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Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor 2018 Dominican University of California

Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Objective: Sensory processing issues can have a large negative impact on the ability to participate in daily occupations such as ADLs, access to work, school and leisure environments, and social interactions (Dunn, 2001). The evidence documenting sensory processing issues in adults is sparse. Physiological information can be used as objective evidence to support the claim that those with over-responsivity to sensations are experiencing their environment differently than the typical population. Understanding more about sensory processing in adults may lead to increased recognition of the problem and more opportunities for intervention to increase occupational participation. The purpose of this quantitative study ...


Self-Efficacy Matters More Than Interruptions In A Sequential Multitasking Experiment, Maureen A. Conard, Robert F. Marsh 2018 Sacred Heart University

Self-Efficacy Matters More Than Interruptions In A Sequential Multitasking Experiment, Maureen A. Conard, Robert F. Marsh

Maureen A. Conard

Interruptions and multitasking have received a great deal of attention from researchers. The present study is the first to examine task self-efficacy along with interruptions in an experimental multitasking framework. Perceptions of resumption lag times and task rehearsal were also examined. Participants (N= 110) completed a primary task (puzzle) with some being interrupted to pursue a secondary task (a word search) either once or four times. Uninterrupted participants completed the puzzle 26% faster than those interrupted once and 30% faster than those interrupted four times. However, self-efficacy predicted performance much more strongly than did interruptions, and therefore should receive more ...


Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David DiLillo, Sarah Gervais 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David Dilillo, Sarah Gervais

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Despite literature revealing the adverse consequences of objectifying gazes for women, little work has empirically examined origins of objectifying gazes by perceivers. Integrating alcohol myopia and objectification theories, we examined the effects of alcohol as well as perceived female attractiveness, warmth, and competence on objectifying gazes. Specifically, male undergraduates (n = 49) from a large U.S. Midwestern university were administered either an alcoholic or placebo beverage. After consumption, participants were asked to focus on the appearance or personality (counterbalanced) of pictured women who were previously rated as high, average, or low in attractiveness, warmth, and competence. Replicating previous work, appearance ...


Pigeons Choose To Gamble In A Categorical Discrimination Task, Nathaniel C. Rice, Elizabeth G. E. Kyonka 2017 1. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense

Pigeons Choose To Gamble In A Categorical Discrimination Task, Nathaniel C. Rice, Elizabeth G. E. Kyonka

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

In slot-machine play, near wins are stimuli that visually approximate winning stimuli but deliver no reinforcers. In two experiments, a categorical discrimination task was embedded in a concurrent chain to investigate how near wins affect preference for probabilistic versus certain food. Pecking in variable-interval initial links produced access to a fixed-ratio (FR) 1-FR 1-FR 1 chain. When all links were red, the chain was a “win” that produced access to food. A “clear loss” chain involved three green stimuli, and in a “near win,” key colors during successive FR 1 links were red, red, and green. In Experiment 1, the ...


More Than Just Talking: The Role Of Self-Disclosure In The Fast Friends Procedure, Chloe Shearer 2017 Seton Hall University

More Than Just Talking: The Role Of Self-Disclosure In The Fast Friends Procedure, Chloe Shearer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The Fast Friends (FF) procedure was developed to generate feelings of closeness in the laboratory through escalating, mutual self-disclosure by partners (Aron, Melinant, Aron, Vallone, & Bator, 1997). Research indicates that, in addition to generating feelings of closeness, self-disclosure can also benefit mood. This study examined not only the total, but also the relative amount of self-disclosure between dyad partners in the FF vs. control condition. It was found that while participants in FF engaged in more self-disclosure overall, disclosure within FF dyads was not equitable. Contrary to prediction, the FF procedure did not generate more positive feelings than the control ...


Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, David Lovett 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, David Lovett

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to better understand alcohol use problems by examining the effect of alcohol liking on alcohol attentional bias among non-dependent drinkers. An adapted model of Robinson and Berridge’s (1993) incentive-sensitization theory of addiction was proposed which theorized that manipulation of alcohol liking would produce alcohol attentional bias (assessed via visual probe task) among non-dependent drinkers. To test this adapted model, alcohol liking was manipulated and the effect on alcohol attentional bias was examined. Participants were 53 legal-age, college drinkers (Mage = 23.49; 32.1% female; 67.9% White Non-Hispanic). Participants completed measures of ...


