frequency …


Material World: The Effects Of Meditation Content On Materialistic Values, Azalia White, Katie Young, Hannah Wright, Nicole Walheim, Samantha Urban 2022 Belmont University

Material World: The Effects Of Meditation Content On Materialistic Values, Azalia White, Katie Young, Hannah Wright, Nicole Walheim, Samantha Urban

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

In the twenty-first century, Western cultures are highly materialistic and defined by consumeristic goals to garner as much “stuff” as possible (Berger, 2015). This constant pursuit has demonstrable adverse effects on personal and social well being (Bahl et al., 2016; Wang, et al., 2017), while overconsumption also has devastating impacts on the global environment. Previous studies found a negative relationship between levels of mindfulness and levels of materialism (Nagpaul & Pang, 2015; Watson, 2019), indicating the potential for mindfulness to combat otherwise materialistic behaviors. Furthermore, previous research demonstrated gratitude interventions led to lower scores on materialism (Chaplin, et al., 2018), …


The Impact Of Mindfulness Practices In Teachers, Shawn M. Martin Hettinga 2022 Arkansas Tech University

The Impact Of Mindfulness Practices In Teachers, Shawn M. Martin Hettinga

ATU Theses and Dissertations 2021 - Present

Mindfulness training has been identified as a promising means for cultivating social and emotional competencies and reducing stress. The purpose of the quantitative pre-post study using convenience sampling of educators in a rural K-12 in the Arkansas River Valley was to examine whether teachers’ participation in mindfulness activities were associated with changes in levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction. The study used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and measured the responses from novice (0-3 years) and experienced (4+ years) teachers. The findings revealed that there was no difference between the …


Toxic Effect Of Fear Of Losing Out On Self-Esteem: A Moderated Mediation Model Of Conformity And Need For Cognitive Closure In Singapore, Sheila Xi Rui WEE, Chi-ying CHENG, Haelim CHOI, Ciping GOH 2022 Singapore Management University

Toxic Effect Of Fear Of Losing Out On Self-Esteem: A Moderated Mediation Model Of Conformity And Need For Cognitive Closure In Singapore, Sheila Xi Rui Wee, Chi-Ying Cheng, Haelim Choi, Ciping Goh

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Kiasu (fear of losing out, FoLO) is considered the single most defining adjective that captures Singapore identity, and it is well-observed in other Asian cultures as well. Despite the widespread endorsement of kiasu in Singapore, there is limited empirical research on the theoretical conception of kiasu as a psychological construct. To empirically investigate kiasu, we validated the construct and measurement of the FoLO mindset in Study 1. In Study 2, we hypothesized and found a negative association between FoLO and Singaporeans’ self-esteem, which was mediated by a higher tendency of conformity. In addition, we hypothesized and found that individuals’ need …


Healing Racial Injustice With Mindfulness Research, Training, & Practice, Danielle "Danae" Laura 2022 Lesley University

Healing Racial Injustice With Mindfulness Research, Training, & Practice, Danielle "Danae" Laura

Mindfulness Studies Theses

This thesis offers a collection of authors and studies in support of improved research, training, and practice connecting mindfulness with racial justice through intergroup applications. The paper identifies barriers at work (e.g., colorblindness, spiritual bypass, white fragility, and implicit bias) in contemplative science, Western Buddhist communities, and secular mindfulness centers, which block the sizeable contributions possible in studying the intergroup application of mindfulness practice—specifically Lovingkindness Meditation, among others—when used as an intervention with anti-racist aims. Through secondary qualitative research, I reviewed six key works from Black authors on mindfulness and race, as well as six sample studies on the prosocial …


Unresolved Issues Of Behavioral Analysis In Invertebrates, Charles I. Abramson, Paco Calvo 2022 Oklahoma State University - Main Campus

Unresolved Issues Of Behavioral Analysis In Invertebrates, Charles I. Abramson, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience

Crump et al. (2022) provide a framework for determining the presence of sentience in organisms. Their target article is interesting and thought-provoking, but it does not consider the many unresolved issues related to behavioral analysis – especially when it concerns invertebrates. We feel that no real progress can be made until such fundamental issues as the need for a consistent definition of conditioning phenomena, the lack of a generally accepted behavioral taxonomy, and the use of cognitive terms to explain invertebrate behavior are examined critically.


