Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Correspondence Between Haptic And Visual Perception Of Stand-On-Ability: Do Hills Look As Steep As They Feel?, Jonathan Kenealy Doyon
Vision and haptics play a central role in perceiving environmental layout to guide action. Hajnal, Wagman, Doyon, and Clark (2016) demonstrated that visual perception of stand-on-ability is accurate compared to action capabilities, whereas haptic perception of stand-on-ability reliably underestimates action capabilities. This finding contradicts Gibson’s (1979) theory of equivalence in perceptual systems, which suggests that perception should be equivalent regardless of modality. Previous comparisons of visual and haptic perception tested the modalities in isolation. The current experiment directly compares visual to haptic perception of stand-on-ability by using one perceptual system to estimate the other. Observers viewed a surface set ...
Habitat Use By Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, In Roanoke Sound, North Carolina, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Habitat Use By Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, In Roanoke Sound, North Carolina, Shauna Marisa Mcbride
Information on the habitat use of a species is important to develop conservation efforts and management strategies for that species. Roanoke Sound, North Carolina is primarily a seasonal habitat for bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, from late spring to early fall, but little information is known about how dolphins use this area. Transect survey data and opportunistic survey data collected by the Outer Banks Center for Dolphin Research from 2009 to 2015 were used to analyze dolphin habitat use. The objectives of this project were to: 1) identify areas that were important to dolphins, 2) determine which behaviors were observed in ...
Animals In The Wild, 2016 Brittany Samson
Animals In The Wild, Brittany Samson
The STEAM Journal
As a photographer, I am extremely interested in the concept of perception and I let this concept drive most of my artistic work. I present four images from my photographic series “Animals in the Wild,” which explore this idea of perception. These four images: Giraffe, Dinosaur, Buffalo, and Bunny—are drastically varied photos that include no real animals, but instead beg the mind to perceive shapes, colors, figure, and coincidence as an animal.
Differences In Perceptions Of Cheating Between College Students And Professors, 2016 Cedarville University
Differences In Perceptions Of Cheating Between College Students And Professors, Ying-Ruey Chuang, Andrew Voss, Di Wu
Di Wu, Ph.D.
The current research aimed to examine whether students and professors who cheated in the past would differ from those who did not cheat on their perceptions on the severity, percentage, and impact of cheating behavior. Data were collected from 434 students (61% female, 39% male, mean age: 19.78) and 42 professors (57% female, 43% male, mean years of experience: 17.29) through an on-line survey in a private Christian university. The current study focused on the severity, the impact, self-report, and the perceived percentage of cheating behavior in the survey. Furthermore, questions on the severity of cheating were categorized ...
Losing My Religion? The Impact Of Spiritual Cues On Noncognitive Skills, 2016 Rice University
Losing My Religion? The Impact Of Spiritual Cues On Noncognitive Skills, Daniel H. Bowen, Albert Cheng
Journal of Catholic Education
Studies consistently show that Catholic schools produce positive impacts on educational outcomes. Many charter school networks in the United States now provide, what are essentially, secularized versions of the Catholic education model. However, charter schools cannot legally replicate the overt religious curriculum and mission of Catholic schools. Although difficult to disentangle its impacts from confounding variables, research suggests that religiosity is a positive predictor of educational outcomes. This relationship might suggest that religious-based education produces effects on outcomes of public value that could be difficult to replicate in secularized contexts. To examine this question we conducted an experiment where 180 ...
Reel Outcomes As Discriminative Stimuli: A Case For Reporting Single Subject Data, 2016 St. Cloud State University
Reel Outcomes As Discriminative Stimuli: A Case For Reporting Single Subject Data, Benjamin N. Witts, Mark J. Rzeszutek, Kaitlen Dahlberg
Analysis of Gambling Behavior
While slot machine gambling research in behavior analysis is on the rise, we still have many unanswered questions. Exploring the putative discriminative functions a series of reel outcomes might have on the perceived likelihood of future success (i.e., winning) might prove useful in understanding what motivates gamblers to continue gambling despite losses. In the current study, undergraduate participants watched eight videos of five reel spins each of varying win and loss (including near-miss) outcomes. Participants then provided estimations of the likelihood of winning on five upcoming hypothetical spins. While participants viewed their chances of winning as poor, strategic placement ...
