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Experimental Analysis of Behavior Commons

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Self-Management Strategies Mediate Self-Efficacy And Physical Activity, Amanda Birnbaum, Rod K. Dishman, Robert W. Motl, James F. Sallis, Andrea L. Dunn, Greg J. Welk, Ariane L. Yung, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Jared B. Jobe 2019 University of Georgia

Self-Management Strategies Mediate Self-Efficacy And Physical Activity, Amanda Birnbaum, Rod K. Dishman, Robert W. Motl, James F. Sallis, Andrea L. Dunn, Greg J. Welk, Ariane L. Yung, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Jared B. Jobe

Amanda Birnbaum

Self-efficacy theory proposes that girls who have confidence in their capability to be physically active will perceive fewer barriers to physical activity or be less influenced by them, be more likely to pursue perceived benefits of being physically active, and be more likely to enjoy physical activity. Self-efficacy is theorized also to influence physical activity through self-management strategies (e.g., thoughts, goals, plans, and acts) that support physical activity, but this idea has not been empirically tested.


Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev 2019 Lesley University

Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This art-based research explores whether — and, if so, how — the process of painting, together with witnessing and reflection on the process and imagery, further an understanding of intimacy. The research also examines the conditions that favor intimacy, the obstacles to intimacy, and the particular features of artistic media, processes and reflection, through the editing of video footage, that can further the intimate experience. The participants in the study were five adults (including the researcher) between the ages of thirty and eighty who were familiar with the creation of visual art. Among them were three women and two men who vary ...


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. LaPaglia, Jason C.K. Chan 2019 Morningside College

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Jason C.K. Chan

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


Inequality, Fairness And Risk, David Herrera 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Inequality, Fairness And Risk, David Herrera

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

Existing literature suggests that an individual's socioeconomic status may have a considerable effect on their tendency to engage in financially risky behaviors. More specifically, studies have demonstrated that victims of inequality, that is, people of low socioeconomic status or whose financial disadvantage is salient, have an increased propensity to make risky decisions. This notion, however, does not apply to all cases of economic inequality, but rather depends on the process through which income is acquired. Thus, this research attempts to challenge the current notion by varying the fairness of the process through which income is earned or given, attempting ...


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. LaPaglia, Jason C.K. Chan 2019 Morningside College

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


Enhancing The Service Environment: The Effect Of Music And Mood In Service-Based Business, Elyria A. Kemp, Dong-Jun (DJ) Min, Kim H. Williams, Sheb L. True, Aberdeen L. Borders, Deborah H. Lester 2019 University of New Orleans

Enhancing The Service Environment: The Effect Of Music And Mood In Service-Based Business, Elyria A. Kemp, Dong-Jun (Dj) Min, Kim H. Williams, Sheb L. True, Aberdeen L. Borders, Deborah H. Lester

Atlantic Marketing Association Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The following study sought to examine the psychological substrates of renewal (e.g.., context dependent extinction processes) for conditioned avoidance behaviors in rats. Using signaled active avoidance conditioning, rats acquired two-way shuttle responding, to two different auditory stimuli. These behaviors were then extinguished through exposure to the auditory stimuli where shuttling behavior was now without consequence. Subjects were then tested for renewal of avoidance in three distinct renewal sequences (e.g., ABA vs ABB, AAB vs AAA, and ABC vs ABB) in three separate groups of rats. It was found that subjects showed more responding to a stimulus presented outside ...


The Impact Of Working Memory Load And Anxiety On Attention Bias Modification Training, David Lloyd Yap 2019 CUNY Hunter College

The Impact Of Working Memory Load And Anxiety On Attention Bias Modification Training, David Lloyd Yap

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The effect of attention bias modification training (ABMT) on anxiety-related attention bias (AB) in a large (N=204) non-clinical sample was sensitive to working memory load (WML). ABMT produced expected changes in AB in the low-WML, low-anxiety group only. High WML and high anxiety alone and in interaction disrupted ABMT.


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra 2019 Claremont Colleges

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher 2019 Xiamen University

One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This study investigates a potential mechanism to promote coordination. With theoretical guidance using a belief-based learning model, we conduct a multi-period, binary-choice, and weakest-link laboratory coordination experiment to study the effect of gradualism – increasing the required levels (stakes) of contributions slowly over time rather than requiring a high level of contribution immediately – on group coordination performance. We randomly assign subjects to three treatments: starting and continuing at a high stake, starting at a low stake but jumping to a high stake after a few periods, and starting at a low stake while gradually increasing the stakes over time (the Gradualism ...


A Behavioral Confirmation And Reduction Of The Natural Versus Synthetic Drug Bias, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, Eric S. Osorio, Courtney M. Lappas 2019 Gettysburg College

A Behavioral Confirmation And Reduction Of The Natural Versus Synthetic Drug Bias, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, Eric S. Osorio, Courtney M. Lappas

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research reveals a biased preference for natural versus synthetic drugs; however, this research is based upon self-report and has not examined ways to reduce the bias. We examined these issues in five studies involving 1,125 participants. In a Pilot Study (N = 110), participants rated the term natural to be more positive than the term synthetic, which reveals a default natural-is-better belief. In Studies 1 (N = 109) and 2 (N = 100), after a supposed personality study, participants were offered a thank you “gift” of a natural or synthetic pain reliever. Approximately 86% (Study 1) and 93% (Study 2) of participants ...


Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland 2019 University of Kentucky

Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The marriage of perspectives from behavioral economic theory and learning theory has the potential to advance an understanding of substance use and substance use disorder. Behavioral economic demand is a central concept to this interdisciplinary approach. Evaluating demand in the laboratory and clinic can improve previous research on the relative reinforcing effects of drugs by accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of reinforcement rather than viewing reinforcement as a unitary construct. Recent advances in the commodity purchase task methodology have further simplified the measurement of demand values in human participants. This dissertation project presents a programmatic series of studies designed to ...


Effects Of Naltrexone On Alcohol And Nicotine Use In Female P Rats, Usman Z. Hamid, Sarah E. Maggio, Meredith A. Saunders, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A. Prendergast, Richard L. Bell, Michael T. Bardo 2019 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Naltrexone On Alcohol And Nicotine Use In Female P Rats, Usman Z. Hamid, Sarah E. Maggio, Meredith A. Saunders, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A. Prendergast, Richard L. Bell, Michael T. Bardo

Posters-at-the-Capitol Presentations

The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of the opioid antagonist naltrexone at reducing the consumption of EtOH and nicotine in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. P rats have been selectively bred to have a genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse, which allows them to be used as an animal model of alcoholism. P rats readily self-administer i.v nicotine (Le et al., 2016), have EtOH consumption during adolescence that is similar to that seen in adulthood, and operantly respond for EtOH until they are impaired/intoxicated (Bell et al., 2006). Thus, P rats are a useful model ...


Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks

Theses and Dissertations

The present study (n = 335) attempted to conceptually replicate Hunt, Kim, Borgida, and Chaiken (2010) with a high-powered design to investigate whether values and self-interest differentially impact attitudes depending on psychological distance. Participants were assigned to complete a task that made self- or other-focused values more accessible, then indicated their attitudes about a student fee increase at a university to fund scholarships the participants would not be eligible to receive (thus going against their own financial self-interest for the well being of someone else). The memo describing the fee increase was manipulated such that the increase would be occurring at ...


Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill

Theses and Dissertations

People struggle with temptation in their everyday lives. Research often attributes failures in self-regulation to overwhelming and uncontrollable impulses. However, research also supports the idea that cognitive factors (e.g., justification) can license tempting behavior and allow individuals to behave in ways that run counter to their long-term goals. In addition, it is likely that affect plays a role in justification-based self-control failure. The current set of three studies investigated the role of affect in justification-based self-control failure. Study 1 tested the prediction that recall of past successes would result in increased positive affect. Study 2 assessed whether justification results ...


Nonverbal Synchrony And Pronoun Use In Romantic Dyads, John A. Moran 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Nonverbal Synchrony And Pronoun Use In Romantic Dyads, John A. Moran

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Testing An Adapted And Integrated Model Of Motivation To Lead And Intention To Apply, Mandolen Mull 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Testing An Adapted And Integrated Model Of Motivation To Lead And Intention To Apply, Mandolen Mull

Human Resource Development Theses and Dissertations

Leader development is a growing field of study within the leadership and human resource development (HRD) fields. As such, various studies have evaluated the traits, skills, and situational influences that contribute to an individual’s likelihood of becoming a leader. However, often researchers fail to examine an individual’s intention to apply for a leadership position within their examination of an individual’s leadership potential. Although prior research has examined the motivation to lead (MTL), very little research has examined the relationship between an individual’s MTL and their intention to apply for a leadership position. Furthermore, no research to ...


Social Media Representation And Self-Esteem, Charlton Lyons, Sevon Baxley 2018 Fort Valley State University

Social Media Representation And Self-Esteem, Charlton Lyons, Sevon Baxley

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Since the latter half of the 20th century, technology or the digital revolution has evolved the way we communicate with others. Social media became a way to express one’s personal opinions on various topics. Individuals may present themselves differently on social media than in real life. This false presentation may be an issue that could affect social relationships. The misrepresentation of oneself is illustrated in the fact that most human beings would like to be viewed in a positive light by others (Green, 2013). In this research, we address the question; does self-esteem influence a person’s self-presentation ...


Affective Influences Without Approach-Avoidance Actions: On The Congruence Between Valence And Stimulus-Response Mappings, Motonori Yamaguchi, Jing Chen 2018 Old Dominion University

Affective Influences Without Approach-Avoidance Actions: On The Congruence Between Valence And Stimulus-Response Mappings, Motonori Yamaguchi, Jing Chen

Psychology Faculty Publications

The valence of stimuli can influence performance in the spatial stimulus–response compatibility task, but this observation could arise from the process of selecting responses or selecting stimulus–response mappings. The response-selection account proposes that spatial compatible and incompatible keypress responses serve as approaching and avoiding actions to a valenced target. The mapping-selection account suggests that there is congruence between stimulus valence and stimulus–response mappings; positive-compatible/negative-incompatible is more congruent than negative-compatible/positive-incompatible. Whereas affective valence was part of the target stimuli to which participants responded in previous studies, the present study isolated affective valence from the target by ...


Questionable Research Practices When Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Marcus Crede 2018 Iowa State University

Questionable Research Practices When Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Marcus Crede

Psychology Publications

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe common questionable research practices (QRPs) engaged in by management researchers who use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as part of their analysis.

Design/methodology/approach The authors describe seven questionable analytic practices and then review one year of journal articles published in three top-tier management journals to estimate the base rate of these practices.

Findings The authors find that CFA analyses are characterized by a high base rate of QRPs with one practice occurring for over 90 percent of all assessed articles.

Research limitations/implications The findings of this paper call into ...


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