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Metatheory And Friendly Competition In Theory Growth: The Case Of Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler, Rebecca Ford 2017 Cornell University

Metatheory And Friendly Competition In Theory Growth: The Case Of Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler, Rebecca Ford

Edward J Lawler

[Excerpt] This paper analyzes the theoretical development taking place in a program of research on power processes in bargaining (see Bacharach and Lawler 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1981b; Lawler and Bacharach 1976, 1979, 1987; Lawler, Ford, and Blegen 1988; Lawler and Yoon 1990; Lawler 1986, 1992). The theoretical program takes as its starting point a situation where individuals, groups, organizations, or even societies with conflicting interests voluntarily enter into explicit bargaining. Explicit (as opposed to tacit) bargaining assumes the mutual acknowledgment of negotiations, conflicting issues along which compromise is possible, and open lines of communication through which parties can exchange offers ...


Using Relative Head And Hand-Target Features To Predict Intention In 3d Moving-Target Selection, Juan Sebastian Casallas, James H. Oliver, Jonathan W. Kelly, Frederic Merienne, Samir Garbaya 2017 Iowa State University

Using Relative Head And Hand-Target Features To Predict Intention In 3d Moving-Target Selection, Juan Sebastian Casallas, James H. Oliver, Jonathan W. Kelly, Frederic Merienne, Samir Garbaya

Jonathan W. Kelly

Abstract: Selection of moving targets is a common, yet complex task in human-computer interaction (HCI) and virtual reality (VR). Predicting user intention may be beneficial to address the challenges inherent in interaction techniques for moving-target selection. This article extends previous models by integrating relative head-target and hand-target features to predict intended moving targets. The features are calculated in a time window ending at roughly two-thirds of the total target selection time and evaluated using decision trees. With two targets, this model is able to predict user choice with up to ~ 72% accuracy on general moving-target selection tasks and up to ...


College For The Sake Of What? Promoting The Development Of Wholly Educated Students, Michael P. Yoder 2017 Seattle Pacific University

College For The Sake Of What? Promoting The Development Of Wholly Educated Students, Michael P. Yoder

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Dissertations

There is increasing pressure on institutions of higher education to accurately measure student success. What was once thought of as a way to develop students holistically via a liberal arts degree, higher education is now often regarded as a means to an end: a well-paying job. Lost in the drive for quantifiable data is the holistic development of individuals who are capable of interacting with and influencing the world around them. Thus, higher education struggles to respond to market pressures while maintaining a focus on wholly developing individuals. In this research study, it is proposed that student “success” should include ...


The Impact Of Status Differences On Coalitional Agreements: An Experimental Study, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

The Impact Of Status Differences On Coalitional Agreements: An Experimental Study, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This experiment investigated the impact of status differences between subordinates and face-to-face coalition negotiations on insurgent coalitional action. The effects of these variables were examined in stratified groups, where a leader established inequitable pay-rates, and subordinates could coalesce and destroy a portion of the leader’s outcomes. The results showed that status differences (as opposed to status similarity) undermined the sense of common interests between subordinates and reduced the severity of coalitional action against the leader. Face-to-face negotiations engendered a more cautious approach to coalition negotiations and also reduced the severity of insurgent action. The results suggest that status differences ...


Revolutionary Coalition Strength And Collective Failure As Determinants Of Status Reallocation, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Revolutionary Coalition Strength And Collective Failure As Determinants Of Status Reallocation, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This experiment investigated the effects of collective performance and coalition strength on the redistribution of status prerogatives in triads. A status hierarchy was established within triads, such that one person held higher control status and the two others held lower status. Each group performed an ambiguous, decision-making task over two trials. Collective performance (i.e., success vs failure) was manipulated via bogus feedback regarding the group’s performance, while coalition strength was manipulated by varying the extent to which the two low-status members, acting together as a revolutionary coalition, could damage the outcomes received by the high-status member. Results indicate ...


The Perception Of Power, Samuel B. Bacharach, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

The Perception Of Power, Samuel B. Bacharach, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This study examines the impact of some basic exchange-theory variables, the value and scarcity of outcomes, on perceptions of Self and Other power in a conflict setting. Each respondent took the role of an employee in conflict with an employer, and assessed the magnitude of Self and Other (employer) power. Four variables are manipulated: Self’s outcome scarcity, the value of the outcome to Self, Other’s outcome scarcity, and the value of the outcome to Other. The results are consistent with predictions drawn from the Blau, and Emerson (a, b) treatments of dependence relations. The results suggest that the ...


Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This is a theoretical article that integrates and extends a particular program of work on power in bargaining relationships. Power is conceptualized as a structurally based capability, and power use as tactical action falling within either conciliatory or hostile categories. The core propositions are (1) the greater the total amount of power in a relationship, the greater the use of conciliatory tactics and the lower the use of hostile tactics; and (2) an unequal power relationship fosters more use of hostile tactics and less use of conciliatory tactics than an equal power relationship. Distinct research on power dependence and bilateral ...


Time Pressure And The Development Of Integrative Agreements In Bilateral Negotiations, Peter J. D. Carnevale, Edward J. Lawler 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Time Pressure And The Development Of Integrative Agreements In Bilateral Negotiations, Peter J. D. Carnevale, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure on the process and outcome of integrative bargaining. Time pressure was operationalized in terms of the amount of time available to negotiate. As hypothesized, high time pressure produced nonagreements and poor negotiation outcomes only when negotiators adopted an individualistic orientation; when negotiators adopted a cooperative orientation, they achieved high outcomes regardless of time pressure. In combination with an individualistic orientation, time pressure produced greater competitiveness, firm negotiator aspirations, and reduced information exchange. In combination with a cooperative orientation, time pressure produced greater cooperativeness and lower negotiator aspirations. The main findings were ...


Resolving Conflict Through Explicit Bargaining, Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Stanford University

Resolving Conflict Through Explicit Bargaining, Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This article analyzes the impact of conciliatory initiatives on conflict resolution in two-party bargaining. It specifically develops and tests a theory of unilateral initiatives derived from Osgood's (1962) notion of Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction (GRIT). The major propositions of the theory indicate that, given a pattern of mutual resistance or hostility, unilateral initiatives and tit-for-tat retaliation in response to punitive action will produce more conciliation and less hostility by an opponent. To test the theory, a bargaining setting was created in a laboratory experiment in which parties exchanged offers and counteroffers on an issue across a ...


Structural Power And Emotional Processes In Negotiation: A Social Exchange Approach, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Yoon 2017 Cornell University

Structural Power And Emotional Processes In Negotiation: A Social Exchange Approach, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Yoon

Edward J Lawler

This chapter focuses in the abstract on when and how repeated negotiations between the same actors foster positive feelings or emotions and, in turn, an affective commitment to their relationship. However, we have in mind applications to pivotal dyads within organizations and also to the emergence of "friction” or "stickiness” in market relations. Implicit in the idea that negotiations in pivotal dyads shape institutional patterns is the notion that repeated negotiations between the same two actors are likely to become more than instrumental ways for the particular actors to get work done. We suggest a simple process by which dyadic ...


Cooptation And Coalition Mobilization, Edward J. Lawler, George A. Youngs Jr., Michael D. Lesh 2017 Cornell University Law School

Cooptation And Coalition Mobilization, Edward J. Lawler, George A. Youngs Jr., Michael D. Lesh

Edward J Lawler

The question addressed by this research was, “When structural circumstances make revolutionary action likely, under what conditions will a cooptation strategy prevent subordinate revolts?” Experimental procedures established a group status hierarchy consisting of a leader and two subordinates. Groups earned collective outcomes, and the leader usurped an inequitable portion of these outcomes. In this context, the first experiment shows that a cooptation strategy (i.e., offer of a promotion to one of two subordinates) inhibits subordinate revolts. Two additional experiments indicate that the cooptation strategy is most effective (a) if the offer (strategy) provides the target of cooptation a source ...


Bargaining Toughness: A Qualification Of Level-Of-Aspiration And Reciprocity Hypotheses, Edward J. Lawler, Bruce K. MacMurray 2017 Cornell University

Bargaining Toughness: A Qualification Of Level-Of-Aspiration And Reciprocity Hypotheses, Edward J. Lawler, Bruce K. Macmurray

Edward J Lawler

This research examined the interaction of initial bargaining stance and later concession strategy in dyadic bargaining. Experimental procedures pitted subjects against a programmed opponent and manipulated three variables: initial stance of the opponent across the first two bargaining rounds (tough vs. soft), deadlock vs. no deadlock, and subsequent concession strategy (tough, matching, soft). The results revealed that: (a) with a tough initial stance, a matching strategy produced greater yielding than tough or soft strategies; while in the context of a soft initial stance, a tough concession strategy produced more yielding than a matching or soft concession strategy; and (b) a ...


Endorsement Of Formal Leaders: An Integrative Model, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Endorsement Of Formal Leaders: An Integrative Model, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This experiment develops an integrative, path-analytic model for the endorsement accorded formal leaders. The model contains four independent variables reflecting aspects of group structure (i.e., group success-failure, the payoff distribution, the degree of support by others members for the leader, and the vulnerability of the leader). Also included are two intervening variables reflecting perceptual processes (attributed competence and attributed fairness), and one dependent variable (endorsement). The results indicate that endorsement is greater when the group's success is high, when the payoff distribution is flat rather than hierarchical, and when the leader is not vulnerable to removal from office ...


