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In Covid-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety With Little-To-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence From 84 Countries, Charles A. DORISON, et. al., Andree HARTANTO 2022 Singapore Management University

In Covid-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety With Little-To-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence From 84 Countries, Charles A. Dorison, Et. Al., Andree Hartanto

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in terms of potential losses (e.g., “If you do not practice these steps, you can endanger yourself and others”) or potential gains (e.g., “If you practice these steps, you can protect yourself and others”)? Collecting data in 48 languages from 15,929 participants in 84 countries, we experimentally tested the effects of message …


The Differential Effects Of Acoustic Discriminations On Operant Learning Performance And Neurogenesis In Male And Female Zebra Finches, Kristena L. Newman 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Differential Effects Of Acoustic Discriminations On Operant Learning Performance And Neurogenesis In Male And Female Zebra Finches, Kristena L. Newman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adult neurogenesis, the creation of new neurons, occurs throughout the lifespan in most organisms. However, though neuronal proliferation occurs daily, most of these neurons do not survive to become incorporated into preexisting neural circuitry and become fully functioning neurons. In the mammalian brain, adult neurogenesis occurs within the hippocampus, a brain region known to be important in learning and memory. In rats, successful acquisition of certain learning tasks increased new neuron numbers when the learning was sufficiently challenging (Curlik and Shors, 2011). It has also been demonstrated that a spatial discrimination task requires new neurons when the discrimination is more …


Multisensory Integration In Children With Adhd: A Behavioural Investigation, Bernice Leung 2022 Western University

Multisensory Integration In Children With Adhd: A Behavioural Investigation, Bernice Leung

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Sensory processing difficulties are often reported in individuals with ADHD. Multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the ability to integrate multiple sensory inputs into a single consistent perceptual experience. The purpose of this project is to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD have altered multisensory integration and multisensory temporal processing, as compared to typically developing (TD) youth.


Examining The Impact Of Financial Stress On Affect And Eating Behaviors, Ellen Hunt Steele 2022 Mississippi State University

Examining The Impact Of Financial Stress On Affect And Eating Behaviors, Ellen Hunt Steele

Theses and Dissertations

Economic pressure and concomitant financial stress have been associated with mental and physical health problems, conflict, and poorer education and employment outcomes. Moreover, financial stress can be seen in specific hardships (e.g., food insecurity) and lead to maladaptive attempts to regulate emotions stemming from financial stressors. Women may be more vulnerable to consequences of food insecurity and attempts to regulate emotions with eating than men. Thus, the current study examined the impact of a randomized financial stress induction on affect and snack food choice while accounting for the influence of food insecurity and gender. Participants included 269 validly responding individuals. …


Hurting To Helping: Regret As A Potential Motivator Of Helping Behavior, Chandler Ann Findley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hurting To Helping: Regret As A Potential Motivator Of Helping Behavior, Chandler Ann Findley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has suggested that emotions can influence people’s motivation to engage in prosocial behaviors. Even negatively-valenced emotions, like sadness, guilt, and shame, have been shown to motivate prosocial behaviors. Exploratory analyses of a previous study indicated that regret may also motivate increased prosocial intentions, but no research has been published to experimentally test whether feelings of regret may motivate prosocial behaviors. Therefore, the present research seeks to experimentally manipulate participants’ current emotional state to empirically examine whether regret motivates greater helping behavior than other, similar negative emotions that have already been demonstrated to motivate prosocial behaviors in humans. These …


The Effects Of Flood Warning Information On Driver Decisions In A Driving Simulator Scenario, Katherine Rose Garcia 2022 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Flood Warning Information On Driver Decisions In A Driving Simulator Scenario, Katherine Rose Garcia

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Flood warnings are a type of risk communication that alerts the public of potential floods. Flood warnings can be communicated through mobile devices and should convey enough information to keep the user safe during a flood situation. However, the amount of detail included in the warning, such as the depth of the flood, may vary. The purpose of this study was to: (a) extend our prior research on flood warnings by recreating the written driving scenarios into the driving simulator; (b) deepen the understanding of human decision-making in risky situations; and (c) investigate how to best inform drivers of floods …


Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives. Individuals can differ in their strategic approach in learning the same categorization task, researchers have sought to study what specific stable individual differences traits can help explain these differences. This dissertation first surveyed extant literature on the impact of trait differences on category learning then examined the effect of temperament traits on these dependent variables. Chapter 2 (scoping review): This scoping review synthesized the past literature that examined the relationship between sources of stable individual differences and category learning performance and strategy use outcomes. Five database platforms were searched to identify relevant articles, cross-referencing was also performed. Sixty-nine studies …


Attitudes Of The Colleges Of Education Students Towards Individuals With Mobility Disabilities In Jordan, Khalid Mohammed Al Jundiu 2022 Association of Arab Universities

Attitudes Of The Colleges Of Education Students Towards Individuals With Mobility Disabilities In Jordan, Khalid Mohammed Al Jundiu