Initial Selection Between Simulated Slot Machines Is Allocated Toward Slot Machines With A Preferred Theme: A Brief Report, 2016 St. Cloud State University
Initial Selection Between Simulated Slot Machines Is Allocated Toward Slot Machines With A Preferred Theme: A Brief Report, Benjamin N. Witts
Analysis of Gambling Behavior
Many factors influence a gambler’s responding with respect to slot machine selection, persistence in playing that machine, and repeated selections of that machine again on subsequent occasions. One potential area of influence over these responses that has received little attention in slot machine gambling research is slot machine branding. In this study, 7 of 8 participants allocated initial responding to a slot machine which was branded with a preferred, rather than non-preferred, theme, even though in some cases experience with payout percentages differed.
Annotated Bibliography Of Behavior Analytic Scholarship Outside Of Analysis Of Gambling Behavior: 2013-2015, Mack S. Costello, Seth W. Whiting, Jamie L. Hirsh, Neil Deochand, Taylor Spencer
Analysis of Gambling Behavior
Previous scholarly reviews have summarized behavior analytic gambling literature up to 2012 and have identified Analysis of Gambling Behavioras the primary journal for such scholarship. This article includes an annotated bibliography of behavioral literature centered on gambling and related issues published outside of Analysis of Gambling Behavior from 2013 to 2015.
Effects Of Aging And Reward Motivation On Non-Verbal Recognition Memory, 2016 Western Kentucky University
Effects Of Aging And Reward Motivation On Non-Verbal Recognition Memory, Meagan D. Luttrell
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
There is a long history of research on the effects of reward motivation on memory, but there are still questions concerning how such motivational variables affect memory. In a study that examined the influence of reward anticipation on episodic memory, Adcock, Thangavel, Whitfield-Gabireli, Knutson, and Gabrieli (2006) found that memory was better for scenes preceded by high value reward cues than low value cues (see also Cushman, 2012; Spaniol, Schain, & Bowen, 2013). More recently, Castel, Murayama, Friedman, McGillivray, & Link (2013) observed that anticipation of reward influences selective attention to “to be remembered” (TBR) words and the memories that are formed ...
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.
The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.
To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.
The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).
There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...
Assessing The Impact Of Emotion In Dual Pathway Models Of Sensory Processing., 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Assessing The Impact Of Emotion In Dual Pathway Models Of Sensory Processing., James H. Kryklywy
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
In our daily environment, we are constantly encountering an endless stream of information which we must be able to sort and prioritize. Some of the features that influence this are the emotional nature of stimuli and the emotional context of events. Emotional information is often given preferential access to neurocognitive resources, including within sensory processing systems. Interestingly, both auditory and visual systems are divided into dual processing streams; a ventral object identity/perception stream and a dorsal object location/action stream. While effects of emotion on the ventral streams are relatively well defined, its effect on dorsal stream processes remains ...
Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, 2016 Counseling
Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, Christy Owen
Fidei et Veritatis: The Liberty University Journal of Graduate Research
The past 20 years have been turbulent regarding Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), with conflicting research about its causes, effects, treatment, and prognosis. The current diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 fails to adequately address this disorder. A number of deviant and maladaptive behaviors common amongst children with RAD are not even mentioned in the diagnostic criteria. As such, the diagnostic definition is almost unidentifiable or incompatible with real-life conduct manifestations of the disorder. Rather, this author contends that RAD is foundationally a unique and extreme form of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) from Early Childhood Trauma. The child endured unspeakable neglect and ...
Tolerance Of Sexual Harassment: A Laboratory Paradigm, 2016 Rowan University
Tolerance Of Sexual Harassment: A Laboratory Paradigm, David J. Angelone, Damon Mitchell, Kara Carola
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants’ sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants’ tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants ...
Social Factors Modulate Toxin (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Responses In Male Rats, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Social Factors Modulate Toxin (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Responses In Male Rats, Nathalie Boulet
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Rats, which are a non-emetic species, display conditioned disgust responses when re-exposed to a context previously associated with sickness. These conditioned disgust responses can be used to model anticipatory nausea in humans, a growing problem faced by numerous chemotherapy patients. This thesis found that social factors, in addition to contextual factors, can play a role in the expression of toxin (LiCl)-induced conditioned disgust in rats. The results show that a familiar, but not unfamiliar, social partner can serve as a cue for the display of conditioned gaping. Further, a variety of sensory cues may play a role in the ...
