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Social And Individual-Level Identities And College Male Alcohol Use Behaviors: Examining The Utility Of Protective Behavioral Strategies, Robert Bearden Whitley 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Social And Individual-Level Identities And College Male Alcohol Use Behaviors: Examining The Utility Of Protective Behavioral Strategies, Robert Bearden Whitley

Dissertations

Recent literature has consistently identified conformity to traditional masculine norms as motivating hazardous drinking behaviors of college men. Given the high prevalence of hazardous drinking among college men and the particular negative consequences that emerge secondary to it, additional research is needed in this area to better identify possible intervention targets. The present study sought to better elucidate the proximity of male norm conformity to drinking behaviors through including a specific identity factor related to alcohol use: drinking identity. Secondary to this goal, this study also sought to examine how these factors of identity predicted the safe drinking behaviors of ...


Grit And Flow As Prescriptions For Self-Actualization, Samuel Dickinson 2020 Weill Cornell Medical College

Grit And Flow As Prescriptions For Self-Actualization, Samuel Dickinson

Journal of Wellness

Psychology as a discipline has historically focused on psychopathology and associated evidence-based modalities to alleviate symptoms of mental illness and distress. In recent decades, however, there has been a shift towards studying the positive aspects of human experience that make life worth living. This Positive Psychological perspective was utilized by Humanistic Psychologist Abraham Maslow when he created his theory of Self-Actualization, in which he postulated that the highest aim a person can strive towards is to become the absolute best version of themselves, and to maximize their abilities and potential to the highest possible degree. Aside from describing a hierarchy ...


The Political Personality Of 2020 Vice-Presidential Nominee Kamala Harris, Anne Marie Griebie, Aubrey Immelman, Yitao Zhang 2020 College of St. Benedict / St. John's University

The Political Personality Of 2020 Vice-Presidential Nominee Kamala Harris, Anne Marie Griebie, Aubrey Immelman, Yitao Zhang

Psychology Faculty Publications

This working paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of U.S. senator Kamala Harris, Democratic vice-presidential nominee in the 2020 U.S. presidential election, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Harris were collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and DSM-5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed in accordance with interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of ...


Exploring Gender Differences Between Bipolar Disorder And Borderline Personality Disorder In Responses On The Personality Assessment Inventory (Pai), Stephanie M. Green 2020 Illinois School of Professional Psychology

Exploring Gender Differences Between Bipolar Disorder And Borderline Personality Disorder In Responses On The Personality Assessment Inventory (Pai), Stephanie M. Green

Dissertations

Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are two diagnoses that are often difficult to differentiate. Current literature supports this challenge and reveals a high rate of misdiagnosis between the two, as well as a high prevalence of borderline personality disorder diagnoses in women. Diagnostic accuracy remains a vital skill for clinicians to effectively address the needs of clients, and diagnostic assessment tools are often used to aid in this endeavor. The focus in this study was to explore gender discrepancies in responses across the main features of borderline personality disorder (i.e., affective instability, identity problems, negative relationships, and self-harm ...


The Relationship Between Perfectionism And Procrastination: Examining Trait And Cognitive Conceptualizations, And The Mediating Roles Of Fear Of Failure And Overgeneralization Of Failure, Lital Yosopov 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Relationship Between Perfectionism And Procrastination: Examining Trait And Cognitive Conceptualizations, And The Mediating Roles Of Fear Of Failure And Overgeneralization Of Failure, Lital Yosopov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The relationship between perfectionism and procrastination has been established in the literature; however, findings regarding the magnitude of this correlation are inconsistent. Some studies found small-to-medium effects between trait-perfectionism and trait-procrastination, while others found large effects between perfectionistic cognitions and procrastinatory cognitions, suggesting that the association may be stronger when assessed from a cognitive perspective. The present study addressed this inconsistency, by exploring this association using both trait and cognitive measures. There was a significant and positive correlation between perfectionism and procrastination, and the largest effect size was observed between perfectionism (trait and cognitive measures) and procrastinatory cognitions, suggesting that ...


