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College Environment And Basic Psychological Needs: Predicting Academic Major Satisfaction., Mary Schenkenfelder, Elisa A. Frickey, Lisa M. Larson 2019 Iowa State University

College Environment And Basic Psychological Needs: Predicting Academic Major Satisfaction., Mary Schenkenfelder, Elisa A. Frickey, Lisa M. Larson

Lisa M. Larson

The authors aimed to extend the literature in self-determination theory (SDT) to understand the relations between college environmental variables (faculty and peer support) and academic major satisfaction. The study was disseminated via an online platform to 320 students attending a large midwestern university. Based on SDT, it was hypothesized that student perceptions of their volitional autonomy, competence, and relatedness in their academic major would fully mediate the relations between perceived faculty and peer supports and major satisfaction. This hypothesized model was tested against a partially mediated model and an alternate model that further tested the directionality of the argument. Results ...


#52 - Men's Private And Public Conformity To Masculine Norms, Jasmine Starks 2019 Georgia Southern University

#52 - Men's Private And Public Conformity To Masculine Norms, Jasmine Starks

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Society has a strong influence on how we think and behave. A result of societal norms is toxic masculinity, which addresses harmful effects that conforming to ideal masculine standards can have on a man. In this study, we analyzed the effects that masculine social norms would have on a male college population. The hypothesis was that heterosexual White males in the sample would conform to societal male norms, a topic covered in RW Connell’s “Masculinities”, and show influence of toxic masculinity. The study is preregistered at http://osf.io/5n4ex/. Participants (N = 65) were asked to answer the Conformity ...


#51 - The Effect Of Color On Cognitive Performance And Mood, Valter Andersson, McKinley O'Kelley, Micaela Wright, Julie Delose 2019 Young Harris College

#51 - The Effect Of Color On Cognitive Performance And Mood, Valter Andersson, Mckinley O'Kelley, Micaela Wright, Julie Delose

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Effect of Color on Cognitive Performance and Mood

Color plays an important role in the way people view the world, and different colors can evoke different emotions (Werner, 1954). In addition, color also impacts performance on cognitive tasks, with red leading to worse performance on anagram tasks compared to green and gray (Elliot et al., 2007). The current research study will extend the work on color and human emotion and behavior by an experimental examination of the impact of color (i.e., red, blue, and gray) on cognitive performance and mood in undergraduate students at a small liberal arts ...


How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard Kornrumpf, Adam Enders PhD 2019 University of Louisville

How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard Kornrumpf, Adam Enders Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

While scholars of conspiracy theories have recently made great strides in understanding the basic nature and correlates of conspiratorial thinking, we still know little about how conspiracy beliefs are disseminated and communicated, especially when it comes to traditional media. In this instance, we use a unique experiment to investigate whether media coverage of mass shootings – complete with the uncertainty, conflicting reports, and dubious official narratives that characterize such coverage – provides the raw material for conspiracy theories and promotes conspiracy beliefs among viewers. We find that implicit conspiratorial information – that which causes confusion and foments uncertainty – does not enflame conspiracy beliefs ...


Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster 2019 NOAA Fisheries, Northeast Fisheries Science Center

Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

We compared hypothetical willingness to accept (WTA) values for Massachusetts saltwater recreational fishing licenses with WTA values obtained in an actual (simulated) marketplace. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation approach, our results align with past evidence that found WTA values elicited from hypothetical transactions overstate those derived from an actual marketplace. We also provide the first evidence about the effectiveness of an ex-post certainty adjustment technique in a WTA environment. While the adjustment technique has been found to eliminate hypothetical bias in willingness to pay (WTP) settings, we find that when applied in a WTA setting, the approach mitigates but ...


Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt 2019 Rollins College

Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt

Thesis Projects

Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) is a respondent conditioning procedure often implemented to elicit vocalizations in children with language delays. Unfortunately, the research showing the effect of increased rates of vocalizations is mixed. Through analogies drawn between SSP and autoshaping, da Silva and Williams (under review) identified variables potentially responsible for increasing the efficacy of SSP (da Silva & Williams, under review). The present study sought to evaluate the relative duration of the inter-trial interval (ITI) and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the duration of the ITI was systematically varied from 15 s to 60 s and the value of ISI was proportional ...


Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


The Influence Of Wearing A Fitbit On Eating Behaviors While Stressed, Maria C.M. Sparacino, Terry F. Pettijohn II 2019 Coastal Carolina University

The Influence Of Wearing A Fitbit On Eating Behaviors While Stressed, Maria C.M. Sparacino, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii

Honors Theses

Research has demonstrated stress leads to consuming foods of lower nutritional quality as well as a greater quantity of foods. Visual primes have been shown to reduce these detrimental eating behaviors. The present study sought to determine if a fitbit would prime healthy eating behaviors in stressful situations. Participants (N = 41) were randomly assigned to a high or low stress condition, manipulated through the Stroop Test, and were either given a fitbit prime or not. Participant’s food preferences were assessed with the Macronutrient Preference Checklist- Modified for use in North America following the stress manipulation. The results generally did ...


Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells 2019 Iowa State University

Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells

Gary L. Wells

The conceptual frameworks provided by both the lineups-as-experiments analogy and Signal Detection Theory have proven important to furthering understanding of performance on eyewitness identification-procedures. The lineups-as-experiments analogy proposes that when investigators carry out a lineup procedure, they are acting as experimenters, and should therefore follow the same tried-and-true procedures that experimenters follow when executing an experiment. Signal Detection Theory offers a framework for distinguishing between factors that improve the trade-off between culprit and innocent-suspect identifications (discriminability) and factors that impact the frequency of suspect identifications (conservativeness). The present work offers an integration of these two conceptual frameworks. We argue that ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Library Assistant, Central Library, Central University of South Bihar (CUSB), Gaya (Bihar)

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


Theoretical Considerations For Extracting Meaning From Personal Profile System Data: The Need For Independent Construct Validity Studies, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Theoretical Considerations For Extracting Meaning From Personal Profile System Data: The Need For Independent Construct Validity Studies, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

The Personal Profile System (PPS) is a psychological testing instrument that has been widely used. The construct validity of the PPS was studied through a review of the literature. This paper organizes the literature review into three broad categories: the background of the PPS; the reliability of the PPS; and the validity of the PPS. The PPS is a self-scoring instrument measuring the behavioral responses of people along four dimensions: (1) dominance; (2) influencing; (3) steadiness; and (4) compliance. The instrument is designed to provide a systematic and comprehensive perception of an individual's behavioral tendencies and the behavioral tendencies ...


Factoring The Personal Profile System For Construct Validity: Three Analyses Under Different Standardization Assumptions, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Factoring The Personal Profile System For Construct Validity: Three Analyses Under Different Standardization Assumptions, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

Three types of data were factor analyzed using principal components extractions with orthogonal and oblique rotations to test publisher claims for construct validity of the Personal Profile System (PPS). Behavioral descriptor data from 1,045 senior non-commissioned Air Force officers were factored as raw data, mean corrected data, and standardized z-scores (correlations). The most efficacious solution was produced with standardized z-scores generating four factors accounting for 86% of the total variance. The measure of sampling adequacy for every descriptor exceeded 0.922. The first factor was general with approximately equal loadings on each of the dominance, influencing, steadiness, and compliance ...


Factor Analysis Of The Personal Profile System, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Factor Analysis Of The Personal Profile System, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

Principal components extraction with orthogonal and oblique rotations tested construct validity for the Personal Profile System. MOST-LIKE endorsements of 96 behavioral descriptors were coded with 4, LEAST-LIKE with 1, and unendorsed with 2.5. Descriptor data from 1,045 senior noncommissioned Air Force officers were normalized. Four factors accounted for 85% of total variance, with 19 descriptors loading significantly on two factors and the remaining 77 on just one factor. The measure of sampling adequacy for every descriptor exceeded .94. One factor for the varimax-rotated (best) analysis was bi-scalar, loading on Steadiness and Compliance descriptors; a second resembled Influencing, a ...


