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The Relation Of Therapist Behaviors To Treatment Engagement And Outcomes In Pcit, Kristine Gese BA 2021 University of San Diego

The Relation Of Therapist Behaviors To Treatment Engagement And Outcomes In Pcit, Kristine Gese Ba

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has proven to be a very effective treatment for child behavioral problems, however, PCIT does not benefit all families equally, presumably at least partly because therapists may not be equally effective in coaching their clients. Although researchers have proposed several dimensions of therapist coaching behaviors that are considered desirable, few of these have been empirically examined in relation to family engagement or child outcomes. Data from two clinical trials examining the effectiveness of culturally modified versions of PCIT (GANA and PersIn), were used to investigate which of several therapist coaching behaviors (brevity, positivity, consistency, accuracy, …


Factors Affecting Pubertal Timing And Perceptions Of Birth Control, Ashley L. Gomm 2021 Bridgewater State University

Factors Affecting Pubertal Timing And Perceptions Of Birth Control, Ashley L. Gomm

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Menarche is the occurrence of a first menstrual period in the female adolescent. The age of menarche has been decreasing over the past 150 years. While some factors have been identified, like increased body mass index (BMI), such factors alone cannot account for the overall decrease in age.

Due to the decreased age of menarche and as additional uses for oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been identified, it is becoming clear that females no longer use “birth control” or “oral contraceptives” primarily to prevent pregnancy, but instead for a myriad other reasons including “menstrual suppression.” Menstrual suppression is …


Qanon: The Effects Of Radical Ideology On Conspiracy Belief, Sam Andrus 2021 Chapman University

Qanon: The Effects Of Radical Ideology On Conspiracy Belief, Sam Andrus

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The study of conspiracy theories has existed for many decades, however, a new species of conspiracy, labeled QAnon, has surfaced in recent years - QAnon theories are directly tied to current radical politics and former President Donald Trump. My research will aim to explain how the outlandish and often racist beliefs of QAnon followers have come to be not only believed but have affected so many people that a terrorist attack on the United States Capitol occurred as a result. My research will include analysis of the Chapman Survey of American Fears which includes people on both sides of the …


Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips 2021 Cleveland State University

Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Personality research centered on the Big Five personality traits has heavily impacted our understanding in regards to what forces orient a person on a political spectrum. Examining how personality differences interact with political orientation, this research seeks to provide information on what makes someone either more or less likely to be liberal or conservative based on their temperament. In this paper, previous personality research is synthesized into one discussion, centered on what the effects of each trait are and how they impact political orientation, the heritability of personality, and what implications there are for such research in the realm of …


Better Together? Effects Of Dyadic Collaboration On Intertemporal Preference, Emily Edgington 2021 James Madison University

Better Together? Effects Of Dyadic Collaboration On Intertemporal Preference, Emily Edgington

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Abstract

Intertemporal choices have been researched extensively in the context of individual choices. However, empirical evidence is absent regarding intertemporal preferences when two individuals collaborate on a choice task. This study aimed to compare the rates of discounting under the condition of dyadic collaboration and individual decisions. Furthermore, this study examined the collaboration sessions in an online video conferencing platform. Results showed a strong, positive correlation between average individual discounting rates and corresponding dyad rates of discounting. The findings of this study should be considered when making intertemporal decisions.

Key Words: delay discounting, group decision-making, online collaboration


Hidden Links: Trait Anxiety And The Hostile Attribution Bias, Sarah Gracia 2021 Bridgewater State University

Hidden Links: Trait Anxiety And The Hostile Attribution Bias, Sarah Gracia

Honors Program Theses and Projects

The hostile attribution bias (HAB) is a tendency to interpret malevolent intentions when confronted by ambiguous actions of others. Much research has been conducted to examine the relationship between HAB and aggression, but little on HAB and other personality traits; further, comparatively little research has examined whether strategies like metacognition can reduce HAB. This project examines the relationship between HAB and trait anxiety and whether a metacognitive manipulation reduces HAB. In Study 1, participants filled out a survey questionnaire containing the Beck Anxiety Inventory to measure trait anxiety and both the W-SAP and the hostility section of the Aggression Questionnaire …


Decreases In The Frontal Cortical Areas Following A Developmental Disruption Model Of Schizophrenia, Anna Healy 2021 Bridgewater State University

Decreases In The Frontal Cortical Areas Following A Developmental Disruption Model Of Schizophrenia, Anna Healy

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Methylazoxmethanol Acetate (MAM) is a toxin that temporarily blocks mitosis in developing embryonic brains. Exposure in rats on embryonic day 17 (E17) selectively targets frontal and hippocampal regions of the brain and produces behavioral and anatomical effects strikingly similar to those seen in human patients with schizophrenia. While previous studies examining these induced neuroanatomical disruptions support E17 MAM exposure as an animal model of schizophrenia, the vast majority focused on male rats. However, there have been a dearth of studies specifically looking at female rats in this model. This is significant since there is evidence of sex differences in the …


