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Be More: Buffering Against Gender Stereotypes By Building Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Erica Mohr 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Be More: Buffering Against Gender Stereotypes By Building Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Erica Mohr

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Research shows that organizations perform better when women are represented on senior leadership teams. Yet women are not rising to the highest ranks of leadership at equivalent rates as men. Gender stereotypes negatively influence women’s self-efficacy, the internal beliefs of what they are capable of. Women hold themselves back when they respond to these low self-efficacy beliefs, by not aspiring, not applying, not asking, and not acting. This paper explores current leadership gap data and the consequences of the disparity between men and women in leadership roles. Next, the paper describes how stereotypes can create the underlying problem: limiting ...


Legal Optimism: Restoring Trust In The Criminal Justice System Through Procedural Justice, Positive Psychology And Just Culture Event Reviews, John Hollway 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Legal Optimism: Restoring Trust In The Criminal Justice System Through Procedural Justice, Positive Psychology And Just Culture Event Reviews, John Hollway

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Like any complex, dynamic system, the American criminal justice system makes mistakes. Unfortunately, criminal justice organizations lack a systematic process enabling them to learn from cases of error. Ignoring or minimizing errors erodes organizational legitimacy and contributes to a downward spiral of legal cynicism that increases violent crime. This paper describes the application of positive psychology and procedural justice to restore legal optimism – confidence and trust that the criminal justice system will respond in a just fashion to criminal activity – through Just Culture Event Reviews (JCERs), non-blaming multi-stakeholder reviews of cases where the system has erred. JCERs identify contributing factors ...


Employee Perceptions Of Well-Being Programs, Alice V. Edwards, Susan Marcus 2018 Walden University

Employee Perceptions Of Well-Being Programs, Alice V. Edwards, Susan Marcus

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Measuring the effectiveness of well-being programs in the workplace is important for optimizing the return on investment and selection of programs that meet organizational objectives. A pilot study was performed to assess employee well-being using the Happiness Mini-Survey and a one-sample pre–post study design intended to quickly allow employees to subjectively rate their well-being before and after participating in various classes as part of a well-being program. The findings demonstrated statistical significance in employee subjective ratings; they reported feeling better emotionally, physically, and mentally after participating in the classes. The employees’ self-rating for stress level also had statistically significant ...


Differences In Self-Perceptions At Work Between Citizens And Undocumented Immigrants, Marcos Guevara 2018 California State University – San Bernardino

Differences In Self-Perceptions At Work Between Citizens And Undocumented Immigrants, Marcos Guevara

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research examined if differences in social categories between two groups, natural—born U.S. citizens and undocumented immigrants with deferred action (DACA) led to differences in self-perceptions at work in areas such as Occupational Self-Efficacy (OSE), Organization Based Self-Esteem (OBSE), and Perceived Employability (PE). Additionally, the effect of Perceived Supervisor Similarity (PSS) on these relationships was also observed. Results showed significant differences only in PE with the DACA group having an unexpectedly higher level than the citizen group. The model was supported as OSE, OBSE, and PSS all significantly predicted PSS in both groups. Lastly, interaction effects were only ...


Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The concept of mattering is an underdeveloped, yet important component of an employee’s success in the workplace, and personal well-being. Deficit-based leadership strategies employed by many organizations can break-down the ability for an employee to feel that they and their work matter, however, the focus by leaders on mattering can lead employees to feel: my leader is invested in my success, I am noticed, I am cared about, I am depended upon, I would be missed if I were not here, my leader is interested in what I say and do, I am appreciated, and I am noticed for ...


A Human-Systems Approach To Proactively Managing Risk Through Training In An Evolving Aviation Industry, Michael W. Sawyer, Katherine A. Berry, Jason P. Kring, Edward M. Austrian 2018 Partner, Principal Human Factors Engineer, Fort Hill Group

A Human-Systems Approach To Proactively Managing Risk Through Training In An Evolving Aviation Industry, Michael W. Sawyer, Katherine A. Berry, Jason P. Kring, Edward M. Austrian

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The Aviation industry is rapidly evolving through increased automation on the flight deck, new air traffic control tools and procedures, and expanded applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The majority of these enhancements will rely on human operators (pilots, air traffic controllers, dispatchers, etc.) in order to be safely integrated into the National Airspace System. The staggered development cycle of these technological changes, coupled with independent development teams and relatively limited operational testing opportunities, can create significant challenges. These technological enhancements must be met with similarly rapid advancements in risk mitigation and training.

In this presentation we describe a standardized ...


Testing A New Model Of Team Interdependence, Natasha E. Ouslis 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Testing A New Model Of Team Interdependence, Natasha E. Ouslis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Companies rely on teams to combine their different skills and solve multidisciplinary problems (Engestrom, 2008; Schrage, 1995). One crucial characteristic of teams is their interdependent nature (Sundstrom, de Meuse, & Futrell, 1990). However, interdependence as a construct is not well understood and its role in dynamic team processes is not clear. Recent theoretical advances have proposed a new model of interdependence – one that places two forms of interdependence at the beginning of a path that leads through task and social constructs to team effectiveness (Courtright, Thurgood, Stewart, & Pierotti, 2015). This new model was tested in two data sets of engineering student ...


