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Individual Differences In Social Play Behaviour Predict Alcohol Intake And Control Over Alcohol Seeking In Rats, Heidi M. B. Lesscher, E. J. Marijke Achterberg, Stephen M. Siviy, Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren 2021 Utrecht University

Individual Differences In Social Play Behaviour Predict Alcohol Intake And Control Over Alcohol Seeking In Rats, Heidi M. B. Lesscher, E. J. Marijke Achterberg, Stephen M. Siviy, Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren

Psychology Faculty Publications

Rationale

Social play behaviour is a rewarding social activity displayed by young mammals, thought to be important for the development of brain and behaviour. Indeed, disruptions of social play behaviour in rodents have been associated with cognitive deficits and augmented sensitivity to self-administration of substances of abuse, including alcohol, later in life. However, the relation between social development and loss of control over substance use, a key characteristic of substance use disorders including alcohol use disorder (AUD), has not been investigated. Moreover, it remains unknown how inherent differences in playfulness relate to differences in the sensitivity to substance use and …


Individual Differences And Ecological Validity Of Emotion Regulation In Response To Sadness, Colin M. Bosma 2021 The University of Maine

Individual Differences And Ecological Validity Of Emotion Regulation In Response To Sadness, Colin M. Bosma

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The majority of research on emotion regulation processes has been restricted to controlled laboratory settingsthat use experimental paradigms to investigate short-term outcomes (Berking & Wupperman, 2012). A true understanding of emotion regulation requires an unobtrusive, ecologically valid assessment of the construct as it naturally unfolds in the environment. Digital phenotyping, or moment-by-moment quantification of individual-level human behavior using data from smartphone sensors (Torous & Onnela, 2016), is a novel method for evaluating human behavior in naturalistic settings. The present project is the first to implement digital phenotyping in the investigation of emotion regulation.

The central aim of the study was …


A Critical Review On The Moderating Role Of Contextual Factors In The Associations Between Video Gaming And Well-Being, Andree HARTANTO, Verity Yu Qing LUA, Frosch Yi Xuan QUEK, Jose C. YONG, Matthew H. S. NG 2021 Singapore Management University

A Critical Review On The Moderating Role Of Contextual Factors In The Associations Between Video Gaming And Well-Being, Andree Hartanto, Verity Yu Qing Lua, Frosch Yi Xuan Quek, Jose C. Yong, Matthew H. S. Ng

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The appeal of video gaming has undoubtedly withstood the test of time. In view of its increasing popularity, lay people and researchers alike have taken an interest in the psychological consequences of video gaming. However, there seems to be a paradox associated with the effect of video gaming on gamers' well-being—namely, while most video game players cite “fun” as their motivation to play video games, video games continue to hold a notorious reputation among some researchers for being detrimental to mental health and emotional well-being as measured by indicators such as happiness, perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. We suggest …


Differences In Compulsive-Like Ethanol Consumption In Adolescent-Trained And Adult-Trained Rats Exposed To Acute Isolation Stressors, Maria J. Lopez 2021 Seton Hall University

Differences In Compulsive-Like Ethanol Consumption In Adolescent-Trained And Adult-Trained Rats Exposed To Acute Isolation Stressors, Maria J. Lopez

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The Pavlovian Conditioned Approach (PCA) procedure is an experimental procedure used with animals to induce compulsive-like behaviors directed towards an object conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a sucrose pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) presented in a nearby food tray (sign tracking). When the object CS is an alcohol-containing bottle, the rats demonstrate compulsive-like interactions with the bottle object (e.g., approach, contact, and licking) that also results in alcohol consumption (drinking) in most rats. Compulsive alcohol drinking in a sign-tracking procedure is a result of the combined effects of schedule-induced compulsive-like behavior and the intake of alcohol (Tomie & Sharma, 2013).

The …


Acceptability And Effectiveness Of A Novel Cycling Training On The Parkinsonian Motor And Psychiatric Symptoms In Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study, Mehmet Uygur, Thomas J. Dinzeo 2021 Rowan University

Acceptability And Effectiveness Of A Novel Cycling Training On The Parkinsonian Motor And Psychiatric Symptoms In Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study, Mehmet Uygur, Thomas J. Dinzeo

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Background Recent evidence suggests that high-speed, low-resistance stationary cycling training (termed as speedwork) alleviates motor symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease. Similar motor symptoms commonly exist in people with schizophrenia (Sz); however, they were neglected in the previous literature. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate if speedwork could also be used as a strategy to improve parkinsonian motor symptoms in Sz. We aimed 1) to evaluate the adherence and acceptability of speedwork in Sz, 2) to assess test-retest reliability of the motor assessments that are novel to Sz research, 3) to evaluate the effectiveness of speedwork in improving parkinsonian motor, …


Bibliometric Survey On The Effects Of Technology Addiction, Dipashri Sisodiya Miss, Dhanya Pramod Mrs 2021 Symbiosis International University

Bibliometric Survey On The Effects Of Technology Addiction, Dipashri Sisodiya Miss, Dhanya Pramod Mrs

