Tolerance Of Sexual Harassment: A Laboratory Paradigm, 2016 Rowan University
Tolerance Of Sexual Harassment: A Laboratory Paradigm, David J. Angelone, Damon Mitchell, Kara Carola
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants’ sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants’ tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants ...
Introspection And Anecdotes Won’T Prove What Animals Are Thinking And Feeling, 2016 University of Otago
Introspection And Anecdotes Won’T Prove What Animals Are Thinking And Feeling, Michael Colombo, Melissa Johnston
Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling
We review Part Three, “Whines and Pet Peeves,” of Safina’s book Beyond Words: What Animals Think and Feel. Part Three is concerned mainly with the evidence for Theory of Mind in nonhuman animals. Like Safina, we believe that animals have a Theory of Mind, and like Safina, we question the utility of such concepts. There are many studies that Safina could have used to support his argument, and although some are mentioned, he prefers to make his point mainly by relying on anecdotes and introspection. The end result, we believe, is to devalue the scientific process.
Spice: A Software Tool For Studying End-User’S Insecure Cyber Behavior And Personality-Traits, 2016 University of New Orleans
Spice: A Software Tool For Studying End-User’S Insecure Cyber Behavior And Personality-Traits, Anjila Tamrakar, Anjila Tamrakar
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
Insecure cyber behavior of end users may expose their computers to cyber-attack. A first step to improve their cyber behavior is to identify their tendency toward insecure cyber behavior. Unfortunately, not much work has been done in this area. In particular, the relationship between end users cyber behavior and their personality traits is much less explored. This paper presents a comprehensive review of a newly developed, easily configurable, and flexible software SPICE for psychologist and cognitive scientists to study personality traits and insecure cyber behavior of end users. The software utilizes well-established cognitive methods (such as dot-probe) to identify number ...
Establishing A Link Between Personality And Social Rank In A Group Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Establishing A Link Between Personality And Social Rank In A Group Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Erin Elizabeth Frick
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been documented to possess personality traits that remain consistent over time (Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007) and across contexts (Kuczaj, Highfill, & Byerly, 2012). Such individual differences are thought to play an important role in various social contexts such as hierarchical dominance (Highfill & Kuczaj, 2010). The present study investigated the relationship between personality and social rank within a captive group of bottlenose dolphins housed at the Roatan Institute for Marine Science (RIMS). Social rank was established using questionnaires distributed to the RIMS experienced staff. Personality traits were derived from behavioral coding using context-specific correlational matrices. The traits were ...
An Assessment Of Number Representation In The Small-Eared Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
An Assessment Of Number Representation In The Small-Eared Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), Tiffany Aycia Woodard Baker
In an effort to explain the underlying mechanisms of number representation, both the object-file and the approximate number system have been proposed. Despite the recognition in animals, both nonhuman and human, it remains unclear how numbers are represented cognitively or what system is employed. Furthermore, primate numerosity research has been almost exclusively conducted within haplorhine species (monkeys and apes). Within the strepsirhines (lemurs, lorises, and galagos), it has only been investigated in 15 diurnal and cathermal Malagasy primate species. No study to date has looked at this ability in either African strepsirhines or nocturnal primates. To examine the extent of ...
The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Sleep Disruption In West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Sleep Disruption In West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), Natalija Lace
Florida manatees inhabit waterways where motorized boats are common. Although manatee mortalities resulting from boat strikes are well documented, the effect of boat noise on some manatee behaviors, including rest, has not been investigated. This study focuses on rest behavior and used a playback experiment with four manatees at the Lowry Park Zoo in Florida. We tested their responses to playback stimuli of either boat noise, silence, or manatee calls. A playback trial was initiated when the focal animal showed behavioral characteristics of rest.
Results showed that rest was interrupted in response to the playback of boat noise for each ...