Assessment Of Sex Differences And Amphetamine On Schedule-Induced Polydipsia, Min Park 2019 Northern Michigan University

Assessment Of Sex Differences And Amphetamine On Schedule-Induced Polydipsia, Min Park

All NMU Master's Theses

Amphetamine (AMPH) is one of the most common psychotropic drugs abused in the United States. Its major pharmacological effect is to increase synaptic dopamine levels in the mesolimbic reward pathway, which in turn causes behavioral effects in animals, and subjective effects in humans. These reinforcing properties of AMPH trigger very strong levels of craving the drug, and eventually result in patterns of compulsive use of AMPH. Regarding psychostimulant action, female rats have been reported to be more vulnerable to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. In the current study, schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), an animal model of compulsive behavior, was applied for ...


How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Sexual assault among young adults is a highly prevalent public health concern. Alcohol is often implicated as a risk factor for sexual assault through its impairing effects on an individual’s ability to process and respond to social cues in the environment. The effect of alcohol myopia can result in greater focus of attention on salient environmental cues. The relationship between alcohol intoxication and resulting behavior may depend on what type of information is most salient. The current study examined the effects of alcohol on social information processing as it relates to sexual assault risk detection. Method: Participants were 48 ...


The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how the anxiety levels of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy are affected while holding hands with a secure attachment. This study utilized three experimental single-case designs: participant one measured under a B-design, participant two measured under a B-A design, and participant three measured under an A-B design. Each participant’s anxiety was assessed during six chemotherapy treatments and one meeting with their primary oncologist to discuss the prognosis of their cancerous disease. Results visually indicate a greater effect on anxiety reduction during treatment when the intervention is utilized compared to only ...


Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race

Theses and Dissertations

Confidence can be a strong predictor of accuracy if circumstances are ideal (Wixted & Wells, 2017), but ideal circumstances are not always present. As such it is important to understand ways to ameliorate potentially negative effects on eyewitness metacognition. Rapport building, though seen as an important element of police/witness interaction (Vallano et al., 2015), can lead to some potentially negative memory effects (Wright et al., 2015). Additionally steering, or the process of directing a witness toward a particular suspect, can increase false identifications. Recently the researcher has developed a paradigm meant to better calibrate confidence by reinstating the context of ...


Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick

Theses and Dissertations

Research has demonstrated that hate is a protective emotional response to perceived evil, yet the dimensions by which people perceive evil have not been clearly identified. Research has also indicated that it is evil to feel hate, which presents an interesting paradox: if hate protects us from evil, then how can it be evil to feel hate? The present research attempts to identify the dimensions of evil and elucidate the relationship between hate and evil by comparing it to the relationship between dislike and evil. Study 1 tested how participants identified evil in third person scenarios. As predicted, evil was ...


Measuring Contextual Factors Associated With Experiential Avoidance Using A Behavior Analogue Paradigm, Meaghan M. Lewis 2019 Western Michigan University

Measuring Contextual Factors Associated With Experiential Avoidance Using A Behavior Analogue Paradigm, Meaghan M. Lewis

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between levels of state and trait experiential avoidance across two different contexts using behavior analogue methodology. Performance on the cold pressor task (threshold, tolerance, endurance, and intensity; Zettle et al., 2012) was compared to performance on a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) to obtain a behavioral measure of experiential avoidance that was standardized across these four behavioral indices. Data were collected from a convenience sample of undergraduate students (N = 133) from college classrooms on the campus of Western Michigan University. Participants ...


The Effect Of Conversational Agent Skill On User Behavior During Deception, Ryan M. Schuetzler, G Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effect Of Conversational Agent Skill On User Behavior During Deception, Ryan M. Schuetzler, G Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney

Ryan Schuetzler

No abstract provided.


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