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

In today’s technology-centric era, our lives have become vastly dependent on the internet. The internet is widely used for social media to connect, communicate, share and collaborate. However, constant usage of technology can increase compulsion or addiction. This bibliometric survey describes the various types of effects of technology addiction on Human body. The purpose of this research is to examine the different types of technology addiction research published in the journal between 2001 to 2020 in different regions in the World. The Bibliometric analysis is done using Scopus. Scopus and VOS Viewer were used to plot a recurrence of keywords, …


Choice Overload, Information Acquisition, And Gift Incentives In An Altruistic Context: Economic Experiments Exploring Decision Making In Charitable Giving, Jessica Adach White 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Choice Overload, Information Acquisition, And Gift Incentives In An Altruistic Context: Economic Experiments Exploring Decision Making In Charitable Giving, Jessica Adach White

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation contains three essays on economic experiments concerning altruistic motives. The first chapter, “Choice Overload and Charitable Giving: Can There Be Too Much of a Good Thing?” concentrates on the effects of list sizes of charitable options on an individual’s decision making. The second chapter, “Is No News Good News? Motivated Reasoning in Charitable Giving,” focuses on the impact of information acquisition on an individual’s altruistic contributions. Finally, the third chapter, “Thank You, but No Thank You: Gift Incentives in Charitable Giving,” investigates gift incentives and their influence on donating behavior.

In the first chapter, “Choice Overload and Charitable …


Synergy Between Behavioural Research On Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) Conducted In Zoological And Wild Settings, Heather Manitzas Hill, Deirdre Yeater, Michael Noonan 2021 St. Mary’s University

Synergy Between Behavioural Research On Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) Conducted In Zoological And Wild Settings, Heather Manitzas Hill, Deirdre Yeater, Michael Noonan

Psychology Faculty Publications

Behavioural observations of captive beluga whales have complemented and extended much of what has been learnt about this species in the wild. Aquarium-based research has provided finer-scale specificity for many topics, including the seasonal breeding pattern that is characteristic of this species, as well as socio-sexual behaviour that appears to be an important part of the behavioural repertoire of this species. One example is a strong propensity for male–male social interactions that begin to develop at an early age. In addition, detailed behavioural milestones in calves have been documented in ways that extend that which have been collected from wild …


Body Swapping With A Black Person Boosts Empathy: Using Virtual Reality To Embody Another, Rémi Thériault, Jay A. Olson, Sonia A. Krol, Amir Raz 2021 McGill University

Body Swapping With A Black Person Boosts Empathy: Using Virtual Reality To Embody Another, Rémi Thériault, Jay A. Olson, Sonia A. Krol, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Perspective-taking, whether through imagination or virtual-reality interventions, seems to improve intergroup relations; however, which intervention leads to better outcomes remains unclear. This preregistered study collected measures of empathy and race bias from 90 participants, split into one of three perspective-taking groups: embodied perspective-taking, mental perspective-taking, and a control group. We drew on virtual-reality technology alongside a Black confederate across all conditions. Only in the first group, participants got to exchange real-time viewpoints with the confederate and literally “see through the eyes of another.” In the two other conditions, participants either imagined a day in the life of the Black confederate …


Representation Of Reward And Risk In The Brain’S Motor System: Studies In Adolescents And Adults, Xingjie Chen 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Representation Of Reward And Risk In The Brain’S Motor System: Studies In Adolescents And Adults, Xingjie Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

In the neuroscience of economic decision making, the brain’s motor system has been ascribed a role in implementing choice actions. However, recent work has revealed canonical motor signals much in advance of choice action, possibly indicating their role in evaluation of decision options. In the current dissertation, we applied multimodal neuroimaging combining EEG and fMRI and used a novel paradigm that temporally separated the evaluation phase from the action phase of a decision-making process to investigate the mechanisms through which the motor control system contributes to decision making. Additionally, we further examined the developmental changes during the two phases of …


Sustaining Continuous Improvement In Public Sector Services Through Double Loop Learning, Chris Buckell MSc, Mairi Macintyre Assoc. Prof. 2021 University of Warwick

Sustaining Continuous Improvement In Public Sector Services Through Double Loop Learning, Chris Buckell Msc, Mairi Macintyre Assoc. Prof.

International Conference on Lean Six Sigma

Abstract

Purpose: Public Service Organisations (PSOs) are facing continuing funding challenges and increased pressure to maintain and improve service delivery with fewer resources. One response, with the promise of improving efficiency rather than cutting services, has been to implement Continuous Improvement (CI) but success has been sporadic and unpredictable. The well documented and pervasive CI methodologies in PSOs, including Lean and Six Sigma, have general agreement across practitioners and scholars alike, thus the reasons behind their potted success must lie elsewhere, in the culture or the environment perhaps? This work explores the wider contextual issues of CI implementation with the …


Motivation For Physical Training In Army Rotc Cadets, Christina Frederick, Stephen Rice, Grace Richards, Keith Ruskin, Kyle Gatrost 2021 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Motivation For Physical Training In Army Rotc Cadets, Christina Frederick, Stephen Rice, Grace Richards, Keith Ruskin, Kyle Gatrost

Publications

The present study used Self-Determination Theory to study motivation for physical training (PT) in ARMY ROTC cadets (n=139). Results found that length of participation in ROTC lowered cadets’ intrinsic motivation, which then resulted in lower levels of enjoyment for PT. Application of results for future training is discussed.


