Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Personality and Social Contexts Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1325 Full-Text Articles 1498 Authors 1035985 Downloads 150 Institutions

All Articles in Personality and Social Contexts

Faceted Search

1325 full-text articles. Page 1 of 42.

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno

Master's Theses

Social structures are critical to the success of many species and have repercussions on health, well-being, and adaptation, yet little is known about the factors which shape these structures aside from ecology and life history strategies. Dyadic bonds are the basis of all social structures; however, mechanisms for formations of specific bonds or patterns in which individuals form which types of bonds have yet to be demonstrated. There is a variety of evidence indicating personality may be a factor in shaping bonds, but this relationship has not been explored with respect to bond components and is yet to be demonstrated ...


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Is It Cheating?: Examining Parenting Styles And Attitudes Towards Infidelity, Ica Cabral 2017 Dominican University of California

Is It Cheating?: Examining Parenting Styles And Attitudes Towards Infidelity, Ica Cabral

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

As one enters adolescence and emerging adulthood, the attitudes and identity formed by our earliest relationships come to the forefront. During this developmental stage, the attitudes and beliefs that we have internalized based on the relationships we observed in our early life may contribute to the health of a relationship. Successful maintenance of a monogamous relationship may be impacted by the behaviors and attitudes we have internalized from our earliest relationships.

Attitudes toward infidelity may be one such inheritance from our caregivers. Past studies suggest that attitudes toward infidelity are linked to both intentions to cheat, and cheating behaviors (Jackman ...


Identity Development Of Bicultural Offspring: The Impact Of Conflict Between Parents From Different Cultures, Amanda Araki 2017 Dominican University of California

Identity Development Of Bicultural Offspring: The Impact Of Conflict Between Parents From Different Cultures, Amanda Araki

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

As societies become more diverse, it is becoming common for adults of different ethnicities to parent together. This creates a potential for parents to clash in cultural views and beliefs taught on their offspring, which may impact the ego development of the children.

Previous research found an essential link between concrete identity formation and a greater sense of multicultural identity (Stepney, Sanchez, and Handy, 2015). Ang (2006) concluded this is related to parent-child relationships; in the Asian culture, the father plays a greater role than the mother on adolescent identity development. Sousal conflict is also considered to have an impact ...


What Do We Think About Birth Order?, Jessica Garcia 2017 Dominican University of California

What Do We Think About Birth Order?, Jessica Garcia

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

Stereotypical beliefs people have of personality traits that are expected from children in relation to their birth order has become a popular area of study. Parents can be consciously or unconsciously swayed to form impressions of their children based on birth order personality attributes formed by society and family. How parents act towards their children can impact a child’s cognitive and behavioral development (Eckstein & Kaufman, 2012). Using Adler’s psychological perspective theory, the present study hypothesized that there is a relationship between people’s perception of birth order traits and self-reported personality. Participants were 53 young adults, primarily recruited ...


Colorblind Attitudes And Religious Fundamentalism As Predictors Of Racial And General Campus Climate Perceptions, Jeongbin (Jenny) Song, Cindy Miller-Perrin 2017 Pepperdine University

Colorblind Attitudes And Religious Fundamentalism As Predictors Of Racial And General Campus Climate Perceptions, Jeongbin (Jenny) Song, Cindy Miller-Perrin

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The present study aimed to understand the racial differences in perception of general and racial campus climate in college students, and investigate if colorblind attitudes and religious fundamentalism help explain these differences. A sample of 2,101 undergraduate students (MAGE=19.59, SDAGE= 2.33) attending a private, Christian college in Southern California served as participants in this correlational survey research. The sample consisted of 37.9% male (n=796), 62% female (n=1303), and 0.1% other (n= 2). The following racial/ethnic groups were represented in the sample: 3.4% Black (n= 72), 18.7% Asian ...


The Relationship Between Extraversion And Listening Comprehension Under High And Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions, Nicole Virzi, Steve Rouse, CIndy Miller-Perrin 2017 Pepperdine University

The Relationship Between Extraversion And Listening Comprehension Under High And Low-Salience Visual Distraction Conditions, Nicole Virzi, Steve Rouse, Cindy Miller-Perrin

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The proposed study contributes to the pool of research examining the link between level of extraversion and sensory stimulation. Numerous studies have shown that introverts are more susceptible to forms of auditory distraction than extraverts when completing cognitive tasks requiring visual attention, but no study has examined the opposite relationship: the differing effects of visual distraction on auditory comprehension amongst introverts and extraverts. Using undergraduate college students as participants, this study tested three hypotheses: 1) there will be a negative correlation between level of extraversion and self-reported distraction while under high-salience visual distraction, 2) there will be a positive correlation ...


Seeking The Shield Of Faith: The Influence Of Defensive Theology On The Development Of Religious Fundamentalism Following Mortality Salience, Brian Lammert, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Steven Rouse Dr. 2017 Pepperdine University

Seeking The Shield Of Faith: The Influence Of Defensive Theology On The Development Of Religious Fundamentalism Following Mortality Salience, Brian Lammert, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Steven Rouse Dr.

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

This study examined religious fundamentalism in a sample of 88 undergraduate students attending a private, Christian university. After completing a measure of defensive theology, participants were randomly assigned to either a mortality salience or control condition and then assessed using a religious fundamentalism measure. A moderation analysis was performed in order to test the hypothesis that defensive theology moderates the relationship between mortality salience and religious fundamentalism. Results indicated that only defensive theology significantly predicted post-manipulation fundamentalism (p


Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner 2017 Bridgewater State University

Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This research explores the relationship between three different types of self-reported sexual victimization and subsequent mental health problems in a sample of incarcerated women. Previous literature establishes a link between victimization histories and poor mental health outcomes. This study focuses on sexual victimization experienced as a child, as an adolescent and as an adult, both individually and cumulatively, in relation to entering prison with a mental health diagnosis as well as reporting current depressive symptoms while incarcerated. Each type of victimization is significantly related to both prior mental health diagnosis and current depression in prison. Furthermore, there is an additive ...


Self-Consistency In Bicultural Persons: Dialectical Self-Beliefs Mediate The Relation Between Identity Integration And Self-Consistency, Rui Zhang, Kimberly A. Noels, Richard N. Lalonde, S. J. Salas 2017 Dickinson College

Self-Consistency In Bicultural Persons: Dialectical Self-Beliefs Mediate The Relation Between Identity Integration And Self-Consistency, Rui Zhang, Kimberly A. Noels, Richard N. Lalonde, S. J. Salas

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Prior research differentiates dialectical (e.g., East Asian) from non-dialectical cultures (e.g., North American and Latino) and attributes cultural differences in self-concept consistency to naïve dialecticism. In this research, we explored the effects of managing two cultural identities on consistency within the bicultural self-concept via the role of dialectical beliefs. Because the challenge of integrating more than one culture within the self is common to biculturals of various heritage backgrounds, the effects of bicultural identity integration should not depend on whether the heritage culture is dialectical or not. In four studies across diverse groups of bicultural Canadians, we showed ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

Christopher J. Lyddy

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar 2017 Providence College

Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar

Christopher Lyddy

Mindfulness research activity is surging within organizational science. Emerging evidence across multiple fields suggests that mindfulness is fundamentally connected to many aspects of workplace functioning, but this knowledge base has not been systematically integrated to date. This review coalesces the burgeoning body of mindfulness scholarship into a framework to guide mainstream management research investigating a broad range of constructs. The framework identifies how mindfulness influences attention, with downstream effects on functional domains of cognition, emotion, behavior, and physiology. Ultimately, these domains impact key workplace outcomes, including performance, relationships, and well-being. Consideration of the evidence on mindfulness at work stimulates important ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

School of Business Faculty Publications

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Individual-Level And Socio-Contextual Influences On Body Mass Index And Achievement In Adolescence To Young Adulthood, Mellissa S. Gordon 2017 University of Delaware

Individual-Level And Socio-Contextual Influences On Body Mass Index And Achievement In Adolescence To Young Adulthood, Mellissa S. Gordon

Journal of Adolescent and Family Health

Research suggests there are factors that may exacerbate or otherwise serve as a protective factor for the effects being overweight. This study explores the association between BMI and adolescent’s academic achievement, and the moderating effects of individual-level (e.g., race/ethnicity) and socio-contextual factors (e.g., economic disadvantage) on this association. Furthermore, research suggests that overweight adolescents are at an increased risk of becoming overweight adults. As such, other developmental outcomes may be impacted as adolescents mature into young adulthood. Given this likelihood, the association between BMI and achievement over time was also tested. Findings suggests an overlapping sphere ...


Blue The Bee Learns To Be Happy, Connie Reimers-Hild, Deborah J. Weitzenkamp, Connie Reimers-Hild, Kim Wellsandt 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Blue The Bee Learns To Be Happy, Connie Reimers-Hild, Deborah J. Weitzenkamp, Connie Reimers-Hild, Kim Wellsandt

Kimmel Education and Research Center - Faculty & Staff Publications

Do you sometimes feel sad or blue and don't know what to do? If so, this book was written just for you!

Join Blue the Bee as she travels through Happy Orchard meeting her friends (Flutter, Buzz, Bonita and Ernie) to learn the 7 Happiness Habits. When happiness is a habit, it comes without thinking. You can choose how to spend your day and use your time. You choose how to live your life and what is on your mind.

Each page was designed to enjoy at any age. People can become pollinators of happiness in any life stage ...


Prostitution Survivors: Backlash In Australia, Melinda Tankard Reist 2017 University of Rhode Island

Prostitution Survivors: Backlash In Australia, Melinda Tankard Reist

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This report is a personal account of prostitution survivors facing harassment from representatives of the sex industry in Australia. At events to promote a new collection of stories by survivors of the industry—Prostitution Narratives: Stories of Survival in the Sex Trade—speakers were intimidated and insulted. The survivors describe their experiences and their determination to speak-out against prostitution, even in the face of opposition.


Decidedly Uncertain, Sophia I. Varosy 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Decidedly Uncertain, Sophia I. Varosy

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My capstone project is meant to reflect the ideas I’ve been exposed to and the ways in which they have, as a consequence, influenced my life; the ways, I suppose, I can apply them. Over the course, or courses (literally), of my time spent at The CUNY Graduate Center, I felt (mostly) enthusiastic about the ideas and philosophies I was growing to at-least-marginally understand. However, as time passed I became increasingly more unsettled about my position as an “academic.” In other words, I found that I was moved and motivated to increase my understanding of things, but never did ...


Social Relationships In Young Offenders: Relevance To Peers, Poverty, And Psychological Adjustment, Victoria Sabo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Social Relationships In Young Offenders: Relevance To Peers, Poverty, And Psychological Adjustment, Victoria Sabo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The increasing influence of peers in adolescence is related to a developing array of skills, aspirations, attitudes, and behaviours. The nature and magnitude of this influence and the potential association of certain youth with deviant peers is among the most prominent risk factors in predicting youth crime. This becomes of greater concern for economically disadvantaged youth, whose neighbourhoods harbour greater susceptibility to negative peer influence. With social affiliations at the forefront of youth development and criminality, research efforts need to further characterize the nature, constitution, and influence of peers on adolescent offending. Two hundred and eighty-one Canadian youth were sampled ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


The Big Five As Predictors Of Behavioral Health Professional Burnout, Alicia Mae Greene 2017 Walden University

The Big Five As Predictors Of Behavioral Health Professional Burnout, Alicia Mae Greene

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

While the majority of studies appeared to focus on health service workers and job satisfaction, there was a substantial lack of literature that explored the relationship of personality traits and burnout specific to behavioral health professionals. Research has indicated that behavioral health professional burnout is a mediating factor in early job exodus primarily due to highly interactive work with people. The purpose of this study was to consider the relationship between behavioral health professional burnout, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Health and Human Service workers, and the big five personality traits, as measured by the NEO Five ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress