Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Experimental Analysis of Behavior Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,720 Full-Text Articles 2,297 Authors 303,951 Downloads 171 Institutions

All Articles in Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Faceted Search

1,720 full-text articles. Page 1 of 52.

The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam 2020 Dominican University of California

The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam

Nursing | Senior Theses

This paper attempts to examine the neurological, physical, and societal effects of e-cigarette use among youth and young-adults in North America. Furthermore, the paper investigates the parallels between e-cigarette users, tobacco users, and dual users in regard to behavioral patterns, reasons for use, and age of initiation.


Wrongful Conviction Documentaries: Influences Of Crime Media Exposure On Mock Juror Decision-Making, Patricia Y. Sanchez 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Wrongful Conviction Documentaries: Influences Of Crime Media Exposure On Mock Juror Decision-Making, Patricia Y. Sanchez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychology and law researchers have urged colleagues to collaborate with the makers of popular media, such as documentary filmmakers, in efforts to educate the general public about wrongful convictions (Kassin, 2017; Wells et al., 2000). Recently, programs depicting wrongful convictions, such as Making a Murderer (Demos & Ricciardi, 2015) and When They See Us (DuVernay, 2019) have garnered substantial viewership. Research on general and case-specific pretrial publicity (Daftary-Kapur et al., 2014; Kovera, 2002) and the effects of crime media (Baskin & Sommers, 2010; Schweitzer & Saks, 2007) demonstrate that although consuming crime-related media and being exposed to information about a criminal trial can influence jurors’ attitudes, these effects do not always translate into informed case decisions (Holmgren & Fordham, 2011; Kim et al., 2009). This research aimed to answer the following question: does exposure to commentary on the risk factors of wrongful conviction, such as eyewitness errors and false confessions, lead viewers to become more discriminating as jurors, voting to convict when the primary ...


Assessing Sex Differences In The Effects Of Short-Term Rem Sleep On Anxiety- And Depressive-Like Behaviors In Rats, Nadia Meshkati 2020 Seton Hall University

Assessing Sex Differences In The Effects Of Short-Term Rem Sleep On Anxiety- And Depressive-Like Behaviors In Rats, Nadia Meshkati

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Findings from both human and animal studies suggest rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances following a traumatic event can lead to inability to extinguish the fear association, and eventually influence the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, research has demonstrated that sleep disruptions, including REM sleep deprivation (RSD), increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and states in animals and people, with evidence of sex differences. Furthermore, it has yet to be determined whether short-term RSD, a more natural animal model of PTSD, can influence affective state of subjects. The present study applied short-term RSD to investigate sex differences in the ...


Using Video Modeling To Teach Staff How To Implement Preference Assessments, Megan Weaver 2020 Utah State University

Using Video Modeling To Teach Staff How To Implement Preference Assessments, Megan Weaver

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Identification of reinforcers through preference assessments for individuals with disabilities is an important task because it increases the probability of skill development, including academic tasks, self-help skills, social skills, and behavior modification. Teachers of students with disabilities often experience problems with training paraprofessionals to implement preference assessments using written instructions alone. In this study, researchers will investigate whether video modeling will be more effective than written instruction to staff to implement preference assessments. Participants will include three to five paraprofessionals in a classroom setting with no previous behavior analysis training on preference assessments and three to five students in a ...


Previous Experiences Drive Attention, Sunghyun Kim 2020 Louisiana State University

Previous Experiences Drive Attention, Sunghyun Kim

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Traditionally, the allocation of attention was understood within goal-driven and stimulus-driven factors. However, the traditional approach cannot fully account for the mechanism of attentional orienting. Instead, a growing body of evidence shows that previous search experiences, irrelevant to both goal-driven and stimulus-driven factors, influence attentional allocation. For example, when contexts predict information of targets, the contexts guide attention toward the stimuli having the information predicted by the contexts: contextual cueing. In addition, more valuable stimuli attract more attention: value-driven attentional capture. However, two critical issues are present. First, contextual cueing has been found largely when the contexts and the target ...


Distress Tolerance In Relation To Treatment Persistence, Engagement, And Improvement In An Exposure-Based Treatment For Sexually Abused Incarcerated Women, Ilana S. Berman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Distress Tolerance In Relation To Treatment Persistence, Engagement, And Improvement In An Exposure-Based Treatment For Sexually Abused Incarcerated Women, Ilana S. Berman

Theses and Dissertations

Incarcerated populations are disproportionately affected by traumatic experiences and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many effective treatments for PTSD utilize exposure-based techniques which require engaging with emotionally distressing content. However, individuals with PTSD and low distress tolerance (DT) are more likely than those with PTSD and higher DT to engage in avoidant coping behaviors and have relatively high treatment attrition rates in general. This study explored relations between DT and treatment persistence, engagement, and improvement in incarcerated women (N = 85) enrolled in an 8-week exposure-based sexual assault recovery group at a minimum-security prison. I hypothesized lower baseline levels of ...


America's Newest Boogeyman For Deviant Teen Behavior: Violent Video Games And The First Amendment, Joseph C. Alfe, Grant D. Talabay 2020 Straus Institute, Pepperdine School of Law

America's Newest Boogeyman For Deviant Teen Behavior: Violent Video Games And The First Amendment, Joseph C. Alfe, Grant D. Talabay

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Are violent video games harming America’s youth? Is it possible a series of interconnected circuit boards can influence children (or even adults) to become, themselves, violent? If so, how should our society-- and government-- respond?

To properly answer this last query, violent video games must be viewed through the lens of the First Amendment. Simply put: do games depicting grotesque acts of depravity so profound as to negatively influence the psyche warrant the full constitutional protections ordinarily guaranteed under the mantle of free speech and expression? Are these guarantees without limit? If not, how far may the government go ...


Time-Of-Day Differences In Treatment-Related Habit Strength And Adherence, L. Alison Phillips, Edith Burns, Howard Leventhal 2020 Iowa State University

Time-Of-Day Differences In Treatment-Related Habit Strength And Adherence, L. Alison Phillips, Edith Burns, Howard Leventhal

Psychology Publications

Background. Many of our daily behaviors are habitual, occurring automatically in response to learned contextual cues, and with minimal need for cognitive and self-regulatory resources. Behavioral habit strength predicts adherence to actions, including to medications. The time of day (morning vs. evening) may influence adherence and habit strength to the degree that stability of contexts/routines varies throughout the day.

Purpose. The current study evaluates whether patients are more adherent to morning versus evening doses of medication and if morning doses show evidence of greater habit strength than evening doses.

Methods. Objective adherence data (exact timing of pill dosing) were ...


The Interactive Effects Of Associative Response Priming And Personality Traits On Insight Problem Solving Over Time, Yu-Chu Yeh, Pei-Hsin Li, Chung-Wei Lin 2020 National Chengchi University

The Interactive Effects Of Associative Response Priming And Personality Traits On Insight Problem Solving Over Time, Yu-Chu Yeh, Pei-Hsin Li, Chung-Wei Lin

Journal of Global Education and Research

Priming effect is, in a great part, an implicit learning mechanism; it may influence insight problem solving both consciously and unconsciously. The present study investigates interactions between personality traits and priming effects in insight problem solving involving novel object associations in complex situations over time. Based on the findings of past literature, a two-path (conscious vs. unconscious process) model exploring the moderation effects of two personality traits (emotional creativity and Big Five personality traits) were analyzed in this study. One hundred and fifteen college students participated in a randomized block design experiment (non-primed vs. primed) which included three runs of ...


Scope Of Attention Variation As A Function Of Anxiety And Depression, Kathleen O'Donnell 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Scope Of Attention Variation As A Function Of Anxiety And Depression, Kathleen O'Donnell

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As a social species, correct emotional perception is so vital, that the human brain has evolved a mechanism to control attentional choices by exerting a narrowed field of perception during danger, called the scope of attention (SoA). The SoA determines what information will be focused on or ignored by blocking the perception of non-relevant items and increasing selective focus on danger; even if danger is merely a sad-face. The emotional items blocked from perception cannot be remembered because they were never perceived. But, attention-control to emotional stimuli also varies with mood, as seen in mood-disorders. A mood-disorder’s effect upon ...