The Program To Reduce Implicit Bias In Carroll Hospital Center Using The Implicit Association Test, Katherine E. Traynor 2022 Arcadia University

The Program To Reduce Implicit Bias In Carroll Hospital Center Using The Implicit Association Test, Katherine E. Traynor

Capstone Showcase

Natural brain processes make all individuals susceptible to unconscious bias; however, stressful, fearful, or anger-evoking situations as well as the negative influence of media and social surroundings increase the risk of holding obstructive bias, and there is a greater risk of being negatively impacted by this phenomenon when belonging to a minority population (Rose & Flores, 2020). As a result, high rates of infant mortality (10.2 deaths per 1,000 live births for the Non-Hispanic Black population compared to 4.1 in the White population) and cardiovascular related diseases (190.0 cases per 1,000 in the Non-Hispanic Black population compared to 161.3 in …


Social Media Engagement With Transgender Fertility Content, Kajal Verma, Benette K. Sagun, Melody Rasouli, Cindy M. Duke 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Social Media Engagement With Transgender Fertility Content, Kajal Verma, Benette K. Sagun, Melody Rasouli, Cindy M. Duke

Obstetrics & Gynecology Faculty Publications

Objective: To identify transgender fertility content with the highest online engagement on social media, determine its accuracy and quality, and see how this has changed over a 2-year period. Design: BuzzSumo, a content research tool, was used to identify the top 10 article links related to transgender fertility most interacted with on the social media platforms of Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Reddit. We compared article links from June 2019 to June 2020 and from June 2020 to June 2021. The articles were categorized as accurate or misleading based on the references cited and current research. A qualitative analysis was performed …


The Impacts Of Learning 2 Breathe On Rumination, Adessa Flack 2022 West Chester University

The Impacts Of Learning 2 Breathe On Rumination, Adessa Flack

West Chester University Doctoral Projects

The present study examined the impact of Learning2Breathe (L2B), a mindfulness-based stress reduction program developed for use with adolescents on rumination. The program was applied to rumination in college-age men and women. Our experiment utilized a quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 50 undergraduate students that were placed in either the experimental or control group. Data was collected pretest and posttest through a variety of measures including the Rumination Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ) which consisted of a rumination and reflection subscale, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). A two-way mixed ANOVA design was used to analyze data. There was no …


Association Of Anxiety And Executive Function With Attendance And Fitness Improvement In Cardiac Rehabilitation, William A. Middleton 2022 University of Vermont

Association Of Anxiety And Executive Function With Attendance And Fitness Improvement In Cardiac Rehabilitation, William A. Middleton

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Psychological factors such as anxiety and executive function (EF) may impact patient health outcomes from cardiac rehabilitation (CR). High anxiety and low executive function could reduce attendance or impede fitness improvements yielded from CR. Other research on exercise performance suggests, in certain circumstances, moderate levels of anxiety can be beneficial towards fitness gains. The current study evaluated the associations of anxiety and EF with attendance and fitness improvement in CR through retrospective analyses of two datasets from studies conducted at the University of Vermont Medical Center CR program. One sample contained a representative sample of CR patients, and the other, …


Role Of Prior Knowledge In Timing Of Computer-Generated Feedback, Julie Faye Shirah 2022 University of Kentucky

Role Of Prior Knowledge In Timing Of Computer-Generated Feedback, Julie Faye Shirah

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Although often helpful, feedback sometimes has neutral or negative effects on learning (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). For example, Fyfe and colleagues have found that the effects of feedback timing are moderated by students’ prior knowledge such that feedback has been useful for students with low prior knowledge, but has mixed effects on students with high prior knowledge (e.g., Fyfe et al., 2012; Fyfe, 2016). In this study, I extended Fyfe’s work by re-conceptualizing prior knowledge as knowledge of more familiar foundational concepts a learner brings to a learning task (Sidney & Alibali, 2017), which can be …


The Importance Of Sleep For Flexibly Coping With Daily Stress, Calissa Leslie-Miller 2022 William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

The Importance Of Sleep For Flexibly Coping With Daily Stress, Calissa Leslie-Miller

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Coping flexibility, the ability to match coping strategy choice to the demands of a situation, has been found to diminish the effects of daily stress. Despite the importance of high levels of coping flexibility, little research has explored factors that can predict one’s ability to demonstrate coping flexibility. One promising avenue for such research is the role of sleep. This research aims to explore the importance of sleep as a predictor of daily coping flexibility across two studies. Study one consists of one hundred and fifty college student participants who were recruited in the Spring 2021 semester at the College …


