The Influences Of Education, Antisocial Behavior, And Involvement In The Criminal Justice System On Adult Legal Understanding, Lily Alpers, Mark Fondacaro
The current study examined the legal understanding and decision-making capacities of young adults compared to older adults. Furthermore, the current study examined these two age groups on the basis of a history of criminal justice involvement, antisocial behavior, and education level, in order to determine whether these variables also affect legal understanding and decision-making. One hundred and one subjects participated in this study, grouped by age into younger adults (18-34 years old) and older adults (35 years and older). The results of the current study found that participants with the lowest levels of education performed more poorly on the measure ...
Gradually Transitioning To A New Taxonomy: Thinning, Shaping, And Fading, 2019 Rollins College
Gradually Transitioning To A New Taxonomy: Thinning, Shaping, And Fading, Melanie Agrachov
Currently, there is a large body of work in the basic and applied literature about schedule thinning and the underlying concepts associated with these procedures. However, some of the terminology used in this research area (e.g., shaping, fading, and thinning) has been applied inconsistently, suggesting that researchers and practitioners might misunderstand these terms. In this paper, I will discuss the unsystematic use of terminology found in the literature describing schedule thinning procedures, as well as other gradual change procedures, more generally. Additionally, I will propose a new taxonomy of gradual behavior change procedures in the hope of creating a ...
Paper Prototyping Comfortable Vr Play For Diverse Sensory Needs, 2019 University of California, Irvine
Paper Prototyping Comfortable Vr Play For Diverse Sensory Needs, Louanne E. Boyd, Kendra Day, Ben Wasserman, Kaitlyn Abdo, Gillian Hayes, Erik J. Linstead
Engineering Faculty Articles and Research
We co-designed paper prototype dashboards for virtual environments for three children with diverse sensory needs. Our goal was to determine individual interaction styles in order to enable comfortable and inclusive play. As a first step towards an inclusive virtual world, we began with designing for three sensory-diverse children who have labels of neurotypical, ADHD, and autism respectively. We focused on their leisure interests and their individual sensory profiles. We present the results of co-design with family members and paper prototyping sessions conducted by family members with the children. The results contribute preliminary empirical findings for accommodating different levels of engagement ...
To Thank Or Not To Thank: Understanding The Differences Between Gratitude And Indebtedness After Receiving A Favor Through Emotion Appraisals, Motivations And Behaviors, 2019 Singapore Management University
To Thank Or Not To Thank: Understanding The Differences Between Gratitude And Indebtedness After Receiving A Favor Through Emotion Appraisals, Motivations And Behaviors, Ze Ling Nai
Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)
Objective: This study aimed to distinguish between daily experiences of gratitude and indebtedness through three stages - emotional appraisals, motivations to reciprocate and behavioural tendencies. Through these three stages, I aimed to gain a better insight into the emotional process involved before and after receiving favours. Method: 196 participants were recruited from Singapore Management University to take part in a 14-day diary study. Every two days, participants were asked to report a favour they received over the past two days and evaluate the favour based on their appraisals of the experience. They were also asked to report their motivation to reciprocate ...
Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long
Theses and Dissertations
In perceptual learning studies, participants engage in extensive training in the discrimination of visual stimuli in order to modulate perceptual performance. Much of the literature in perceptual learning has looked at the induction of the reorganization of low-level representations in V1. However, much remains to be understood about the mechanisms behind how the adult brain (an expert in visual object categorization) extracts high-level visual objects from the environment and categorically represents them in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, I used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in object representation formation during a hybrid visual search and prototype ...
Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson
Theses and Dissertations
The term “ambient images” has begun to show up in much of the current literature on facial recognition. Ambient images refer to naturally occurring views of a face that captures the idiosyncratic ways in which a target face may vary (Ritchie & Burton, 2017). Much of the literature on ambient images have concluded that exposing people to ambient images of a target face can lead to improved facial recognition for that target face. Some studies have even suggested that familiarity is the result of increased exposure to ambient images of a target face (Burton, Kramer, Ritchie, & Jenkins, 2016). The current study ...
Effects Of Genre Tag Complexity On Popular Music Perception And Enjoyment, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Effects Of Genre Tag Complexity On Popular Music Perception And Enjoyment, Lauren Shepherd
Theses and Dissertations
The popular online streaming platform Spotify added over 1400 genre tags in the last two years. Despite that numerous artists and composition competitions claim to seek projects that “transcend the traditional notion of genre,” the industry has only added more complex and mystifying genre labels. This dichotomy between artists and industry ignores the effects these labels have on consumers. Do more complex genre tags enhance the listening experience for the average consumer by providing additional information about what they are about to hear? The current research seeks to examine the effects of the granularity of genre tags on popular music ...