Comparison Of Dependence And Punitive Forms Of Power, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach 2017 Cornell University

Comparison Of Dependence And Punitive Forms Of Power, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach

Edward J Lawler

This paper deals with the impact of power on tactical action in conflict. The theory and research is organized around two conceptual distinctions: one between power based on dependence versus punitive capability, and the other between relative power (i.e., power difference) and "total power" in a relationship (i.e., across actors). The paper will argue that these distinctions are important on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Theoretically, they are important to explicate the connection between conceptions of power that stress the coercive foundation of power (Bierstedt 1950; Tedeschi, Schlenker & Bonoma 1973) and those that treat power as dependence (Bacharach & Lawler 1981; Cook & Emerson 1984; Cook et al. 1981; Emerson 1962, 1972a, 1972b; Molm ...


Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

Subjects rendered judgments regarding the power of the participants in a series of conflictual circumstances where an adversary threatened a target. These situations manipulated four independent variables: (a) the adversary's capacity to damage the target's interests, (b) the adversary's probability of actually attacking, (c) the target's ability to block the impending attack, and (d) the target's capacity to retaliate. Results showed that all of the independent variables affected the subjects' judgments of the adversary's power, while three of them (damage, blockage, and retaliation) affected judgments of the target's power. Differences in the predictive ...


Outcome Alternatives And Value As Criteria For Multistrategy Evaluations, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach 2017 Cornell University

Outcome Alternatives And Value As Criteria For Multistrategy Evaluations, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach

Edward J Lawler

No abstract provided.


Optimizing Emergency Department Throughput Using Best Practices To Improve Patient Flow, Puneet Freibott DNP, RN, NEA-BC, CCRN-K'S 2017 The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston

Optimizing Emergency Department Throughput Using Best Practices To Improve Patient Flow, Puneet Freibott Dnp, Rn, Nea-Bc, Ccrn-K'S

Journal of Nursing & Interprofessional Leadership in Quality & Safety

Emergency Department (ED) crowding and bottle necks are the reality of hospitals across the country. Patients seeking care and needing inpatient beds via the emergency rooms are facing delays with attaining the right level of care. Orchestrating a patient through an ED admission requires a multidisciplinary effort to provide safe, effective and efficient care. This quality improvement project conducted in a tertiary acute care hospital focused on Centers for Medicare and Medicaid metrics to measure Emergency Department (ED) throughput. This multidisciplinary initiative focused on reducing time stamps for patient arrival to the ED through departure to hospital or home. Outcomes ...


Using Business Modeling To Streamline Cost Of Anesthesia In A Cardiopulmonary Laboratory, Johnny Dang DNP, CRNA, Kristen Starnes-Ott PhD, CRNA 2017 The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Using Business Modeling To Streamline Cost Of Anesthesia In A Cardiopulmonary Laboratory, Johnny Dang Dnp, Crna, Kristen Starnes-Ott Phd, Crna

Journal of Nursing & Interprofessional Leadership in Quality & Safety

The Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) measurement system, a model used in the business arena, can capture clinical processes and costs that other costing models often overlook. Use of this system permitted tying costs to time and resources and identified areas of inefficiency such as depleted supplies and health care and emergency supplies placed inconveniently. A multidisciplinary team developed an anesthesia checklist for use in a remote cardiopulmonary laboratory. The compliance rate for checklist completion was approximately 85%. Checklist implementation translated to a decrease in case delays and time expenditure in patient care by 58% with a cost savings ...


An Investigation Of The Accuracy Of Parallel Analysis For Determining The Number Of Factors In A Factor Analysis, Mandy Matsumoto 2017 Western Kentucky University

An Investigation Of The Accuracy Of Parallel Analysis For Determining The Number Of Factors In A Factor Analysis, Mandy Matsumoto

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Exploratory factor analysis is an analytic technique used to determine the number of factors in a set of data (usually items on a questionnaire) for which the factor structure has not been previously analyzed. Parallel analysis (PA) is a technique used to determine the number of factors in a factor analysis. There are a number of factors that affect the results of a PA: the choice of the eigenvalue percentile, the strength of the factor loadings, the number of variables, and the sample size of the study. Although PA is the most accurate method to date to determine which factors ...


Task-Based Approach To Define Occupant Behaviour In Agent-Based Modelling, Kelly Jo Kalvelage, Michael C. Dorneich, Ulrike Passe, Caroline C. Krejci 2017 Iowa State University

Task-Based Approach To Define Occupant Behaviour In Agent-Based Modelling, Kelly Jo Kalvelage, Michael C. Dorneich, Ulrike Passe, Caroline C. Krejci

Ulrike Passe

This paper presents a development approach and design of a task-centered agent-based model (ABM) to represent the interactions of occupants with a commercial office building. The model is built with the understanding that occupant behaviour is driven by tasks the occupant performs. A contextual task analysis questionnaire explored occupant perspectives on the interactions between their tasks, their individual behaviour and comfort, and the physical characteristics of their workspace. This task-based information defines five ABM elements that represent occupants, task and workspace environment, task list, occupant actions, and the impact of the occupant-workspace interaction on tasks. An example of an occupant ...


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