The Effect Of Email Communications On Professor-Student Rapport, Academic Self-Efficacy, Resiliency, Motivation, And Student-Rapport, David J. Heim 2022 Missouri State University

The Effect Of Email Communications On Professor-Student Rapport, Academic Self-Efficacy, Resiliency, Motivation, And Student-Rapport, David J. Heim

MSU Graduate Theses

Student retention and success rates are an increasing concern among collegiate administrators and educators. This study examined the influence of a college instructor’s email communications on professor-student rapport, student academic self-efficacy, resilience, motivation, and success. Researchers hypothesized that the student participants who received the encouraging email communications from their professor would demonstrate higher levels of professor-student rapport, higher levels of academic self-efficacy, resiliency, and success compared to the students who receive standard email communications from their professor. Five scales were utilized in this study including Professor-Student Rapport Scale, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30), Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), …


Data Quality And Study Compliance Among College Students Across 2 Recruitment Sources: Two Study Investigation, Abby L. Braitman, Megan Strowger, Jennifer L. Shipley, Jordan Ortman, Rachel I. MacIntyre, Elizabeth A. Bauer 2022 Old Dominion University

Data Quality And Study Compliance Among College Students Across 2 Recruitment Sources: Two Study Investigation, Abby L. Braitman, Megan Strowger, Jennifer L. Shipley, Jordan Ortman, Rachel I. Macintyre, Elizabeth A. Bauer

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: Models of satisficing suggest that study participants may not fully process survey items and provide accurate responses when survey burden is higher and when participant motivation is lower. Participants who do not fully process survey instructions can reduce a study’s power and hinder generalizability. Common concerns among researchers using self-report measures are data quality and participant compliance. Similarly, attrition can hurt the power and generalizability of a study.

Objective: Given that college students comprise most samples in psychological studies, especially examinations of student issues and psychological health, it is critical to understand how college student recruitment sources impact data …


Covid-19 Vaccine Related Anxiety Partially Mediates The Association Between Covid-19 Related Anxiety And Student Adjustment To College During The Pandemic, Hanh Nguyen 2022 CUNY City College

Covid-19 Vaccine Related Anxiety Partially Mediates The Association Between Covid-19 Related Anxiety And Student Adjustment To College During The Pandemic, Hanh Nguyen

Dissertations and Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic caused severe disruptions to the education of millions of college students, who were forced to adapt to sudden changes in living and learning environments. In this study, we sought to investigate two different dimensions of anxiety that were specific to the pandemic – COVID-19 related anxiety and COVID-19 vaccine anxiety – hoping to pinpoint the relationship between these two variables and students’ ability to adapt to college. Specifically, using cross sectional survey data during three semester waves (Spring 2021, Fall 2021, and Spring 2022) we hypothesized (1) a decreasing trend across time in both COVID-19 related anxiety …


Click-Enter-Send: The Relationship Experiences Of People Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired In Text-Based Workspaces, Kelly Bleach 2022 Antioch University - PhD Program in Leadership and Change

Click-Enter-Send: The Relationship Experiences Of People Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired In Text-Based Workspaces, Kelly Bleach

Antioch University Full-Text Dissertations & Theses

Companies have increasingly turned to text-based communications to recruit, hire, and manage a distributed remote workforce. For people who are blind or visually impaired, this movement presents both challenges and opportunities for attaining and retaining employment. Does the potential isolation of telework have a negative effect on workplace relationships for people who are blind or visually impaired? Does participation in text-based workspaces mitigate stereotypes and stigmatization experienced by people with visible disabilities? Using a constructivist grounded theory framework, this study explored how people who are blind or visually impaired experience relationships in text-based workspaces. Building and maintaining social connections and …


The Relationship Between Social Media Use And Depression And Anxiety Symptoms During Covid-19, Tene'sha L. Crews, Christina Sheerin 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Relationship Between Social Media Use And Depression And Anxiety Symptoms During Covid-19, Tene'sha L. Crews, Christina Sheerin

Undergraduate Research Posters

The rise of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a global surge in exposure to disaster and crisis-related media. Increases in poor mental health outcomes such as anxiety and depression, are associated with increased exposure to such media content (Abbas et al., 2021; Riehm et al., 2020; Zhao & Zhou, 2020). In recent years, social media has become one of the most widely used sources for news; approximately 48% of adult Americans receive their news from social media (Pew Research Center, 2021). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increase in social media use due to social distancing and …


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