Getting Out Of Your Way To Help Others: Responsibility To Help And Warm-Glow, Jongmin (Chris) Jeon 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Getting Out Of Your Way To Help Others: Responsibility To Help And Warm-Glow, Jongmin (Chris) Jeon

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In the past decades, three major theories emerged as key motivators in altruistic behaviors: pure altruism, external motivation, and warm-glow, which refers to utility that people derive from altruistic actions in a form of warm, positive feeling. Recently, more studies have focused on understanding warm-glow and its components, such as social image concern and empathic stimuli, in order to better comprehend and encourage altruistic behaviors. We propose that responsibility to help is a potential factor that influences warm-glow from altruistic behavior. In our proposed experimental design, we will test the hypothesis that people would anticipate less warm-glow if the responsibility ...


A Study On Sustainable Behavior Inducement: The Role Of Information And Feedback, Douglas J. Miller Jr. 2017 University of Pennsylvania

A Study On Sustainable Behavior Inducement: The Role Of Information And Feedback, Douglas J. Miller Jr.

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This study develops a further understanding of the role of information availability – in either detailed or color cue feedback form – in inducing sustainable behavior. The hypothesis was that the Color Cue Feedback Group would be more likely to make sustainable decisions on the whole since color cues should invoke System I cognitive processes. A survey-based experiment including 364 participants was conducted at the University of Oxford. First, it was found that information availability in general appears to increase sustainable decision-making, and the hypothesis that color cue feedback (moral suasion) is the most effective for invoking sustainable choices was generally, though ...


Default Options In Economic Games: Experiments Demonstrating A ‘Default Pull’ Effect And Arbitrarily Constructed Preferences, Nikhil Dhingra, Zach Gorn, Andrew Kener 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Default Options In Economic Games: Experiments Demonstrating A ‘Default Pull’ Effect And Arbitrarily Constructed Preferences, Nikhil Dhingra, Zach Gorn, Andrew Kener

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Protected Values, Range Effects, Guilt, And Tradeoff Difficulty In Moral Decision Making, Christopher W. Poliquin 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Protected Values, Range Effects, Guilt, And Tradeoff Difficulty In Moral Decision Making, Christopher W. Poliquin

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Webinar: Racial Bias In Driver Yielding Behavior At Crosswalks, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn 2017 Portland State University

Webinar: Racial Bias In Driver Yielding Behavior At Crosswalks, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn

TREC Webinar Series

This webinar discusses research exploring how social identity factors (race and gender) influence drivers’ behavior in interactions with pedestrians at crosswalks. One dangerous potential point of conflict for pedestrians within the transportation system is interactions with drivers at crosswalks (NHTSA, 2009), and racial minorities are disproportionately represented in pedestrian fatalities (CDC, 2013). This project examines whether racial discrimination occurs at crosswalks, which may lead to disparate crossing experiences and disproportionate safety outcomes.

Our initial research on this topic revealed predicted racial bias in drivers’ yielding behavior at crosswalks: Black male pedestrians were passed by twice as many cars as, and ...


Readiness For Inter-Institutional Collaboration: A Path Forward For Online Learning, Robert Arthur Paulson PhD, Shirley Ann Freed 2017 Pacific Union College

Readiness For Inter-Institutional Collaboration: A Path Forward For Online Learning, Robert Arthur Paulson Phd, Shirley Ann Freed

Adventist Online Learning Conference / Conferencia de Aprendizaje en Línea

An environment conducive to inter-institutional collaboration greater utilizes intellectual and structural assets for the good of all in a growing learning community. As small colleges and universities struggle to maintain financial viability many have recognized the positive impact a collaborative environment has for all aspects of the institution. The leaders in this transition from autonomous to collaborative have been librarians and their use of technology to share databases and other assets. Organizations like the Concordia University System and The Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance have been sharing structural and intellectual assets to reduce costs and risks in offering online ...


The Effects Of Presession Attention On The Acquisition Of Tacts And Intraverbals, Mirela Cengher 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of Presession Attention On The Acquisition Of Tacts And Intraverbals, Mirela Cengher

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examined the effects of presession attention on the acquisition of tacts (Experiment 1) and intraverbals (Experiment 2) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were 3 conditions in each experiment. In the first 2 conditions, the experimenter first exposed the participants to a 15-min interval of either presession attention (PA) or no presession attention (NPA), then immediately conducted a teaching session. The third condition was a control condition, which involved no pressession interval or teaching procedures. The consequence for emitting tacts and intraverbals consisted of different forms of attention (e.g., praise and clapping). Across experiments, all participants ...


