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Analyzing The Effects Of Video Games On Social Anxiety And Communication, Ana S. Quigley 2023 Bard College

Analyzing The Effects Of Video Games On Social Anxiety And Communication, Ana S. Quigley

Senior Projects Spring 2023

Those with high levels of social anxiety can struggle with their communication skills, and confidence in communication. By using a virtual platform such as Zoom to communicate with others, individuals with social anxiety have shown decreased levels of anxiety, even noting that they prefer the virtual platform over face-to-face encounters (Yen et al., 2012). Video games can increase this level of anonymity that could be felt through zoom, by removing the ability to see the other individual’s face. This gives video games the opportunity to decrease anxiety levels while still requiring a degree of communication. Participants will be randomly sorted …


Effects Of Oxycodone And Methylphenidate On Self-Control With Aversive Outcomes, Jeremy Saul Langford 2023 West Virginia University

Effects Of Oxycodone And Methylphenidate On Self-Control With Aversive Outcomes, Jeremy Saul Langford

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In the context of choice, one is said to show self-control under numerous conditions in which consideration is given to the delayed outcomes of each option. This can be difficult: both reinforcing and aversive outcomes become less effective as they are increasingly delayed. Several socially significant issues arise from a failure of delayed, aversive outcomes to impact choice, especially when immediate, reinforcing outcomes are available. Identifying the conditions under which choice is sensitive to delayed outcomes is critical to shifting choices toward alternatives in which contact with delayed, aversive outcomes is minimized. Two experiments were conducted with the aim of …


Intermittent Sucrose Access: Sweetness Versus Calories, Jarret Folmer, Rudy Eikelboom 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Intermittent Sucrose Access: Sweetness Versus Calories, Jarret Folmer, Rudy Eikelboom

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Nondeprived rats receiving every 3rd day access (E3DA) to 4% sucrose solution consume more sucrose on access days compared to rats with everyday access (EDA). Rats receiving EDA or E3DA to 16% sucrose do not consume different amounts, but if placed on every 2nd day access (E2DA) to 4% sucrose E3DA-group rats consume more than EDA rats (Eikelboom, Hewitt, & Adams, 2022). E3DA affects rats’ value of sucrose but effects appear hidden with high sucrose concentrations. Valyear and Eikelboom (2021) suggested that calorie ceilings limit E3DA-induced consumption with high sucrose, but this ceiling could also be caused by …


Self-Stigma And Problematic Alcohol Use: Risk Factor, Protective Factor, Or Both?, Victoria Olegovna Chentsova 2023 College of William and Mary - Arts & Sciences

Self-Stigma And Problematic Alcohol Use: Risk Factor, Protective Factor, Or Both?, Victoria Olegovna Chentsova

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

While research has examined the effect of stigma from others towards individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), few studies have examined the relationship between perceived self-stigma related to AUD and corresponding engagement with alcohol among non-clinical samples. Present Study. The present studies examined the relationships between perceptions of self-stigma of AUD, proximity to others with AUD, and alcohol use behaviors and outcomes. Methods. In Study 1, participants (n = 3,169; 73.9% female) were college students within the U.S. recruited to participate in an online survey on substance use including questions on AUD self-stigma, alcohol use behaviors and negatives alcohol use …


Investigating Collaborative Explainable Ai (Cxai)/Social Forum As An Explainable Ai (Xai) Method In Autonomous Driving (Ad), Tauseef Ibne Mamun 2023 Michigan Technological University

Investigating Collaborative Explainable Ai (Cxai)/Social Forum As An Explainable Ai (Xai) Method In Autonomous Driving (Ad), Tauseef Ibne Mamun

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Explainable AI (XAI) systems primarily focus on algorithms, integrating additional information into AI decisions and classifications to enhance user or developer comprehension of the system's behavior. These systems often incorporate untested concepts of explainability, lacking grounding in the cognitive and educational psychology literature (S. T. Mueller et al., 2021). Consequently, their effectiveness may be limited, as they may address problems that real users don't encounter or provide information that users do not seek.

In contrast, an alternative approach called Collaborative XAI (CXAI), as proposed by S. Mueller et al (2021), emphasizes generating explanations without relying solely on algorithms. CXAI centers …


The Effect Of Sequential Stimuli On Variable-Interval Schedule Performance And Resurgence, Amanda K. Miles 2023 West Virginia University

The Effect Of Sequential Stimuli On Variable-Interval Schedule Performance And Resurgence, Amanda K. Miles

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Resurgence, or the recurrence of a previously established but not currently occurring response given a worsening of current conditions, is a systematic phenomenon with clinical implications; thus, understanding the variables that impact resurgence is important. Investigations into the impact of discriminative stimuli on resurgence have yielded mixed results about whether the stimuli associated with extinction mitigate or prevent resurgence. The current experiments were conducted with sequential stimuli, that is, two or more stimuli occurring in a fixed sequence, that allowed determination of the effect of discriminative stimuli across a continuum of reinforcement conditions (from most temporally distal to most proximal …


Effects Of Brief-Signal Number And Location On Responding Maintained By Delay Of Reinforcement, Firdavs Khaydarov 2023 West Virginia University

Effects Of Brief-Signal Number And Location On Responding Maintained By Delay Of Reinforcement, Firdavs Khaydarov

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The purpose of the present series of experiments was to examine the effects of the number, type, and location of brief signal(s) occurring during, but not throughout, a delay period, on responding maintained by the delay of reinforcement. In each experiment, a tandem variable time (VT) 60-s fixed interval (FI) 9-s schedule was used as a baseline condition of an immediate reinforcement against which delay conditions were examined. For the delay conditions, a chained variable interval (VI) 60-s fixed time (FT) 9-s (delay period) schedule was used, and the imposition of the brief signal (blackout) during the delay period was …


Effects Of Aripiprazole Alone And In Combination With D-Amphetamine On Probability Discounting In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Paige Currie 2023 West Virginia University

Effects Of Aripiprazole Alone And In Combination With D-Amphetamine On Probability Discounting In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Paige Currie

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Pharmaceuticals are helpful tools in aiding individuals with psychiatric diagnoses. Sometimes, the drug’s side effects can be more severe than the initial problem. Maladaptive behaviors, like pathological gambling, overeating, and substance abuse, are important to consider during the prescription of different pharmaceuticals, particularly those used to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Individuals with these diagnoses are often prescribed: stimulants, like d-amphetamine (d-AMP; for symptoms associated with ADHD), and antipsychotics, like aripiprazole (ARI; for symptoms associated with ASD). These drugs in combination could influence maladaptive behavior, including risky choice (probability discounting). The present study …


Evaluation Of Renewal During Differential Reinforcement With Asymmetrical Choices And A Context Fading Mitigation Technique, Kacey R. Finch 2023 West Virginia University

Evaluation Of Renewal During Differential Reinforcement With Asymmetrical Choices And A Context Fading Mitigation Technique, Kacey R. Finch

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Successful clinical behavior analytic treatment often results in decreases in challenging behavior and increases in appropriate behavior. These reductions in challenging behavior are often achieved by implementing differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA; Petscher et al., 2009). One variation of DRA to decrease challenging behavior is differential reinforcement with asymmetrical choices, which are two or more concurrently available response options associated with differential outcomes (Fisher & Mazur, 1997; Kestner et al., 2023). However, responding that was previously reduced sometimes reemerges. Specifically, renewal is the reemergence of a previously reduced response following a context change. The first two experiments evaluated renewal …


Response Maintenance By Mediated Reinforcement With Forced Alternation Of Reinforcement Opportunities, Kento Yasukawa 2023 West Virginia University

Response Maintenance By Mediated Reinforcement With Forced Alternation Of Reinforcement Opportunities, Kento Yasukawa

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of mediated reinforcement –reinforcers delivered to either of two co-actors by the responses of the other co-actor, but independently of the responses of the co-actor receiving the reinforcer– on the maintenance of responding of the co-actors. In each experiment, using a discrete-trials procedure, responding and receiving reinforcers alternated between co-actors. In Experiment 1, the alternation followed each reinforcer. Also investigated in this experiment were the effects of the presence and absence of social stimuli and of the role of reinforcement delays on individual responding. The number of consecutive reinforcer deliveries to either …


The Effects Of Escalated Fentanyl Intake On Decision-Making Dynamics, Trinity Shaver 2023 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of Escalated Fentanyl Intake On Decision-Making Dynamics, Trinity Shaver

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Opioid Use Disorder is characterized partially as a decision-making disorder. Decision-making theories, such as habit theory and relative value theory, have aimed to better understand the shift in preference for drug over other alternatives. In order to compare these two contrasting theories, an allomorphic concurrent choice task will run in tandem with an escalation procedure. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested for choice differences in an allomorphic choice procedure. Reward dimensions, such as relative reward rate, were manipulated within sessions, and magnitude (remifentanil dose), was manipulated between sessions. To study the effects of escalated fentanyl intake on relative valuation, …


The Effects Of Social And Nonsocial Contextual Stimuli On The Renewal Of Cocaine Seeking, Bree Humburg 2023 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of Social And Nonsocial Contextual Stimuli On The Renewal Of Cocaine Seeking, Bree Humburg

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Those with substance use disorders can undergo craving and relapse when re-exposed to a drug-associated context. This study determined if renewal of cocaine seeking is differentially controlled by contexts consisting of social and/or nonsocial stimuli. Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine in Context A which included a social peer and house light illumination. Following self-administration, rats were randomly assigned to an AAA or ABA group for extinction and renewal. For the AAA rats, context was similar to self-administration; for ABA rats, the drug-associated stimuli (peer and house light) were removed (Context B). Following extinction, renewal of cocaine seeking was examined by …


Decision Making Related To Situations When Sexual Violence Might Occur, Shakeia Salem 2023 Georgia Southern University

Decision Making Related To Situations When Sexual Violence Might Occur, Shakeia Salem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The definition of sexual violence has changed over the years to include all unconsented sexual contact. Sexual violence is a global issue targeting young, college-aged adults. We used hypothetical scenarios to determine the discounting rates of participants in situations where sexual violence might occur. Undergraduate students (n = 146; mean age 20.18 years) from Georgia Southern University participated in our study. The sample of participants included 116 (79.45%) females and 30 (20.55%) males, identifying as White (n = 85; 58.22%), Hispanic (n = 5; 3.42%), Black (n = 28; 19.18%), Asian (n = 1; .68%), …


Individual Behavioral And Neurobiological Markers Associated With Vulnerable To Ethanol Use Phenotype, Hannah Elizabeth Manning 2023 University of New Hampshire

Individual Behavioral And Neurobiological Markers Associated With Vulnerable To Ethanol Use Phenotype, Hannah Elizabeth Manning

Honors Theses and Capstones

Alcohol use disorder is a chronic, relapsing brain condition that affects 29.5 million Americans. The disease is characterized by loss of control over drinking, continued use of alcohol in the face of negative consequences, and the experience of withdrawal symptoms. While there are several forms of treatment available for alcohol use disorder, 95% of patients experience at least one relapse during recovery. Currently, the high tendency to relapse remains the major challenge standing in the way of successful treatment for alcohol use disorder. Research is continuing to be conducted into the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying relapse into alcohol use, …


Toxic Effect Of Fear Of Losing Out On Self-Esteem: A Moderated Mediation Model Of Conformity And Need For Cognitive Closure In Singapore, Sheila Xi Rui WEE, Chi-ying CHENG, Haelim CHOI, Ciping GOH 2022 Singapore Management University

Toxic Effect Of Fear Of Losing Out On Self-Esteem: A Moderated Mediation Model Of Conformity And Need For Cognitive Closure In Singapore, Sheila Xi Rui Wee, Chi-Ying Cheng, Haelim Choi, Ciping Goh

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Kiasu (fear of losing out, FoLO) is considered the single most defining adjective that captures Singapore identity, and it is well-observed in other Asian cultures as well. Despite the widespread endorsement of kiasu in Singapore, there is limited empirical research on the theoretical conception of kiasu as a psychological construct. To empirically investigate kiasu, we validated the construct and measurement of the FoLO mindset in Study 1. In Study 2, we hypothesized and found a negative association between FoLO and Singaporeans’ self-esteem, which was mediated by a higher tendency of conformity. In addition, we hypothesized and found that individuals’ need …


Responses To Covid-19 Threats: An Evolutionary Psychological Analysis., Stephen M. COLARELLI, Tyler J. MIRANDO, Kyunghee HAN, Norman P. LI, Carter VESPI, Katherine A. KLEIN, Charles P. FALES 2022 Singapore Management University

Responses To Covid-19 Threats: An Evolutionary Psychological Analysis., Stephen M. Colarelli, Tyler J. Mirando, Kyunghee Han, Norman P. Li, Carter Vespi, Katherine A. Klein, Charles P. Fales

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Responses to COVID-19 public health interventions have been lukewarm. For example, only 64% of the US population has received at least two vaccinations. Because most public health interventions require people to behave in ways that are evolutionarily novel, evolutionary psychological theory and research on mismatch theory, the behavioral immune system, and individual differences can help us gain a better understanding of how people respond to public health information. Primary sources of threat information during the pandemic (particularly in early phases) were geographic differences in morbidity and mortality statistics. We argue that people are unlikely to respond to this type of …


An Investigation Of Lab-Based Research Procedural Fidelity: The Relationship Between Experimenter Infant-Directed Speech, Temperament And Language Proficiency, Tess A. Simpson 2022 East Tennessee State University

An Investigation Of Lab-Based Research Procedural Fidelity: The Relationship Between Experimenter Infant-Directed Speech, Temperament And Language Proficiency, Tess A. Simpson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether developmental researchers were influenced in the laboratory by the characteristics of children who participate in their research. I hypothesized that experimenters, as social partners, would adapt their speaking and other behaviors to the child’s perceived temperamental profile and language proficiency. I specifically focused on whether experimenters would adhere to the experimental laboratory procedure of two elicited imitation tasks, Feed Bear and Make a Rattle, in an archival dataset. Participants included 61 primarily white 15-month-olds. Coders transcribed infant directed speech (IDS) and analyzed transcriptions for total words, words per sentence, and …


K-5 Elementary Alternative Program: A Case Study, William E. Scheuer IV 2022 East Tennessee State University

K-5 Elementary Alternative Program: A Case Study, William E. Scheuer Iv

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this case study was to examine how the K-5 elementary alternative program All Students Can Thrive (ASCT) used student-centered learning practices to influence the whole child. There is a lack of research on K-5 elementary alternative programs, such as ASCT, and specifically those that integrate student-centered learning practices to influence the whole child. Literature does not contain universally accepted interventions that are effective in the elementary alternative setting to help students return to the mainstream classroom setting better prepared to display appropriate behaviors when a student is removed from a mainstream classroom setting due to disruptive behaviors. …


Psychosocial Factors And E-Cigarette Use: An Application Of Problem Behavior Theory, Samantha A. Fitzer 2022 Old Dominion University

Psychosocial Factors And E-Cigarette Use: An Application Of Problem Behavior Theory, Samantha A. Fitzer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased among the U.S. population in recent years with estimates showing that nearly 15% of American adults have tried an e-cigarette (Villarroel et al., 2020). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) has successfully outlined a variety of factors that affect an individual’s engagement in an identified problem behavior. In an attempt to better understand e-cigarette use among an emerging adult population (i.e., college student population), the purpose of the current study was to explore how a large subset of PBT factors may differentiate between e-cigarette user categories (nonuser, non-daily user, daily user). A sample of 487 college …


Hiv And Early Life Stress On Neuroimaging And Risky Behavior, Paola Garcia Egan 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Hiv And Early Life Stress On Neuroimaging And Risky Behavior, Paola Garcia Egan

Dissertations

This study examined the interactive effects of early life stress (ELS) and HIV on brain morphometry, diffusion-basis-spectrum-imaging (DBSI), risky decision-making, and sex-risk behavior. 122 people with HIV (PWH) and 113 people without HIV (PWoH), free of major psychiatric illness and neurological confounds, were stratified into high (≥ 3 events) vs. low (< 3 events) ELS [PWoH/low ELS (n = 57), PWoH/high ELS (n =56), PWH/low ELS (n = 43), PWH/high ELS (n = 79)] and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, DBSI, neuropsychological, and risky-behavior assessment; all PWH were virologically controlled. Compared to PWoH, PWH had smaller orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), parietal lobes, insula, caudate and anterior cingulate. No ELS effects were detected in volumetric measures. Significant interactions were found between HIV serostatus and ELS on the OFC and on cellularity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus after multiple comparisons adjustment. Specifically, PWH/high ELS exhibited significantly smaller OFC and PWoH/high ELS show significantly larger OFC than the other groups. PWoH/high ELS exhibited higher DBSI cellularity (neuroinflammation proxy) of the inferior-occipital-fasciculus compared to PWoH/high ELS. Regardless of HIV status, executive function moderated the relationship between the OFC and sex-risk behavior such that individuals within the sample who performed above average on a measure of executive function and had a larger OFC reported fewer sex partners in past six months than individuals with smaller volumes. No interaction was found between HIV serostatus and ELS on risky behavior measures. Clustering analyses defined ELS subgroups in PWH that were determined by demographic characteristics, duration of infection, recent CD4+ T-cell count, nadir CD4+ T-cell count and high/low ELS.Even in PWH that are virologically controlled, without major current psychiatric comorbidities, there is evidence of a synergistic impact of ELS and HIV on OFC volumes. Higher volumes in the OFC were detrimental when associated with lower executive function scores or advantageous when associated with higher executive function. Findings suggest that ELS is associated with different brain signatures among PWoH and virally suppressed PWH. However, ELS was not directly associated with risky behaviors, and subgroups in PWH were characterized by demographic variables, past substance use and HIV clinical variables.


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