Global/Local Processing In Incidental Perception Of Hierarchical Structure, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Global/Local Processing In Incidental Perception Of Hierarchical Structure, Mark S. Mills
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology
The goal of the current thesis is to provide a framework for investigating and understanding visual processing of hierarchical structure (i.e., local parts nested in global wholes, such as trees nested in forests) under incidental processing conditions—that is, where processing of information at global and local levels is both uninformative (cannot aid task performance) and task-irrelevant (need not be processed to perform the task). To do so, a novel method combining two widely-used paradigms (spatial cueing and compound stimulus paradigms) is used for implicitly probing observers’ perceptual representations over the course of processing. This compound arrow cueing paradigm ...
Ogden College Of Science & Engineering Newsletter (Summer 2016), 2016 Western Kentucky University
Ogden College Of Science & Engineering Newsletter (Summer 2016), Cheryl Stevens, Dean
Ogden College of Science & Engineering Publications
No abstract provided.
Understanding Posttraumatic Stress And Academic Achievement: Exploring Attentional Control, Self-Efficacy, And Coping Among College Students, Ashley M. Cantrell
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
The present study examined differences in attentional control, attentional control self-efficacy, and coping as self-regulatory mechanisms among students with varying grade point averages (GPA) who experience posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Subjects included 58 college students from one large comprehensive university in the Mid-South who met the criteria for diagnosis of PTSS based on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Three groups were created based on college GPA and graduation requirements at the university (at-risk for graduation, on-track for graduation, and ontrack for graduating with honors). Participants completed a survey that included demographics and measures of PTSS, attentional control, attentional control ...
Self-Regulation In Preschoolers: Validity Of Hot And Cool Tasks As Predictive Measures Of Academic And Socio-Emotional Aspects Of School Readiness, Berenice Anaya
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
Extensive research on the development of self-regulation has demonstrated that better executive functioning and effortful control during the preschool years are associated with greater kindergarten and early school achievement. Recent findings suggest that self-regulation tasks differ in their assessment of “hot” and “cool” regulation, how these processes map onto effortful control and executive functioning, and may predict school readiness. However, only a few studies have examined the validity of hot and cool regulation tasks (Allan & Lonigan, 2014; Di Norcia, Pecora, Bombi, Baumgartner, & Laghi, 2015; Willoughby, Kupersmidt, Voegler-Lee, & Bryant, 2011), and how they predict socio-emotional competence (Di Norcia et al., 2015) and academic performance (Kim ...
Effects Of Age, Task Type, And Information Load On Discrimination Learning, 2016 Western Kentucky University
Effects Of Age, Task Type, And Information Load On Discrimination Learning, Morgan E. Brown
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
The feature positive effect (FPE) is a phenomenon in discrimination learning by which learning occurs more quickly when the presence (Feature positive; FP), rather than absence (Feature negative; FN) of a stimulus indicates a response should be made. Although the FPE has been extensively corroborated, a reversal, or feature negative effect (FNE), has been found when a target stimulus comes from a smaller set of stimuli (Fiedler, Eckert, & Poysiak, 1988). Age differences in FP and FN learning indicate that older adults perform more poorly than young adults on both FP and FN tasks, and are likely related to decline in ...
The Multidimensional Mortality Awareness Measure & Model (Mmamm): Development And Validation Of A New Self-Report Questionnaire & Psychological Framework, Mark R. Mcdermott, Kathryn Lafreniere
For each of eight literature-identified conceptual dimensions of mortality awareness, questionnaire items were generated, producing 89 in all. 359 participants responded to these items and to questionnaires measuring health attitudes, risk-taking, rebelliousness and demographic variables. Multivariate correlational analyses investigated the underlying structure of the item pool and the construct validity as well as the reliability of the emergent empirically derived subscales. Five components, rather than eight, were identified. Given the item content of each, the associated mortality awareness subscales were labelled as: legacy, fearfulness, acceptance, disempowerment, and disengagement. Each attained an acceptable level of internal reliability. Relationships with other variables ...