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

This descriptive study aimed to survey the attitudes of students at the College of Education towards individuals with motor disabilities in Jordan, in order to benefit from it in knowing the extent of the need for programs to change negative attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. The population of the current study consists of all Jordanian public universities for the first semester of the academic year 2020/2021. The study sample consisted of (712) male and female students. It was randomly selected from seven public universities Jordan. The researcher built a scale to achieve the aims of the study. The researcher used …


Selfies And The Self: The Influence Of Instagram Posting On Self And Cognition, Giovanni Castillo 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Selfies And The Self: The Influence Of Instagram Posting On Self And Cognition, Giovanni Castillo

Theses

Research on Social Networking Sites (SNS) has shown a variety of both beneficial and detrimental psychological and cognitive outcomes associated with high frequency usage. We conducted an online study consisting of a series of questionnaires and a working memory task to explore the relationship between Instagram use intensity and cognition. The present study first investigated the relationship between Instagram (IG) use intensity, rumination, and cognitive failures. We randomly assigned participants into a selfie-posting, selfie-sending, or likes/comments reporting condition to determine whether selfie-posting behavior affects working memory performance. While we did not find significant associations between IG use intensity, rumination, and …


Mementos And The Endowment Effect, Charlene K. Chu, Suzanne B. Shu 2022 Chapman University

Mementos And The Endowment Effect, Charlene K. Chu, Suzanne B. Shu

Business Faculty Articles and Research

This research provides evidence for a new moderator of the endowment effect: having a memento of the endowed object. Three studies adapting classic endowment effect paradigms and using a variety of endowment objects and mementos demonstrate that having a memento of an endowment increases willingness to trade the endowment and decreases selling prices for the endowment. We provide evidence that mementos attenuate the endowment effect regardless of whether the memento is a separate small gain when facing the loss of the endowment or a small part of the original endowment that is kept. Examining mementos in context of the endowment …


The Effects Of Overshadowing In Drosophila Melanogaster With Experimentally Evolved Preference, Jill Lee 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

The Effects Of Overshadowing In Drosophila Melanogaster With Experimentally Evolved Preference, Jill Lee

Theses

As seen in decades of psychology research, preferences play a major role in driving the decision-making process in both humans and animals. Researchers have advocated for using the technique of experimental evolution as a way to address some of the foundational questions on preferences. These preferences can also affect what is later learned and how well new experiences are learned. Salience is usually mentioned as an important component of what could influence preferences. Animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, that lay eggs without any additional maternal or paternal care, it is important to be selective when deciding where to lay …


Simulated Owl Predation During Foraging Differentially Alters Choice And Fear Behavior Between Sex In Rats, Meghan M. Olsen 2022 Seattle Pacific University

Simulated Owl Predation During Foraging Differentially Alters Choice And Fear Behavior Between Sex In Rats, Meghan M. Olsen

Research Psychology Theses

Existing research on the predator cue circuit has indicated there are observed differences between sexes of animals either directly or indirectly exposed to a predator stimulus. Exposure increases predator directed attention, and overrides other motivational systems (hunger, pain, reproductive behavior). Little research has explored whether exposure to predation is associated with differential responses to non-predator related decision-making across a variety of tasks. Therefore, understanding the prioritization of motivational states when a predator stressor is present can aid in understanding sex differences in these processes in both adaptative and maladaptive conditions. To determine how repeated exposure to a predator stressor differentially …


The Influence Of Parental Psychological Control On Offspring Anxiety Symptomatology: A Cognitive Model, Yu Ping WONG 2022 Singapore Management University

The Influence Of Parental Psychological Control On Offspring Anxiety Symptomatology: A Cognitive Model, Yu Ping Wong

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

Parental control has often been purported to be a risk factor for offspring anxiety. Recent studies however, identify that a particular dimension of control - parental psychological control - is an especially important contributor to anxiety. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we seek to bridge this gap in the literature by examining whether a cognitive mechanism underlies this relationship. Drawing on Beck's model of emotional disorders, we propose that control- related beliefs and negative automatic thoughts would serially mediate the influence of psychological control on anxiety symptoms. Moreover, we sought to examine the …


Cognitive Consequences Of Covid-19 Infection And Quarantine-Induced Social Isolation: Hope For The Young And Mildly Infected, Kristin Nickole Kirchner 2022 University of South Carolina

Cognitive Consequences Of Covid-19 Infection And Quarantine-Induced Social Isolation: Hope For The Young And Mildly Infected, Kristin Nickole Kirchner

Theses and Dissertations

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 539 million individuals worldwide, and initial research supports the possibility that COVID-19 may damage the central nervous system either directly or indirectly. Neurological signs and noted cognitive deficits observed in even mildly infected patients are a cause for concern for those infected by COVID-19; the effect of social isolation on the central nervous system is also of interest. The present study sought to determine the extent of these potential cognitive deficits in a young and mildly infected sample of college students. Participants completed an extensive survey assessing their experience with COVID-19 and any …