Analysis Of A Rough-Toothed Dolphin (Steno Bredanensis) Introduction In A Human Care Setting, Lindsey Johnson 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Analysis Of A Rough-Toothed Dolphin (Steno Bredanensis) Introduction In A Human Care Setting, Lindsey Johnson

Dissertations

Rough-toothed dolphins are a rarely studied species of cetaceans found in temperate and tropical waters throughout the world. These dolphins live in fission-fusion societies and are highly social, swimming in tightly-packed and highly synchronized subgroups consisting of 2-10 individuals. The current study documents the introduction of a stranded calf into an existing population of six rough-toothed dolphins living in a human care setting. Specifically, recordings of vocal and non-vocal behaviors were analyzed across the four phases of the study: baseline, day of introduction, post-introduction, and follow-up. Whistles, a vocal signal associated with social contexts, increased from baseline to post-introduction phases …


Distress Tolerance As A Potential Target For Change: The Relationship Between Distress Tolerance, Craving, And Alcohol Consumption In A Lab-Based Experiment, Isabel F. Augur 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Distress Tolerance As A Potential Target For Change: The Relationship Between Distress Tolerance, Craving, And Alcohol Consumption In A Lab-Based Experiment, Isabel F. Augur

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Distress tolerance (DT) has recently been studied as a potential catalyst for the development ofalcohol use disorder (AUD). Research exploring the relationship between DT and craving is limited and has primarily focused on nicotine craving. Furthermore, there are no current studies examining the relationship between DT and alcohol consumption. This study was designed to fill this gap in the literature, which may shed light on a potentially important target for alcohol use treatment. Additionally, the role of mindfulness was explored in the context of the relationship between DT and alcohol craving and consumption, with the intention of expanding on the …


Facts From Fiction: Packaging Misinformation, Angel Ray Houts 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Facts From Fiction: Packaging Misinformation, Angel Ray Houts

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research established that readers learn both accurate and inaccurate information from fictional stories. The current study explored factors that might moderate the impact of misinformation. Participants read fictional stories that contain three assertions; the first two were labeled as set-up assertions, and the last were labeled as the critical assertion. First, there was a manipulation of plausibility of information within the stories by presenting either assertions with truthful information, assertions with small lies (plausible misinformation), or assertions with big lies (implausible misinformation). Second, there was manipulation of reliability of the fictional stories by presenting big lies or truthful information …


Disgust Versus Anger-Relevant Trauma Analogues: Associations With Affect And Disclosure Behavior, Teah-Marie Bynion 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Disgust Versus Anger-Relevant Trauma Analogues: Associations With Affect And Disclosure Behavior, Teah-Marie Bynion

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to high prevalence rates of sexual assault experienced by college-aged women, it remains important to consider factors associated with negative posttraumatic outcomes (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder). One factor consistently linked to negative outcomes following sexual assault is elevated peri- and posttraumatic disgust. Particularly, when such feelings are self-focused, peri- and posttraumatic disgust is linked with feelings of dirtiness (mental contamination). The current study extends this line of research to disclosure behavior. Disclosing a sexual assault to another person can be beneficial, however many survivors will never disclose. Theoretical accounts suggest that specific feelings associated with a sexual assault may …


Two Roads Diverged: An Alternative Perspective On The Easi Model, Nadhilla Velda MELIA 2021 Singapore Management University

Two Roads Diverged: An Alternative Perspective On The Easi Model, Nadhilla Velda Melia

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

Research on the interpersonal effect of anger expressions on others’ concessionary behaviour has found conflicting results about whether anger expressions increase or decrease concessionary behaviour. The Emotions as Social Information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009, 2014) proposed that these conflicting findings can be resolved by looking at inferential and affective processes. Specifically, anger expressions increase concessionary behaviour via inferential processes but decrease concessionary behaviour via affective processes. However, previous research has mainly focused on dominance-related inferences and reciprocal anger reactions. I propose that the relationship between anger expressions and concessionary behaviour is determined by the type of inferential and affective …


The Development And Evaluation Of Novel Da Transport Inhibitors And Their Effects On Effort-Related Motivation: A Review, Mukund Desibhatla 2021 University of Connecticut

The Development And Evaluation Of Novel Da Transport Inhibitors And Their Effects On Effort-Related Motivation: A Review, Mukund Desibhatla

Honors Scholar Theses

Depression is a debilitating disorder that can cause motivational deficits such as psychomotor retardation, anergia, apathy, and fatigue. Recent research indicates that these motivational deficits, and potential pathways of therapeutic intervention, can be studied in animal models involving rats and mice. Treatments with the VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine (TBZ) and cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) can create a low-effort bias and impair effort-related motivation (Nunes et al. 2013, 2014). A number of high-affinity DA transport inhibitors such as d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine can restore extracellular DA, albeit with the cost of undesirable effects such as high abuse liability. These observations have led researchers …


Identity-Specific Positive Psychology Intervention For Sexual Minorities: A Randomized Control Trial, Sarah Job 2021 East Tennessee State University