The Power Of Happiness, Sarah R. Romney 2018 Brigham Young University

The Power Of Happiness, Sarah R. Romney

Marriott Student Review

This article synthesizes research and psychological principles to explain the impact that one’s attitude can have oneself and others. A positive attitude is contagious and can help one perform better, be more motivated, and earn a higher wage. It can also increase team performance and help others be happy to receive the same benefits. By focusing on their expressions and attitude, people can greatly impact the organizations they are a part of.


Living Your Calling In The Social Sector: A Theory About How To Thrive And Have A Lasting Impact In The World., Ilaina Rabbat 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Living Your Calling In The Social Sector: A Theory About How To Thrive And Have A Lasting Impact In The World., Ilaina Rabbat

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

An important and overlooked group in the topic of calling is that comprising individuals who work in the social sector, defined as individuals devoted to advancing human dignity and social justice through advocacy, service, policy research, and/or impact investing at a local, national, and global level (Tirmizi & Vogelsang, 2016). Among this group, it is possible to distinguish between those that are experiencing mainly positive outcomes because of their calling—called calling thrivers—and those who are experiencing a combination of negative and positive outcomes, called calling survivors. The aim of the study is to understand the main differences between ...


So Others May Live: Enhancing Resilience And Performance For United States Coast Guard Helicopter Rescue Swimmer Candidates To Help Close The Ast Body-To-Billet Gap, Joseph E. Glaser-Reich 2018 University of Pennsylvania

So Others May Live: Enhancing Resilience And Performance For United States Coast Guard Helicopter Rescue Swimmer Candidates To Help Close The Ast Body-To-Billet Gap, Joseph E. Glaser-Reich

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The Coast Guard is facing a shortage of entry-level Aviation Survival Technicians, more commonly known as helicopter rescue swimmers, due to high attrition from the training pipeline. Stretching thin a workforce which operates under some of the worst conditions on the planet is a recipe for injury or even loss of life. Positive and performance psychology offer tools to enhance candidates’ performance and resilience in this high-stress environment to enable them to meet rigorous graduation standards. Informed by the military’s recent focus on building resilience, traditional psychological skills training (PST) and mindfulness training (MT) offer empirically-grounded instructional paradigms to ...


Better Together: Enhancing Team Collaboration In Science (Etcsi) To Improve Well-Being And Medicine Discovery, Lara S. Kallander 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Better Together: Enhancing Team Collaboration In Science (Etcsi) To Improve Well-Being And Medicine Discovery, Lara S. Kallander

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Public health is dependent on the discovery of new medicines, and due to the considerable investment already required, the discovery process needs to be made more efficient. One approach is to use positive psychology to enhance collaboration among scientific researchers, which would lead to the discovery of more medicines by enhancing innovation, problem solving, and decision making. Scientists are technical experts that are not trained in collaboration skills despite this being critical to their success in the workplace. A one-day training program has been developed here to enhance team collaboration in science (ETCSi). Building skills in trust, communication, and belonging ...


Finding The Silver Lining: How Positive Psychology Can Help You Use Critical Feedback To Flourish, Mary Beth Rettger 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Finding The Silver Lining: How Positive Psychology Can Help You Use Critical Feedback To Flourish, Mary Beth Rettger

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

We all need feedback to grow professionally and improve our skills. Our cognitive biases and limited perspective mean it is imperative that we draw on others to help us see what we cannot, and point us to new strategies to achieve our goals. But, even if you agree with that sentiment, you might find it emotionally wrenching to hear that your work falls short or could be improved: many of us avoid or reject beneficial, but critical, feedback. And, sometimes negative feedback is inexpertly delivered, making it even harder to hear. Positive psychology aims to help people flourish; while it ...


Ignatian Spirituality In Vocational Career Development: An Experimental Study Of Emerging Adults, Scott Campanario 2018 Seattle Pacific University

Ignatian Spirituality In Vocational Career Development: An Experimental Study Of Emerging Adults, Scott Campanario

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Dissertations

Traditional undergraduate students fall in an age range known as emerging adulthood, a development stage of life characterized by freedom and exploration in pursuit of understanding one’s identity. This is an important developmental process because a failure to discern this identity and what one finds meaningful can be associated with numerous harmful outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. Conversely, coming to a better understanding of one’s identity is also associated with the number of positive outcomes such as hope, life satisfaction, and career planning. Therefore, institutions of higher education have both an opportunity and an obligation ...


Empowering Employees To Reduce Perceptions Of Workplace Incivility, Chloe A. Cragg 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Empowering Employees To Reduce Perceptions Of Workplace Incivility, Chloe A. Cragg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Incivility is a low intensity deviant behaviour of ambiguous intent that is pervasive in many organizations. Given the cost of incivility to the employee and the organization, it is important to understand how individuals perceive this behaviour. We believe that employees who have access to opportunity, information, resources and support in their organization (i.e., structural empowerment) will be more psychologically empowered, and thus better equipped to cope with workplace stressors, leading to a reduction in the perception of uncivil behaviour. We tested our hypotheses using a survey approach with an online sample of 364 working participants. Regression analyses, mediation ...


Prosocial Behaviors: Their Motivations And Impacts On Organizational Culture, Jennifer C. Vieweg 2018 University of Charleston

Prosocial Behaviors: Their Motivations And Impacts On Organizational Culture, Jennifer C. Vieweg

The Journal of Values-Based Leadership

According to the International Corrupt Perceptions Index 2017, more than six billion people are living countries that are plagued by corruption (International Corrupt Perceptions Index, 2017). In an altruistic model of leadership, leaders act with the express intent of helping other people (Johnson, 2015). Within this model, good works manifest themselves as prosocial behaviors or “voluntary behavior(s) intended to benefit another and consisting of actions that benefit others or society” (Schminke, Arnaud, & Taylor, 2014, p. 730). These prosocial behaviors can create collaborative and inspirational environments (Axelsson & Axelsson, 2009), facilitate collectivism (Clarkson, 2014), and contribute to the long-term sustainability of ...


Examining Rating Source Differences In Narrative Performance Feedback, Kevin Doyle 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Examining Rating Source Differences In Narrative Performance Feedback, Kevin Doyle

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of the present study was to examine the narrative feedback quality and content of comments from supervisors, peers, and subordinates in a multisource performance feedback context. Research on performance management interventions tends to focus on issues such as rater training, scale development, scale formats, and reducing test and rater bias. However, other components in performance management interventions have received little attention, including narrative feedback. Narrative feedback takes the form of written comments describing the ratee’s performance on different dimensions. The narrative feedback quality variables included favorability, specificity, goal content, and feedback length. Predictor variables of narrative feedback ...


Cooperative And Competitive Priming Impacts Participatory Environmental Action, Daniel Curtin 2018 Seton Hall University

Cooperative And Competitive Priming Impacts Participatory Environmental Action, Daniel Curtin

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Environmental issues are becoming increasingly prominent in today’s psychological research. Some researchers identify cooperation as a possible underlying facilitator of proenvironmental values, or proenvironmentalism. However, previous studies had not directly addressed how manipulating cooperation and competition could influence environmentalism. This study addressed this gap in previous literature by cooperatively, competitively, or neutrally priming participants and comparing their respective environmental attitudes, environmental actions, and environmental identities. 155 participants were recruited from introductory psychology classes at Seton Hall University. Participants were randomly placed into one of three conditions and primed by writing a short passage regarding a significant personal experience acting ...


Detecting Deceptive Impression Management Behaviors In Interviews Using Natural Language Processing, Elena Margaret Lawrence Auer 2018 Old Dominion University

Detecting Deceptive Impression Management Behaviors In Interviews Using Natural Language Processing, Elena Margaret Lawrence Auer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Deceptive impression management (IM) is often used by applicants in employment interviews to improve their chances of receiving a job offer. Self-report measures of deceptive IM are typically used to evaluate interview faking in a lab setting but are limited when used in practice due to social desirability concerns. Given this limitation, natural language processing (NLP) has potential as a tool to unobtrusively assess raw interview content and measure deceptive IM. This study examined the use of open and closed-vocabulary NLP approaches for the detection of deceptive IM in mock employment interviews. In general, neither of these approaches successfully predicted ...


Word Counts In Response To Cognitively Demanding Essay Prompts As Reflections Of General Cognitive Ability And Broad Cognitive Abilities, Michael Beaumont Armstrong 2018 Old Dominion University

Word Counts In Response To Cognitively Demanding Essay Prompts As Reflections Of General Cognitive Ability And Broad Cognitive Abilities, Michael Beaumont Armstrong

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Natural language processing techniques can be used to analyze text and speech data. These techniques have been applied within many domains to date but have only recently been examined in the domain of personnel assessment. By linking workplace-relevant constructs such as general cognitive ability (GCA) to natural language processing outcomes such as word counts, a foundation for language-based psychological assessment of those abilities can be laid. Over 400 participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk to write cognitively demanding essays and complete a battery of cognitive tests. Essays were analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). Structural equation modeling ...


The Effects Of Rating Source, Rating Target, And Job Position On Ratings Of Perceived Training Needs, Phillip Joseph Dillulio 2018 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Rating Source, Rating Target, And Job Position On Ratings Of Perceived Training Needs, Phillip Joseph Dillulio

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Organizational investments in employee training and development have steadily increased over the past decade, with a recent estimate of $160 billion dollars annually. An important component of any training program is the subsequent training needs assessment (TNA), which provides critical information regarding who and what needs trained. Unfortunately, TNA research is severely limited compared to other aspects of the training process. The primary aim of the current study was to examine two important variables that can potentially influence TNA ratings beyond an actual need for training, the source and target of TNA ratings. Based on the assumptions of attribution theory ...


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