Does Trait Self-Esteem Serve As A Resilience Factor In Maintaining Affective Well-Being? Findings From Daily Diary Studies In Singapore And The United States, Matthew H. S. NG, Verity Y. Q. LUA, Nadyanna M. MAJEED, Andree HARTANTO 2022 Singapore Management University

Does Trait Self-Esteem Serve As A Resilience Factor In Maintaining Affective Well-Being? Findings From Daily Diary Studies In Singapore And The United States, Matthew H. S. Ng, Verity Y. Q. Lua, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Andree Hartanto

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Research suggests that self-esteem could be a protective factor in stressful or unfavorable situations. However, little research has been done on the buffering role of self-esteem in the context of daily stressors on affective reactivity. Three daily diary studies (of which two were conducted in Singapore and one in the United States) were carried out to examine this relationship. In all three studies, trait self-esteem was measured at baseline. Subsequently, daily assessment was conducted on exposure to daily stressors, and positive and negative affect for seven to eight days. Multilevel modeling showed that trait self-esteem did not moderate the relationship …


Sex Differences In Locomotor Activity And Behavioral Sensitization In Rats Administered Fentanyl, Jessica J. Lee, Nareen Sadik, Cameron Davidson PhD, Majd Yahya, Josie Zdun, Shane Perrine PhD 2022 Wayne State University

Sex Differences In Locomotor Activity And Behavioral Sensitization In Rats Administered Fentanyl, Jessica J. Lee, Nareen Sadik, Cameron Davidson Phd, Majd Yahya, Josie Zdun, Shane Perrine Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Opioid overdoses have continued to increase, and women have experienced a greater rate of increase than males. Preclinical studies demonstrate marked sex differences in addiction-related behaviors, with females being more vulnerable due to a potential role of estradiol. We sought to understand how the estrous cycle, as a proxy measure of estradiol, influences sex differences in the sensitizing effects of fentanyl. In this ongoing study, we used male and female rats to investigate potential sex effects of fentanyl (20µg/kg subcutaneously) administration for 14 days and a forced abstinence period of 13 days on behavioral sensitization via locomotor activity (LMA) following …


Comparing Crime Scene Trajectories: Sexual Versus Nonsexual Serial Homicides, Jonathan T. Dixon 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Comparing Crime Scene Trajectories: Sexual Versus Nonsexual Serial Homicides, Jonathan T. Dixon

Student Theses

When faced with a possible serial offender, crime linkage analysis is crucial in identifying which crime scenes belong to the same offender. Thus, when analyzing behavioral consistency to link crimes, it is essential to use a classification model that is empirically tested and is based on the type of crime being investigated. Several classification models examine patterns of consistency and change using a combination of thematic and behavioral subgroups; however, they are tested using sexual and nonsexual crime scenes, which some recent literature argues are two distinct types of homicide and should be examined separately. The present study tests the …


Analyzing The Variable Pain, Payton Ruediger, Ryan W. Carpenter, Melissa Nance 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Analyzing The Variable Pain, Payton Ruediger, Ryan W. Carpenter, Melissa Nance

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This presentation is a thorough analysis of participant physical pain and physical impairment within the given study. This data was conducted through an EMA study. The smartphone apps TigerAware and Qualtrics were used to give participants surveys throughout the course of ten days. The participants were undergraduate students at UMSL who received extra credit for participating in the study. Out of the 126 participants, 13 were male and 113 female. The surveys focused on comparing the relationship between alcohol usage and other variables. These surveys had questions relating to alcohol usage, marijuana usage, mood, pain, and questions about daily functioning. …


The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces, Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood 2022 Kennesaw State University

The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces, Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood

Faculty and Research Publications

Research in human-computer interaction (HCI) has shown inconsistencies in the relationship between users’ perception of usability and the quality of visual design in digital products. Research is lacking in the gaming domain for visual design in user interfaces on tablet screens. Despite extensive research on visual aesthetics and perceived usability, best practices offer limited guidance for game interfaces from a user-centered design perspective.

The objectives of this study are twofold: to employ a design-oriented methodology to create a real iOS tablet game app from start to finish using ideation, focus groups, iterative prototyping, usability testing, and empirically evaluating game participants’ …


Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic stress increases generalization of fear to non-threatening cues, a key symptom in numerous psychiatric mood disorders. However, the mechanisms through which stress impacts safety learning remain poorly understood. To probe the relationship between stress and safety learning, this dissertation employed multiple behaviors, in conjunction with in-vivo multisite physiology during explicit safety and fear discrimination learning. In Chapter 1, I outline the role of chronic stress in driving neurological adaptations that result in generalized fear and highlight how this occurs because of impaired safety cue encoding. In Chapter 2, I show that chronic stress in the form of social defeat …


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