Introspection And Anecdotes Won’T Prove What Animals Are Thinking And Feeling, 2016 University of Otago
Introspection And Anecdotes Won’T Prove What Animals Are Thinking And Feeling, Michael Colombo, Melissa Johnston
Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling
We review Part Three, “Whines and Pet Peeves,” of Safina’s book Beyond Words: What Animals Think and Feel. Part Three is concerned mainly with the evidence for Theory of Mind in nonhuman animals. Like Safina, we believe that animals have a Theory of Mind, and like Safina, we question the utility of such concepts. There are many studies that Safina could have used to support his argument, and although some are mentioned, he prefers to make his point mainly by relying on anecdotes and introspection. The end result, we believe, is to devalue the scientific process.
Spice: A Software Tool For Studying End-User’S Insecure Cyber Behavior And Personality-Traits, 2016 University of New Orleans
Spice: A Software Tool For Studying End-User’S Insecure Cyber Behavior And Personality-Traits, Anjila Tamrakar, Anjila Tamrakar
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
Insecure cyber behavior of end users may expose their computers to cyber-attack. A first step to improve their cyber behavior is to identify their tendency toward insecure cyber behavior. Unfortunately, not much work has been done in this area. In particular, the relationship between end users cyber behavior and their personality traits is much less explored. This paper presents a comprehensive review of a newly developed, easily configurable, and flexible software SPICE for psychologist and cognitive scientists to study personality traits and insecure cyber behavior of end users. The software utilizes well-established cognitive methods (such as dot-probe) to identify number ...
An Assessment Of Number Representation In The Small-Eared Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
An Assessment Of Number Representation In The Small-Eared Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), Tiffany Aycia Woodard Baker
In an effort to explain the underlying mechanisms of number representation, both the object-file and the approximate number system have been proposed. Despite the recognition in animals, both nonhuman and human, it remains unclear how numbers are represented cognitively or what system is employed. Furthermore, primate numerosity research has been almost exclusively conducted within haplorhine species (monkeys and apes). Within the strepsirhines (lemurs, lorises, and galagos), it has only been investigated in 15 diurnal and cathermal Malagasy primate species. No study to date has looked at this ability in either African strepsirhines or nocturnal primates. To examine the extent of ...
Establishing A Link Between Personality And Social Rank In A Group Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Establishing A Link Between Personality And Social Rank In A Group Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Erin Elizabeth Frick
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been documented to possess personality traits that remain consistent over time (Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007) and across contexts (Kuczaj, Highfill, & Byerly, 2012). Such individual differences are thought to play an important role in various social contexts such as hierarchical dominance (Highfill & Kuczaj, 2010). The present study investigated the relationship between personality and social rank within a captive group of bottlenose dolphins housed at the Roatan Institute for Marine Science (RIMS). Social rank was established using questionnaires distributed to the RIMS experienced staff. Personality traits were derived from behavioral coding using context-specific correlational matrices. The traits were ...
Socio-Emotional Development In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi
Socio-Emotional Development In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Christiana K. Whitley
The purpose of the present study was to determine which lesson from a social skills program would result in the greatest improvement in duration of social interaction for children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between the ages of five and fifteen. The Superheroes Social Skills Program (Jensen et al., 2011) includes lesson plans that focus directly on helping children with ASD develop communication skills in group settings. The data indicate that one specific lesson, Participation and Joining In, was responsible for the largest mean increase in duration of social interactions of participants. Social skills lessons were introduced ...
Global/Local Processing In Incidental Perception Of Hierarchical Structure, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Global/Local Processing In Incidental Perception Of Hierarchical Structure, Mark S. Mills
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology
The goal of the current thesis is to provide a framework for investigating and understanding visual processing of hierarchical structure (i.e., local parts nested in global wholes, such as trees nested in forests) under incidental processing conditions—that is, where processing of information at global and local levels is both uninformative (cannot aid task performance) and task-irrelevant (need not be processed to perform the task). To do so, a novel method combining two widely-used paradigms (spatial cueing and compound stimulus paradigms) is used for implicitly probing observers’ perceptual representations over the course of processing. This compound arrow cueing paradigm ...