Harm And Victim Age As Factors In The Determination Of Intentionality And Culpability, Donal David Barnard Jr. 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Harm And Victim Age As Factors In The Determination Of Intentionality And Culpability, Donal David Barnard Jr.

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the United States criminal justice system, jurors are directed to determine a defendant’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt by establishing both the act of committing a crime (actus reus) and the culpable mental state of the defendant (mens rea), that is, the defendant’s intentionality. The role of a juror in a criminal case is that of a factfinder, deciding whether the two elements of the crime have been met. Criminal cases where jurors are asked to decide the facts vary in the harm that resulted. The more severe the harm, the greater the perceived injustice. This research ...


Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella 2017 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of ...


Mechanisms Of Navigation In Fiddler Crabs: An Analysis Of Allocentric And Egocentric Contributions, Stephen G. Volz 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mechanisms Of Navigation In Fiddler Crabs: An Analysis Of Allocentric And Egocentric Contributions, Stephen G. Volz

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Navigation in biological systems is a complex task-set that involves learning processes and may include constructing representations of features of their environment. Across the animal kingdom, different learning mechanisms have evolved to similar spatial problems. The extent to which mechanisms are conserved across taxa are an important research area that can guide our understanding of the cognitive dimensions of navigation. Recent studies of mammals, birds, and arthropods has found that these animals often attend to multiple forms of sensory cues, and to either integrate the solutions generated by these cues, or at times prefer one form of cue over another ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić

Joseph W. Houpt

Research in cognitive psychology often focuses on how people deal with multiple sources of information. One important aspect of this research is whether people use the information in parallel (at the same time) or in series (one at a time). Various approaches to distinguishing parallel and serial processing have been proposed, but many do not satisfactorily address the mimicking dilemma between serial and parallel classes of models. The mean interaction contrast (MIC) is one measure is designed to improve discriminability of serial-parallel model properties. The MIC has been applied in limited settings because the measure required a large number of ...


Law And Psychology Grows Up, Goes Online, And Replicates, Kristin Firth, David A. Hoffman, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan 2017 University of Chicago, Booth School of Business, Student

Law And Psychology Grows Up, Goes Online, And Replicates, Kristin Firth, David A. Hoffman, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last thirty years, legal scholars have increasingly deployed experimental studies, particularly hypothetical scenarios, to test intuitions about legal reasoning and behavior. That movement has accelerated in the last decade, facilitated in large part by cheap and convenient Internet participant recruiting platforms like Amazon Mechanical Turk. The widespread use of MTurk subjects, a practice that dramatically lowers the barriers to entry for experimental research, has been controversial. At the same time, law and psychology’s home discipline is experiencing a public crisis of confidence widely discussed in terms of the “replication crisis.” At present, law and psychology research is ...


The Effects Of Corticosterone And Social Isolation On Song Stereotypy And Neural Plasticity In Zebra Finches, Pavlina Faltynek 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Corticosterone And Social Isolation On Song Stereotypy And Neural Plasticity In Zebra Finches, Pavlina Faltynek

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Birdsong is important to male songbirds’ reproductive success. For male birds it is important to consistently reproduce their song with high stereotypy, and the effects of stress on song consistency are little studied. My current study examined the effects of social isolation and corticosterone administration on song production and migrating and apoptotic neurons in the song-control brain region HVC of zebra finches. All males significantly decreased in song stereotypy over time, independent of treatment or housing. Males who were housed in isolation had a significant decrease in their latency to sing, as well as a decrease in arborization in migratory ...


What Factors Affect General Aviation Pilot Adoption Of Electronic Flight Bags?, Troy E. Techau 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

What Factors Affect General Aviation Pilot Adoption Of Electronic Flight Bags?, Troy E. Techau

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Why do some pilots choose to use electronic flight bags (EFBs) in their flight operations, yet others continue to rely on traditional avionics and paper charts? Does the use of EFBs differ by age, gender, or flight experience?

EFBs, now a common tool in aviation, can display navigational charts, weather, and traffic information, and automate calculation of critical fuel and aircraft performance data. Research that uses EFBs as interactive nodes to exchange data with the System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) network is underway. Understanding what factors may explain differences in pilot adoption and use of EFB technology could shape regulations governing ...


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