Fostering Attachment In Romantic Relationships Through Creative Art Therapies, Mary Hachey 2021 Lesley University

Fostering Attachment In Romantic Relationships Through Creative Art Therapies, Mary Hachey

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Attachment theory examines the infant/caregiver’s relationship by the attachment style they develop in the first years of life. Over time, these same attachment styles affect adult romantic relationships. Bowlby defines four infant/children attachment styles as securely attached, anxious-ambivalent-insecurely attached, avoidant-insecurely attached, and disorganized-disoriented-insecurely attached. These four styles transferred into three main types for adults: secure, anxious-ambivalent, and avoidant. A couple’s relationship can become affected by personal values, behaviors, environmental situations, attachment styles, and beyond. This literature review discusses how couples behave, relate, and interact with one another based on their attachment styles and it also gives critical details on how …


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson 2021 The University of San Francisco

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is …


Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson 2021 Kennesaw State University

Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson

Symposium of Student Scholars

The research shows how religious leaders have been affected and have attempted to adapt to COVID-19. The research was compiled of responses from religious leaders and affiliates to get a better understanding of their opinions. The data we are collecting is being analyzed so that we, the researchers, can determine if religious leaders are using their title to lead the community that follows them on the safest path or not, as well as if they are spreading an accurate message to their community about the COVID-19 Pandemic. The purpose of being able to identify how religious leaders are responding to …


The Relation Of Therapist Behaviors To Treatment Engagement And Outcomes In Pcit, Kristine Gese BA 2021 University of San Diego

The Relation Of Therapist Behaviors To Treatment Engagement And Outcomes In Pcit, Kristine Gese Ba

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has proven to be a very effective treatment for child behavioral problems, however, PCIT does not benefit all families equally, presumably at least partly because therapists may not be equally effective in coaching their clients. Although researchers have proposed several dimensions of therapist coaching behaviors that are considered desirable, few of these have been empirically examined in relation to family engagement or child outcomes. Data from two clinical trials examining the effectiveness of culturally modified versions of PCIT (GANA and PersIn), were used to investigate which of several therapist coaching behaviors (brevity, positivity, consistency, accuracy, …


Factors Affecting Pubertal Timing And Perceptions Of Birth Control, Ashley L. Gomm 2021 Bridgewater State University

Factors Affecting Pubertal Timing And Perceptions Of Birth Control, Ashley L. Gomm

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Menarche is the occurrence of a first menstrual period in the female adolescent. The age of menarche has been decreasing over the past 150 years. While some factors have been identified, like increased body mass index (BMI), such factors alone cannot account for the overall decrease in age.

Due to the decreased age of menarche and as additional uses for oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been identified, it is becoming clear that females no longer use “birth control” or “oral contraceptives” primarily to prevent pregnancy, but instead for a myriad other reasons including “menstrual suppression.” Menstrual suppression is …


Qanon: The Effects Of Radical Ideology On Conspiracy Belief, Sam Andrus 2021 Chapman University

Qanon: The Effects Of Radical Ideology On Conspiracy Belief, Sam Andrus

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The study of conspiracy theories has existed for many decades, however, a new species of conspiracy, labeled QAnon, has surfaced in recent years - QAnon theories are directly tied to current radical politics and former President Donald Trump. My research will aim to explain how the outlandish and often racist beliefs of QAnon followers have come to be not only believed but have affected so many people that a terrorist attack on the United States Capitol occurred as a result. My research will include analysis of the Chapman Survey of American Fears which includes people on both sides of the …


Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips 2021 Cleveland State University

Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Personality research centered on the Big Five personality traits has heavily impacted our understanding in regards to what forces orient a person on a political spectrum. Examining how personality differences interact with political orientation, this research seeks to provide information on what makes someone either more or less likely to be liberal or conservative based on their temperament. In this paper, previous personality research is synthesized into one discussion, centered on what the effects of each trait are and how they impact political orientation, the heritability of personality, and what implications there are for such research in the realm of …


Better Together? Effects Of Dyadic Collaboration On Intertemporal Preference, Emily Edgington 2021 James Madison University

Better Together? Effects Of Dyadic Collaboration On Intertemporal Preference, Emily Edgington

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Abstract

Intertemporal choices have been researched extensively in the context of individual choices. However, empirical evidence is absent regarding intertemporal preferences when two individuals collaborate on a choice task. This study aimed to compare the rates of discounting under the condition of dyadic collaboration and individual decisions. Furthermore, this study examined the collaboration sessions in an online video conferencing platform. Results showed a strong, positive correlation between average individual discounting rates and corresponding dyad rates of discounting. The findings of this study should be considered when making intertemporal decisions.

Key Words: delay discounting, group decision-making, online collaboration


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