Identity-Specific Positive Psychology Intervention For Sexual Minorities: A Randomized Control Trial, Sarah Job

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sexual minorities experience mental and physical health disparities in comparison to heterosexual individuals due to minority stress (Branstrom et al., 2016; Kerridge et al., 2017; Meyer, 2003). Positive psychology interventions have improved mental and physical health (Antoine et al., 2018; Lambert D'raven et al., 2015), and therefore these interventions have potential to address health disparities. The current study tested an identity-specific intervention (n = 30) to a general positive psychology intervention (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30) among sexual minorities. This built on a recent pilot study which tested the efficacy of an …


Negative Urgency Predicts Maladaptive Coping Strategies, Alec Martin 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Negative Urgency Predicts Maladaptive Coping Strategies, Alec Martin

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Negative urgency is defined as the disposition to act rashly when under distress. This personality subtype is strongly tied to problematic alcohol and substance use, self-harming behaviors, and binge eating following a distressful period (Cyders et al., 2013; Fischer et al., 2004). The current study hypothesized that participants (62.07% Female, M = 19.81, SD = 4.16, 73.28% White, 6.90% Hispanic, 6.90% African American, 3.45% Native American/Alaskan Native, 3.45% Asian American, 3.45% Middle Eastern, 1.72% Other) who scored high in negative urgency would endorse more maladaptive coping strategies after a negative mood induction (n = 57), compared to a neutral …


Mental Health, Substance Abuse And Recidivism: Perceptions Of Key Justice System Stakeholders In Southern California, Tabari Zahir 2021 California State University, San Bernardino

Mental Health, Substance Abuse And Recidivism: Perceptions Of Key Justice System Stakeholders In Southern California, Tabari Zahir

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Despite the 2011 landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court ordering the California authorities to address prison overcrowding, the Golden State still faces significant challenges dealing with the size of its correctional population. Recidivism plays a preponderant role in slowing down the momentum toward overcoming relatively high rates of incarceration across the state. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of key human services stakeholders about the intersection of three major challenges in the California criminal justice system: mental health, substance use, and recidivism. Embracing a continuum of care approach, this study ultimately attempted to explore …


Laughter As A Priming Agent For Change, Linnea M. Heintz 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Laughter As A Priming Agent For Change, Linnea M. Heintz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of laughter as a factor in influencing employee job satisfaction ratings. The Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985, 1997) and pulses of laughter were used in this study. To explore the relationship between laughter and job satisfaction, results of the Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1994) were collected quarterly (four times a year) for three consecutive years, beginning six months prior to the start of the two-year study and six months post. The study sample was composed of 545 employees (34% male, 66% female) operating out of 10 employee-owned retail chain locations …


Investigation Of Algorithms To Assess Validity Of Wearable Technology During Field Testing, Brenna Barrios 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Investigation Of Algorithms To Assess Validity Of Wearable Technology During Field Testing, Brenna Barrios

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Wearable technology is an emerging fitness trend where the technology which supports it lacks validity verification. Furthermore, heart rate validity of these devices vary greatly when observed in laboratory settings vs. field testing. Secondarily, Consumer Technology Association guidelines require a minimum five minute trial for wearable testing. This study examined heart rate data of previously tested wearable devices (Garmin Fenix 5, Jabra Elite Sport, Motiv Ring, Scosche Rhythm+) in an outdoor setting to further understand their performance, and to examine the relationship of the five minute regulation. Two separate algorithms were applied to the original data set, the first shortened …


Profiling Child Molesters: Thematic Differentiation Of Crime Scene Indicators And Correlations To Psychopathology, John P. Santora 2021 CUNY John Jay College

Profiling Child Molesters: Thematic Differentiation Of Crime Scene Indicators And Correlations To Psychopathology, John P. Santora

Student Theses

Offender profiling has become an increasingly important tool in criminal investigations. The current research took an expansive, multifaceted empirical approach to the profiling of child molesters through investigative psychological methodologies with additional perspectives investigating concomitant clinical implications. In doing this, offenders were thematically differentiated based on their behaviors at the offense. The quality of the differentiation was tested, and the distribution of offenders across the derived themes was developed. Associations between the Massachusetts Treatment Center Child Molester Three, Axis One (MTC:CM3 A1) were assessed. This process was repeated for offender characteristic variables which were also thematically differentiated. Finally, behavioral themes …


The Impact Of Mindfulness On Healthy Food Choices, Kaylea Hopfer 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impact Of Mindfulness On Healthy Food Choices, Kaylea Hopfer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The practice of mindfulness has a long history in research, particularly psychological studies. In this paper I examine the effects of a short mindfulness intervention on healthy food purchases. Specifically, I developed an online survey and recruited 634 participants via Prolific between July 24 - July 27, 2020. I randomly assigned participants to either a mindfulness manipulation or a control condition. Following treatment (or control) participants completed a food choice task and various other control. Following the survey, I analyzed data using R version 4.0.2 (2020-06-22) and R-Studio. I estimated three different regression models, ordinary least squares (OLS), Poisson, and …


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