Optimism And Risk Of Incident Hypertension: A Target For Primordial Prevention, Laura D. Kubzansky, Julia K. Boehm, Andrew R. Allen, Loryana L. Vie, Tiffany E. Ho, Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Hayami K. Koga, Lawrence M. Scheier, Martin E. P. Seligman 2020 Harvard School of Public Health

Optimism And Risk Of Incident Hypertension: A Target For Primordial Prevention, Laura D. Kubzansky, Julia K. Boehm, Andrew R. Allen, Loryana L. Vie, Tiffany E. Ho, Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Hayami K. Koga, Lawrence M. Scheier, Martin E. P. Seligman

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Aims

Optimism is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk; however, few prospective studies have considered optimism in relation to hypertension risk specifically. We investigated whether optimism was associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension in U.S. service members, who are more likely to develop high blood pressure early in life. We also evaluated race/ethnicity, sex and age as potential effect modifiers of these associations.

Methods

Participants were 103 486 hypertension-free U.S. Army active-duty soldiers (mean age 28.96 years, 61.76% White, 20.04% Black, 11.01% Hispanic, 4.09% Asian, and 3.10% others). We ...


When Life Gives You Lemons: The Development And Validation Of The Resilience Scale For Older Adults, Claire A. Wilson 2020 The University of Western Ontario

When Life Gives You Lemons: The Development And Validation Of The Resilience Scale For Older Adults, Claire A. Wilson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The study of resilience, or positive adaptation in the face of adversity, is important across the lifespan, but may be particularly relevant for older adults who tend to experience an increasing number of challenges. Traditionally, resilience assessment has largely focused on child and young-to-middle aged adult populations, and as such, the literature is lacking a validated resilience measure developed specifically for older adults. This dissertation aimed to improve the measurement of resilience in older populations by developing and validating a new resilience measure that is relevant and appropriate for older adults. In Study 1, a qualitative metasynthesis was conducted to ...


An Interpersonal View Of Personality Disorders, Mariafé T. Panizo Jansana 2020 James Madison University

An Interpersonal View Of Personality Disorders, Mariafé T. Panizo Jansana

Dissertations, 2020-current

One of the most controversial psychological disorders in the mental health field is personality disorders. Personality disorders are difficult to study and difficult to treat. Among other issues, high comorbidity among personality disorders interferes with its reliability and differential diagnosis. Substantial efforts in the last decades are attempting to address some of these issues by rethinking the way personality disorders are diagnosed, and special attention has been placed on traits-based dimensional models. Despite the multiple advantages of traits-based dimensional models, there is some hesitancy in the field regarding whether these models are truly equipped to serve as the basis for ...


Romantic Relational Aggression Among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Study Of Attachment Style, Romantic Jealousy, Mate Value, And Relationship Investment, Skylar Hicks 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

Romantic Relational Aggression Among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Study Of Attachment Style, Romantic Jealousy, Mate Value, And Relationship Investment, Skylar Hicks

Dissertations

Most of the research on intimate partner violence has concentrated on overt physical and verbal aggression, and less is known about relational aggression in the framework of romantic relationships. Relational aggression is more prevalent in college students’ romantic relationships compared to physical aggression and may be a risk factor for intimate partner violence. Additionally, a number of adverse correlates have been associated with romantic relational aggression, suggesting that it is worthy of study independent of its association with intimate partner violence. The present study explored the relationships among adult attachment, romantic jealousy, mate value, relationship investment, and romantic relational aggression ...


The Role Of Masculinity In The Development Of Capability For Suicide, Claire Houtsma 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of Masculinity In The Development Of Capability For Suicide, Claire Houtsma

Dissertations

Males account for over two-thirds of suicide deaths annually. Additionally, more than 50% of American suicide deaths annually are firearm-related. Suicide risk is elevated within firearm owning households and men are more likely to own firearms, which suggests that male firearm owners are at disproportionate risk for suicide. Prior research has argued that certain stereotypically male traits (e.g., lack of help-seeking) may explain sex differences in suicide death; however, this remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Male gender norms (e.g. physical toughness, self-reliance) may contribute to the development or expression of capability for suicide, primarily through their impact on ...


Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin 2020 East Tennessee State University

Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper assessed the redundancy of the construct of grit (Crede, Tynan, Harms, 2017) compared to other similar constructs using structural equation modeling to remove the effect of measurement error. A series of models regressed grit and its subdomains (passion and perseverance of effort) on self-control, conscientiousness, achievement striving, and resilience. The R-squared values for these models ranged from 0.62 to 0.89. It is concluded that the concept of grit is mostly redundant with other constructs and is therefore an example of a Jangle fallacy (Kelley, 1927). The unique aspect of grit is mostly related to its passion ...


The Political Personality Of 2020 Democratic Presidential Nominee Joe Biden, Anne Marie Griebie, Aubrey Immelman 2020 College of St. Benedict / St. John's University

The Political Personality Of 2020 Democratic Presidential Nominee Joe Biden, Anne Marie Griebie, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This working paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of former U.S. vice president Joe Biden, Democratic nominee in the 2020 U.S. presidential election, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Biden were collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and DSM-5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon ...


Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell 2020 Abilene Christian University

Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study aimed to determine if there is a negative bias towards voluntarily childfree adults or an association of negative views and attitudes with voluntarily childfree adults, controlling for other participant characteristics such as race, religion, or sexual orientation. At this stage in the research, voluntarily childfree adults are generally defined as legal adults who have the intention to remain childfree for the rest of their lives, due to reasons other than fertility issues. A negative view or bias is defined as any attitude which is not a desirable interpretation of behavior or lifestyle. A negative bias against voluntarily ...


‘Instead Of Life In Prison, It Was Life In My Own Skin’: Scope And Limitations Of A Week-Long Daily Online Self-Compassionate Writing Intervention For Young Women’S Body Image, Katarina Huellemann 2020 The University of Western Ontario

‘Instead Of Life In Prison, It Was Life In My Own Skin’: Scope And Limitations Of A Week-Long Daily Online Self-Compassionate Writing Intervention For Young Women’S Body Image, Katarina Huellemann

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Self-compassion involves reappraising negative events, accepting uncomfortable emotions, and practicing self-kindness. This thesis examined the effect of cultivating self-compassion via daily self-compassionate writing completed online for one week on stigmatizing and affirming self-perceptions in young undergraduate women. Undergraduate women (N = 254) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions (i.e., self-compassionate writing, attentional-control, wait-list control) and completed measures of trait self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, affirming self-perceptions (i.e., body appreciation and broad conceptualization of beauty), and stigmatizing self-perceptions (i.e., self-objectification and phenomenological body shame) at baseline, post-test, and one-month follow-up. Hypotheses were tested using MANCOVA and a ...


Exploring The Expression And Interpretation Of Emotions Through The Use Of Full-Face Theatrical Masks, Piers D. Ibbotson 2020 University of Warwick

Exploring The Expression And Interpretation Of Emotions Through The Use Of Full-Face Theatrical Masks, Piers D. Ibbotson

Organizational Aesthetics

This paper describes an activity making use of theatrical masks, which demonstrates the way in which the emotional response to the expression on a masked actor’s face, is constructed by the interplay of at least three elements. Analysis of the activity suggests that the meaning of a masked actor’s performance is co-created between the protagonist, the antagonist and the audience. The activity demonstrates that an observer may see and respond to expressions on another’s face that are the projections of the observer alone. The interpretation of the inner emotional state, intention, and meaning of the emotions of ...


Migrant Dreams, Egyptian Workers In The Gulf States, Rania M Rafik Khalil 2020 The British University in Egypt (BUE)

Migrant Dreams, Egyptian Workers In The Gulf States, Rania M Rafik Khalil

English Language and Literature

Migrant Dreams is about the hopes and aspirations on which migrant workers thrive to achieve their goals. The first version of this book was published in 2017 in Arabic with the title Hatta yantahi al-naft (Until the End of Oil). Based on over a decade of fieldwork, observations and conversations, Samuli Schielke gives a detailed overview of the life of low-income Egyptian migrant laborers who relocated to the Arab Gulf States on temporary contracts, returned, then migrated again. The book focuses mostly on the story of Tawfik, an intelligent Egyptian young man from rural backgrounds who is compelled to achieve ...


Religious Identity And Its Impact On Beliefs And Behaviors, Kaylise Algrim 2020 Seton Hall University

Religious Identity And Its Impact On Beliefs And Behaviors, Kaylise Algrim

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

For many years, research into religion and environmentalism focused on affiliation with a religious institution as it correlated with environmental attitudes (Boyd, 1999; Hand & Van Liere, 1984). This perspective did not account for differences in religious attitudes among members of the same religion and also missed the ways religious identity can shape other views. Newer research into religious identity as a factor in environmentalism has highlighted religion as a personal and social construct which can positively influence environmental beliefs (Hedlund de- Witt et al., 2013; Garfield et al., 2014). This study used a psychosocial approach and surveyed 286 undergraduate university students on the influence of two measures of psychosocial religious identity, religious orientation and religious identity maturity, on stated environmental beliefs and behaviors. Other values, ecocentrism and anthropocentrism, were also analyzed. The results indicate religious identity can play a positive role in pro-environmental behavior and showed a significant positive relationship between religious orientation and environmental behaviors. Additionally, ecocentric and anthropocentric views ...


(2020) Technical Supplement For The Article "A Meta-Analysis Of The Correlations Among Broad Intelligences: Understanding Their Relations", Victoria M. Bryan, John D. Mayer 2020 University of New Hampshire

(2020) Technical Supplement For The Article "A Meta-Analysis Of The Correlations Among Broad Intelligences: Understanding Their Relations", Victoria M. Bryan, John D. Mayer

UNH Personality Lab

This technical supplement was developed by the author along with their report, “A eta analysis of the correlations among broad intelligences: Understanding their relations” as part of a single, ongoing research project. The original report provides the general purpose and theoretical overview of the project, as well as the key analyses. This supplement also includes pieces of that material where relevant but focuses on detailing the programming and data analyses of the project to a far greater extent.


The Role Of Dark Personalities In Intimate Partner Violence, Rachel A. Plouffe 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Dark Personalities In Intimate Partner Violence, Rachel A. Plouffe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international public health concern that poses significant mental and physical health risks for affected individuals. To improve prevention and intervention efforts, it is imperative that researchers and government bodies understand risk factors for IPV. This dissertation sought to evaluate individual differences in personality and childhood experiences as risk factors for various forms of IPV. The first two studies in this dissertation assessed whether the Dark Tetrad personality traits moderated the relationships between participants’ and their partners’ levels of IPV perpetration. In these studies, we assessed whether the Dark Tetrad traits operated differently in their ...


(2020) Open Source Data For “When People Estimate Their Personal Intelligence Who Is Overconfident? Who Is Accurate?”, John D. Mayer, A. T. Panter, David R. Caruso 2020 University of New Hampshire

(2020) Open Source Data For “When People Estimate Their Personal Intelligence Who Is Overconfident? Who Is Accurate?”, John D. Mayer, A. T. Panter, David R. Caruso

UNH Personality Lab

This Excel workbook contains the key computed variables analyzed in Studies 1, 2, and 3 of the article, “When People Estimate their Personal Intelligence Who is Overconfident? Who is Accurate?”, by Mayer, Panter, and Caruso found the Journal of Personality, 2020. Missing value code and other details are explained in the first worksheet of the Excel Workbook.


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