Exploration Of Social Reinforcement For Gambling In Single Case Designs, 2019 Rider University
Exploration Of Social Reinforcement For Gambling In Single Case Designs, Mack S. Costello, Bahijah D. Sheibanee, Anneka Ricketts, Jamie L. Hirsh, Neil Deochand
Analysis of Gambling Behavior
Social reinforcement could be a variable that facilitates gambling behavior. Unfortunately, there are relatively few studies examining the impact that contingent social stimuli can have on betting behavior. Using simulated slot machine games and confederates, we investigated possible maintaining social contingencies for gambling with four recreational gamblers. Results indicated a small effect from a social positive reinforcement contingency for betting more credits than the previous trial. Four additional participants were recruited to replicate the effects of social positive reinforcement when structural aspects of the game were also changed, such as sound, win magnitude, and credit value. Lastly, one participant returned ...
Raped-Related Beliefs And Social Reactions, 2019 Murray State University
Raped-Related Beliefs And Social Reactions, Tara Pursley
Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal
Many agree that sexual violence is a pervasive problem, but there is less agreement regarding how to classify and define various experiences of rape. Research has demonstrated that the beliefs one holds about rape are the strongest indicator for how both victims and non-victims of sexual assault perceive and classify unwanted sexual experiences. What is less understood is the way that this perception influences how non-victims respond to a victim’s disclosure of sexual assault. The current study sought to fill this gap. Participants included 119 female college students (Mage = 19.23, SD = 1.98; 81% White). Results revealed ...
The Roles Of Race And Gender In Contagious Yawning, 2019 James Madison University
The Roles Of Race And Gender In Contagious Yawning, Daroon Jalil
James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)
Social psychologists often consider race to be a marker of in- or out-group status. When looking at race, implicit bias can take more subtle forms than outward racism. This study asked two research questions to better understand the psychology behind racial issues. The first question was whether the number of contagious yawns (CY) a person experiences depends on the race of the stimuli being viewed. Yawning more in response to in-group members is a phenomenon seen in chimpanzees, but it has not been studied in humans in a racial context. Black and white males and females were recruited to view ...
A Comparison Of Social Learning In Domestic Canines, 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi
A Comparison Of Social Learning In Domestic Canines, Beatrice Chenkin
Domestic canines (Canis familiaris) provide a unique insight into the processes by which species can grow to cooperate efficiently with humans. Few studies have compared whether their behavior is more affected by humans or other canines. This study uses a two-action feeder (an apparatus that can be opened in one of two ways) to look into the methods of social learning they use and compares how they learn from humans vs. other canines. Sixty-four dogs from the Humane Society of varying backgrounds, ages, sexes, and reproductive statuses were tested on their ability to open the two-action feeder and the amount ...
Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi
Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis
As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...
Behavioral And Voltammetric Analysis Of Chronic Escitalopram Treatment To The Hiv-1 Transgenic Rat: Implications For Comorbid Hiv-1 And Clinical Depression, Adam R. Denton
Theses and Dissertations
HIV-1 infection is a serious condition affecting approximately 37 million individuals. Between 30% and 60% of seropositive individuals will develop symptoms of clinical depression. These individuals are five times more likely to commit suicide than non-seropositive clinically depressed patients. Dysfunction in serotonergic and dopaminergic transmission has consistently been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex and in the nucleus accumbens core region have been shown to be underlying factors in the trajectory of depression. Given these underlying neurological features, the present research employed behavioral testing and electrochemical recording in an attempt to elucidate the therapeutic ...
The Effects Of Perceived Decision-Making Styles On Evaluations Of Openness And Competence That Elicit Collaboration, 2019 Singapore Management University
The Effects Of Perceived Decision-Making Styles On Evaluations Of Openness And Competence That Elicit Collaboration, Ming-Hong Tsai, Nadhilla Velda Melia, Verlin B. Hinsz
Research Collection School of Social Sciences
When interacting with a task partner, individuals often rely upon characteristics they infer about their partner to determine their level of collaboration with the partner. To explore social perception processes related to collaboration, we examined perceptions of an actor’s decision-making style as predictors. Using different methods in various research settings, we found that compared with perceptions of an actor’s intuitive decision-making style or of a nonspecific decision-making style, perceptions of an actor’s rational decision-making style were more positively associated with inferences of the actor’s openness and competence, both of which were in turn associated with the ...
Comparing The Effects Of Mental Workload Between Visual And Auditory Secondary Tasks During Laparoscopy, 2019 Old Dominion University
Comparing The Effects Of Mental Workload Between Visual And Auditory Secondary Tasks During Laparoscopy, James P. Corcoran
Psychology Theses & Dissertations
The purpose of this study was to test Wickens’ Multiple Resource Theory (MRT) by comparing performance and subjective workload on a visual-spatial secondary task with an auditory-spatial analog when paired with visual-spatial laparoscopic primary tasks. Two primary tasks were performed with a laparoscopic box trainer: a high workload task that consisted of transferring rings from one peg to another and a low workload task that consisted of grasping and placing large pencil erasers in a bowl. It was predicted that the visual-spatial secondary task would be more sensitive when paired with the laparoscopic primary task than the auditory analog. Findings ...
Identifying The Strengths And Weaknesses Of Over-The-Shoulder Attack Resistant Prototypical Graphical Authentication Schemes, Ashley Allison Cain
Psychology Theses & Dissertations
Authentication verifies users’ identities to protect against costly attacks. Graphical authentication schemes utilize pictures as passcodes rather than strings of characters. Pictures have been found to be more memorable than the strings of characters used in alphanumeric passwords. However, graphical passcodes have been criticized for being susceptible to Over-the-Shoulder Attacks (OSA). To overcome this concern, many graphical schemes have been designed to be resistant to OSA. Security to this type of attack is accomplished by grouping targets among distractors, translating the selection of targets elsewhere, disguising targets, and using gaze-based input.
Prototypical examples of graphical schemes that use these strategies ...
The Word Frequency Effect In English Second Language Students: An Eye Movement Monitoring Study, 2019 University of South Carolina
The Word Frequency Effect In English Second Language Students: An Eye Movement Monitoring Study, Chase Alexandria Rathfoot
Reading has been the subject of hundreds of thousands of studies. Reading is fundamental skill not only to an individual’s education, but to their socialization and an understanding of the behavior is a rapidly expanding area of research. One of the least understood areas of reading behavior can be found is the growing English Second Language (ESL) population – or those who are learning English after demonstrating competence in their native language. As their native language has its own unique set of properties and is presented in its own unique written form, the influence this language has on their reading ...
Learning Freedom: A Journey In Training, 2019 SIT Graduate Institute
Learning Freedom: A Journey In Training, Nick Brzezinski
This Training Course-linked Capstone (CLC) integrates learning related to experiential learning theory, engaged pedagogy, emergent learning, and the nature of consciousness, with relevant experience gained throughout my reflective practice phases at SIT Graduate Institute, toward my development as a trainer. This CLC is intended to serve as an exploratory window into the fundamental grounding for my approach to training, and the journey of my growth in applying theoretical principles in practice. It is rooted in my personal experiences with self-oppression and liberation, which I investigate in order to better understand the relationship between those two concepts, as well as their ...
The Generalizability Of Transformational Leadership Across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis, 2019 Iowa State University
The Generalizability Of Transformational Leadership Across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis, Marcus Crede, Jaehee Jong, Peter Harms
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the effectiveness of transformational leadership behaviors are moderated by a country’s cultural values and cultural practices.
Design/methodology/approach The authors describe a meta-analytic review of the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance (task performance and OCBs) using data from over 57,000 individuals, 215 samples and 34 countries. The authors examine whether this relationship is moderated by the cultural values and practices of the country in which the study was located – after first controlling for methodological factors.
Findings The authors find that cultural values and practices moderate ...
Strength, But Not Direction, Of Handedness Is Related To Height, 2019 Montclair State University
Strength, But Not Direction, Of Handedness Is Related To Height, Ruth E. Propper, Tad T. Brunyé, Karly Frank, Sean E. Mcgraw
Left-handers are reputed to be shorter than right-handers. However, previous research has confounded handedness direction (left- versus right-handedness) with handedness strength (consistency with which one hand is chosen across a variety of tasks; consistent- versus inconsistent-handedness). Here, we support a relationship between handedness strength, but not direction, and stature, with increasing inconsistent-handedness associated with increasing self-reported height.