The Behavioral Analysis Of Gambling, 2016 St. Cloud State University
The Behavioral Analysis Of Gambling, Benjamin Witts, Anne Macaskill, Mack Costello
International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking
A behavioral analysis of gambling is unique among the psychologies. A behavioral analysis seeks answers to questions pertaining to the prediction and influence of gambling in terms of the individual gambler, and thus emphasis is placed on well-controlled small-n studies in which findings are generalized to other individuals. Further, the behavioral analysis of gambling is concerned with environmental and historical relations in accounting for current gambling behavior, and less of a reliance is placed on internal and hypothetical causal factors. This symposium explores two data-driven analyses of gambling behavior from a behavioral account of gambling while a third conceptual and ...
A Cultural Comparison Of Two Facial Inference Studies, 2016 Central Washington University
A Cultural Comparison Of Two Facial Inference Studies, Janine Swiney
Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)
Two different samples from Pakistan and the United States were asked to infer the emotions and personality traits shown in three facial expressions (angry, sad, happy) of young white females and males in six photographs. The two studies used Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to investigate the facial inference process. Each picture was presented for 10 seconds followed by four questions about the individual in the picture. The first question asked participants to identify the emotion shown, from a list of six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise). The next three questions consist of condensed sets of the ...
The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, 2016 Seton Hall University
The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...
Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd
Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...
Free-Operant Research In The Experimental Analysis Of Human Slot Machine Gambling, 2016 St. Cloud State University
Free-Operant Research In The Experimental Analysis Of Human Slot Machine Gambling, Benjamin N. Witts, Elizabeth Harri-Dennis
Analysis of Gambling Behavior
Since the pioneering days of the experimental analysis of behavior, free-operant methods have been the hallmark of a behavioral science because they permit investigators to track moment to moment changes in behavior rate. Behavior rate as a dependent variable is more sensitive to momentary changes than statistical analysis, discrete-trial arrangements, and between-subject examinations of aggregate data. In reviewing the gambling literature on slot machine studies, we found that none has focused on free-operant preparations. This lack of free-operant use is likely because of the limitations in designing a practical apparatus to study slot machine gambling through free-operant means. We provide ...
Prize Volatility And Presence Or Absence Of Anticipatory Sitmulus Signally Reward As Predictors Of Electronic Game Machine Behaviour Of Gamblers, 2016 University of New Brunswick, Fredericton
Prize Volatility And Presence Or Absence Of Anticipatory Sitmulus Signally Reward As Predictors Of Electronic Game Machine Behaviour Of Gamblers, Timothy Gallagher, Chris Kohler, Richard Nicki
Analysis of Gambling Behavior
This study investigated the effect of changes in prize volatility and presence or absence of an anticipatory stimulus signally reward on verbal ratings, playing behaviour, and biometric responses in casual and frequent electronic gaming machine (EGM) players. Biometric measurements of 129 participants were recorded while they played an actual EGM with money provided by the experimenters. However, only the data from 95 participants were analysed. Participants were first connected to biometric sensors to record their heart rate and galvanic skin responses, and completed a demographic questionnaire. All participants then played an EGM game for 10 minutes. After playing the EGM ...
An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, 2016 University of Tübingen
An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann
No abstract provided.
Possible Causes Of Increased Domestic Violence Among Military Veterans: Ptsd Or Mefloquine Toxicity?, 2016 Liberty University
Possible Causes Of Increased Domestic Violence Among Military Veterans: Ptsd Or Mefloquine Toxicity?, Shawn J. Gourley
Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research
After more than a decade at war, our returning service members and their families are facing enormous amounts of difficulty when returning home. PTSD and TBI, the signature wounds of these wars, have been well covered in the media. The family struggles have remained hidden and mostly undiscussed. These families are facing very specific issues in military relationships like infidelity, substance misuse, and intimate partner violence; the latter of which military families are three times more likely to experience when compared to the civilian population. There is a potential effect on caregiver burden in the role of PTSD as a ...