A Screenplay For Bystander Intervention For Sexual Harassment Scenarios For College Students, Shanti Herzog 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Screenplay For Bystander Intervention For Sexual Harassment Scenarios For College Students, Shanti Herzog

Journalism

This project was developed to describe the drafting of a screenplay for an interactive, virtual reality sexual harassment training module for students of the California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo. The research began with the examination of the prevalent and persisting issue of sexual harassment within college campus communities, and how to present college students with the tools to intervene as bystanders, thus encouraging them to intervene when encountering sexual harassment scenarios. The resulting screenplay was written to provide college students at Cal Poly with strategies to identify and take action when encountering sexual harassment, especially in small group gatherings ...


Lessons To Be Learned: The Abuse Of Eminent Domain Power For Economic Development In Comparative Perspective, Xinxou Zhou 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Lessons To Be Learned: The Abuse Of Eminent Domain Power For Economic Development In Comparative Perspective, Xinxou Zhou

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


The History And Reality Of The Market Failures Approach To Business Ethics, Kara Zhang 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The History And Reality Of The Market Failures Approach To Business Ethics, Kara Zhang

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


San Antonio Independent School District V. Rodriguez: Equal Protection Doctrinal Evolution And Implications On School Segregation Today, Anthony Chen 2020 University of Pennsylvania

San Antonio Independent School District V. Rodriguez: Equal Protection Doctrinal Evolution And Implications On School Segregation Today, Anthony Chen

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


An Ethical Equation Of Corporate And Environmental Personhood: The Salmon River Commands Rights, Katherine Poole 2020 University of Pennsylvania

An Ethical Equation Of Corporate And Environmental Personhood: The Salmon River Commands Rights, Katherine Poole

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


A Flawed Case For Inequity Aversion: Revisiting The Criticisms Of Binmore And Shaked (2010), Ammar Plumber 2020 University of Pennsylvania

A Flawed Case For Inequity Aversion: Revisiting The Criticisms Of Binmore And Shaked (2010), Ammar Plumber

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


A Letter From The Editor, Jenna Liu 2020 University of Pennsylvania

A Letter From The Editor, Jenna Liu

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Estimating Predictors Of Mental Well-Being Through Analysis Of Children’S Drawings: The Case Of Syrian Refugees, Stephanie Smith 2020 University of San Francisco

Estimating Predictors Of Mental Well-Being Through Analysis Of Children’S Drawings: The Case Of Syrian Refugees, Stephanie Smith

Master's Theses

There are currently over 65 million individuals that have been forcibly displaced globally. The cumulative trauma that comes from the refugee experience and exposure to violence has proven to have long-term negative psychological outcomes and thus negative impacts on human capital in the long run. Given that over 50% percent of the global refugee population are children, the ability to efficiently and accurately assess their mental well-being is of critical importance. Using data from over 2000 refugee children in Jordan, I use machine learning techniques to find key predictors of psychological distress, PTSD, and exposure to violence found in children ...


The Maze Of Personality: Latency And Electric Organ Discharge In A Mormyrid Fish, Gnathonemus Petersii Gunther 1862 (Mormyridae, Teleostei), Abbey C. Lipe 2020 CUNY Hunter College

The Maze Of Personality: Latency And Electric Organ Discharge In A Mormyrid Fish, Gnathonemus Petersii Gunther 1862 (Mormyridae, Teleostei), Abbey C. Lipe

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Personality is individual differences in behavior, consistent across contexts. Among Gnathonemus petersii we investigated, we hypothesized that fish could be grouped by: (1) slow/fast maze performance, (2) low/high electric frequencies, (3) correlated latency and frequency. Our first two hypothesis were not supported. Our third hypothesis was partially supported.


Gender, Race, And Childhood Abuse As Predictors Of Borderline Personality Disorder, Olivia Moses 2020 East Tennessee State University

Gender, Race, And Childhood Abuse As Predictors Of Borderline Personality Disorder, Olivia Moses

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a debilitating personality disorder that impacts anywhere between 1% to 5% of Americans. Studies claim that women are significantly more at risk than men to suffer from this disorder and may experience stronger symptoms. Previous research has found that victims of childhood abuse such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect are more at risk for developing Borderline Personality Disorder as adults, particularly when abuse is paired with genetic susceptibility. Some researchers claim that there are no detectable racial differences in Borderline Personality Disorder, but previous studies often have very small sample sizes taken from ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress